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Top Real World Use Cases and Applications of MongoDB

With the rapid evolution of databases, choosing the right database has become an important aspect of application design. Although RDBMS databases like Oracle, SQL Server, Postgres and DB2 have been around, NoSQL databases like MongoDB, Cassandra and HBase have grown more prominent. With cut-throat competition in today's market, choosing the right database based on the application use case can translate into an advantage over the competition.MongoDB’s focus is not only on the database but on overall data. Services like MongoDB Atlas, a database-as-a-service on multi-cloud and MongoDB stitch, are used to build faster and better applications on serverless environments.MongoDB is the preferred database of leading enterprises and powers up products and solutions at various establishments including AstraZeneca, Adobe, ebay, Electronic Arts, SAP, CISCO, Google, Verizon and the Royal Bank of Scotland.In this blog, we take you through some of the top real-world use cases of MongoDB ranging across mobile, internet of things, content management, real time analytics and mainframe offloading.MobileCustomers these days want to have their business on the smartphone. Millions of users use their applications constantly. RDBMS cannot handle such large simultaneous transactions, and MongoDB provides a cost-effective way to scale the users and mobile app development. MongoDB Mobile applications have been used by several financial bodies, healthcare providers, and retail giants. MongoDB’s flexible data model and rich query functionality enable teams to build killer mobile apps and help customers to grow their business.Enterprises like Automatic Data Processing, Inc. (ADP) and The Weather Channel have been very vocal about their awesome experience of using MongoDB for their mobile apps to grow their business.Automatic Data Processing, Inc. (ADP)ADP has satisfied more than 41000 of its clients managing their employee’s finances, health, and working lives.Employees can see information of their health, paychecks, insurance, and other benefits on the mobile app. Currently, the ADP mobile app is used in 17 countries and 23 languages serving more than one million users. Low cost and minimal downtime were needs for a mobile app that MongoDB was able to deliver.The Weather ChannelThe Weather Channel was running their website, weather.com, and facing issues serving a large number of clients due to the use of the traditional RDBMS database. MongoDB helped them build their Mobile app serving more than 40 million users and providing real-time weather data to their customers.The Weather Channel also used the MongoDB flexible schema and MapReduce features to do live analytics and predictions based on the weather data collected. The development release that was taking weeks earlier were pushed within hours and helped The weather channel have an advantage over their competitors.Internet of Things (IoT)Today, IoT connects billions of devices worldwide. Companies are redefining their revenue models, improving productivity, and leveraging operational efficiency by realizing the business value of connecting all things. MongoDB helps in capturing most from IoT devices. IoT devices have event-driven real-time architecture, require high-speed data ingest and fast development cycles to match changing needs, and MongoDB serves all these things efficiently.MongoDB intelligent data platform accelerates the delivery and operation of IoT devices. MongoDB has bonded with technologies like Apache Kafka to be part of an integrated and event-driven IoT platform.BoschBosch is leading the charge for IoT betting on MongoDB for building their application. Bosch with more than 300000 employees, is known as one of the largest automotive component manufacturers.Bosch uses several apps collecting data from IoT like braking system and power steering to improve diagnostics and preventive maintenance needs. Bosch can now also monitor how operators use highly advanced power tools to tighten more than 6 million screws of aircraft. MongoDB has played an important role in building such modern apps.Content ManagementIn the 90’s one could build the website with static text, but today with the changing times, a website must have array of text, audio, video, and social media to get the user's attention. Building such an application on a relational database is not easy. MongoDB provides the customers with the ability to have such content on a single database as it supports a variety of structured and unstructured data.ForbesAs a story goes viral, people visit whatever website they can to get the information. To retain the reader, publishers have to be on their toes and provide share-worthy content as quickly as possible.Using MongoDB, Forbes was able to build its CMS within two months and its mobile application within one month. Forbes changed its entire website and moved to MongoDB so that content can be added from anywhere around the globe without going offline in a quick manner.The publishers leveraged flexible schema of MongoDB which provided the dynamic quality content in quick time to their readers. Their move was bold, and it paid off as they got rid of traditional systems without increasing operational cost.GamingData has been an integral part of video games. From managing player profiles to leaderboards, data plays an important role in making gaming better. But now, with most of the games being played online where one may start the game with a small number of users but need to scale to millions of users in no time. Choosing the correct database can prove to be a game-changer as multiplayer playing online with scale capabilities can make your game popular.Massive scale, globally available, and always on are some of the features that are a must for modern games. Fortunately, MongoDB has proved its worth in providing clients with these features at a competitive price. Many gaming companies are leveraging MongoDB atlas, which is a multi-cloud database-as-a-service helping scale up and down automatically.FACEITPopular Gaming companies like SEGA, FACEIT, and Lucid Sight are successfully using MongoDB for their users’ better gaming experience.FACEIT uses MongoDB as their main database under the hood. Orchestrating the services between players, teams and competitions are all managed by MongoDB.FACEIT uses MongoDB even to manage all user-profiles and tournament data. Live streaming data from the game is stored in MongoDB and analytics to track player behavior and engagement is done on data. MongoDB’s flexible schema and rich query model helped FaceIT to maintain user profiles efficiently.Real-Time AnalyticsWith RDBMS, there was a culture of having transactional and analytics databases separate. Daily data load was needed to move data from the transactional database to the analytics environment. With MongoDB, companies can analyze the data in real-time with less money.WindyGridChicago’s Department of Innovation and Technology (DoIT) used MongoDB for analytics to cut the crime and citizen welfare using an analytics platform called WindyGrid. Data from different stations, 911 calls and Tweets are analyzed using MongoDB to better respond to emergencies. From better managing city traffic to garbage complaints, all are done using the WindyGrid application.OttoMany retail companies have the requirement of real-time analytics. For this, their applications must be up all the time and no downtime can be afforeded. Otto is one of the largest e-commerce companies. With the cut-throat competition among retail clients, slow reaction time causes a lot of business loss as with many options, consumers don’t stay long.Otto used MongoDB to reduce their reaction time to 1-2 seconds. This was a huge challenging as we are talking about more than 500 brands on their website. The flexible schema capability combined with availability and scalability features helped Otto to reconstruct their entire catalog application on MongoDB.Mainframe offloadingEven as we enter the Big Data era with new databases dominating the market, Mainframe continues to have a place in infrastructure despite high operational cost. Many have found moving data off the Mainframe to be a difficult task, but MongoDB has proven to be way ahead in offloading data from mainframe systems efficiently, thus modernizing the apps and reducing the operational cost.  Alight SolutionsHuman capital services like Alight Solutions have been successful in offloading their data from Mainframe to MongoDB, thus improving application performance by 250× and reducing the overall cost of operations.AadharMongoDB has grown fast and has taken over in the field of the database. There are several other use cases like managing biometric data of 1.3 billion Indians for Aadhar. This huge data is stored by Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, India, in MongoDB. Among several databases, MongoDB is specifically used for storing images.ShutterflyInternet-based popular photo-sharing vendor Shutterfly uses MongoDB for storing more than 6 billion images handling 10,000 transactions per second. The volume of data and high transaction rate forced them to move off Oracle to MongoDB.MetlifeMetlife was among one of the first insurance company that took the initiative to migrate their advanced customer service application famously known as ‘The Wall’ from legacy database to MongoDB. The application servers more than 90 million users across different continents managing their employees’ insurance, benefits, and annuities.MongoDB also continues to focus on database-as-a-service. MongoDB Atlas enables clients to run managed MongoDB on AWS, Azure and GCP cloud. With Atlas, MongoDB continues to acquire new business every quarter.Apart from database solutions, MongoDB has also captured the market due to other services like MongoDB Stitch and MongoDB Realm. Seeing the R&D being put for the development of new services and focus on solving real-time issues, it might not be a bad choice to bet on MongoDB in the future.In summaryAlthough it has taken a while for MongoDB to catch the wind, its popularity has clearly soared in the last few years. The demand for MongoDB database has increased exponentially and it has become one of the most used databases due to its flexible schema, MapReduce capability, and Scale performance.With DB-engine, which is recognized for rating databases, recognizing MongoDB as the Database Management System in 2019, we are sure to see its use growing every more rapidly.

Top Real World Use Cases and Applications of MongoDB

6K
Top Real World Use Cases and Applications of MongoDB

With the rapid evolution of databases, choosing the right database has become an important aspect of application design. Although RDBMS databases like Oracle, SQL Server, Postgres and DB2 have been around, NoSQL databases like MongoDB, Cassandra and HBase have grown more prominent. With cut-throat competition in today's market, choosing the right database based on the application use case can translate into an advantage over the competition.

MongoDB’s focus is not only on the database but on overall data. Services like MongoDB Atlas, a database-as-a-service on multi-cloud and MongoDB stitch, are used to build faster and better applications on serverless environments.

MongoDB is the preferred database of leading enterprises and powers up products and solutions at various establishments including AstraZeneca, Adobe, ebay, Electronic Arts, SAP, CISCO, Google, Verizon and the Royal Bank of Scotland.

In this blog, we take you through some of the top real-world use cases of MongoDB ranging across mobile, internet of things, content management, real time analytics and mainframe offloading.

Mobile

Customers these days want to have their business on the smartphone. Millions of users use their applications constantly. RDBMS cannot handle such large simultaneous transactions, and MongoDB provides a cost-effective way to scale the users and mobile app development. MongoDB Mobile applications have been used by several financial bodies, healthcare providers, and retail giants. MongoDB’s flexible data model and rich query functionality enable teams to build killer mobile apps and help customers to grow their business.

Enterprises like Automatic Data Processing, Inc. (ADP) and The Weather Channel have been very vocal about their awesome experience of using MongoDB for their mobile apps to grow their business.

Automatic Data Processing, Inc. (ADP)

ADP has satisfied more than 41000 of its clients managing their employee’s finances, health, and working lives.

Employees can see information of their health, paychecks, insurance, and other benefits on the mobile app. Currently, the ADP mobile app is used in 17 countries and 23 languages serving more than one million users. Low cost and minimal downtime were needs for a mobile app that MongoDB was able to deliver.

The Weather Channel

The Weather Channel was running their website, weather.com, and facing issues serving a large number of clients due to the use of the traditional RDBMS database. MongoDB helped them build their Mobile app serving more than 40 million users and providing real-time weather data to their customers.

The Weather Channel also used the MongoDB flexible schema and MapReduce features to do live analytics and predictions based on the weather data collected. The development release that was taking weeks earlier were pushed within hours and helped The weather channel have an advantage over their competitors.

Internet of Things (IoT)

Today, IoT connects billions of devices worldwide. Companies are redefining their revenue models, improving productivity, and leveraging operational efficiency by realizing the business value of connecting all things. MongoDB helps in capturing most from IoT devices. IoT devices have event-driven real-time architecture, require high-speed data ingest and fast development cycles to match changing needs, and MongoDB serves all these things efficiently.

MongoDB intelligent data platform accelerates the delivery and operation of IoT devices. MongoDB has bonded with technologies like Apache Kafka to be part of an integrated and event-driven IoT platform.

Bosch

Bosch is leading the charge for IoT betting on MongoDB for building their application. Bosch with more than 300000 employees, is known as one of the largest automotive component manufacturers.

Bosch uses several apps collecting data from IoT like braking system and power steering to improve diagnostics and preventive maintenance needs. Bosch can now also monitor how operators use highly advanced power tools to tighten more than 6 million screws of aircraft. MongoDB has played an important role in building such modern apps.

Content Management

In the 90’s one could build the website with static text, but today with the changing times, a website must have array of text, audio, video, and social media to get the user's attention. Building such an application on a relational database is not easy. MongoDB provides the customers with the ability to have such content on a single database as it supports a variety of structured and unstructured data.

Forbes

As a story goes viral, people visit whatever website they can to get the information. To retain the reader, publishers have to be on their toes and provide share-worthy content as quickly as possible.

Using MongoDB, Forbes was able to build its CMS within two months and its mobile application within one month. Forbes changed its entire website and moved to MongoDB so that content can be added from anywhere around the globe without going offline in a quick manner.

The publishers leveraged flexible schema of MongoDB which provided the dynamic quality content in quick time to their readers. Their move was bold, and it paid off as they got rid of traditional systems without increasing operational cost.

Gaming

Data has been an integral part of video games. From managing player profiles to leaderboards, data plays an important role in making gaming better. But now, with most of the games being played online where one may start the game with a small number of users but need to scale to millions of users in no time. Choosing the correct database can prove to be a game-changer as multiplayer playing online with scale capabilities can make your game popular.

Massive scale, globally available, and always on are some of the features that are a must for modern games. Fortunately, MongoDB has proved its worth in providing clients with these features at a competitive price. Many gaming companies are leveraging MongoDB atlas, which is a multi-cloud database-as-a-service helping scale up and down automatically.

FACEIT

Popular Gaming companies like SEGA, FACEIT, and Lucid Sight are successfully using MongoDB for their users’ better gaming experience.

FACEIT uses MongoDB as their main database under the hood. Orchestrating the services between players, teams and competitions are all managed by MongoDB.

FACEIT uses MongoDB even to manage all user-profiles and tournament data. Live streaming data from the game is stored in MongoDB and analytics to track player behavior and engagement is done on data. MongoDB’s flexible schema and rich query model helped FaceIT to maintain user profiles efficiently.

Real-Time Analytics

With RDBMS, there was a culture of having transactional and analytics databases separate. Daily data load was needed to move data from the transactional database to the analytics environment. With MongoDB, companies can analyze the data in real-time with less money.

WindyGrid

Chicago’s Department of Innovation and Technology (DoIT) used MongoDB for analytics to cut the crime and citizen welfare using an analytics platform called WindyGrid. Data from different stations, 911 calls and Tweets are analyzed using MongoDB to better respond to emergencies. From better managing city traffic to garbage complaints, all are done using the WindyGrid application.

Otto

Many retail companies have the requirement of real-time analytics. For this, their applications must be up all the time and no downtime can be afforeded. Otto is one of the largest e-commerce companies. With the cut-throat competition among retail clients, slow reaction time causes a lot of business loss as with many options, consumers don’t stay long.

Otto used MongoDB to reduce their reaction time to 1-2 seconds. This was a huge challenging as we are talking about more than 500 brands on their website. The flexible schema capability combined with availability and scalability features helped Otto to reconstruct their entire catalog application on MongoDB.

Mainframe offloading

Even as we enter the Big Data era with new databases dominating the market, Mainframe continues to have a place in infrastructure despite high operational cost. Many have found moving data off the Mainframe to be a difficult task, but MongoDB has proven to be way ahead in offloading data from mainframe systems efficiently, thus modernizing the apps and reducing the operational cost.  

Alight Solutions

Human capital services like Alight Solutions have been successful in offloading their data from Mainframe to MongoDB, thus improving application performance by 250× and reducing the overall cost of operations.

Aadhar

MongoDB has grown fast and has taken over in the field of the database. There are several other use cases like managing biometric data of 1.3 billion Indians for Aadhar. This huge data is stored by Ministry of Electronics and Information Technology, India, in MongoDB. Among several databases, MongoDB is specifically used for storing images.

Shutterfly

Internet-based popular photo-sharing vendor Shutterfly uses MongoDB for storing more than 6 billion images handling 10,000 transactions per second. The volume of data and high transaction rate forced them to move off Oracle to MongoDB.

Metlife

Metlife was among one of the first insurance company that took the initiative to migrate their advanced customer service application famously known as ‘The Wall’ from legacy database to MongoDB. The application servers more than 90 million users across different continents managing their employees’ insurance, benefits, and annuities.

MongoDB also continues to focus on database-as-a-service. MongoDB Atlas enables clients to run managed MongoDB on AWS, Azure and GCP cloud. With Atlas, MongoDB continues to acquire new business every quarter.

Apart from database solutions, MongoDB has also captured the market due to other services like MongoDB Stitch and MongoDB Realm. Seeing the R&D being put for the development of new services and focus on solving real-time issues, it might not be a bad choice to bet on MongoDB in the future.

In summary

Although it has taken a while for MongoDB to catch the wind, its popularity has clearly soared in the last few years. The demand for MongoDB database has increased exponentially and it has become one of the most used databases due to its flexible schema, MapReduce capability, and Scale performance.

With DB-engine, which is recognized for rating databases, recognizing MongoDB as the Database Management System in 2019, we are sure to see its use growing every more rapidly.

KnowledgeHut

KnowledgeHut

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KnowledgeHut is an outcome-focused global ed-tech company. We help organizations and professionals unlock excellence through skills development. We offer training solutions under the people and process, data science, full-stack development, cybersecurity, future technologies and digital transformation verticals.
Website : https://www.knowledgehut.com

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Now, let’s dive into the code.Setting up Express GraphQLLet’s begin with the basic project structure of a Node.js application. Begin a new project in a new folder.$ mkdir graphql-example $ cd graphql-exampleUse NPM to intiialize a project$ npm init -yInstall the required dependencies for Express, MongoDB (Mongoose), and some additional dependencies required for the function of Express.$ npm install express mongoose body-parser cors --saveApollo Server is a community-maintained open-source GraphQL server that works with all Node.js HTTP server frameworks, so next, you are going to download and save that.$ npm install apollo-server-express --saveThis should’ve created a package.json and a package-lock.json file within your folder. These files contain information regarding our environment, the dependencies, and the specific versions to run those dependencies.This means our environment is ready and you can now start developing the integrated server and API. We are going to write the Schema inside the index.js file. In the index.js file, start off by writing this code.const express = require('express'); const mongoose = require('mongoose'); const schema = require('./schema'); const bodyParser = require('body-parser'); const cors = require('cors'); const { ApolloServer } = require('apollo-server-express'); const url = "mongodb://localhost:27017/moviesdb"; const connect = mongoose.connect(url, { useNewUrlParser: true }); connect.then((db) => {       console.log('Connected correctly to server!'); }, (err) => {       console.log(err); }); const server = new ApolloServer({       typeDefs: schema.typeDefs,       resolvers: schema.resolvers }); const app = express(); app.use(bodyParser.json()); app.use('*', cors()); server.applyMiddleware({ app }); app.listen({ port: 4000 }, () =>   console.log(`Server ready at  http://localhost:4000${server.graphqlPath}`));In lines number 1 to 6, you’re implementing the necessary modules. Note that here you have imported the ./schema, but you haven’t created that yet. We will be doing this in the next step.In lines number 9 to 14, you are connecting the project to the MongoDB database and logging any error you face to the console.In lines number 16 to 19, you’re creating a new Apollo Server with typeDefs and Resolver. We’ll be defining those in the ./schema later in this tutorial.In lines 21 to 26, you’re firing up the Express Server at port 4000, when you will actually be able to interact with what you’re building.GraphQL has two main principles to work: types and resolvers. We defined them in Apollo Server. We’ll import them from the file you’ll create later.Next, let’s create the file models/movie.js that’ll contain the movie-Mongoose model.const mongoose = require('mongoose'); const Schema = mongoose.Schema; const movieSchema = new Schema({     name: {        type: String,        required: true     },     rating: {        type: Number,        required: true     },     producer: {        type: String,        required: true    } }, {     timestamps: true }); var Movies = mongoose.model('Movie', movieSchema); module.exports = {Movies, movieSchema};We’re going to build a simple movie app, where you can show, add, edit, and delete movies. That way you’ll get through the basics of GraphQL, which is the main goal of this tutorial.In lines 4 to 19, you’re basically determining the schema of the database that is going to hold the data of movies. Every movie is going to have a Name and a Producer of type String and a Rating of type Number.Designing the SchemaLet’s move on to the schema.js file where you’re going to build our GraphQL API.Create a new file in the root of the folder by the name of schema.js and add the following code.const { gql } = require('apollo-server-express');   const Movie = require('./models/movie').Movies;   const typeDefs = gql `    type Movie {      id: ID!      name: String!      producer: String!      rating: Float!  }  type Query {    getMovies: [Movie]    getMovie(id: ID!): Movie  }  type Mutation {      addMovie(name: String!, producer: String!, rating: Float!): Movie      updateMovie(id: ID!, name: String!, producer: String!, rating: Float): Movie      deleteMovie(id: ID!): Movie    } `In this, you’re building the schema. We defined the Movie type which will have an ID, the name of the movie and the producer, and a rating of type Float. The “!” after the types shows that these fields are necessary.Unlike the REST approach of getting different tasks done at different endpoint URLs, GraphQL can create operations in a single endpoint. That is what you have done in line 11 onwards. The type Query determines the GET operations, and type Mutation determines the modification operations like POST, DELETE, etc. In getMovies, you’re returning a list of all available movies in our database, and in getMovie, you’re getting the specific movie by the ID of that movie.Now you’re going to link these with the Mongoose Database queries that are going to perform the actions in the database. And this is done by Resolvers. Resolvers are a collection of functions that connect schema fields and types to various backends. It can read, write, and delete data from and to anywhere in the database, be it SQL, NoSQL, or Graph-based database. In simple terms, they act as a GraphQL query handler. Here’s how you’re going to implement Resolvers in our code:const resolvers = {   Query: {     getMovies: (parent, args) => {       return Movie.find({});     },     getMovie: (parent, args) => {       return Movie.findById(args.id);     }   },   Mutation: {     addMovie: (parent, args) => {       let movie = new Movie({         name: args.name,         producer: args.producer,         rating: args.rating,       });       return movie.save();     },     updateMovie: (parent, args) => {       if (!args.id) return;         return Movie.findOneAndUpdate(          {            _id: args.id          },          {            $set: {              name: args.name,              producer: args.producer,              rating: args.rating,            }          }, {new: true}, (err, Movie) => {            if (err) {              console.log('Something went wrong when updating the movie');            } else {              continue;            }          }       );     }   } } module.exports = {typeDefs,resolvers};This is the basic logic of MongoDB and CRUD applications, which doesn’t come under the scope of this article, since it is majorly focused on GraphQL. However, the logic is simple and straightforward for anyone to understand, so skim through it once.With this, you’re done with a basic Movie API that can perform all the CRUD operations on a database of movies. To test this out, you’re going to fire up our node server and open the browser in http://localhost:4000/graphql which will open the GraphQL Playground.$ node index.js Server ready at http://localhost:4000/graphqlOnce the Playground UI opens, you’re first going to create a Movie Record for the database since it would initially be empty.mutation { addMovie(name: “GraphQL Movie”, producer: “Facebook”, rating:  4.5) { id, name, rating, producer } }OUTPUT:{ “data” : { “addMovie”: { “id”: “5j2j1lnk1LNS231MLK3”, “name”: “GraphQL Movie”, “producer”: “Facebook”, “rating”: 4.5 } } }And now let’s list out all the movies in the database with only their “name” and “rating”.query { getMovies: { name, rating } }OUTPUT:{ “Data”: { “getMovies”: [ { “name”: “GraphQL Movie”, “rating”: 4.5 } ] } }So, you have successfully created a Movie API where you can perform all the CRUD operations on a single endpoint, and also ask for just the data that you want.  This results in a blazing fast API response and a developer-friendly return object that makes development fast and easy.Using GraphQL with ReactUsing GraphQL with react is super easy and can make full-stack development look like a piece of cake. We’re going to build a react app that uses the Movie API you just built to render the results on a frontend client app.Start off by installing the required dependencies.$ npm install create-react-app graphql @apollo/clientCreate a new React appnpx create-react-app movies-appLet’s start off by initializing an ApolloClient instance. In index.js let's first import the symbols you need from @apollo/client, Next, you'll initialize ApolloClient, passing its constructor a configuration object with URI and cache fields:import {   ApolloClient,   InMemoryCache,   ApolloProvider,   useQuery,   gql } from "@apollo/client"; const client = new ApolloClient({   uri: 'https://48p1r2roz4.sse.codesandbox.io',   cache: new InMemoryCache() });The URI specifies the GraphQL Server URL.That’s it! Our client app is ready to fetch data from the GraphQL server. In index.js, let’s wrap our React app with the ApolloProvider Component. Put up the ApolloProvider somewhere high in the app, above any component that might need to access GraphQL data.function App() {   return (           My first GraphQL app       ); } render(         ,   document.getElementById('root'), );With this being done, our client app is now ready to request data from the server and perform queries on the frontend. We can do this using the useQuery React Hook that shares the GraphQL data with the UI.In the index.js, let’s first define the query you want to execute.const MOVIES = gql`   query getMovies {      name,      producer   } `;Next, let's define a component called GetMovies that executes our getMovies query with the useQuery hook:function GetMovies() {   const { loading, error, data } = useQuery(MOVIES);   if (loading) return Loading...;   if (error) return Error :(;   return data.map(({ name, producer }) => (                   {name}: Produced by {producer}             )); }Whenever this component renders, the useQuery hook automatically executes our query and binds the results to the data property on successful completion of the query.Finally, you'll add GetMovies to our existing component tree:function App() {   return (           My first Apollo app             ); }When your app reloads, you should briefly see a loading indicator, followed by a list of Movies present in the MongoDB database.Congratulations. You just made a React app that uses GraphQL to render data from the server. Give yourself a pat on the back for this one.Dev-friendly Query Languages are the FutureSo, wrapping it all up in a few more lines. In this tutorial, you learned what GraphQL is - a new age Query Language that is data specific and client-oriented, how is it different (and better) than REST architecture - it is developer friendly, blazing-fast, and easy to learn or understand. We also made a mock API of Movies using GraphQL and MongoDB and performed the CRUD operations using just one single endpoint URL - another benefit over the RESTful architecture. And finally, you went on to create a React application that uses these benefits of GraphQL and combines them with the benefits of React to give a hyper-fast, easy, and full-stack app that renders Movies on request.We hope you learned something new from this article. Once you’ve started this journey of GraphQL, it is a fun ride ahead since it is a relatively new tech and not many people out there are having this skill under their hood. So, make use of this opportunity and outshine the rest.Keep Learning.
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Create GraphQL API with example

Recently, GraphQL has made a lot of buzz among the... Read More

How to use Timers in Node.js

You can use Node.js's utilities to schedule the execution of your code. The timer module, unlike most Node.js modules, is not imported. To comply with the JavaScript browser API, the methods are globally accessible.The Node.js Timers module contains several functions that allow you to execute a block of code or a function after a specified amount of time. You don't need to use require() to import the Timers module because it's global.In this post, I'll explain and demonstrate what timers are, how to use them, how the syntax looks, and how you can use them in your applications. For example, if you want to retrieve data from a REST API at a specific interval, you can easily do so with timers. So, even if you are unfamiliar with JavaScript or timers, this post will help you understand these concepts.The Event Loop - A Quick PrimerNode.js is a single-threaded, event-driven platform that can run non-blocking, asynchronous code. These Node.js features make it memory efficient. Even though JavaScript is single-threaded, the event loop enables Node.js to perform non-blocking I/O operations. It is accomplished by delegating tasks to the operating system whenever and wherever possible.Because most operating systems are multi-threaded, they can handle multiple operations that are running in the background. When one of these operations is finished, the kernel notifies Node.js, and the callback associated with that operation is added to the event queue, where it will eventually be executed.Features of Event Loop:An event loop is an infinite loop that waits for tasks, executes them, and then sleeps until more tasks are received.When the call stack is empty, i.e., there are no ongoing tasks, the event loop executes tasks from the event queue.We can use callbacks and promises in the event loop.The event loop executes the tasks in reverse order, beginning with the oldest.Example:console.log("One"); setTimeout(function(){ console.log("Two"); }, 1000); console.log("Three");Output:OneThreeTwoThe first console log statement is pushed to the call stack in the above example, and "One" is logged on the console before the task is popped from the stack. Following that, the setTimeout is added to the queue, the task is sent to the operating system, and the task's timer is set. After that, this task is removed from the stack. The third console log statement is then pushed to the call stack, "Three" is logged on the console, and the task is removed from the stack.Timers in JavaScriptA timer is used in JavaScript to execute a task or function at a specific time. The timer is essentially used to delay the execution of the program or to execute the JavaScript code at regular intervals. You can delay the execution of the code by using a timer. As a result, when an event occurs or a page loads, the code does not complete its execution at the same time.Advertisement banners on websites, which change every 2-3 seconds, are the best example of a timer. These advertising banners are rotated at regular intervals on websites such as Flipkart. To change them, you set a time interval.JavaScript provides two timer functions, setInterval() and setTimeout(), which help to delay code execution and allow one or more operations to be performed repeatedly.setTimeout():The setTimeout() function allows users to postpone the execution of code. The setTimeout() method accepts two parameters, one of which is a user-defined function, and the other is a time parameter to delay execution. The time parameter, which is optional to pass, stores the time in milliseconds (1 second = 1000 milliseconds).setInterval():The setInterval method is similar to the setTimeout() function in some ways. It repeats the specified function after a time interval. Alternatively, you can say that a function is executed repeatedly after a certain amount of time specified by the user in this function.Timers in Node.js - setTimeout()setTimeout() can be used to execute code after a specified number of milliseconds. This function is equivalent to window. setTimeout() from the browser JavaScript API, but no code string can be passed to be executed.setTimeout() takes a function to execute as the first argument and a millisecond delay defined as a number as the second. Additional arguments may be provided, and these will be passed to the function. As an example, consider the following:Using setTimeout()The timeout interval is not guaranteed to execute after that exact number of milliseconds. This is because any other code that blocks or holds onto the event loop will delay the execution of the timeout. The only guarantee is that the timeout will not be executed sooner than the timeout interval specified.setTimeout(function A() { return console.log('Hello World!'); }, 2000); console.log('Executed before A');clearTimeout():The clearTimeout() method deactivates a timer that was previously set with the setTimeout() method.The ID value returned by setTimeout() is passed to the clearTimeout() method as a parameter.Syntax:clearTimeout(id_of_settimeout)Example: function welcome () { console.log("Welcome to Knowledgehut!"); } var id1 = setTimeout(welcome,1000); var id2 = setInterval(welcome,1000); clearTimeout(id1);Timers in Node.js - setImmediate()To execute code at the end of the loop cycle, use the setImmediate() method. In layman's terms, this method divides tasks that take longer to complete, in order to run a callback function that is triggered by other operations such as events.Syntax:let immediateId = setImmediate(callbackFunction, [param1, param2, ...]); let immediateId = setImmediate(callbackFunction);The function to be executed will be the first argument to setImmediate(). When the function is executed, any additional arguments will be passed to it.Now consider the difference between setImmediate() and process. nextTick(), as well as when to use which.While processing, setImmediate() is executed in the Check handlers phase. process.nextTick() is called at the start of the event loop and at the end of each phase.process.nextTick() has higher priority than setImmediate():setImmediate(() => console.log('I run immediately')) process.nextTick(() => console.log('But I run before that'))Output:Using setImmediate()Multiple setImmediate functions are called in the following example. When you do this, the callback functions are queued for execution in the order in which they are created. After each event loop iteration, the entire callback queue is processed. If an immediate timer is queued from within an executing callback, it will not be triggered until the next iteration of the event loop.Example:setImmediate(function A() { setImmediate(function B() { console.log(1); setImmediate(function D() {   console.log(2); }); }); setImmediate(function C() { console.log(3); setImmediate(function E() {   console.log(4); }); }); }); console.log('Started');clearImmediate():The clearImmediate function is used to remove the function call that was scheduled by the setImmediate function. Both of these functions can be found in Node.js's Timers module.Example:console.log("Before the setImmediate call") let timerID = setImmediate(() => {console.log("Hello, World")}); console.log("After the setImmediate call") clearImmediate(timerID);Timers in Node.js - setInterval()This method, unlike setTimeout(), is used to execute code multiple times. For example, the company may send out weekly newsletters to its Edge as a Service customer. This is where the setInterval() method comes into play. It is an infinite loop that will continue to execute as long as it is not terminated (or halted).As the second argument, setInterval() accepts a function argument that will run an infinite number of times with a given millisecond delay. In the same way that setTimeout() accepts additional arguments beyond the delay, these will be passed on to the function call. The delay, like setTimeout(), cannot be guaranteed due to operations that may stay in the event loop and should thus be treated as an approximation.Syntax:let intervalId = setInterval(callbackFunction, [delay, argument1, argument2, ...]); //option 1 let intervalId = setInterval(callbackFunction[, delayDuration]); // option 2 let intervalId = setInterval(code, [delayDuration]); //option 3Using setInterval()Example:setInterval(function A() { return console.log('Hello World!'); }, 1000); // Executed right away console.log('Executed before A');setInterval(), like setTimeout() returns a Timeout object that can be used to reference and modify the interval that was set.In the above example, function A() will execute after every 1000 milliseconds.clearInterval():Example:var si = setInterval(function A() { return console.log("Hello World!"); }, 1000); setTimeout(function() { clearInterval(si); }, 4000);Using Timer.unref()The timer module is used to schedule functions that will be called later. Because it is a global API, there is no need to import (require("timers")) to use it.The Timeout Class contains an object (setTimeout()/setInterval()) that is created internally to schedule actions, and (clearTimeout()/clearInterval()) that can be passed to cancel those scheduled actions. When a timeout is set, the Node.js event loop will continue to run until clearTimeout() is called. The setTimeout() method returns timeout objects that can be used to control this default behaviour, and it exports both the timeout.ref() and timeout.unref() functions.timeout.ref():When the Timeout is active and (timeout.ref()) is called, it requests that the Node.js event loop not exit for an extended period of time. In any case, calling this Method multiple times has no effect.Syntax:timeout.ref()timeout.unref():When the Timeout is enabled, the Node.js event loop is not required to remain active. If any other activity keeps the event loop running, the Timeout object's callback is invoked after the process exits. In any case, calling this Method multiple times has no effect.Syntax:timeout.unref()Example:var Timeout = setTimeout(function alfa() { console.log("0.> Setting Timeout", 12); }); console.log("1 =>", Timeout.ref()); Timeout.unref() Timeout.ref() console.log("2 =>", Timeout.unref()); clearTimeout(Timeout); console.log("3 => Printing after clearing Timeout"); Output:Scheduling Made SimplerIn this tutorial, you learned how to schedule tasks with the Node.js timer module. You've seen how to set timeouts, interval timers for recurring tasks, and how to use set immediate to bypass long operations. You've also seen how to stop these operations using the clear() method for each method.As with learning anything new, practising what you learn will make a big difference to how easily you can perform these tasks. Share your thoughts and questions in the comments as you try out what you’ve learnt.
2239
How to use Timers in Node.js

You can use Node.js's utilities to schedule the ex... Read More