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ITIL® certification levels: A comprehensive guide

What is ITIL®?ITIL® is a library, a set of detailed practices for IT service management (ITSM). Earlier known as the Information Technology Infrastructure Library, it aims to deliver IT services concerning the needs of the business. ITIL® frameworks assist the companies in improving their ITSM and providing strong customer service.Certification LevelsAs there is a distinct set of rules to take into account, for the ease of students and organizations, ITIL® certification has been divided into five levels, starting from Foundation to Masters.The previous version of the ITIL® V3 was divided into 5 classes -Foundation: This is the first-level certification course that teaches the fundamentals and general concepts, terminology, and elements practiced in the ITIL® Lifecycle.Practitioner: This level aims to teach candidates how to adapt and adopt the skills of ITIL® during their daily work life. It is the most recent addition to the levels.Intermediate: This is a more in-depth study of the previous stages. Here, different modules are taken up to teach the various approaches and plans executed by following the framework. This certification is considered as the common ITIL® qualification in many IT sectors.Expert: This certification is considered as the esteemed qualification which depicts skills, expertise and a great understanding of the ITIL® framework.Master level: This is the final stage of the certification, which proves a comprehensive understanding of the principles, procedures and exceptional methods of ITIL®. It also demonstrates the candidate's superior skills. The master’s certified candidate is considered to be the best among others due to their knowledge and expertise.As the level increases, the depth, value, and requirements of the certifications increase parallelly.The latest version of the ITIL® V4 is reportedly the most flexible and superior version released till now. The updates are highly valuable because they have been implemented after considering the feedbacks and reviews of 1000s of professionals.Since the problems are resolved through steps, this increases the credibility of the ITIL® framework and processes exponentially. Also, this version has been designed to be flexible and adaptable as per the ease of the employees and students.The transition from ITIL® V3 to ITIL® V4Now, we understand that there are some significant upgrades in ITIL® V4, but the question is, what about those who are currently enrolled in ITIL® V3 or have already passed the previous versions.For your concerns, AXELOS has addressed the transition issue and the process is rather simple. These are the best options as suggested by AXELOS on how a candidate can move from the older version of ITIL® to ITIL® 4.Foundation course For those who have started the certification course and have only reached the current Foundation certification, or have earned up to six additional credits, they are recommended to begin again with the latest version of the ITIL® 4. It's because of the changes that are mentioned, have been revised and upgraded. Therefore, it will be better for them to restart from the beginning as they will be in sync with the current updates.Practitioner CourseSince the student has just begun, if he/she has not collected more than 6 credits, it is advisable to join the ITIL® V4 foundation course and start from scratch. However, if they have collected more than 6 credits, it is advisable to continue with ITIL® V3 only.Intermediate Course The situation is rather tricky for those who are completing the intermediate level of the ITIL® V3. Since AXELOS doesn't want students to unnecessarily waste their valuable efforts, if students have collected more than six credits beyond the foundation level, they are advised to continue with their ITIL® V3 journey.It is also worth noting that the Transition module will not be released until the second half of 2019, so this gives students a fair time to collect their required credits.Expert Certification Students who have already achieved a minimum of 17 ITIL® Credits and have attained the level of Expert level will have the choice of practicing the ITIL® 4 Managing Professional (MP) Transition module when it is published.This will enable them to join the stage of ITIL® Managing Professional (MP). Following this, all they need to do is to join the ITIL® Leader Digital & Strategy module. It will assist them in achieving the ITIL® Strategic Leader (SL) designation. By this stage, they will be eligible to apply for the ultimate level of ITIL® Master.Below are the required credits and details on the transition path -ITIL® V3 Certification LevelThe Path for transition to V4ITIL® V3 FoundationSimply take the ITIL® V4 Foundation to transition to the new ITIL® certification.ITIL® V3 PractitionerTake ITIL® V4 Foundation and further modules in the area of interest to become ITIL® specialist or strategistContinue with ITIL® V3 certification until you gather 17 credits and become eligible to take ITIL® MP levelITIL® V3 IntermediateContinue collecting credits from ITIL® V3 certification and when credits reach 17, you can give ITIL® MP moduleITIL® V3 ExpertSimply take ITIL® V4 MP module to transition to new Expert level of ITIL® V4What is the ITIL® certification path level?EligibilityMany candidates have a doubt on what the eligibility criteria for the ITIL® certification is. Before proceeding to the certification path, let's get this doubt cleared. There are no prerequisites required for taking the certification course. It's just suggested that the candidate should have some past experience in the IT sector.Now that we are clear with the most basic doubt, let's continue towards the path of certification.Certification PathThis section will deal with the journey to the Certification Path. Throughout the certification course, there’s a certain number of ITIL® Credits awarded when you clear the levels through examination. These credits are the key to unlock the next level of certification or training.1. Foundation Course - As discussed earlier, it is the introductory course to the ITIL® Service Management.Training: Required.Prerequisites: Not RequiredExamination: Yes, RequiredAwards: 2 ITIL® creditsCertificate: Yes.2. Intermediate Course -The next step after Foundation course. It consists of two streams and within those two streams are various modules.Prerequisites: ITIL® Foundation Certificate.Training: Yes, requiredExamination: Yes. The credits earned after the examination will be presented in braces for every module.Certificate: Yes, for each moduleService Lifecycle stream modules: Service Design - 3 creditsService Strategy - 3 creditsService Operation - 3 creditsService Transition - 3 credits    Continual Service Improvement - 3 creditsService Capability stream modules: Release, Control, and Validation - 4 creditsService Offerings and Agreements - 4 creditsPlanning, Protection, and Optimization - 4 creditsOperational Support, and Analysis - 4 credits3. Managing Across Service Lifecycle – MALCThe conclusive segment in the qualification system before obtaining the esteemed certification of Expert is the stage called - MALC.Prerequisites: ITIL® Foundation. 15 credits (Intermediate level) + 2 credits. Hence, 17 credits in total.Training: Yes, required.Examination: YesAwards: 5 ITIL® creditsCertificate: Yes4. Expert Course The highly valued certification which is the proof of superior knowledge and expertise.Prerequisites: ITIL® FoundationITIL® Intermediate15 credits collected in ITIL® Intermediate levelMALC examination qualificationIn Total: minimum of 22 ITIL® credits.Training: Not Required.Examination: Not RequiredCertificate: Yes.5. Master Course This stage doesn't have any training material or examination. By this stage, the candidate is expected to be the best among his/her peer group and apply all the frameworks and principles in real-life situations.Prerequisites: ITIL® Expert certificateFive years of experience in leadership or management position.Training: Not AvailableExamination: Rather than an examination, it's more like a collective review of the work. So, no examination.Certificate: Yes. ITIL® StagePrerequisitesTrainingExamCertificatesFoundationNoYESYESIntermediateITIL® FoundationYESYESYESMALC-ITIL® Foundation- 15 credits in IntermediateYESYESYESExpert-  ITIL® Foundation- 15 credits in Intermediate- MALC- Minimum 22 credits in TotalNONOITIL® EXPERTMaster-ITIL® ExpertNODemonstrationITIL® MasterRoles of the jobThe credentials of the ITIL® certifications will surely give your resume a big boost, but your success will solely depend on you. These are factors that help boost career impact:Your professional experience.KnowledgeThe pace at which you absorb ITIL® concepts.The interest you have in IT methods.Following are the roles that you can expect through ITIL® certification -Process CoordinatorExperience required is a minimum of two years.Level: Foundation-level to Intermediate-levelResponsibility: Assure that the administrative actions in a process are conducted as planned.Change coordinator, Incident coordinator, and configuration analyst are few of the coordinator positions possible in ITIL®-based IT service management.Managerial RoleExperience - At least eight years of working experience for a certified ITIL® professional.Level - This is operated at the mid-management level.Responsibility:The role here is to ensure that activities in service management are in accordance with the given processes.He/she will be managing the coordinators under you who will directly report to you.The Manager is accountable for their actions and making sure that the work allocated is executed thoroughly.Release manager, Problem manager, and service desk manager are some of the managerial roles.ITIL® consulting roleExperience - This role of Process Consultant requires experience of ten years.Level - An ITIL® certified professional.Requirement - The candidate also needs to have certain different abilities with Observation skills being the most dominant traits. Also, they need great “Problem-solving’’ abilities.Responsibility - An ITIL® Consultant must have great observation skills as this would allow him/her to notice inconsistencies in processes and immediately plan about optimization. The consultant must enjoy getting to the bottom of  all issues.Their role is to observe every role assigned under them and guide them to execute the process as smoothly as possible.This is among the most highly-paid and respectable posts in the industry.Below are the annual average salaries of the ITIL® certified jobs -Sr. NoRoleAverage salary per annum in USAverage salary per annum in India1Service Delivery Manager$82,795INR 1,366,9822IT Analyst$86,361INR 7,32,6123Asset Manager$88,552INR 5395334IT Project Manager$91,257INR 1,433,4725IT Manager$101,181INR 10820296Engineering program manager$106,280INR 18198807Senior  IT Project Manager$112,899INR 1,818,5608Service Transition$117,000INR 13,34,2739Service Operation$117,000INR 610,864Difference between ITIL® V3 & V4 certification levelsMany students have one common question-- how exactly are the ITIL® V4 and V3 different from each other?ITIL® V3 was introduced in 2007. The version was revised with some changes four years later in 2011. Whereas AXELOS recently announced the completion of the latest version of the ITIL® V4. The first level of the newer version was released early in 2019 and the higher levels are scheduled to release in the second half of the year.The ITIL® 4 is built upon nine guiding principles. These were borrowed from the most contemporary ITIL® Practitioner Exam.The essence was based on:Device for knowledgeConcentrate on contentExplore holisticallyCommence where you areStudy directlyDevelop iterativelyAssociateBe fairKeep it simple.The ITIL® 4 works according to the need of public perception and needs. Because of this, customer feedback and satisfaction is a top priority for the new version.In addition to these principles, the ITIL® V4 has major updates like:Exceptional integration besides other successful ITSM practices, including DevOps, Agile, and LeanA broader focus on the meaning of customer experienceThe superior combination of ITIL® and modern business practicesA community-driven focus to create the framework extra flexible and powerful.Also, there has been an inclusion of ITIL® Foundation and the ITIL® Master exams.ITIL® Managing Professional (MP)It targets IT practitioners working within technology and digital teams across businesses. They are not just limited to the IT departments. This course offers experience and expertise to run successful teams, IT projects, and workflows.ITIL® Strategic Leader (SL)This exam is planned for those who operate with “every digitally equipped assistance.” The objective of this course is to prepare the learner on how to use technology to deliver business procedure. It also explains the role of IT in the process.ITIL® V4’s focus The team developing the latest version includes industry experts, content writers, and specialists from the broader IT industry. This team operates on a global level to address all types of issues that the organizations face at different levels. More than 2000+ members have contributed to the evolution of this version.The focus is on the practical aspects of the industry. The course has been kept as compliant as possible to assist the organizations towards being better developed and integrated service providers.The most crucial change has been noticed in the foundation level of the version. Now the learners will have a strong base with the IT management from the start.Also, not only will this give the students an early advantage towards grasping the concepts but will make them more adaptable towards the end-to-end operating model for the production, outcomes and constant revisions to provide a much-advanced customer experience.The Service Value System (SVS) has also been heavily updated. It now gives a complete end-to-end scenario of what's happening behind the scenes during the business operations. This allows the students to get a better understanding and to contribute more to the process. The updated version has also incorporated concepts from the models like DevOps, Agile and Lean IT.A significant challenge was not to make it completely original from its previous versions as that will create chaos in the organization between the new and the earlier certified professionals. Keeping this in mind, the version has been designed to have better compatibility with the ITIL® V3.So, what happens to the ITIL® V3?The best thing about certifications is that they never get too old, i.e., they do not have an expiration date. So once you have earned the credentials in your resume, it will be valid for a lifetime.Similarly, ITIL® V3 is equally appropriate and efficient as it has a global demand and a reach of thousands of professionals and students. This is the reason why the latest version has been made compatible with the ITIL® V3.The newer version is devised to satisfy the ever-growing needs of the digital environment. It looks forward to simplifying the complicated processes in the IT sector that used to consume a lot of effort as well as time. The results and outcomes of ITIL® will only be visible when they are applied effectively.
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ITIL® certification levels: A comprehensive guide

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ITIL® certification levels: A comprehensive guide

What is ITIL®?

ITIL® is a library, a set of detailed practices for IT service management (ITSM). Earlier known as the Information Technology Infrastructure Library, it aims to deliver IT services concerning the needs of the business. ITIL® frameworks assist the companies in improving their ITSM and providing strong customer service.

Certification Levels

As there is a distinct set of rules to take into account, for the ease of students and organizations, ITIL® certification has been divided into five levels, starting from Foundation to Masters.

The previous version of the ITIL® V3 was divided into 5 classes -

  • Foundation: This is the first-level certification course that teaches the fundamentals and general concepts, terminology, and elements practiced in the ITIL® Lifecycle.
  • Practitioner: This level aims to teach candidates how to adapt and adopt the skills of ITIL® during their daily work life. It is the most recent addition to the levels.
  • Intermediate: This is a more in-depth study of the previous stages. Here, different modules are taken up to teach the various approaches and plans executed by following the framework. This certification is considered as the common ITIL® qualification in many IT sectors.
  • Expert: This certification is considered as the esteemed qualification which depicts skills, expertise and a great understanding of the ITIL® framework.
  • Master level: This is the final stage of the certification, which proves a comprehensive understanding of the principles, procedures and exceptional methods of ITIL®. It also demonstrates the candidate's superior skills. The master’s certified candidate is considered to be the best among others due to their knowledge and expertise.

As the level increases, the depth, value, and requirements of the certifications increase parallelly.

The latest version of the ITIL® V4 is reportedly the most flexible and superior version released till now. The updates are highly valuable because they have been implemented after considering the feedbacks and reviews of 1000s of professionals.

Since the problems are resolved through steps, this increases the credibility of the ITIL® framework and processes exponentially. Also, this version has been designed to be flexible and adaptable as per the ease of the employees and students.

The transition from ITIL® V3 to ITIL® V4

Now, we understand that there are some significant upgrades in ITIL® V4, but the question is, what about those who are currently enrolled in ITIL® V3 or have already passed the previous versions.

For your concerns, AXELOS has addressed the transition issue and the process is rather simple. These are the best options as suggested by AXELOS on how a candidate can move from the older version of ITIL® to ITIL® 4.

  • Foundation course 

For those who have started the certification course and have only reached the current Foundation certification, or have earned up to six additional credits, they are recommended to begin again with the latest version of the ITIL® 4. It's because of the changes that are mentioned, have been revised and upgraded. Therefore, it will be better for them to restart from the beginning as they will be in sync with the current updates.

  • Practitioner Course

Since the student has just begun, if he/she has not collected more than 6 credits, it is advisable to join the ITIL® V4 foundation course and start from scratch. However, if they have collected more than 6 credits, it is advisable to continue with ITIL® V3 only.

  • Intermediate Course 

The situation is rather tricky for those who are completing the intermediate level of the ITIL® V3. Since AXELOS doesn't want students to unnecessarily waste their valuable efforts, if students have collected more than six credits beyond the foundation level, they are advised to continue with their ITIL® V3 journey.

It is also worth noting that the Transition module will not be released until the second half of 2019, so this gives students a fair time to collect their required credits.

  • Expert Certification 

Students who have already achieved a minimum of 17 ITIL® Credits and have attained the level of Expert level will have the choice of practicing the ITIL® 4 Managing Professional (MP) Transition module when it is published.

This will enable them to join the stage of ITIL® Managing Professional (MP). Following this, all they need to do is to join the ITIL® Leader Digital & Strategy module. It will assist them in achieving the ITIL® Strategic Leader (SL) designation. By this stage, they will be eligible to apply for the ultimate level of ITIL® Master.

Below are the required credits and details on the transition path -

ITIL® V3 Certification Level

The Path for transition to V4
ITIL® V3 Foundation

Simply take the ITIL® V4 Foundation to transition to the new ITIL® certification.
ITIL® V3 Practitioner
  1. Take ITIL® V4 Foundation and further modules in the area of interest to become ITIL® specialist or strategist

  2. Continue with ITIL® V3 certification until you gather 17 credits and become eligible to take ITIL® MP level

ITIL® V3 Intermediate

Continue collecting credits from ITIL® V3 certification and when credits reach 17, you can give ITIL® MP module

ITIL® V3 Expert

Simply take ITIL® V4 MP module to transition to new Expert level of ITIL® V4

What is the ITIL® certification path level?

Eligibility

Many candidates have a doubt on what the eligibility criteria for the ITIL® certification is. Before proceeding to the certification path, let's get this doubt cleared. There are no prerequisites required for taking the certification course. It's just suggested that the candidate should have some past experience in the IT sector.

Now that we are clear with the most basic doubt, let's continue towards the path of certification.

Certification Path

This section will deal with the journey to the Certification Path. Throughout the certification course, there’s a certain number of ITIL® Credits awarded when you clear the levels through examination. These credits are the key to unlock the next level of certification or training.

1. Foundation Course - 

As discussed earlier, it is the introductory course to the ITIL® Service Management.

  • Training: Required.
  • Prerequisites: Not Required
  • Examination: Yes, Required
  • Awards: 2 ITIL® credits
  • Certificate: Yes.

2. Intermediate Course -

The next step after Foundation course. It consists of two streams and within those two streams are various modules.

  • Prerequisites: ITIL® Foundation Certificate.
  • Training: Yes, required
  • Examination: Yes. The credits earned after the examination will be presented in braces for every module.
  • Certificate: Yes, for each module

Service Lifecycle stream modules: 

  • Service Design - 3 credits
  • Service Strategy - 3 credits
  • Service Operation - 3 credits
  • Service Transition - 3 credits    
  • Continual Service Improvement - 3 credits

Service Capability stream modules: 

  • Release, Control, and Validation - 4 credits
  • Service Offerings and Agreements - 4 credits
  • Planning, Protection, and Optimization - 4 credits
  • Operational Support, and Analysis - 4 credits

3. Managing Across Service Lifecycle – MALC

The conclusive segment in the qualification system before obtaining the esteemed certification of Expert is the stage called - MALC.

  • Prerequisites: ITIL® Foundation. 15 credits (Intermediate level) + 2 credits. Hence, 17 credits in total.
  • Training: Yes, required.
  • Examination: Yes
  • Awards5 ITIL® credits
  • Certificate: Yes

4. Expert Course 

The highly valued certification which is the proof of superior knowledge and expertise.

  • Prerequisites: 
    • ITIL® Foundation
    • ITIL® Intermediate
    • 15 credits collected in ITIL® Intermediate level
    • MALC examination qualification
  • In Total: minimum of 22 ITIL® credits.
  • Training: Not Required.
  • Examination: Not Required
  • Certificate: Yes.

5. Master Course 

This stage doesn't have any training material or examination. By this stage, the candidate is expected to be the best among his/her peer group and apply all the frameworks and principles in real-life situations.

  • Prerequisites: 
    • ITIL® Expert certificate
    • Five years of experience in leadership or management position.
  • Training: Not Available
  • Examination: Rather than an examination, it's more like a collective review of the work. So, no examination.
  • Certificate: Yes.
 ITIL® StagePrerequisites

TrainingExamCertificates
Foundation
NoYESYES
Intermediate
ITIL® FoundationYESYESYES
MALC-ITIL® Foundation
- 15 credits in Intermediate
YESYESYES
Expert-  ITIL® Foundation
- 15 credits in Intermediate
- MALC
- Minimum 22 credits in Total
NONOITIL® EXPERT
Master

-ITIL® Expert
NODemonstrationITIL® Master

Roles of the jobITIL Roles of the job

The credentials of the ITIL® certifications will surely give your resume a big boost, but your success will solely depend on you. These are factors that help boost career impact:

  • Your professional experience.
  • Knowledge
  • The pace at which you absorb ITIL® concepts.
  • The interest you have in IT methods.

Following are the roles that you can expect through ITIL® certification -

  • Process Coordinator

    • Experience required is a minimum of two years.
    • Level: Foundation-level to Intermediate-level
    • Responsibility: Assure that the administrative actions in a process are conducted as planned.
    • Change coordinator, Incident coordinator, and configuration analyst are few of the coordinator positions possible in ITIL®-based IT service management.
  • Managerial Role

    • Experience - At least eight years of working experience for a certified ITIL® professional.
    • Level - This is operated at the mid-management level.
    • Responsibility:
      • The role here is to ensure that activities in service management are in accordance with the given processes.
      • He/she will be managing the coordinators under you who will directly report to you.
      • The Manager is accountable for their actions and making sure that the work allocated is executed thoroughly.
    • Release manager, Problem manager, and service desk manager are some of the managerial roles.
  • ITIL® consulting role

    • Experience - This role of Process Consultant requires experience of ten years.
    • Level - An ITIL® certified professional.
    • Requirement - The candidate also needs to have certain different abilities with Observation skills being the most dominant traits. Also, they need great “Problem-solving’’ abilities.
    • Responsibility - 
      • An ITIL® Consultant must have great observation skills as this would allow him/her to notice inconsistencies in processes and immediately plan about optimization. The consultant must enjoy getting to the bottom of  all issues.
      • Their role is to observe every role assigned under them and guide them to execute the process as smoothly as possible.
      • This is among the most highly-paid and respectable posts in the industry.

Below are the annual average salaries of the ITIL® certified jobs -

Sr. NoRole

Average salary per annum in USAverage salary per annum in India
1Service Delivery Manager
$82,795INR 1,366,982
2IT Analyst
$86,361INR 7,32,612
3Asset Manager
$88,552INR 539533
4IT Project Manager
$91,257INR 1,433,472
5IT Manager
$101,181INR 1082029
6Engineering program manager
$106,280INR 1819880
7Senior  IT Project Manager
$112,899INR 1,818,560
8Service Transition
$117,000INR 13,34,273
9Service Operation
$117,000INR 610,864

Difference between ITIL® V3 & V4 certification levels

Many students have one common question-- how exactly are the ITIL® V4 and V3 different from each other?

ITIL® V3 was introduced in 2007. The version was revised with some changes four years later in 2011. Whereas AXELOS recently announced the completion of the latest version of the ITIL® V4. The first level of the newer version was released early in 2019 and the higher levels are scheduled to release in the second half of the year.

The ITIL® 4 is built upon nine guiding principles. These were borrowed from the most contemporary ITIL® Practitioner Exam.

guiding principles to ITIL Certification

The essence was based on:

  1. Device for knowledge
  2. Concentrate on content
  3. Explore holistically
  4. Commence where you are
  5. Study directly
  6. Develop iteratively
  7. Associate
  8. Be fair
  9. Keep it simple.

The ITIL® 4 works according to the need of public perception and needs. Because of this, customer feedback and satisfaction is a top priority for the new version.

In addition to these principles, the ITIL® V4 has major updates like:

  • Exceptional integration besides other successful ITSM practices, including DevOps, Agile, and Lean
  • A broader focus on the meaning of customer experience
  • The superior combination of ITIL® and modern business practices
  • A community-driven focus to create the framework extra flexible and powerful.

Also, there has been an inclusion of ITIL® Foundation and the ITIL® Master exams.

ITIL® Managing Professional (MP)

It targets IT practitioners working within technology and digital teams across businesses. They are not just limited to the IT departments. This course offers experience and expertise to run successful teams, IT projects, and workflows.

ITIL® Strategic Leader (SL)

This exam is planned for those who operate with “every digitally equipped assistance.” The objective of this course is to prepare the learner on how to use technology to deliver business procedure. It also explains the role of IT in the process.

ITIL® V4’s focus 

The team developing the latest version includes industry experts, content writers, and specialists from the broader IT industry. This team operates on a global level to address all types of issues that the organizations face at different levels. More than 2000+ members have contributed to the evolution of this version.

The focus is on the practical aspects of the industry. The course has been kept as compliant as possible to assist the organizations towards being better developed and integrated service providers.

The most crucial change has been noticed in the foundation level of the version. Now the learners will have a strong base with the IT management from the start.

Also, not only will this give the students an early advantage towards grasping the concepts but will make them more adaptable towards the end-to-end operating model for the production, outcomes and constant revisions to provide a much-advanced customer experience.

The Service Value System (SVS) has also been heavily updated. It now gives a complete end-to-end scenario of what's happening behind the scenes during the business operations. This allows the students to get a better understanding and to contribute more to the process. The updated version has also incorporated concepts from the models like DevOps, Agile and Lean IT.

A significant challenge was not to make it completely original from its previous versions as that will create chaos in the organization between the new and the earlier certified professionals. Keeping this in mind, the version has been designed to have better compatibility with the ITIL® V3.

So, what happens to the ITIL® V3?

The best thing about certifications is that they never get too old, i.e., they do not have an expiration date. So once you have earned the credentials in your resume, it will be valid for a lifetime.

Similarly, ITIL® V3 is equally appropriate and efficient as it has a global demand and a reach of thousands of professionals and students. This is the reason why the latest version has been made compatible with the ITIL® V3.

The newer version is devised to satisfy the ever-growing needs of the digital environment. It looks forward to simplifying the complicated processes in the IT sector that used to consume a lot of effort as well as time. The results and outcomes of ITIL® will only be visible when they are applied effectively.

KnowledgeHut

KnowledgeHut

Author

KnowledgeHut is an outcome-focused global ed-tech company. We help organizations and professionals unlock excellence through skills development. We offer training solutions under the people and process, data science, full-stack development, cybersecurity, future technologies and digital transformation verticals.
Website : https://www.knowledgehut.com

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In my experience, service level agreements are not typically negotiated or fully consulted with representatives from the business (the people that actually use the IT service); negotiations with service providers and the design of service levels is usually a procurement function. Procurement teams sometimes make proud statements about negotiating an agreement of “99.8% availability” with a service provider without articulating what this actually means. While suppliers measure availability differently, its relative meaning needs to be closely examined. In the past, it meant the server was up; today, there are so many components, integrations and different suppliers enabling a business process that the meaning has changed irrevocably. Combining business and IT objectives A meaningful use of SLAs includes measuring business processes mapped to business outcomes. In line with the ITIL principle “Focus on value”, outcomesare what matters more than outputs. Measuring business outcomes also takes serviced consumption into consideration, not only service delivery. This is what ITIL describes as the “co-creation of value through service relationship” in which “customers are an essential element in the process of creating value”. Considering the example of an airline, it’s now possible to report the availability of business processes, for example, check in passengers, provide the correct meals for special dietary requirements and allocate seats on a flight. This certainly sees a far more customer focused measurement than the previous SLA that measures whether the system overall is available/unavailable. To arrive at this understanding, it’s necessary to decouple the service and look at what you’re measuring. In the airline business, for instance, you recognize that the real value of an SLA is enabling customers to complete their journey. Whether the IT system is “up” for 99.8% is irrelevant. ITIL®: the SLA today and tomorrow ITIL®4 talks about facilitating value co-creation via a service value system: different components and activities working together to facilitate value creation through IT-enabled services. There are different types of end users including front-line staff and operational people and they all have different motivations, limitations and environments.ITIL®4 humanizes the guidance across the board. Applying design thinking to ITIL is more about understanding human behaviour of users. ITIL process owners often make erroneous assumptions about human behaviour, springing from a poor understanding of users’ environments, motivations and their inclination (or disinclination) to call the Service Desk. ITIL 4 emphasizes the importance of collaboration, transparency, automation where possible and working holistically. SLA: An outcome-based future The dream SLA model of the future is an outcome-based agreement by which external or internal service providers understand their role and how they collectively contribute to an organizations’ business outcomes. This approach changes the model from a silo-based, “finger pointing” culture to a more proactive and strategic partnership between IT, their service providers and the business which IT is there to serve. Without this approach, IT will continue to address the issues inadequately and generate reports that offer very little use to anybody. Effective IT organizations must change how they measure in order to be innovative and show the organizations they support how much they’re contributing to business outcomes.
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Measuring outcomes, not IT availability

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Learn Ethical Hacking From Scratch

Despite the appealing title, ethical hacking or in more technical terms, “Penetration Testing” is not something you can master by reading an article or doing a crash course. There is much more to ethical hacking! In this article, we would have a look at what hacking is, the different types of hackers, steps involved in a hacking or penetration testing activity including common tools and techniques, how the industry looks at ethical hacking and the common certifications related to hacking. Before we jump into the details, let us understand what a vulnerability is, because we would be using this term again and again. Vulnerability is any loophole or a weakness in the system that could be exploited by a hacker. What is hacking and ethical hacking? To understand hacking, let us first understand what a hacker does. Whenever we think of a hacker, we imagine a guy with a hood, sitting in a dark room, having multiple computer screens in front of him and typing something at a blazing speed! We hate to burst your bubble, but most hackers do not fit that preconceived stereotype! A computer hacker is a person with deep domain expertise in computer systems, who is well versed in various methods of overcoming defense mechanisms by exploiting vulnerabilities in a computer system or network. A hacker could be financially or politically motivated or could be working with an organization to help them strengthen their infrastructure. Hacking refers to the activities that can overpower/derail the security mechanisms of digital devices like computers, smartphones, tablets, and even entire networks. It exploits the vulnerabilities present in the system or network to gain unauthorized access to confidential information. Hacking could be for personal benefit or with malicious intent. However, in ethical hacking, the hacker exploits the vulnerability, gains access to the data, but never alters, deletes or uses it for personal or professional gain. The hacker, in this case, will disclose the vulnerability to the owner of the system with a “Proof of Concept” (PoC) and request the owner to get the vulnerability remediated. Generally, ethical hackers have explicit permission to exploit the target from the owner. Who are the different types of hackers? Hackers can be generally categorized into three types based on the kind of work they do and the intent behind their hacking. Black Hat Hackers – These are hackers who attempt to bypass security mechanisms to gain unauthorized access with a malicious intent. Generally, these hackers work with the intent of financial gain and/or causing damage to the target. They may be individuals, self-motivated groups (also known as hacktivists who aim to bring political or social change) or politically motivated groups (state sponsored hackers). White Hat Hackers – These are professionals generally working with or for a company to help strengthen its digital security systems. The white hat hacker has explicit permission from the system or the information owner to attack the system. The intent here is to fix potential vulnerabilities before the black hat hackers could exploit them. Grey Hat Hackers – These individuals operate either as   white hat hackers or black hat hackers, hence the nomenclature. What are the steps involved in hacking? Let us take a deeper dive into ethical hacking and understand the steps involved. Throughout this section, we will look at the steps involved in ethical hacking, and some commonly used tools and techniques which hackers generally use. To illustrate our explanation, let us assume an attacker, Mr. X is targeting an organization TaxiCompany Inc. 1. Reconnaissance or Foot-printing – As per the Oxford dictionary, reconnaissance means, “the activity of getting information about an area for military purposes, using soldiers, planes, etc.”. Similarly, in hacking, reconnaissance means gathering information about your target. This information includes IP address ranges, Network, DNS Records, Websites, or people working with the organization. So, in this step, Mr. X would try to find the details of the key people working for TaxiCompany Inc., its website, etc. Reconnaissance could be active or passive in nature. In active foot printing, Mr. X would directly be scanning the network of TaxiCompany, or its websites using various tools. In passive foot printing, the Mr. X would not directly interact with any infrastructure or person. He would rather look at publicly available information from social media, public websites, etc. Commonly used tools/techniques for reconnaissance:  Who Is: Who is lookup tells you details about the website, the owner, contact number of the owner, and the address where the website is registered? You can simply visit who.is and enter the domain you wish to search for. NMAP: NMAP or the Network Map is a tool widely used for recon and scanning. Hackers can use this tool to find details like IP range, active hosts, open ports, etc. A simple command is nmap to find active hosts is “nmap -sn 192.168.1.1-100”. This command will find all active hosts in the provided IP range. Social Engineering: This is a technique, whereby the attacker engages directly or indirectly with the staff of the target organization and manipulates them psychologically to reveal confidential information. Some other tools which are used for footprinting include social media sites, Nessus, Acunetix, lullar.com 2. Scanning – Once Mr. X has some basic information about the TaxiCompany, he would start to collect in-depth information which could help him penetrate the network and access confidential information. Mr. X is most likely to use port scanners, sweepers and vulnerability scanners of different types. Mr. X could now be targeting the website or the network of the organization. For websites, using scanners like Nessus and Acunetix could give loads of information about the server where the website is hosted, open ports, server version, hosting platform, etc. In case of a network, network mapping and scanning tools will help Mr. X understand the active hosts, services (ports) running on them and with some intense scans, the OS running on the active hosts and even the vulnerabilities present! Kali Linux is a distribution of Linux operating system which is widely used by hackers around the globe for hacking and penetration testing. It contains almost every tool one would need for various steps of hacking. NMAP, wireshark, ncap, metasploit, etc. are pre-loaded in Kali Linux. Now based on the information gathered in the scanning phase, Mr. X can now easily look for vulnerabilities in the OS or the hardware using databases like NVD or CVE. Commonly used tools/techniques for scanning: Apart from NMAP, the below tools are used to perform vulnerability scanning: Nessus: The most famous vulnerability scanner from Tenable, it has 100s of plugins which allows you to make sure all vulnerabilities and misconfigurations are identified. Acunetix: Acunetix is known for its features and capabilities for web application scanning. 3. Gaining Access – Now Mr. X knows the network, active hosts, services running, details of the operating system and the vulnerabilities present. Next, Mr. X would gain access to the assets of TaxiCompany. Mr. X now has several options to penetrate the network. He can send a “Phishing Mail” to some key people (contacted using social engineering) and trick them into clicking a malicious link (and seek username and password). Alternately, he could try tricking them into downloading a malicious attachment and installing a keylogger to get all the keystrokes. This is a fairly easy task. There are certain fake-mailers like zmail or emkei.cz which allow you to send email to anyone using any email ID as the source email. Emkei is a very popular and useful tool for sending fake email and running phishing campaigns. One can design a mail looking exactly like the original one from the same email ID and trick someone into clicking or downloading something. Designing a phishing page or creating a malicious file is also possible using “Metasploit”. Metasploit allows you to create an exploit and using msfvenom (or any similar tool) you can attach this exploit to an innocent looking pdf or excel file! Once the target user inside TaxiCompany opens this attachment, Mr. X gets the meterpreter shell and can now access almost everything on the target machine. Mr. X has now successfully gained the access of a system within TaxiCompany. Now he is free to navigate the system and the network to get the information he is looking for or infect more devices! Commonly used tools/techniques for gaining access: Kali Linux: A fully loaded operating system with all the tools starting from wireshark to Metasploit to burp suite, it contains everything! Phishing: A technique where the users are lured into clicking or downloading something on their computers. It is also possible by phone calls; a common example is fraudsters pretending to be from Bank and asking card details and OTP. 4. Maintaining Access – Once Mr. X has gained access; he would probably like to secure that access or create another one to ensure that he has a persistent access to that machine. This could be done by using Trojans, Rootkits and backdoors. This is generally done to ensure that more information could be gained or to launch attacks using this machine. In a case where attacker controls a machine and uses it to launch further attacks, the machine is said to be a bot. An attacker uses several of these bots, called ‘botnet’, to launch attacks such as Distributed Denial of Service (DDoS) wherein thousands of requests are sent to a server at a time, potentially consuming all the bandwidth and forcing the legitimate traffic to drop. 5. Covering Tracks – Now Mr. X has the access to the TaxiCompany’s confidential information and one of the computer systems. He now wants to make sure that he is not caught! This is generally done by corrupting or deleting the logs. While this is done at the end, some precautions need to be taken from the onset, such as using a Virtual Private Network or a VPN. VPN is a tool which encrypts any data between the source and the destination, hence making it very difficult to intercept the data. Also, VPN ensures that your actual public IP address is not visible to the target. There is always a dummy IP address which is visible to the target. So even if someone gets to know the IP of the attacker, that would actually be only the IP address of the VPN service provider! Some common free VPN tools are Hide my Ass, Nord VPN and Express VPN. How does the industry view ethical hacking? Ethical hacking is not only about CTF, HTB and bug bounties. It is much more than that. These days every company hires ethical hackers to make sure that their network, applications and data are secure from cyberattacks. Penetration testers are highly paid within an organization and they play a key role in identifying the security vulnerabilities and helping to fix them. There are various sub domains for ethical hacking which include mobile security, web application security, network penetration testing, API security and system security. Certifications related to ethical hacking If you want to pursue a career in Cyber Security, or to be more precise, in ethical hacking, having a credential is helpful. It affirms your prowess in cyber security and gives you an edge over your counterparts during the hiring process. Below are a few certifications in the field of ethical hacking that are globally acknowledged: EC-Council Certified Ethical Hacker (CEH) – The CEH, or Certified Ethical Hacker credential is the number one certification that any aspiring ethical hacker should aspire towards. The most common certification in the field of cyber security, it provides in-depth working knowledge about ethical hacking and the concepts related to it. CompTIA Security+  –  A little less technical than the CEH, CompTIA Security+ aims at imparting fundamental knowledge of security concepts and offers less focus on practical, hands-on skills. Offensive Security’s OSCP – One of the toughest and most reputed certifications in this sector that necessitates passing a 24-hour exam, it aims to test your skill set and understanding of cyber security. KnowledgeHut offers in-depth training that can help you to prep for these sought-after certification exams. Get guidance from the experts—click here to explore ways to crack these exams at your very first attempt!  
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Learn Ethical Hacking From Scratch

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Top 10 Trending Courses in Information Technology for IT Aspirants

The best part to jump to the bandwagon of information technology or IT is, there is an enormous possibility for an individual if he or she starts studying a diploma or a degree, does either a master degree or a research course. He or she can get full-fledged engineering degree. We have listed down here in order of priority, top to down for a beginners to advanced level technical course that an IT aspirant look for. Java or J2E and Its Frameworks Java or J2EE is one of the most trusted, powerful and widely used technology by almost all the medium and big organizations around domains, like banking and insurance, life science, telecom, financial services, retail and much, much more. You have many things to learn in Java or J2EE, like the core part – J2SE, JSP, STRUTS, SPRING and/or HIBERNATE. This is one of the best and most advanced sophisticated applications. If you want to learn Java, you need to start from the ab initio to the advanced level step-by-step. There are many different frameworks as well as supporting technologies to learn for Java aspirants but the given things are must learn and highly demanding in current software market. CISCO Technologies Whether you are fascinated about learning network and switching technologies, then CISCO technologies would be your choice. You can learn CCNA, CCNP and more from CISCO academy. These types of certificates are global certifications. You will get global prospects after completing and learning these types of courses. If you are not coming from engineering backgrounds, then also you can learn CCNA or CCNP, or both. Then you need to take some ad hoc classes for non-engineering students. The great number of fresher and experienced candidate, these days, are pursuing networking courses, if you are one of them, then CISCO technologies can be your choice. A majority of CISCO institutes want degree – graduation in any discipline. SAS – Statistical Analysis System SAS is a popular course. This can be your career as SAS consultant that many medium and large organizations looking for fresher and experienced SAS qualified candidates. This is nothing but a data analytics course that can give you global exposure. The demand for SAS – data analytics is growing day-by-day and the business intelligence domain has emerged one of the most trusted and lucrative option for science graduate. These days, SAS is a’ la mode for fresher and experienced science graduate. It is an integrated system of software products that help to perform critical data-entry, data-retrieval, data-management, data-mining, report writing and graphics. DBA – MySQL – SQL Server In this highly competitive as well as dynamic Software/IT industry, there is one course the one course, which is very popular and can give you stable career is, DBA. This is a course or an ad hoc for students who are interested in learning MySQL and SQL server and like to create, manage as well as maintain the huge data files and other database flavors available in the market. DBA can be your best bet for career-oriented course, when you will be conversant with database with other supporting technologies; you can easily and quickly learn MySQL and DB2 in a much shorter period. The demand for DBA courses are increasing day-by-day and the demand shows the popular it is and the effective career you get after completing these technologies. Microsoft Technologies Microsoft technologies are high in popularity these days. You can be a database developer or a MS technology developer after passing one or multiple certifications, like MCSE, MCAD, MCSD, MCDST, MCDBA, MCAS and others. For enterprise and application development MCITP is one of the best for beginners and advanced level developers. Albeit, this type of certification is not at all a programming certification, but a system maintenance kind of, but have good future prospect. Cloud Computing Today’s biggest buzz in all small, medium and large IT town is all about cloud computing. You must use Google, Amazon etc. some of the big gun of cloud technology. If you are thinking of pursuing a course that can set your future-career in cloud computing, then IaaS, PaaS, SaaS, DaaS etc. would be learnt alpha and omega of cloud computing.
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Top 10 Trending Courses in Information Technology ...

The best part to jump to the bandwagon of informat... Read More