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Six Sigma Training: Why You Need to Join?

All businesses have a common  goal of achieving the sustainable growth rate as per planning and available resources. But many of these fail to meet the expected growth rate, despite offering the premium quality at a competitive price. The emergence of new players in volatile and competitive global market makes the challenges more complex. Guided implementation of Lean and Six Sigma methodologies in the manufacturing and transactional  processes eliminates the causes of poor product quality, variations in processes and low profitability. The Lean Six Sigma certified experts help the businesses to move on the structured roadmap of sustainable success pattern.   What is Six Sigma?     “Six Sigma” refers to the effectiveness of the processes for the output, ensuring defined specifications and high degree precision. Six Sigma, data-driven process improvement methodology was introduced by Bill Smith & Mikel J Harry in 1986. The data-driven rather than guesswork approach for introducing improvement programs makes Six Sigma more reliable and effective. The statistical Six Sigma representation describes the process performance quantitatively. Six Sigma methodology has been effective in a myriad of different sized industries to improve the customers’ satisfaction in parallel to cost reduction. The growth of Six Sigma methodology is inspired by the preceding period of inventing and implementing quality improvement techniques such as TQM, Zero Defects etc. In general, the processes powered with six sigma methodology ensures the defect levels below 3.4 DPMO (defects per million opportunities); while the defect is considered as the non-conformity of product/service to the defined specifications. Six Sigma Powered With Lean: Lean  is the structured process management approach developed for maximizing flow and eliminating waste. The Lean organization understands and implements the Lean practices seamlessly across the functional and operational areas. The organizations striving for extreme perfection in the competitive global marketing environment have accepted Lean deployment as a tool to face the challenges pertaining to production cost reduction and faster delivery. Combining the time-tested powers of Lean and Six Sigma works wonders for the businesses by delivering exceptional financial gains.      Why Do Businesses Need Lean Six Sigma Experts? Businesses use Lean Six Sigma methodologies to reduce the variations in products & processes, but the commonly experienced benefits of Six Sigma introduction are – shorter cycle time, fewer defects, increased delivering capacity, lower costs because of reduced waste, improved revenues, reduced capital expenditure etc. In addition, the successful Lean Six Sigma deployment develops the culture among the employees and associated stakeholders to apply the innovative data-driven problem-solving approach. The systematic and pervasive deployment of Six Sigma helps organizations to reduce COPQ (Cost of Poor Quality) also. The increasing demand for Lean Six Sigma certified professionals confirms the benefits experienced by the businesses directly or indirectly. The more in common experienced unexpected benefits of Lean Six Sigma deployment include:    Better Time Management    Reduced Cycle Time    Waste Reduction    Smoother Operation    Improved Customers’ Loyalty    Strategic Planning For Long Term Benefits    Enhanced Employee Motivation    More Effective Supply Chain Management …. Lean Six Sigma Training at Different Levels:     Leading management consultancy institutes and companies provide instructor-led Six Sigma certification training through classroom and virtual modules. Six Sigma training is provided at different levels to facilitate even the beginners: Lean Six Sigma Black Belt Certification: It is an advanced level Lean Six Sigma certification course. Lean Six Sigma Black Belt certification provide guidance on the application of Six Sigma principles to specific process improvement projects. Lean Six Sigma Green Belt Certification: Lean Six Sigma Green Belt professionals are supposed to help the Lean Six Sigma Black Belt professionals for successful implementation of lean and Six Sigma methodologies for quality improvement and better profitability. Lean Six Sigma Yellow Belt Certification: It is the basic level certification designed for the management professionals willing to add new dimensions to their competence. The successful completion of Lean Six Sigma Yellow Belt certification makes them eligible to work and learn in association with Lean Six Sigma Green Belt and Black Belt holders.  
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Six Sigma Training: Why You Need to Join?

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Six Sigma Training: Why You Need to Join?

All businesses have a common  goal of achieving the sustainable growth rate as per planning and available resources. But many of these fail to meet the expected growth rate, despite offering the premium quality at a competitive price. The emergence of new players in volatile and competitive global market makes the challenges more complex. Guided implementation of Lean and Six Sigma methodologies in the manufacturing and transactional  processes eliminates the causes of poor product quality, variations in processes and low profitability. The Lean Six Sigma certified experts help the businesses to move on the structured roadmap of sustainable success pattern.  

What is Six Sigma?    

“Six Sigma” refers to the effectiveness of the processes for the output, ensuring defined specifications and high degree precision. Six Sigma, data-driven process improvement methodology was introduced by Bill Smith & Mikel J Harry in 1986. The data-driven rather than guesswork approach for introducing improvement programs makes Six Sigma more reliable and effective. The statistical Six Sigma representation describes the process performance quantitatively. Six Sigma methodology has been effective in a myriad of different sized industries to improve the customers’ satisfaction in parallel to cost reduction.

The growth of Six Sigma methodology is inspired by the preceding period of inventing and implementing quality improvement techniques such as TQM, Zero Defects etc. In general, the processes powered with six sigma methodology ensures the defect levels below 3.4 DPMO (defects per million opportunities); while the defect is considered as the non-conformity of product/service to the defined specifications.

Six Sigma Powered With Lean:

Lean  is the structured process management approach developed for maximizing flow and eliminating waste. The Lean organization understands and implements the Lean practices seamlessly across the functional and operational areas. The organizations striving for extreme perfection in the competitive global marketing environment have accepted Lean deployment as a tool to face the challenges pertaining to production cost reduction and faster delivery. Combining the time-tested powers of Lean and Six Sigma works wonders for the businesses by delivering exceptional financial gains.     

Why Do Businesses Need Lean Six Sigma Experts?

Businesses use Lean Six Sigma methodologies to reduce the variations in products & processes, but the commonly experienced benefits of Six Sigma introduction are – shorter cycle time, fewer defects, increased delivering capacity, lower costs because of reduced waste, improved revenues, reduced capital expenditure etc. In addition, the successful Lean Six Sigma deployment develops the culture among the employees and associated stakeholders to apply the innovative data-driven problem-solving approach. The systematic and pervasive deployment of Six Sigma helps organizations to reduce COPQ (Cost of Poor Quality) also.

The increasing demand for Lean Six Sigma certified professionals confirms the benefits experienced by the businesses directly or indirectly. The more in common experienced unexpected benefits of Lean Six Sigma deployment include:

  •    Better Time Management
  •    Reduced Cycle Time
  •    Waste Reduction
  •    Smoother Operation
  •    Improved Customers’ Loyalty
  •    Strategic Planning For Long Term Benefits
  •    Enhanced Employee Motivation
  •    More Effective Supply Chain Management ….

Lean Six Sigma Training at Different Levels:    

Leading management consultancy institutes and companies provide instructor-led Six Sigma certification training through classroom and virtual modules. Six Sigma training is provided at different levels to facilitate even the beginners:

  • Lean Six Sigma Black Belt Certification: It is an advanced level Lean Six Sigma certification course. Lean Six Sigma Black Belt certification provide guidance on the application of Six Sigma principles to specific process improvement projects.
  • Lean Six Sigma Green Belt Certification: Lean Six Sigma Green Belt professionals are supposed to help the Lean Six Sigma Black Belt professionals for successful implementation of lean and Six Sigma methodologies for quality improvement and better profitability.
  • Lean Six Sigma Yellow Belt Certification: It is the basic level certification designed for the management professionals willing to add new dimensions to their competence. The successful completion of Lean Six Sigma Yellow Belt certification makes them eligible to work and learn in association with Lean Six Sigma Green Belt and Black Belt holders.  
Shubhranshu

Shubhranshu Agarwal

Freelance content writer

Shubhranshu Agarwal is a technical writer with special interest in business management and project management subjects. Over the 15 years of freelance content writing, he has written a lot to help the industries, businesses and project managers to achieve the sustainable growth by implementing strategic critical management methodologies.
 

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5 Advantages Of Implementing Six Sigma

Six Sigma is one of the popular process improvement techniques used in the industry. It was invented back in 1986 by an engineer named Bill Smith while he was working at Motorola. The main motive of introducing this technique was to decrease the number of defective products produced in the factory. This, in turn, improves the overall efficiency of the factory and the overall profits of the organization. The goal of reducing the defective products is achieved by following a sequence of steps and by using statistics. Let’s find out the main advantages of implementing Six Sigma in a factory. Advantage #1 – Customer is king This is a motto followed by most organizations. The customer gives the order for a particular set of products and the factory has to fulfill that demand. Six Sigma aims at doing exactly that but, at a faster rate. There are techniques involved that are used to exceed the expectations of the customer. The first step towards achieving this is by reducing the number of defective pieces produced in the factory as this will reduce the amount of time required to manufacture products which will ensure that the customer gets his product sooner. Advantage #2 – Employee Encouragement The employees of an organization will work enthusiastically only if they are driven and realize that they are making a difference to the company. The tools provided by Six Sigma aid employment development which will motivate the employees to work harder in their respective jobs. According to a survey it was found that companies that thoroughly implemented Six Sigma tools and techniques in their factories saw a 25-50 percent growth in productivity because their employees were completely engaged in their work. Advantage #3 – Planning Strategies Six Sigma helps in planning various strategies for the company and not only in the manufacturing process. It can help the company reach its vision and stay true to its mission. Every business carries out a SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat) analysis which helps them identify their own qualities. In order to succeed, they need to focus more on their weakness and improve it instead of just focusing on their strengths and being satisfied with it. Six Sigma can help even in converting those weaknesses into strengths. For example, if the vision of a company is to sell quality goods at reasonable prices, Six Sigma can be implemented to reduce the cost of goods by eliminating complexity, improving the supply, gaining cheapest supplier agreements etc. Advantage #4 – Supply Chain Management Suppliers play a pivotal role in the manufacturing or assembling process of every factory. They can either make or break the productivity of the company. If the products delivered by them are delayed, it could delay all the processes of the factory. Using Six Sigma this problem can be eradicated. Using the Six Sigma methodology by which the number or suppliers required for a particular process can be reduced. This will ensure that lesser defective products are produced. Advantage #5 – Lower Cycle time Cycle time is defined as the amount of time taken to complete one entire cycle of an operation from start to finish. If a company needs to assemble/manufacture products at a faster rate, it first needs to reduce its cycle time. What most companies tend to do most of the time is to immediately begin the process without proper planning. By doing this, they end up crossing the deadline and straining the relationship with the customer. As per the rules of Six Sigma, the business should set up a team of individuals at all levels of the company. These individuals will have the major task of identifying and resolving the problems that are hindering the assembly/manufacturing process. Once these problems are resolved, the company can achieve shorter cycle times and deliver the product at a faster rate. Six Sigma is being used by many companies around the world and is popular mainly because of its success rate. The organisations that have successfully implemented Six Sigma have already achieved or are in the process of achieving their goals. If you’re interested in learning more about Six Sigma and its various principles, enrol for a Six Sigma classroom training or online training course.
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5 Advantages Of Implementing Six Sigma

Six Sigma is one of the popular process improvemen... Read More

Six Sigma Methods and Formulas For Successful Quality Management

Six Sigma is basically the application of Statistical formulas and Methods to eliminate defects, variation in a product or a process. For example if you want to find the average height of male population in India, you cannot bring the entire population of more than 2 billion into one room and measure their height for a scenario like this we take samples that is we pick up sample(people) from each state and use statistical formulas to draw the inference about the average height of male population in a population which is more than 2 billion. One more example would be say a company manufactures pistons use d in motor cycles the customer demand is that the piston should not a diameter more than 9 cm and less than 5 cm anything manufactured outside this limits is said to be a variation and the six sigma consultant should confirm that the pistons are manufactured within the said limits else if there is variation in the range then the company is not operating at 6 sigma level it is operating at a very low level. A company is operating at six sigma level implies that there are only 3.4 defects per million opportunities for example an airline company operating at six sigma level means that it loses only 3.4 baggage’s per million of the passenger it handles. Below is Shown the Six Sigma Table and a graph explaining the meaning of various levels of Six Sigma. Sigma Level Defect Rate Yield Percentage 2 σ 308,770 dpmo (Defects Per Million 69.10000 %   Opportunities)   3 σ 66,811 dpmo 93.330000 % 4 σ 6,210 dpmo 99.38000 % 5 σ 233 dpmo 99.97700 % 6 σ 3.44 dpmo 99.99966 % Six Sigma is Denoted by the Greek alphabet σ which is shown in the table above and is called as Standard deviation. The father of Six Sigma is Bill Smith who coined the term Six Sigma and implemented it in Motorola in the 1980’s. Six Sigma is implemented in Five Phases which are Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control and we will discuss each phases in brief and the various methods used in Six Sigma. Define The objectives within the Define Phase which is first phase in DMAIC framework of Six Sigma are:- Define the Project Charter Define scope, objectives, and schedule Define the Process (top-level) and its stake holders Select team members Obtain Authorization from Sponsor Assemble and train the team. Project charters the charter documents the why, how, who and when of a project include the following elements Problem Statement Project objective or purpose, including the business need addressed Scope Deliverables Sponsor and stakeholder groups Team members Project schedule (using GANTT or PERT as an attachment) Other resources required Work break down Structure It is a process for defining the final and intermediate products of a project and their relationship. Defining Project task is typically complex and accomplished by a series of decomposition followed by a series of aggregations it is also called top down approach and can be used in the Define phase of Six Sigma framework. Now we will get into the formulas of Six Sigma which is shown in the table below. Central tendency is defined as the tendency for the values of a random variable to cluster round its mean, mode, or median. Where mean is the average for example if you have taken 10 sample of pistons randomly from the factory and measured their diameter the average would be sum of the diameter of the 10 pistons divided by 10 where 10 the number of observations the sum in statistics is denoted by ∑. In the above table X, Xi are the measures of the diameter of the piston and µ , XBar is the average. Mode is the most frequently observed measurement in the diameter of the piston that is if 2 pistons out 10 samples collected have the diameter as 6.3 & 6.3 then this is the mode of the sample and median is the midpoint of the observations of the diameter of the piston when arranged in sorted order. From the example of the piston we find that the formulas of mean, median , mode does not correctly depict variation in the diameter of the piston manufactured by the factory but standard deviation formula helps us to find the variance in the diameter of the piston manufactured which is varying from the customer mentioned upper specification limit and lower specification limit. The most important equation of Six Sigma is Y = f(x) where Y is the effect and x are the causes so if you remove the causes you remove the effect of the defect. For example headache is the effect and the causes are stress, eye strain, fever if you remove this causes automatically the headache is removed this is implemented in Six Sigma by using the Fishbone or Ishikawa diagram invented by Dr Kaoru Ishikawa. Measure Phase: In the Measure phase we collect all the data as per the relationship to the voice ofcustomer and relevantly analyze using statistical formulas as given in the above table. Capability analyses is done in measure phase. The process capability is calculated using the formula CP = USL-LSL/6 * Standard Deviation where CP = process capability index, USL = Upper Specification Limit and LSL = Lower Specification Limit. The Process capability measures indicates the following Process is fully capable Process could fail at any time Process is not capable. When the process is spread well within the customer specification the process is considered to be fully capable that means the CP is more than 2.In this case, the process standard deviation is so small that 6 times of the standard deviation with reference to the means is within the customer specification. Example: The Specified limits for the diameter of car tires are 15.6 for the upper limit and 15 for the lower limit with a process mean of 15.3 and a standard deviation of 0.09.Find Cp and Cr what can we say about Process Capabilities ? Cp= USL-LSL/ 6 * Standard deviation = 15.6 – 15 / 6 * 0.09 = 0.6/0.54 = 1.111 Cp= 1.111 Cr = 1/ 1.111 = 0.9 Since Cp is greater than 1 and therefore Cr is less than 1; we can conclude that the process is potentially capable. Analyze Phase: In this Phase we analyze all the data collected in the measure phase and find the cause of variation. Analyze phase use various tests like parametric tests where the mean and standard deviation of the sample is known and Nonparametric Tests where the data is categorical for example as Excellent, Good, bad etc. Parametric Hypothesis Test – A hypothesis is a value judgment made about a circumstance, a statement made about a population .Based on experience an engineer can for instance assume that the amount of carbon monoxide emitted by a certain engine is twice the maximum allowed legally. However his assertions can only be ascertained by conducting a test to compare the carbon monoxide generated by the engine with the legal requirements. If the data used to make the comparison are parametric data that is data that can be used to derive the mean and the standard deviation, the population from which the data are taken are normally distributed they have equal variances. A standard error based hypothesis testing using the t-test can be used to test the validity of the hypothesis made about the population. There are at least 3 steps to follow when conducting hypothesis. Null Hypothesis: The first step consists of stating the null hypothesis which is the hypothesis being tested. In the case of the engineer making a statement about the level of carbon monoxide generated by the engine , the null hypothesis is H0: the level of carbon monoxide generated by the engine is twice as great as the legally required amount. The Null hypothesis is denoted by H0 Alternate hypothesis: the alternate (or alternative) hypothesis is the opposite of null hypothesis. It is assumed valid when the null hypothesis is rejected after testing. In the case of the engineer testing the carbon monoxide the alternative hypothesis would be H1: The level of carbon monoxide generated by the engine is not twice as great as the legally required amount. Testing the hypothesis: the objective of the test is to generate a sample test statistic that can be used to reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis .The test statistic is derived from Z formula if the samples are greater than 30. Z = Xbar-µ/σ/ √n If the samples are less than 30, then the t-test is used T= X bar -µ/ s/√n where X bar and µ is the mean and s is the standard deviation. 1-Sample t Test such as an ideal off center (Mean v/s Target) this test is used to compare the mean of a process with a target value goal to determine whether they differ it is often used to determine whether a process is 1 Sample Standard Deviation This test is used to compare the standard deviation of the process with a target value such as a benchmark whether they differ often used to evaluate how consistent a process is 2 Sample T (Comparing 2 Means) Two sets of different items are measured each under a different condition there the measurements of one sample are independent of the measurements of other sample. Paired T The same set of items is measured under 2 different conditions therefore the 2 measurements of the same item are dependent or related to each other. 2-Sample Standard This test is used when comparing 2 standard deviations Standard Deviation test This Test is used when comparing more than 2 standard deviations Non Parametric hypothesis Tests are conducted when data is categorical that is when the mean and standard deviation are not known examples are Chi-Square tests, Mann-Whitney U Test, Kruskal Wallis tests & Moods Median Tests. Anova If for instance 3 sample means A, B, C are being compared using the t-test is cumbersome for this we can use analysis of variance ANOVA can be used instead of multiple t-tests. ANOVA is a Hypothesis test used when more than 2 means are being compared. If K Samples are being tested the null hypothesis will be in the form given below H0: µ1 = µ2 = ….µk And the alternate hypothesis will be H1: At least one sample mean is different from the others If the data you are analyzing is not normal you have to make it normal using box cox transformation to remove any outliers (data not in sequence with the collected data).Box Cox Transformation can be done using the statistical software Minitab. Improve Phase: In the Improve phase we focus on the optimization of the process after the causes are found in the analyze phase we use Design of experiments to remove the junk factors which don’t contribute to smooth working of the process that is in the equation Y = f(X) we select only the X’s which contribute to the optimal working of the process. Let us consider the example of an experimenter who is trying to optimize the production of organic foods. After screening to determine the factors that are significant for his experiment he narrows the main factors that affect the production of fruits to “light” and “water”. He wants to optimize the time that it takes to produce the fruits. He defines optimum as the minimum time necessary to yield comestible fruits. To conduct his experiment he runs several tests combining the two factors (water and light) at different levels. To minimize the cost of experiments he decides to use only 2 levels of the factors: high and low. In this case we will have two factors and two levels therefore the number of runs will be 2^2=4. After conducting observations he obtains the results tabulated in the table below. Factors Response     Water –High Light High 10 days     Water high – Light low 20 days     Water low – Light high 15 days     Water low – Light low 25 days     Control Phase: In the Control phase we document all the activities done in all the previous phases and using control charts we monitor and control the phase just to check that our process doesn’t go out of control. Control Charts are tools used in Minitab Software to keep a check on the variation. All the documentation are kept and archived in a safe place for future reference. Conclusion: From the paper we come to understand that selection of a Six Sigma Project is Critical because we have to know the long term gains in executing these projects and the activities done in each phase the basic building block is the define phase where the problem statement is captured and then in measure phase data is collected systematically against this problem statement which is further analyzed in Analyze phase by performing various hypothesis tests and process optimization in Improve phase by removing the junk factors that is in the equation y = f(x1, x2,x3…….) we remove the causes x1, x2 etc. by the method of Design of Experiments and factorial methods. Finally we can sustain and maintain our process to the optimum by using control charts in Control Phase.
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Six Sigma Methods and Formulas For Successful Qual...

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Six Sigma Green Belts vs. Black Belts : What's the Difference?

Successful firms lay great emphasis on quality and strive to achieve the highest standards in their products and services. The Six Sigma methodology has helped to give many companies the leading edge against their competitors, by implementing process improvements across the enterprise that help them realise their maximum potential. Those who are not familiar with the Six Sigma jargon may have heard of Green Belts and Black Belts, but may not know what the key differences are between the two. Both Six Sigma Green Belts and Black Belts are trained professionals who are responsible for streamlining process quality and improving the key metrics of a business. Green Belts generally carry out process improvement or project management tasks in addition to other work responsibilities- that is to say; quality improvement is not their entire or sole responsibility. Green Belts are considered as the future leaders of the company. As they work with stakeholders at all levels of the organisation, they are considered as valuable assets. Green Belts work under the supervision and mentorship of Black Belts. Green Belts who find they want to lead quality change initiatives on a larger scale across the organisation can take the next step and undertake the Black Belt Certification. Black Belts are leaders and change agents, who assume the entire responsibility of turning around quality standards and process improvements in the organisation. Their specialised training and experience enables them to work on cross functional projects across the enterprise, not just projects within one business unit or department. Black Belt training goes beyond that of the Green Belt level to include highly advanced statistical analysis tools and techniques. Their proven managerial acumen and abilities to withstand pressure and deliver projects on time without compromising on quality standards will stand the organisation in good stead. Skilled Black Belts who have significant experience and a positive never-say-die attitude can go very far in their career and assume top leadership positions within the organisation.
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Six Sigma Green Belts vs. Black Belts : What's the...

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