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Why MEAN Stack for Developing Apps?

The MEAN Stack opportunity By training in MEAN Stack development, you learn all the concepts of MEAN Stack and explore what makes it so unique and reliable. Of late, more and more companies have started relying on MEAN Stack for developing apps, and there are ample reasons that justify why that is happening.  Be it a beginner just starting out in web development or someone senior with decades of coding experience, everyone seems to be taking MEAN Stack development courses. It is an in-demand technology skill of the future and MEAN Stack developers are paid well, whether in startups or larger global organizations. Once you’ve learned all the concepts of MEAN and know how to use them efficiently, you will be very valuable to organizations of any size with tech products in the pipeline. Here are some reasons why the business world and the IT sector have developed an affinity for MEAN stack:1. One common JavaScript language all over With JavaScript, the most popular language in the tech world since a long time, most developers are habituated with its working, and MEAN Stack is highly supportive of it. With the use of a common language on both client as well as server-side, the process of web development becomes clean and easy.  This support really turns out to be beneficial for both developers and users. NodeJS bringing the implementation of this language to the server-side, has also been very helpful. MEAN stack is thus a common language for both server and client-side. For those with the knowledge of JavaScript, learning MEAN stack would make web development much more interesting process, creating great results with high performing apps and an efficient working system on the developer’s part.  2. Cloud compatibility makes it worth it MEAN Stack uses libraries and public repositories for the development process, which makes it efficient for programmers to use. It is also compatible highly compatible with Cloud, a necessity in today’s world.  Apps created using MEAN Stack can be tested and run on a cloud platform easily. This gives an edge to MEAN Stack apps as compared to apps developed by other technologies.     3. Open-standard JSONWith JSON, the acronym for JavaScript Object notation, the use of libraries during the client and server interaction gets reduced. JSON is basically the format in which data is interchanged between different layers in an application. It distributes the data in layers between MongoDB and AngularJS.  So, if the developers of a small scale startup or IT-based multinational firm are trained in MEAN stack, it becomes much easier and more convenient for the company to scale up their product pipelines using MEAN Stack. MEAN stack supports external APIs, making the web development project easier to use, allowing easier reformatting while also saving time.  4. Front-end AngularJSMEAN Stack development apps help you in creating single page applications. It is a JavaScript framework with an open-source client-end. To empower the project’s front-end, AngularJS or Angular is used in MEAN Stack by app developers.  Since the server-side solution is provided through NodeJS in MEAN Stack, application programming becomes super-efficient as well as effective. Applications that require maintenance, reusability, and regular testing can be developed using MEAN Stack as it uses AngularJS, which helps resolve many issues that may arise during app development. You can also add a bunch of interesting and interactive features in your app using AngularJS.   5. Reduces cost and increases revenue MEAN Stack requires in-depth knowledge regarding one programming language: JavaScript. This means that an organization does not have to hire multiple programmers to develop web apps. Companies have started cutting down heavily on their development costs due to a convenient option like MEAN Stack. Not only is it easy to use, but it also offers smooth implementation. Most features of MEAN Stack are readily and freely available as it is open source.  Get ahead with MEAN stack Companies prefer to hire professionals with MEAN Stack expertise and this is where training courses come into the picture. In today’s world, it is more important to incorporate a smarter and more efficient way than solely relying on traditional methods which require more effort, time, and money. MEAN stack provides you with a cost-effective solution for developing interactive apps, keeping costs to a minimum.With a comprehensive curriculum that matches industry expectation, a training programme will ensure that you are ready to take on industry challenges head on.
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Why MEAN Stack for Developing Apps?

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Why MEAN Stack for Developing Apps?

The MEAN Stack opportunity 

By training in MEAN Stack development, you learn all the concepts of MEAN Stack and explore what makes it so unique and reliable. Of late, more and more companies have started relying on MEAN Stack for developing apps, and there are ample reasons that justify why that is happening.  

Be it a beginner just starting out in web development or someone senior with decades of coding experience, everyone seems to be taking MEAN Stack development courses. It is an in-demand technology skill of the future and MEAN Stack developers are paid well, whether in startups or larger global organizations. Once you’ve learned all the concepts of MEAN and know how to use them efficiently, you will be very valuable to organizations of any size with tech products in the pipeline. 

Here are some reasons why the business world and the IT sector have developed an affinity for MEAN stack:

1. One common JavaScript language all over 

With JavaScript, the most popular language in the tech world since a long time, most developers are habituated with its working, and MEAN Stack is highly supportive of it. With the use of a common language on both client as well as server-side, the process of web development becomes clean and easy.  

This support really turns out to be beneficial for both developers and users. NodeJS bringing the implementation of this language to the server-side, has also been very helpful. MEAN stack is thus a common language for both server and client-side. For those with the knowledge of JavaScript, learning MEAN stack would make web development much more interesting process, creating great results with high performing apps and an efficient working system on the developer’s part. 

 2. Cloud compatibility makes it worth it 

MEAN Stack uses libraries and public repositories for the development process, which makes it efficient for programmers to use. It is also compatible highly compatible with Cloud, a necessity in today’s world.  

Apps created using MEAN Stack can be tested and run on a cloud platform easily. This gives an edge to MEAN Stack apps as compared to apps developed by other technologies.    

 3. Open-standard JSON

With JSON, the acronym for JavaScript Object notation, the use of libraries during the client and server interaction gets reduced. JSON is basically the format in which data is interchanged between different layers in an application. It distributes the data in layers between MongoDB and AngularJS.  

So, if the developers of a small scale startup or IT-based multinational firm are trained in MEAN stack, it becomes much easier and more convenient for the company to scale up their product pipelines using MEAN Stack. MEAN stack supports external APIs, making the web development project easier to use, allowing easier reformatting while also saving time. 

 4. Front-end AngularJS

MEAN Stack development apps help you in creating single page applications. It is a JavaScript framework with an open-source client-end. To empower the project’s front-end, AngularJS or Angular is used in MEAN Stack by app developers.  

Since the server-side solution is provided through NodeJS in MEAN Stack, application programming becomes super-efficient as well as effective. Applications that require maintenance, reusability, and regular testing can be developed using MEAN Stack as it uses AngularJS, which helps resolve many issues that may arise during app development. You can also add a bunch of interesting and interactive features in your app using AngularJS.  

 5. Reduces cost and increases revenue 

MEAN Stack requires in-depth knowledge regarding one programming language: JavaScript. This means that an organization does not have to hire multiple programmers to develop web apps. Companies have started cutting down heavily on their development costs due to a convenient option like MEAN Stack. Not only is it easy to use, but it also offers smooth implementation. Most features of MEAN Stack are readily and freely available as it is open source.  

Get ahead with MEAN stack 

Companies prefer to hire professionals with MEAN Stack expertise and this is where training courses come into the picture. In today’s world, it is more important to incorporate a smarter and more efficient way than solely relying on traditional methods which require more effort, time, and money. MEAN stack provides you with a cost-effective solution for developing interactive apps, keeping costs to a minimum.

With a comprehensive curriculum that matches industry expectation, a training programme will ensure that you are ready to take on industry challenges head on.

KnowledgeHut

KnowledgeHut

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KnowledgeHut is an outcome-focused global ed-tech company. We help organizations and professionals unlock excellence through skills development. We offer training solutions under the people and process, data science, full-stack development, cybersecurity, future technologies and digital transformation verticals.
Website : https://www.knowledgehut.com

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Why ReactJS is taking over Frontend Development

History of JavaScript Today,we see JavaScript used pretty much everywhere. For the seventh year in a row, we see it ranking as the most popular and widely used programming language, a good 67.8% of developers having used it in 2019.  JavaScript is used to build 95.2% (1.52 billion) websites today, including Facebook and YouTube and some of the most popular and useful apps such as Google Maps and eBay. Let’s take a closer look at what JavaScript is, how and why it was created, and how it seems to be taking over front-end development. It all began in the late 90s when Netscape Navigator, a popular browser was launched by Netscape Communication. In the initial days of Netscape, it was just a software which was able to render static HTMLs, but people wanted it to do more. Netscape envisioned that web pages should be more dynamic in nature. Users should able to engage with HTMLs otherwise browser will end up being a boring piece of software. That’s when Brendan Eich came into the picture. He was contracted in 1995 by Netscape Communications to develop a language which must have low learning curve, and anyone should able to write functionalities with it. He developed the language in just 10 days and named it Mocha. A working prototype of Mocha was integrated in Netscape Browser in May 1995 and the language is renamed to LiveScript and later in December 1995, it was again renamed to JavaScript. It was called JavaScript because at that time Java was extremely popular so marketing team in Netscape came up with this name. With the popularity of Netscape Navigator, Microsoft also entered to capture the browser market and developed Internet Explorer with scripting language named JScript. For a long time, there was no common standard formed for JavaScript which results in huge cross browser compatibility issue. So finally, in 1997, Netscape invited ECMA (European Computer Manufacturing Association) to take the responsibility of forming specification for JavaScript. Since then ECMA released updated specifications for JavaScript regularly and browsers try to follow these specifications in their implementation of JavaScript engine. Fact Check: Today, Brendan Eich is the CEO of Brave Software which builds a privacy oriented, chromium-based browser named Brave Fact Check: Netscape Navigator later became the foundation stone for Mozilla Firefox. They still kept the same name for their JavaScript engine "Spider Monkey" which was part of the Netscape navigator. Need of Framework With the ECMAScript specifications in place, People have started making HTML page more dynamic using JavaScript. Nevertheless, there are still a few people who prefer to write big client-side functionality with JavaScript. One of the reasons behind this trend was because of low performance of browser and JavaScript engines. Or we can say that industry was more focusing on server-side performance in that Era. But as computers became more powerful, browsers became better and JavaScript engines evolved, people started moving client-side logic to browser using JavaScript. Once people started writing more and more JavaScript, community felt the need to write logics in more structured and scalable manner so that logics will be more understandable, readable, manageable and less error prone. It started the beginning of developing frameworks in JavaScript. Many frameworks like Dojo, Backbone, Ember, AngularJS emerged in community which tried to solve problems in their own way and collectively it helped the whole JS community to move forward towards a more scalable and maintainable web applications. ReactJS In 2011, Codebase for Facebook Ads was getting bigger. Developers started facing maintenance issues with it. it was getting harder to add new features in an efficient way. So Facebook engineer Jordan Walke built a prototype to make application UI in an efficient way. It was the birth of ReactJS. initially it was called FaxJS. Later When Instagram joined Facebook, they wanted to adopt this framework in Instagram. At that moment Pete hunt and Jordan Walke improved, decoupled the library and made it open source as ReactJS in 2013. Since then ReactJS went through many changes and currently latest version of ReactJS is 16.13 in 2020. ReactJS follows component-based architecture and encourages developers to think in terms of small, composable components. This methodology is very much aligned with an efficient approach for solving any problem in life. First step to solve a big problem is to break it down into multiple smaller sub problems. Once you have solution for each sub problem then add it up to get the overall solution. This is applicable on any type of big or small problems. ReactJS asks developer to move in that direction to build any UI. ReactJS also doesn't try to solve each and every problem of building web application. It has limited its scope to solve the core problem of web development around efficiently updating the UI/Views. When ReactJS was open sourced in JSConf 2013, lots of people didn't like the ideas/changes ReactJS was proposing. Like two-way binding was very popular but ReactJS went ahead with one way data flow, Writing HTML inside JS was considered as bad practise but ReactJS wanted to use JSX. All these ideas attracted lots of criticism from web developer community but slowly, people started using it and found it easy to build components efficiently. ReactJS solves only the problem around updating views but we have multiple problems to solve in web development. So, an ecosystem has emerged to solve other problems along with ReactJS. Redux, React-Router and many other libraries came to life, which makes ReactJS a complete web framework. It also means more dependency on multiple libraries. However, the ease of using ReactJS trumps all the negative points of the framework and continue to make it very popular library in web development.  In 2020, ReactJS has 50K plus stars on Github and is downloaded 6 million times/week. The ecosystem continues to grow steadily; React Native recently bought ReactJS to build cross mobile platform apps. Libraries like Gatsby andNextJSencourage developers to use ReactJS on server and provide benefits of server-side rendering without much hassle. ReactJS has also stood out in multiple developer surveys such as the State of JavaScript. Main design concepts in ReactJS Main design concepts in ReactJS Declarative, composable, reusable components ReactJS motivates developer to write small components and reuse the same component at multiple places. Reusability of component speeds up the overall development and results in less amount of code. Less code is always better because it is less prone to errors. ReactJS encourage developers to write composable components which can be wrapped around any other React component to provide special functionality. That’s how we can avoid writing components doing too many things. It always encourages developers to break their problem in to smaller problems, solve it and combine it to present overall solution. Less functionality in one component leads to less error prone component. ReactJS encourage developers to write a clean, readable, and maintainable code. That is why it emphasizes writing declarative components. Declarative component makes a codebase easier to read and understandable by fellow developers. Declarative, composable components very much looks like HTML in JS. instead of standard HTML tags, we will be having React components as tags. it makes ReactJS somewhat familiar to web developer and similar to standard web semantics. Reactive Updates Writing static HTML is no fun that is why JavaScript was born to bring interactivity to web pages. ReactJS helps developer to add functionalities in component with which user can interact and see the result. ReactJS allows developers to attach a state to component and whenever the state of components changes, component efficiently re-render itself to produce updated view. Now, the state of component can by changed by clicking on button, entering some text in input box or any other part component triggering any event. React component listens to these events and acts accordingly. Updating whole component UI seems like a terrible idea but ReactJS has implemented this terrible idea wonderful by doing it efficiently. In-memory DOM representation ReactJS achieves updating views efficiently by keeping a DOM representation in memory known as virtual DOM. Upcoming updates always compares the new DOM with older copy of DOM and based on the difference, it figures out the actual DOM elements which need to be updated on UI. That is what makes ReactJS faster by reducing number of DOM manipulations. What this means is that writing smaller React component will take up less memory to store the DOM representation (Virtual DOM) and ultimately results in better performance. Features of ReactJS Main features of ReactJS JSX and Why is it needed When ReactJS was released, it was mentioned in documentation that it is recommended to use JSX along with ReactJS. Now, what is JSX? and do i really need another library to use ReactJS library? So let's see how a simple ReactJS component looks like without JSX: import React from "react";  function Greeting({ name }) {    return React.createElement("h1", null, `Hello ${name}`);  }  ReactDOM.render(  React.createElement("Greeting", { name: "Gully Boy" }, null),  document.getElementById("root")  ); There is no way above code looks like a declarative component. The truth is JavaScriptdoesn't understand HTML or XML like tags. That is why we need some one to do that conversion for us. Here enters JSX which is also known as syntax extension for JavaScript. With JSX, above Greeting React component will look something like this: import React from "react";  function Greeting({ name }) {    return {`Hello ${name}`};  }  ReactDOM.render(, document.getElementById("root")); JSX actually make ReactJS code more readable and understandable. 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Why ReactJS is taking over Frontend Development

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10 Essential JavaScript features you should learn

JavaScript was developed by the erstwhile Netscape Communications Corporation, which developed the Netscape browser, one of the first browsers built to navigate the World Wide Web in the mid-1990s. In the late 1990s, however, the Web was just beginning to get popular, and Netscape gradually captured 90% of the market before eventually losing out to Microsoft’s Internet Explorer at the turn of the century. As JavaScript was the de facto language used by Netscape for client-side scripting, it became, and continues to be, the gold standard for Web application development. Today, you will find tons of literature and numerous programs if you wish to learn about the language. JavaScript (often referred to as simply JS) is a multi-paradigm language supporting event-driven, functional, and object-oriented styles. By itself, it does not include any I/O, storage, or networking, but instead borrows it from the host environment. It uses APIs for text, arrays, dates, regex, and the DOM. Although it initially started off as an embedded engine in web browsers on the client-side, it is now also found on the server-side. Every major web browser has an in-built JavaScript engine for executing JS code. In this article, we will tell you some basic features of the language. For a more detailed explanation, we strongly suggest a JavaScript course. Language Features Basic features of JavaScript  Dynamic typing Similar to other scripting languages, types can be dynamically changed in JS. The type is associated with a value rather than an expression - a variable that is assigned to a Number might be reassigned to a String. Form checks and calculations JS is very good with form validation. As a client-side scripting tool, JS checks if the user has left a form field blank, or has entered an incorrect value, before sending the page to the server. It can also perform basic calculations on the client-side browser, rather than having the server allocate time for these simple calculations.  Thin or thick client In the client-server architecture, a thin client is functionally light on processes. This means that a lot of the processing is done on the server. JS provides a lot of control to the browser (clients) rather than being completely dependent on the web-server. It can even provide additional functionalities to browsers to navigate network traffic via load balancing. Platform independence JS is an interpreted language, and so it does not need a compiler to compile it into machine code. It is readily interpreted by browsers and can run on any platform like Windows, Mac, Linux, etc. Date and time handling JS has built-in functions to get Date and Time values, unlike other programming languages. Methods like getHours(), getMinutes(), getDate() and many others are readily available in the library. Dynamic code generation HTML can be dynamically generated using JS on certain system events. For example, JS supports a whole lot of events for handling the Mouse – onClick, onMouseMove, onMouseover are some of the many examples. When the event takes place, JS could execute code to add text, links or images. Browser and OS Detection As JS is nearly universally installed on different platforms, it becomes necessary at times to get the Browser Type and the OS Type information about the machine that is making a web request. JS is capable of getting these values, so a programmer can write different code to run on different browsers and OSs if need be. Replacement for Var The var keyword (for variable) is not really a needed keyword in JS. But the variable that is being declared, without a var, is available in the global scope. That means it can be accessed anywhere in the program. To restrict this, JS has let and const as replacements, which are accessible only in blocked scope, not in the global scope. So if a variable is declared inside a function, its scope remains within that function using let and const. Arrows Arrow functions are used to reduce lines of code. Their syntax is () =>, where the keyword function is omitted. The parentheses are used to pass arguments to the function if there are any. It is important in general to reduce the lines of code in web programming since JS requests must make their way to a remote web server. Function default parameters If a function requires parameters to be passed to it, and you call that function without a parameter in your code, then the default value of that parameter is set to undefined. With default parameters, you can set the value of the parameter while defining the function itself. Conclusion The features of JavaScript outlined in this article are just of a few of the many features available and are meant to help initiate you to the language. JS is not very complicated to learn and is very popular for web scripting. Get started with client-side programming, before jumping into the server-side.The extensive documentation and support online will also make your life easier. 
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Essential Angular 9 Development Cheat Sheet

Introduction to Angular Angular is a front-end web-development framework and platform that is used to build Single-page web Applications (or SPAs) using TypeScript as the primary programming language. Angular is itself written in TypeScript. Angular is an opinionated framework which means that it specifies a certain style and establishes certain rules that developers need to , learn, follow and adhere to while developing apps with Angular, therefore you need to learn Angular and the various modules, components, tools that are used and that make up an Angular app. There are way too many versions of Angular that you hear about and as a beginner, it is likely that may get confused with so many different versions out there for the same framework. There are versions like AngularJS, Angular 2, Angular 4, Angular 5, Angular 6, Angular 7, Angular 8 and now Angular 9 that you may have heard of. Too many versions, right? Well, in reality, there are just two different frameworks - AngularJS and Angular. AngularJS was the initial release and was called as AngularJS. It was the JavaScript-based web development framework which was first released in 2010 and is maintained by Google. Later, in September 2016, Angular 2 was announced which was a complete rewrite of the whole framework using TypeScript which is a super-set language of JavaScript. Since modern browsersdo not understand TypeScript, a TypeScript compiler or transpiler is required to convert the TypeScript code to regular JavaScript code. In this article, we will talk about everything about Angular that you can use as a quick reference guide. We will go through the core concepts, commands, utilities, etc. The Angular CLI Angular CLI or the command-line interface is a very powerful and sophisticated tool that allows you to perform a lot of actions in an Angular project by using simple commands. From scaffolding a brand-new Angular project to building the project for production, the CLI takes care of everything.  CLI also allows you to debug the application during development locally using a development server that monitors the source files for changes and when you change any of the files, it automatically recompiles the source code files and refreshes the app in the browser. Pretty neat! You can use the CLI tool directly in a command shell, or indirectly through an interactive UI such as Angular Console. Let’s have a look at some of the most common ways we use the Angular CLI. ng helpGives you options to get help about any command ot utility.ng versionPrints the version info of the currently installed CLI.ng new   Generates a new Angular project with the provided name.ng serveSpins up the local development server and launches the web app locally in the browser. The command takes more parameters like port and open. The server automatically rebuilds the app and reloads the page when you change any of the source files.ng buildComplies and builds the Angular app into a directory that can be deployed on the web server.ng generateUsed to generate modules, services, components, classes, providers, pipes, etc.Angular Component Lifecycle An Angular app is composed of components. Each component can contain more components which essentially makes an Angular app a tree of components. A component is made up of an HTML template, a typescript class and a stylesheet file. These three pieces together form an Angular component. Each component in Angular has a lifecycle which is managed by Angular itself.  Angular creates it, renders it, creates and renders it’s children, checks it when it’s data-bound properties change, and destroys it before removing it from the DOM. Angular allows you to hook into significant lifecycle events using hooks. Here are these hooks and their brief significancengOnChangesThis hook is executed before the content is processed or child views are loaded. It is also executed when the input properties of the component change.ngOnInitThis hook is used to initialize data in a component. It is called after input values are set and the component is initialized and it is executed only once.ngDoCheckThis hook is called when any change detection runs are made.ngAfterContentInitThis hook is called after ngOnInit when the component's or directive's content has been initialized.ngAfterContentCheckedThis hook is called every time the ngDoCheck is called.ngAfterViewInitThis hook is called after Angular initializes component’s and child components’ content.ngAfterViewCheckedThis hook is after every check of the component's views and child views.ngOnDestroyThis hook is called once right before the component is destroyed. This can be used to clean up memory and release allotted resources and subscriptions.Interpolation Interpolation is a way to use the properties in the component’s TypeScript class within the HTML template. Interpolation has a very simple syntax. Here is an example. Consider the following property of string type in the component’s TS class. company_name: string = "KnowledgeHut" The same value can be used in the HTML template using the following interpolation syntax. {{ company_name }} The text between the braces is often the name of a component property. Angular replaces that name with the string value of the corresponding component property. Interpolation can also be used to concatenate strings, or perform simple mathematical operations right within the template. The evaluated result is rendered on the page. An example - name: string = "KnowledgeHut";  age: number = 25; {{ name + " is " + age + " years old today!" }} Another example -  number1: number = 22;  number2: number = 23;  {{ "Sum of "  + number1 + " and " + number2 + " is " + (number1 + number2) }} The same technique can also be used while specifying the values of properties. Here is an example.  Clearly, using property binding is much readable and recommended syntax if you intend to use the values of component properties in the template. Bindings in Angular Binding in Angular is used to define values of HTML properties and events using class members.  Here are a few examples of property binding in Angular.  In the above snippet, the title property is bound to a variable called company_name in the template. The same property needs to exist in the component’s typescript class, otherwise you will get an error. Similarly, you can bind to any properties exposed by HTML. Here is another example.  The placeholder_text property needs to exist in the component’s class. You can also bind events to methods in Angular. Most HTML elements have events that they emit when certain conditions are met. Binding methods to these events allow you to perform an action in your code. For example, executing a method on the click of a button is the most common use-case of event binding. Here is a code snippet for the same.  In the above code snippet, you can see that the click event is bound to a method called sendFOrmData(). Whenever the user clicks on the button, the function will be executed. Keep in mind that the sendFormData() method needs to be a member function inside the TypeScript class of the component otherwise you will run into errors. The most popular and powerful feature of Angular is two-way binding. With the help of two-way binding, when data changes in the component, it’s immediately reflected in the template. You need to use the ngModel directive with the special binding syntax to use two-way binding. Here is an example.   The name you entered is {{ username }}! Using the above code snippet, if you type in some text in the input field, the value of the username property will change as you type which in turn will update the value in the HTML template as well. All of this happens in real-time. Structural Directives There are two structural directives in Angular - NgFor and NgIf. The ngIf directive is used to add or remove an HTML element from the DOM completely based on a certain condition. The value passed to ngIf should either be a boolean value or should be an expression that evaluates to a boolean value. Here is an example.  In the above snippet, the showButton property is used to decide if the button will be displayed on the page or not. Do not confuse ngIf with the hidden HTML property. The hidden property only hides the HTML element, which ngIf completely removed it from the DOM. Another structural directive is used to render HTML elements on the page based on an array or iterable. Here is an example. users: any[] = [{  "name": "Bob"  }, {  "name": "Alice"  }, {  "name": "Tabor"  }, {  "name": "Mock"  }];     {{ user.name }}  If you execute the above code snippet, you will see a list rendered out on the page with the data based on the array. If you make changes to the array, the list will be updated automatically. Pipes and Services Pipes and services are also TypeScript classes just like the component classes. The only difference is the functionality that they offer. They are marked differently by using the decorators. @Component({...})  class AppComponent() { } This declares that the class is a component and also provides metadata about the component. @Pipe({...})  class MyPipe() { } This declares that the class is a pipe and provides metadata about the pipe. Angular comes with a stock of pipes such as DatePipe, UpperCasePipe, LowerCasePipe, CurrencyPipe, and PercentPipe. They are all available for use in any template. Here is how you would use a pipe in Angular number1: number = 12.927;  {{ number1 | number:"1.2-2"}} // prints 12.93  @Injectable()  class MyService() { } This declares that the class contains dependency injectors, this means the data provided by the injector should be injected into the constructor when creating an instance of this class. Basically, this marks the class as a service to be used by other classes. To create a pipe, you need to use the following CLI command. ng generate pipe  Similarly, to create a service, you need to execute the following CLI command. ng generate service  Component Inputs and Output Angular is all about components that have to interact with one another. Inputs and Outputs are used to allow interaction between two components. Inputs allow a component to receive some data from the parent component and outputs allows the component to send some data outside the component back to the parent component. So inputs and outputs are used to implement parent-child interaction within components.  Let’s have a look at how we can allow a component to receive an input. The key here is using the @Input decorator. @Input() username: string; The above code snippet is added to the component’s TypeScript class. Now, the component can accept an input called “username” as shown below.  The value “KnowledgeHut” can now be accessed within the component using the username property. The other direction of communication is from child to parent. In this case, the child emits some data using an event. The parent subscribes to this event using event binding and receives the data. Here is an example. Inside the child component - @Output() onUsernameChange = new EventEmitter(); To emit the event, this.onUsernameChange.emit("KnowledgeHut"); That’s all in the child component. Here is how the parent used the child component with outputs.  Reactive Forms in Angular The Reactive approach of form building uses the classes like FormBuilder, FormGroup, FormControl, Validators, etc. We define the structure of the form using a form builder and then bind each form element to a form control. This approach is different from template-driven forms where we use ngModel directive to bind input fields to corresponding model properties. Here is how you would define a simple form with two input fields, one for the email and another one for the password. this.myGroup = new FormGroup({  email: new FormControl('john@doe.com'),  password: new FormControl('')  }); Next, we need to bind the form and the input fields as shown below.     Email:     Password:   This approach allows you to define Validators on individual form controls and on the form as well. The Angular Router Angular router is one of the most powerful modules in Angular which allows navigation within an Angular application. It takes care of lazy-loading components as and when required.  Here is an example of how you would define routes for an Angular app using the RouterModule. const routes: Routes = [{  path: '', redirectTo: 'home', pathMatch: 'full'  }, {  path: 'home',  component: HomeComponent  }, {  path: 'login', component: LoginComponent  }, {  path: 'myblogs', component: MyblogsComponent  }, {  path: 'profile/:id', component: ProfileComponent  }, {  path: '**', redirectTo: 'home'  }];  const routing = RouterModule.forRoot(routes); In the template, you need to use the RouterOutlet directive to load the component in a placeholder based on the URL. The Angular Router takes care of loading and unloading components in the placeholder RouterOutlet.   The routerLink directive can be used to navigate to a desired router. It creates a link to a different view based on a route instruction consisting of a route path, required and optional parameters, query parameters, and a fragment.    To navigate to a root route, use the / prefix; for a child route, use the ./prefix; for a sibling or parent, use the ../ prefix. Auth Guards Auth Guards in Angular are the way to prevent unauthorized access to your routes. They work very well in combination with the Angular Router. It secures your routes. Let’s have a look at an example. Consider the following route definition. const routes: Routes = [{  path: '', redirectTo: 'home', pathMatch: 'full'  }, {  path: 'home',  component: HomeComponent  }, {  path: 'login', component: LoginComponent  }, {  path: 'myblogs', component: MyblogsComponent, canActivate: [AuthGuard]  }, {  path: 'profile/:id', component: ProfileComponent  }, {  path: '**', redirectTo: 'home'  }]; As you can see, we have defined a canActivate property on a route and set its values as an array with the AuthGuard as the only element. Basically, you can have multiple auth guards for your routes but for now, we only have one. Here is how you can create the guard. ng generate guard AuthGurard This generates a new guard typescript file and it has a function defined inside of it. All you need to do is implement the function and return true or false based on the user’s state. If the guard returns true for the user, the route access if grant, else not. Here is an example implementation of the function, canActivate. canActivate(next: ActivatedRouteSnapshot, state: RouterStateSnapshot): Observable | Promise | boolean {        return new Promise((resolve, reject) => {  // return or resolve with true or false        }  } Build the App The Angular CLI allows you to build the app.  ng build The above command compiles the project and generates the final build inside the dist folder. You can however customize the build environment using the --prod flag. You can also change the build destination folder using the --outputPath flag. The following command is another simple example. ng build --prod --outputPath=myBuildFolder There are a few more flags available. prod outputPath localize aot baseHref buildOptimizer index verbose optimization Conclusion Angular may seem daunting at first but with steady learning and practicing, it becomes easy to understand and implementation of complex concepts seems simple. It offers a lot of tools, utilities and external packages to build amazing applications. Some of the most common external packages for Angular are -  NgxBootstrap Angular Material Ng2-Charts Ngx-Text-Editor NgxDataTable Use this cheat sheet to quickly look for help or use it as a reference. Check Angular docs for more info: https://angular.io/docs 
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Essential Angular 9 Development Cheat Sheet

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