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DevOps In 5 letters: Should We Say CALMS or CALMR?

When someone asks me to explain what DevOps is about, I usually do this using the different letters of the acronym CALMS.CultureCulture is the foundation of DevOps. If you omit culture, you're only doing some symptoms of DevOps (like using a whiteboard, working in timeboxes and doing daily standup meetings won't make you an Agile team).Culture is about the people, about self-organized teams, about T-shaped profiles, about tearing down the wall between Development and Operations. A DevOps team takes end-to-end responsibility of an application or system: "you build it, you run it".If your organization has always been working in a command-and-control style, then the first thing to do is to instill a culture of team empowerment. And don’t underestimate this: this will probably take years to change.AutomationThis is where a lot of focus goes into and can be considered as the easiest to obtain. The heart of DevOps is the CI/CD pipeline: the continuous flow process that is triggered upon check-in of new versions of code. Continuous integration was already known in eXtreme Programming. In a DevOps context, the continuous delivery/deployment makes the story complete. To make your CI/CD pipeline work at its full capacity, you have to consider everything as code:Your source code of courseYour automated tests - unit tests, integration tests and so onYour configurationIncluding your infrastructure configurationYour database changesYour documentationBut automation is also about closing the feedback loop: getting observations, metrics from running system fed back into your team’s product backlog.Lean principlesDevOps is not about moving big chunks of changes to production, but instead, moving to a constant flow of small and easier to control changes. Flow, as in Kanban: limited work in progress, small batches. And moving to the production does not automatically mean: "going live". If there is a dependency with other code that is not yet ready, you can still disable your code via feature toggling until everything is ready to be activated.MeasuringThis is crucial to improving: define metrics on your process. How good are the things going in your organisation? Where is room for improvement? And the apply the typical Plan-Do-Check-Act/Adjust approach to gradually improve your way of working.SharingDevOps teams take full responsibility over their system. But this does not mean that they have to reinvent the wheel over and over again. They learn from their peers.Common senseThere are plenty of resources on the internet - blogs, pictures, slide decks and videos - that explain DevOps using this CALMS acronym. So by now, this acronym has become common sense for anyone who searched for some kind of definition of DevOps. Or hasn't it…?DevOps according to SAFe®, in 5 slightly different lettersRecently I had a discussion with a colleague who is a certified SAFe® Program Consultant and trainer. According to this colleague, SAFe® doesn’t talk about CALMS but about CALMR instead. She wanted to be sure we tell the same story and don’t confuse the people we train and coach. I am not going to give a full explanation of SAFe's definition of Devops, you can read it yourself on the SAFe® site (more specifically on this page www.scaledagileframework.com/devops).But I will briefly explain what the acronym CALMR stands for according to SAFe®:Culture of sharing responsibilityAutomation of continuous delivery pipelineLean flow accelerates deliveryMeasurement of everythingRecovery enables low-risk releasesThis discussion made me wonder: if a large part of the world talks about CALMS to define the principles of DevOps, then why does SAFe® talk about CALMR and what is the difference? And why do they call it "SAFe® DevOps"? So I did some investigation and this is what I found.What's the difference?In all honesty, whether you speak about CALMS or CALMR, in the end, both are equal, or better, equivalent. Let me explain why.In the CALMS acronym, the S stand for sharing. Sharing of knowledge, of experiences. Call it communities, or chapters and guilds if you are more into the way Spotify works. I deliberately don't call it "the Spotify model" because there is no Spotify Model (says Marcin Floryan, a Spotify chapter lead in this presentation: https://www.infoq.com/presentations/spotify-culture-stc).But that’s entirely different story.Sharing in CALMRIn "SAFe® DevOps", sharing is a part of the Culture. People work in teams. But teams together form a release train. So, these teams will not only need to align planning-wise, they also inspect and adapt during the IP sprint. And they learn continuously. OK, fair point. But sharing clearly is there in both definitions.Recovery in CALMSSo, what about the recovery aspect of SAFe® DevOps? Is it a part of the CALMS acronym too? In my opinion, yes, of course, divided over other aspects. The first thing that the SAFe® site tells about Recovery is "Stop the line mentality".Now, that is a Lean principle. Mary Poppendieck (Lean Software Development) mentions this in her presentations: "The greatest productivity comes from not tolerating defects. Create ways to detect defects the moment they occur” (see slide deck https://accu.org/content/conf2007/Poppendieck-Stop_the_Line_Quality.pdf ).The other parts, Plan for and rehearse failure and Build the environment and capability to fix forward and roll back, these are typically automation aspects. Plan for and rehearse failure talks about the chaos monkey.The Simian Army is a bunch of tools and concepts that will create chaos in your ecosystem: kill processes, slow down processing and so on. Chaos engineering is really great, but most likely not the first thing you will implement (even though it is a very good enabler for resilience). More information on the Simian Army can be found on the Blog of Netflix. (https://medium.com/netflix-techblog/the-netflix-simian-army-16e57fbab116).Fix forward or roll back: these are the capabilities of your CI/CD pipeline, the heart of your automation efforts in DevOps. Your Continuous deployment should allow to roll back changes. Or do canary releases: for certain changes you don't go full park all the way, but deploy on a very limited set of servers/containers as a try-out and roll back if "the canary dies".ConclusionI could not find any explanation on the internet why SAFe® talks about SAFe® DevOps. The only thing I can think of is that they want to stress how DevOps culture, principles and practices seamlessly integrate with SAFe®. Similarly, SAFe® talks about SAFe® ScrumXP, where the good practices of Scrum and eXtreme Programming help to deliver good quality software every iteration and every program increment, not only on team level, but integrated with the other teams of the Agile Release Train.As far as the difference between CALMS and CALMR is concerned: they both cover the same ideas. In my humble opinion, the difference between CALMS and CALMR could be a matter of focus: maybe the initial focus of CALMS was to stress the importance of sharing knowledge, whereas the CALMR stresses more the need to be able to roll back a failing change.Bottomline, CALMS and CALMR may not be entirely equal, but they are definitely equivalent.Anyway:
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DevOps In 5 letters: Should We Say CALMS or CALMR?

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DevOps In 5 letters: Should We Say CALMS or CALMR?

When someone asks me to explain what DevOps is about, I usually do this using the different letters of the acronym CALMS.

Culture

Culture is the foundation of DevOps. If you omit culture, you're only doing some symptoms of DevOps (like using a whiteboard, working in timeboxes and doing daily standup meetings won't make you an Agile team).

Culture is about the people, about self-organized teams, about T-shaped profiles, about tearing down the wall between Development and Operations. A DevOps team takes end-to-end responsibility of an application or system: "you build it, you run it".

If your organization has always been working in a command-and-control style, then the first thing to do is to instill a culture of team empowerment. And don’t underestimate this: this will probably take years to change.

Automation
AutomationThis is where a lot of focus goes into and can be considered as the easiest to obtain. The heart of DevOps is the CI/CD pipeline: the continuous flow process that is triggered upon check-in of new versions of code. Continuous integration was already known in eXtreme Programming. In a DevOps context, the continuous delivery/deployment makes the story complete. To make your CI/CD pipeline work at its full capacity, you have to consider everything as code:

  • Your source code of course
  • Your automated tests - unit tests, integration tests and so on
  • Your configuration
  • Including your infrastructure configuration
  • Your database changes
  • Your documentation

But automation is also about closing the feedback loop: getting observations, metrics from running system fed back into your team’s product backlog.

Lean principles

DevOps is not about moving big chunks of changes to production, but instead, moving to a constant flow of small and easier to control changes. Flow, as in Kanban: limited work in progress, small batches. And moving to the production does not automatically mean: "going live". If there is a dependency with other code that is not yet ready, you can still disable your code via feature toggling until everything is ready to be activated.

Measuring

This is crucial to improving: define metrics on your process. How good are the things going in your organisation? Where is room for improvement? And the apply the typical Plan-Do-Check-Act/Adjust approach to gradually improve your way of working.

Sharing

DevOps teams take full responsibility over their system. But this does not mean that they have to reinvent the wheel over and over again. They learn from their peers.

Common sense

There are plenty of resources on the internet - blogs, pictures, slide decks and videos - that explain DevOps using this CALMS acronym. So by now, this acronym has become common sense for anyone who searched for some kind of definition of DevOps. Or hasn't it…?
Common senseDevOps according to SAFe®, in 5 slightly different letters

Recently I had a discussion with a colleague who is a certified SAFe® Program Consultant and trainer. According to this colleague, SAFe® doesn’t talk about CALMS but about CALMR instead. She wanted to be sure we tell the same story and don’t confuse the people we train and coach. I am not going to give a full explanation of SAFe's definition of Devops, you can read it yourself on the SAFe® site (more specifically on this page www.scaledagileframework.com/devops).
DevOps according to SAFBut I will briefly explain what the acronym CALMR stands for according to SAFe®:

  • Culture of sharing responsibility
  • Automation of continuous delivery pipeline
  • Lean flow accelerates delivery
  • Measurement of everything
  • Recovery enables low-risk releases

This discussion made me wonder: if a large part of the world talks about CALMS to define the principles of DevOps, then why does SAFe® talk about CALMR and what is the difference? And why do they call it "SAFe® DevOps"? So I did some investigation and this is what I found.

What's the difference?

In all honesty, whether you speak about CALMS or CALMR, in the end, both are equal, or better, equivalent. Let me explain why.

In the CALMS acronym, the S stand for sharing. Sharing of knowledge, of experiences. Call it communities, or chapters and guilds if you are more into the way Spotify works. 

I deliberately don't call it "the Spotify model" because there is no Spotify Model (says Marcin Floryan, a Spotify chapter lead in this presentation: https://www.infoq.com/presentations/spotify-culture-stc).

But that’s entirely different story.

Sharing in CALMR

In "SAFe® DevOps", sharing is a part of the Culture. People work in teams. But teams together form a release train. So, these teams will not only need to align planning-wise, they also inspect and adapt during the IP sprint. And they learn continuously. OK, fair point. But sharing clearly is there in both definitions.

Recovery in CALMS

So, what about the recovery aspect of SAFe® DevOps? Is it a part of the CALMS acronym too? In my opinion, yes, of course, divided over other aspects. The first thing that the SAFe® site tells about Recovery is "Stop the line mentality".

Now, that is a Lean principle. Mary Poppendieck (Lean Software Development) mentions this in her presentations: "The greatest productivity comes from not tolerating defects. Create ways to detect defects the moment they occur” (see slide deck https://accu.org/content/conf2007/Poppendieck-Stop_the_Line_Quality.pdf ).

The other parts, Plan for and rehearse failure and Build the environment and capability to fix forward and roll back, these are typically automation aspects. Plan for and rehearse failure talks about the chaos monkey.

The Simian Army is a bunch of tools and concepts that will create chaos in your ecosystem: kill processes, slow down processing and so on. Chaos engineering is really great, but most likely not the first thing you will implement (even though it is a very good enabler for resilience). More information on the Simian Army can be found on the Blog of Netflix. (https://medium.com/netflix-techblog/the-netflix-simian-army-16e57fbab116).

Fix forward or roll back: these are the capabilities of your CI/CD pipeline, the heart of your automation efforts in DevOps. Your Continuous deployment should allow to roll back changes. Or do canary releases: for certain changes you don't go full park all the way, but deploy on a very limited set of servers/containers as a try-out and roll back if "the canary dies".

Conclusion

I could not find any explanation on the internet why SAFe® talks about SAFe® DevOps. The only thing I can think of is that they want to stress how DevOps culture, principles and practices seamlessly integrate with SAFe®. Similarly, SAFe® talks about SAFe® ScrumXP, where the good practices of Scrum and eXtreme Programming help to deliver good quality software every iteration and every program increment, not only on team level, but integrated with the other teams of the Agile Release Train.

As far as the difference between CALMS and CALMR is concerned: they both cover the same ideas. In my humble opinion, the difference between CALMS and CALMR could be a matter of focus: maybe the initial focus of CALMS was to stress the importance of sharing knowledge, whereas the CALMR stresses more the need to be able to roll back a failing change.

Bottomline, CALMS and CALMR may not be entirely equal, but they are definitely equivalent.

Anyway:
Conclusion

Koen

Koen Vastmans

Blog Author

I am an IT professional working in a major Belgian bank for over 26 years. I have been into software development for several years, mostly in Java, from COTS software integration over web applications to digital signing. The past 6 years I was an agile coach and trainer. I recently joined a team of cloud native development, to focus on DevOps processes and organisation.

My passion for agile and DevOps is my main driver to share my ideas about these topics.

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The certification is helpful for:People who have the basic knowledge of ITIL® and wish to utilise it towards ensuring better control of service operation in a business situation.IT professionals who want positive changes in the efficiency of a business organisation such as cost reduction.Following professionals are recommended to take the ITIL® course:IT ManagersIT DirectorsQuality AnalystsIT Service ManagersSupport Professionals and EngineersService Support EngineersDatabase AdministratorsOperations ManagersOwners of Business ProcessesWhat is ITIL® Foundation?The foundation course will act as an introduction to ITIL® 4, and it will introduce candidates to ITSM as an end-to-end operating model with a focus on creating, delivering, and improving IT-enabled products and services.The certification aims to help:People who require a fundamental understanding of the ITIL® framework.Those who wish to learn how ITIL® can be useful in enhancing the IT service management.IT professionals or others who are working within an organisation that has adopted ITIL®.However, the ITIL® V4 foundation certification is helpful to anyone who has an interest in IT service management. ITIL® V4 Foundation candidates, at the end of the certificate course, will have an understanding of the following:A thorough grasp of how to facilitate the co-creation of value for customers as well as other stakeholders via products and services.Exposure to the guiding principles of ITIL® V4.A holistic approach towards the four dimensions of Service Management.Basic terminologies such as Agile, Lean, DevOps and their importance.The significance of ITIL® practices and their value to your business.Are there any Versions in ITIL® Foundation?ITIL® has seen 4 versions till date. Each of the versions has had the same motive of helping the candidate achieve alignment between the IT systems with the business strategies.Version 1 was launched with more than 30 volumes each covering a specific practice within ITSM. It aimed at establishing a model of controlling and managing business operations using IT.In the year 2000-2001, in order to make ITIL® more accessible as well as affordable, a new version, ITIL® V2 endeavoured to consolidate the publications into nine sets which focus on logic and were grouped in a manner that matched different aspects of IT management and services.Under ITIL® V3, the foundation level was introduced to candidates with the aim of exposing them to the basic concepts, key elements and common terminologies under ITIL®.The primary purpose has not changed under the ITIL® V4, and their essential features remain the same. The updated version of ITIL® V4 merely includes advanced material on the additional best practices.  ITIL® V4 aims to address the two major complains of the ITIL® :Its relationship with the ITSM community.Its failure to update itself with the latest trends in IT operations and software development.How ITIL® certification helps business?ITIL® certification has now become essential for any business which uses digital services daily and aspires to have a flawless ITSM. An ITIL® certification helps with installing good ITSM practices within the organisation. This certification covers the whole development lifecycle of IT, all the way from recognising requirements of IT and business to maintaining and delivering the levels of service in a state of focused review and improvement. This holistic approach enhances the overall customer experience and integration of work.To help understand the nuances better, let us explore ITIL® V3 Foundation Vs. ITIL® V4 Foundation.ITIL® V3, which is also popularly referred to as ITIL® 2011, was the latest version before the upgrade to ITIL® V4. The new version introduced the process of the Business Relationship Management (BRM) process but other than that, most of the other elements remain the same.  An important change was that it was easier to read and many of the inconsistencies were edited out. ITIL® V4 uses newer techniques to align IT with a more evolved level of efficiency and effectiveness. It is now possible to align ITIL® with other existing methods such as IT4IT, Agile, DevOps, and Lean.Even with ITIL® V4, the essential elements of ITIL® V3 remain the same. ITIL® V4 just ensures the inclusion of additional best practices and easier integration.ITIL® V4 encourages lesser siloes, more collaboration and encourages communication across the whole organization with the integration of Agile, Lean and DevOps into ITSM strategies. It is made to be more flexible and customizable than ITIL® V3 i.e. more holistic.By investing in a training course and implementing ITIL®, you can expect the following things:Enhanced understanding of the customers which aid in delivering better services, long term relationships, and a sound reputation.A developer guide on predicting and reacting to customer service engagement, complaints, and experience.Increased productivity and better management of resources by focusing on the cost-benefit analysis.Risk mitigation and management.Stabilized environment for better alignment of IT and other divisions of your business.Reduced incidences of service failures.A growth in opportunities to network and collaborate with similar business models.Enhanced value of the organisation’s service portfolio.Agile adaptation to new technologies and comply faster to changing needs of the digital worldDirect rise in chances of an improved bottom line in your revenue statements.Thus, through this, it is clear that ITIL® is almost inevitable for business and must be implemented within organisations who wish to keep evolving with the times and achieve their ever-changing goals with the help of IT.To wrap it up, ITIL® is not just a straightforward skills course in IT. It equips the candidate with the requisite resources to apply the knowledge gained to the larger scope of their organization and align with business practices. This means that the candidate would have a practical hold over the best practices, especially when addressing all facets of IT management.
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Everything You Need To Know About ITIL®

What is ITIL®?Today, the worlds of business and t... Read More

How an IT Proposal Can Be Like a Reality TV Show

If you’ve ever watched reality TV shows, then you realize pretty quickly that this 42 minutes of entertainment is really just an obstacle course of challenges that are contrived to be literally and figuratively impossible to both the viewer and the contest participant. In other words, seeing others struggle and strive through the impossible while accidentally burning themselves, getting voted off the island, or getting criticized by a snarky British judge is called “good television”. I lived such a reality show experience but it wasn't glamorous or televised, there were no commercial breaks, there were no saves, and definitely no promise of marrying a gorgeous bachelorette at the end of it. My reality show was the competitive world of IT proposals.I was a project manager in the sales organization of a giant IT company. My challenge was that I received a new team every 30-60 days to work on a major proposal. I usually had no idea what the proposal was for at the start; I could not choose my teams, because they were always made up of those available at the time; and everyone’s skill-level varied so widely that I could have a veteran solution engineer working with a pricing analyst who was fresh out of college. There were a million moving parts, each proposal had corporate visibility, and they were valued in the millions or billions of dollars - no pressure! The gauntlet of corporate reviews took more time than it did to write the proposal itself, and all proposals were judged by a customer panel that decided who the winner was.One of the biggest challenges in IT proposal writing is that until the contract is awarded, it is never clear whether all of your effort was right or in vain. So, even if we had the perfect proposal we could still lose.Six rules: To turn up people into well-oiled machineGiven the absurdity of all this, I had to develop a method that would allow us to survive. I established six rules that allowed me to unify a huddled mass of people into a well-oiled machine that delivered these proposals on time, every time. And those rules are as follows:1. Have a clearly defined end-in-mind/goal2. Follow a schedule3. Have dedicated roles for every task4. Have clearly-communicated instructions and requirements5. Remove project blockades6. Treat team members as human beings and not resources1. Have a clearly defined end-in-mind/goalThe end-in-mind is the final deliverable, the final destination; and the “why” behind the proposals altogether. Many proposals lose because they focus on the mechanics of getting the proposal done, instead of providing a compelling vision of what the customer (and the proposal team) is actually trying to achieve. Understanding the end-in-mind is paramount. It drives schedule, cost, resources, and tells you when you’ve arrived. After all, how will you know when you’ve arrived unless you know where the end is?2. Follow a scheduleAmerican Football Coach, John Madden once said “even multi-million dollar athletes need to know what they need to be doing and when.”When you have a deadline, there are always two paths to get there - either through planning or procrastination. I chose the path of planning. While responding to last-minute deadlines can be thrilling, as a chronic habit it can burn you out quickly. For me, planning created a more balanced proposal experience, people were happier because they knew what they needed to do by when, and often we were finished well before the deadline.3. Have dedicated roles for every taskProposals of any importance are never done in a vacuum, and involve a variety of resources and management. In a reality TV show, these are your characters, actors, players, and contestants. At the beginning of each proposal, I established each person’s specific role. It is vital that the team understands why each person is there, and values one another's perspective.  4. Have clearly-communicated instructions and requirementsEvery successful proposal depends on rigorous communication. Communication is often downplayed as a soft skill, but it is actually one of the most critical factors of any project. As you already know, many projects that fail do so because of some level of poor communication.5. Remove project blockadesBad news doesn't get better with age, and on complex proposals issues are inevitable. Whether it’s unavailable resources, a complex multi-vendor solution, or your price is 3 million too high, you need someone to get obstacles out of your way. Sometimes that’s you, but sometimes it may be an empowered project champion. I needed a plan for dealing with issues early, otherwise they could sink my proposal at the end.6. Treat team members as human beings and not resources -The final rule was human connection. The moment my project teams saw each other as human beings, rather than as resources, we connected in a more personal way, and once we had that we were unstoppable.We succeeded because we had a clear vision of the end in mind, the roadmap to get there, a clear understanding of the value of diverse roles and viewpoints, open communication, proactive issues-handling, and the human touch.    By the way, all of this assumed that the proposal was approved, funded, resourced, and actually known to the management. If not, that would have been a whole different reality TV show altogether - I think that would have been a comedy.
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How an IT Proposal Can Be Like a Reality TV Show

If you’ve ever watched reality TV shows, then yo... Read More

What is ITIL® V3?

Lack of standardised practices in the IT sector created a discordant environment for services, as their efficiency was considerably low and error rates were high as compared to current standards. These irregularities prompted the UK government to envision a set of guidelines for every IT Service organisation to follow. These guidelines, it was hoped, would help not only government organisations but private ones as well.Therefore, in the 1980s, the UK government, in a bid to increase efficiency and standardise IT processes, created a framework with libraries from around the globe. These multiple libraries were concentrated into seven volumes in ITIL® V2 and eventually five volumes in ITIL® V3. Each volume/certification focuses on a specific part of ITSM.What is ITIL® V3?ITIL® V3 focuses on business needs and calibrates the services according to them. Its other main purpose is also to continuously improve the services while reducing the costs at the same time. Due to ITIL® V3’s ability to smoothly combine business expertise with IT processes, which maximises customer satisfaction, it is adding value to millions of people and businesses around the world.Its principal purpose is to enable IT professionals to be business service partners as well. It aims to, therefore, combine the business aspect of ITSM - by catering to business and customer requirements - with the professional expertise of the IT industry.Brought to the public arena in 2007, ITIL® V3 was upgraded and relaunched in 2011 by AXELOS - in collaboration with Her Majesty’s Cabinet Office and Capita PLC as 2011 ITIL® V3. This version included strategic elements which aligned the modern ITSM processes to current business needs.There are three major ITIL® V3 Fundamentals which we will discuss now.ITIL® V3 Incident Management: It is not unusual that services get disrupted within an organisation, but what’s essential is to protect productivity when it happens. ITIL® V3 Incident management is a process which lays down the best set of practices in the industry to effectively handle an incident without much downtime and also ensuring smooth business productivity.ITIL® V3 Change Management: Existing solutions/applications need to be upgraded to keep up with modern technological advancements as well as business needs. It, therefore, becomes essential that such changes do not directly or indirectly affect productivity. ITIL® V3 Change Management focuses on avoiding downtimes by handling, prioritising, and rolling out the required changes.ITIL® V3 Problem Management: Many times, we start getting similar kind of incidents. This is the indication to club all of them into a single problem. The problem aims to provide an RCA (Root cause analysis) of the issue and until then, to also provide a workaround. ITIL® V3 Problem Management helps in managing such problems and avoiding major issues. It also maintains a Known Error Database (KEDB) whose solution is unknown.ITIL® examsITIL® V3 contains five sections as part of the IT service lifecycle, and each section includes multiple processes. ITIL® offers flexibility to an organisation in the form of freedom to adopt any or all of the processes from a particular section. ITIL® is a collection of e-books. Its examinations were earlier administered by EXIN and ISEB, both of which are independent bodies. Both of these bodies gave their certification according to your location.The two independent bodies formed an alliance during late 2006 to further ITSM. Currently, all exams and certificates are being administered by Accredited Training Organisations (ATOs). These accreditations are themselves administered by Strategic Examination Institutes. These, in turn, need to be accredited directly by AXELOS which enables them to offer certification to the ATOs.Benefits of implementing ITIL® in an organisationITIL® powers a well-run IT organisation that not only works efficiently but also keeps optimising the services regularly to provide greater customer experience. Some of the key benefits of implementing ITIL® in an IT organisation as well as businesses are as follows:Cost-effective runIncreased efficiency and productivityIncreased customer satisfactionProvision of comprehensive guidance and standards to followLesser downtime during a service disruptionMinimal service disruptionsEasily manageable incidentsAn easily scaling and changing environmentSome of the examples of accessible services and applications designed with ITIL® and ITSM are:SamanageInvGate Service DeskManageEngine ServiceDesk PlusVision HelpDeskGiants like Disney and Sony are prime examples of how one can manage services within a big organisation. Learners can easily take up these case studies to understand the ground situation in the industry. All in all, ITIL® provides a streamlined framework which helps in managing risks, reducing costs while monitoring day to day activities, and finally improvising the course through learning.What are the five sections of the ITIL® V3 Framework?The ITIL® Framework has five sections which have evolved over time to reflect the needs of the business and the IT environment. Briefly, this evolution can be described as under: The first release of ITIL®, released by the UK government to standardise the IT standards, boasted of multiple volumes collected from professionals worldwide.The second release of ITIL® V2 consisted of 7 volumes which concentrated all past volumes of IT basic operations.ITIL® V3 is more focused on the business side of the industry along with other aspects as well.ITIL® V3, hence, comprises of five sections which cover all aspects of ITSM. These sections further include multiple processes which the organisations implement according to their needs.Service StrategyService DesignService TransitionService OperationContinual Service ImprovementThese five sections cover the lifecycle of service in ITSM. We will discuss each section one by one to get a clear understanding of what each section contributes towards the lifecycle.Service Strategy: As ITIL® V3 is focused more on the business aspect of ITSM, this section is dedicated to catering to the business cases. It checks on the defined business goals and their new requirements. It further develops a strategy which helps provide a service the business needs in a cost-effective and efficient way.Service Design: After the requirements are gathered from the business, this section helps in implementing those requirements in the form of architecture, processes, policies, and documentation. It fulfils its role by providing comprehensive guidance.Service Transition: Changes in technology and business needs are inevitable, which is why it is imperative that such changes, when they are deployed, do not hinder or disrupt the ongoing services. This stage, therefore, looks after the transition stage of service. When a service is transitioning into the business environment, this section provides guidance and processes activities.  Service Operation: This section is more pertaining to the customer. It ensures that every business meets its customer expectations or requirements. It focuses on processes and delivery activities to ensure smooth working of daily operational tasks by monitoring given services.Continual Service Improvement: As the name suggests, this section is for the improvement of services. Based on its learning, which it receives through past services’ failures/successes, it introduces changes to the existing services.Roles in this space, of ITIL® and ITSM, can be elaborated as under:What is ITIL® V3 credit system?ITIL® V3 has a credit system which awards recognition through certificate-based examination. There are multiple certifications and with each one, you accumulate credits.You can enhance your reputation in the IT industry by rising through the ranks of ITIL® certifications which is awarded on a credit-basis exam. Credits are required to be eligible for higher certifications.The ITIL® V4 modules vary slightly from the ITIL® V3 structure and will be released during 2019, with Foundation being made available in February 2019. Modules, including the ITIL® Specialist module, the ITIL® Strategist and the ITIL® Leader will be released in the latter half of 2019.  Post the ITIL® V4 Foundation level; the candidate can choose to pursue either the ITIL® Managing Professional (ITIL® MP) or ITIL® Strategic Leader (ITIL® SL). End-learners must complete both - the ITIL® MP and ITIL® SL - to be eligible to certify as an ITIL® Master.To be certified as an ITIL® Managing Professional, the candidate must complete the following modules:ITIL® V4 FoundationITIL® Specialist: Create, Deliver & SupportITIL® Specialist: Drive Stakeholder ValueITIL® Specialist: High-Velocity ITITIL® Strategist: Direct, Plan & ImproveTo be certified as an ITIL® SL, candidates must complete the following modules:ITIL® 4 FoundationITIL® Strategist: Direct, Plan & ImproveITIL® Leader: Digital and IT StrategyThe ITIL® Strategist: Direct, Plan & Improve is a universal module for both the ITIL® streams. This is followed by the MALC i.e.  Managing Across The Lifecycle, ITIL® Expert and then the ITIL® Master, all of which are advanced levels to ensure the candidate attains the ITIL® certification.Some important pointers of ITIL® V4 are as under:Start with the ITIL 4 Foundation certification which fetches you two credits and its corresponding Foundation certificate.For each specialization after Foundation, until MALC, you will be awarded three or four credits depending upon the certification. ITIL® Practitioner certification fetches you three credits while covering the whole spectrum of the best practices.ITIL® Practitioner can be taken either immediately after Foundation or after before MALC and after completion of rest of the certifications.Before Managing across the Lifecycle (MALC), you can gather 17 credits in any order you prefer.To advance to ITIL® Expert level, you’d need a total of 22 credits including an ITIL® Practitioner certification and then MALC.It is important to note that the ITIL® system uses a credit system right from the Foundation level through the Expert levels with each certification amounting to a certain number of credits. The following chart illustrates the current ITIL® credit system:Sr. NoLevel of ITIL® certificationNo. of credits awarded1ITIL® Foundation22ITIL® Practitioner33ITIL® IntermediateLifecycle ModuleService Strategy3Service Design3Service Transition3Service Operation3Continual Service Improvement3Capability ModuleOperational Support and Analysis4Planning, Protection, and Optimization4Release, Control, and Validation4Service Offerings and Agreements44Managing across the lifecycle55ITIL® ExpertWhat are the ITIL® V3 services and processes?As part of the lifecycle of ITIL® V3 services, five sections are defined and each of them plays a key role in the service’s life. These five sections contain multiple processes, which in turn, are adopted by the companies or organisations into their teams.Starting from the planning, according to the business needs, to the improvement or the eventual retiring of a service, ITIL® V3 covers all stages of ITSM. Due to the coverage it provides, it has become an essential part of ITSM.There are millions of ITIL® V3 professionals around the globeIt is up to an organisation as to which processes of a section it may want to select and what not. This property of ITIL® makes it flexible for implementation purposes.The five sections in a lifecycle of an ITIL® V3 service are:Service Strategy: It strategizes how to create a service that caters to the needs of a business. Processes included under Service Strategy are:Strategy GenerationFinancial ManagementDemand ManagementService Portfolio ManagementService Design: All the infrastructure, technology, processes, and policies of service along with other things are designed in this section with the help of the following processes:Service Catalog ManagementService Level ManagementAvailability ManagementCapacity ManagementIT Service Continuity ManagementInformation Security ManagementSupplier Management      Service Transition: All the changes introduced in the services are needed to be smooth and non-disrupting to productivity. This section covers that with the help of the following processes:Transition Planning and SupportChange ManagementService Asset and Configuration ManagementRelease and Deployment ManagementService Validation and TestingEvaluationKnowledge ManagementService Operation: This section ensures the smooth running of daily operational tasks and checks whether the business is meeting customer requirements or not. It accomplishes this task with the help of the following processes:Event ManagementIncident ManagementRequest FulfillmentProblem ManagementAccess Management      Continual Service Improvement: To continuously improve the efficiency of the services through learning from past services, this section employs the following processes:The 7 improvement processService MeasurementService Reporting      Difference between ITIL® V2 & ITIL® V3With the introduction of ITIL® V3, AXELOS aimed to focus more on the business needs of the industry, instead of just concentrating all resources on the basic IT operations - which ITIL® V2 did. The ITIL® V2 contained the following disciplines:Service SupportService DeliveryWe can conclude from the above disciplines that the sole aim of ITIL® V2 was to support basic IT processes. ITIL® V3, on the other hand, extends this support to the whole lifecycle of a service and more importantly, catering to the needs of the business and customers.Besides these, ITIL® V3 has other major differences and upgrades from ITIL® V2 which we have compiled and shown in the table below:ITIL® V2ITIL® V3Majorly process-orientedFocused on the complete lifecycle of service in ITSM (including business needs)Has seven volumesHas five volumesEfficient and cost-effective processesStrategic emphasis is given along with efficiency and cost-effectiveness to the processA singular function was divided into ten processes25 processes categorised suitably under four functionsNo clear assignment of roles in processesRoles and responsibilities are clearly defined for each processFocused on “what” perspective - “what can be done and why”Aimed at the “how” approach - how it can be doneIncludes 700 pages of publicationsIncludes 1400 pages of its five key publicationsFocuses on the theoretical part of the business in ITSMFocuses on the practical aspect and aligns much better with the needs of modern business
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What is ITIL® V3?

Lack of standardised practices in the IT sector cr... Read More

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