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What Are Callbacks in Node.JS

The callback is an asynchronous equivalent for a function. It is called following every task. In Node.js, callbacks are frequently used. All APIs of Node are drafted in a way that supports callbacks.  To illustrate, when a function commences reading a file, it instantly returns the control to the execution environment to execute the succeeding instruction.In Node.js, once file I/O is concluded, it would call the callback function. There is no hindrance or waiting for File I/O. This presents Node.js as highly scalable, as it can process an extraordinary number of requests without pausing for any function to return results.Understanding the callback pattern for asynchronous programmingIn the asynchronous programming model, something happens one at a time. An asynchronous model acknowledges multiple things to occur at the same time. When you commence an action, your program proceeds to run. When the step completes, the program is acquainted and gets access to the result (for example, the data read from disk).Node.js encourages an asynchronous coding method from the ground up, in contrast to several popular web frameworks. There are numerous vital things to be conscious of when learning to write asynchronous code – and at the same time, you will frequently find your code executing in highly unexpected ways.Various functions in Node.js core have both synchronous and asynchronous versions. It will be far better to use asynchronous operations in most conditions; otherwise, why use Node.js?Asynchronous continuation-passing techniquelet's consider an example where a function is asynchronous, which is as follows:function exampleAsync(a, b, callback) {   setTimeout(function() {     callback(a + b);   }, 100); } console.log('Before asynchronous call’); exampleAsync(2, 3, function(finalresult)   {     console.log('Result: ' + finalresult); }); console.log('After asynchronous call');OutPut:Before asynchronous call After asynchronous call Result: 5setTimeout() triggers an asynchronous process; it will not wait for the callback to get executed. It returns quickly, providing the control back to exampleAsync(), and then back to its caller.The following image shows how this works:Examples of the callback pattern in Node.jsA callback is a function called when the task finishes, and a callback function allows other code to run in the meantime. Using the Callback concept, Node.js can process many requests without waiting for any function to return the result, making Node.js highly scalable. For example: In Node.js, when a function starts reading the file, it returns the control to the execution environment immediately to execute the next instruction. Once file I/O gets completed, the callback function will get called to avoid blocking or wait for File I/O.Example 1: Reading a file synchronously in Node.js. Create a text file synch.txt with the following content:Hello, this is my first testing of synchronous content.Create a first.js file:var fs = require("fs"); var datatxt = fs.readFileSync('synch.txt'); console.log(datatxt.toString()); console.log("Execution ends");Output:Hello, this is my first testing of synchronous content.Execution endsInformation: The fs library is loaded to handle file-system associated operations. The readFileSync() function is synchronous and blocks execution till terminated. The function blocks the program until it reads the file, and then only it proceeds to end the program.Example 2: Reading a file asynchronously in Node.js. Create a text file asynch.txt with the content asHello, this is my first testing of asynchronous content.var fs = require("fs");     fs.readFile('asynch.txt', function (ferr, dataasynch) {       if (ferr) return console.error(ferr);       console.log(dataasynch.toString());   });   console.log("Execution ends"); Output:Execution endsHello, this is my first testing of asynchronous content.Information: The fs library is loaded to handle file-system-related operations. The readFile() function is asynchronous, and the control returns immediately to the next instruction in the program while the function keeps running in the background. A callback function is relinquished, which gets called when the task running in the background is finished.Getting trapped in callback hellCallback Hell is an anti-pattern detected in the code of asynchronous programming. It is a slang phrase applied to define a cumbersome number of nested “if” statements or functions. If the application logic gets complex, a few callbacks appear harmless. But once your project demands grow, it is common to fall under piling layers of nested callbacks.The callback is a function where “A” is passed to another function, “B,” as a parameter. The function “B” then executes the code “A” at some point. The invocation of “A” can be immediate, as in a synchronous callback, or it can occur later as in an asynchronous callback.var callbackhell = require(‘fs’) callbackhell.readFile(‘test.json’, function(‘err’, results){ if(err){ console.log(err); } console.log(JSON.parse(results).name) });In the code, we call readFile and pass it as a second parameter function (Callback Hell). readFile will execute the callback bypassing the procedure's results to parameters.The use of callbacks makes the code tedious to write and manage. It increases the difficulty of identifying the application's flow, which is an obstacle, hence the popular name of Callback Hell.What’s more dangerous than callback hell?Not fixing the nested callback hellUsing Promises to write asynchronous codePromises are the function that a value would be returned at a later time. Instead of returning concrete values, these asynchronous functions return a Promise object, which will at some point either be fulfilled or not.A promise represents an asynchronous operation. It means a process that has not been completed yet but is expected to in the future. Let's have a look at a simple file read example without using promises:fs.readFile(filePath, (err, result) => {      if (err) { console.log(err); }      console.log(data); }); if the readFile function returned a promise, the logic would be  written as below var fileReadandPromise = fs.readFile(filePath); fileReadandPromise.then(console.log, console.error)The fileReadandPromise is passed multiple times in a code where you need to read a file. This helps in writing robust unit tests for your code since you now only have to write a single test for a promise. And more readable code!Promise.all()The Promise. all() method accepts an iterable of promises as an input and returns a single Promise that fixes to an array of the input promises' results.const promise1 = Promise.resolve(5); const promise2 = 54; const promise3 = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {   setTimeout(resolve, 100, 'foo'); }); Promise.all([promise1, promise2, promise3]).then((values) => {   console.log(values); });Promise.any()Promise.any() takes an iterable of Promise objects and, as soon as one of the promises in the iterable fulfills, returns a single promise that resolves with the value from that promise. If there are no promises in the iterable fulfill, then the returned promise is rejected with an AggregateError, a new subclass of Error that groups together individual errors. This method is the opposite of Promise.all().const promiseand1 = Promise.reject(0); const promiseand2 = new Promise((resolve) => setTimeout(resolve, 100, 'Large')); const promiseand3 = new Promise((resolve) => setTimeout(resolve, 500, 'Small')); const promises = [promiseand1, promiseand2, promiseand3]; Promise.any(promises).then((value) => console.log(value));Using Async / Await for handling asynchronous codeInitial versions of Node didn't have the Node architecture single-threaded and asynchronous. The intricacy with this kind of code is that this kind of position can create many problems, and the code can get messy when there are several functions, and this situation is called callback hell.Promises and function chaining were introduced to overcome this situation.By Node v8, the async/await feature was finally wheeled out to deal with Promises and function chaining. The functions were not necessarily required to be chained after another; they simply await the function that returns the Promise. But the async function is needed to be declared before awaiting a function returning a Promise.Examples of Async / AwaitThe code looks like the following.async function testfun1(req, res){   let resp1 = await request.get('http://localhost:8080');     if (resp1.err) { console.log('error');}     else { console.log('Response Fetched'); }ExplanationThe code above essentially demands the JavaScript engine driving the code to wait for the request.get() function to accomplish before moving on to the next line to execute it. The request.get() function returns a Promise for which the user will await. Before async/await, if it is required to check that the functions are running in the desired sequence, i.e. one after the another, chain them one after the another or register callbacks. Code review and understanding become comfortable with async/await, as observed from the above example.Error handling in the case of async / awaitFormulating exceptionsAn exception is built using the throw keyword:throw valueAs soon as the above line executes, the standard program flow stops and the control is held back to the most imminent exception handler.Typically, in client-side code, a value can be any JavaScript value, including a string, a number or an object.In Node.js, we don't throw strings; we throw Error objects.Error objectsAn error object is an object that is either an instance of the Error object or extends the Error class provided in the Error core module:throw new Error('Out of Mall') OR class NoPersoninMallError extends Error {   //... } throw new NoPersoninMallError()Exception handlingAn exception handler is a try/catch statement.Any exception created in the lines of code in the try block is as below:try { //code would be written here. } catch (e) {} //e is the exception value. Error handling with async/awaitUsing async/await, the errors can be caught as below:async function AnyFunction() {   try {     await anotherFunction()   } catch (err) {     console.error(err.message)   } } ConclusionNode.js is more beneficial to the developers in association with its disadvantages. What’s more important is that it has extended the JavaScript applications area and can be used for both front-end and back-end servers.Node.js is, without a doubt, one of the more exciting technologies in use today, and it has grown into one of the most popular platforms used for web applications, services, and desktop apps. With time, more and more business organizations have opted to use Node.js and are consistently getting positive results.
What Are Callbacks in Node.JS
Rajesh
Rajesh

Rajesh Bhagia

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Rajesh Bhagia is experienced campaigner in Lamp technologies and has 10 years of experience in Project Management. He has worked in Multinational companies and has handled small to very complex projects single-handedly. He started his career as Junior Programmer and has evolved in different positions including Project Manager of Projects in E-commerce Portals. Currently, he is handling one of the largest project in E-commerce Domain in MNC company which deals in nearly 9.5 million SKU's.

In his role as Project Manager at MNC company, Rajesh fosters an environment of teamwork and ensures that strategy is clearly defined while overseeing performance and maintaining morale. His strong communication and client service skills enhance his process-driven management philosophy.

Rajesh is a certified Zend Professional and has developed a flair for implementing PMP Knowledge Areas in daily work schedules. He has well understood the importance of these process and considers that using the knowledge Areas efficiently and correctly can turn projects to success. He also writes articles/blogs on Technology and Management

Posts by Rajesh Bhagia

What Are Callbacks in Node.JS

The callback is an asynchronous equivalent for a function. It is called following every task. In Node.js, callbacks are frequently used. All APIs of Node are drafted in a way that supports callbacks.  To illustrate, when a function commences reading a file, it instantly returns the control to the execution environment to execute the succeeding instruction.In Node.js, once file I/O is concluded, it would call the callback function. There is no hindrance or waiting for File I/O. This presents Node.js as highly scalable, as it can process an extraordinary number of requests without pausing for any function to return results.Understanding the callback pattern for asynchronous programmingIn the asynchronous programming model, something happens one at a time. An asynchronous model acknowledges multiple things to occur at the same time. When you commence an action, your program proceeds to run. When the step completes, the program is acquainted and gets access to the result (for example, the data read from disk).Node.js encourages an asynchronous coding method from the ground up, in contrast to several popular web frameworks. There are numerous vital things to be conscious of when learning to write asynchronous code – and at the same time, you will frequently find your code executing in highly unexpected ways.Various functions in Node.js core have both synchronous and asynchronous versions. It will be far better to use asynchronous operations in most conditions; otherwise, why use Node.js?Asynchronous continuation-passing techniquelet's consider an example where a function is asynchronous, which is as follows:function exampleAsync(a, b, callback) {   setTimeout(function() {     callback(a + b);   }, 100); } console.log('Before asynchronous call’); exampleAsync(2, 3, function(finalresult)   {     console.log('Result: ' + finalresult); }); console.log('After asynchronous call');OutPut:Before asynchronous call After asynchronous call Result: 5setTimeout() triggers an asynchronous process; it will not wait for the callback to get executed. It returns quickly, providing the control back to exampleAsync(), and then back to its caller.The following image shows how this works:Examples of the callback pattern in Node.jsA callback is a function called when the task finishes, and a callback function allows other code to run in the meantime. Using the Callback concept, Node.js can process many requests without waiting for any function to return the result, making Node.js highly scalable. For example: In Node.js, when a function starts reading the file, it returns the control to the execution environment immediately to execute the next instruction. Once file I/O gets completed, the callback function will get called to avoid blocking or wait for File I/O.Example 1: Reading a file synchronously in Node.js. Create a text file synch.txt with the following content:Hello, this is my first testing of synchronous content.Create a first.js file:var fs = require("fs"); var datatxt = fs.readFileSync('synch.txt'); console.log(datatxt.toString()); console.log("Execution ends");Output:Hello, this is my first testing of synchronous content.Execution endsInformation: The fs library is loaded to handle file-system associated operations. The readFileSync() function is synchronous and blocks execution till terminated. The function blocks the program until it reads the file, and then only it proceeds to end the program.Example 2: Reading a file asynchronously in Node.js. Create a text file asynch.txt with the content asHello, this is my first testing of asynchronous content.var fs = require("fs");     fs.readFile('asynch.txt', function (ferr, dataasynch) {       if (ferr) return console.error(ferr);       console.log(dataasynch.toString());   });   console.log("Execution ends"); Output:Execution endsHello, this is my first testing of asynchronous content.Information: The fs library is loaded to handle file-system-related operations. The readFile() function is asynchronous, and the control returns immediately to the next instruction in the program while the function keeps running in the background. A callback function is relinquished, which gets called when the task running in the background is finished.Getting trapped in callback hellCallback Hell is an anti-pattern detected in the code of asynchronous programming. It is a slang phrase applied to define a cumbersome number of nested “if” statements or functions. If the application logic gets complex, a few callbacks appear harmless. But once your project demands grow, it is common to fall under piling layers of nested callbacks.The callback is a function where “A” is passed to another function, “B,” as a parameter. The function “B” then executes the code “A” at some point. The invocation of “A” can be immediate, as in a synchronous callback, or it can occur later as in an asynchronous callback.var callbackhell = require(‘fs’) callbackhell.readFile(‘test.json’, function(‘err’, results){ if(err){ console.log(err); } console.log(JSON.parse(results).name) });In the code, we call readFile and pass it as a second parameter function (Callback Hell). readFile will execute the callback bypassing the procedure's results to parameters.The use of callbacks makes the code tedious to write and manage. It increases the difficulty of identifying the application's flow, which is an obstacle, hence the popular name of Callback Hell.What’s more dangerous than callback hell?Not fixing the nested callback hellUsing Promises to write asynchronous codePromises are the function that a value would be returned at a later time. Instead of returning concrete values, these asynchronous functions return a Promise object, which will at some point either be fulfilled or not.A promise represents an asynchronous operation. It means a process that has not been completed yet but is expected to in the future. Let's have a look at a simple file read example without using promises:fs.readFile(filePath, (err, result) => {      if (err) { console.log(err); }      console.log(data); }); if the readFile function returned a promise, the logic would be  written as below var fileReadandPromise = fs.readFile(filePath); fileReadandPromise.then(console.log, console.error)The fileReadandPromise is passed multiple times in a code where you need to read a file. This helps in writing robust unit tests for your code since you now only have to write a single test for a promise. And more readable code!Promise.all()The Promise. all() method accepts an iterable of promises as an input and returns a single Promise that fixes to an array of the input promises' results.const promise1 = Promise.resolve(5); const promise2 = 54; const promise3 = new Promise((resolve, reject) => {   setTimeout(resolve, 100, 'foo'); }); Promise.all([promise1, promise2, promise3]).then((values) => {   console.log(values); });Promise.any()Promise.any() takes an iterable of Promise objects and, as soon as one of the promises in the iterable fulfills, returns a single promise that resolves with the value from that promise. If there are no promises in the iterable fulfill, then the returned promise is rejected with an AggregateError, a new subclass of Error that groups together individual errors. This method is the opposite of Promise.all().const promiseand1 = Promise.reject(0); const promiseand2 = new Promise((resolve) => setTimeout(resolve, 100, 'Large')); const promiseand3 = new Promise((resolve) => setTimeout(resolve, 500, 'Small')); const promises = [promiseand1, promiseand2, promiseand3]; Promise.any(promises).then((value) => console.log(value));Using Async / Await for handling asynchronous codeInitial versions of Node didn't have the Node architecture single-threaded and asynchronous. The intricacy with this kind of code is that this kind of position can create many problems, and the code can get messy when there are several functions, and this situation is called callback hell.Promises and function chaining were introduced to overcome this situation.By Node v8, the async/await feature was finally wheeled out to deal with Promises and function chaining. The functions were not necessarily required to be chained after another; they simply await the function that returns the Promise. But the async function is needed to be declared before awaiting a function returning a Promise.Examples of Async / AwaitThe code looks like the following.async function testfun1(req, res){   let resp1 = await request.get('http://localhost:8080');     if (resp1.err) { console.log('error');}     else { console.log('Response Fetched'); }ExplanationThe code above essentially demands the JavaScript engine driving the code to wait for the request.get() function to accomplish before moving on to the next line to execute it. The request.get() function returns a Promise for which the user will await. Before async/await, if it is required to check that the functions are running in the desired sequence, i.e. one after the another, chain them one after the another or register callbacks. Code review and understanding become comfortable with async/await, as observed from the above example.Error handling in the case of async / awaitFormulating exceptionsAn exception is built using the throw keyword:throw valueAs soon as the above line executes, the standard program flow stops and the control is held back to the most imminent exception handler.Typically, in client-side code, a value can be any JavaScript value, including a string, a number or an object.In Node.js, we don't throw strings; we throw Error objects.Error objectsAn error object is an object that is either an instance of the Error object or extends the Error class provided in the Error core module:throw new Error('Out of Mall') OR class NoPersoninMallError extends Error {   //... } throw new NoPersoninMallError()Exception handlingAn exception handler is a try/catch statement.Any exception created in the lines of code in the try block is as below:try { //code would be written here. } catch (e) {} //e is the exception value. Error handling with async/awaitUsing async/await, the errors can be caught as below:async function AnyFunction() {   try {     await anotherFunction()   } catch (err) {     console.error(err.message)   } } ConclusionNode.js is more beneficial to the developers in association with its disadvantages. What’s more important is that it has extended the JavaScript applications area and can be used for both front-end and back-end servers.Node.js is, without a doubt, one of the more exciting technologies in use today, and it has grown into one of the most popular platforms used for web applications, services, and desktop apps. With time, more and more business organizations have opted to use Node.js and are consistently getting positive results.
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What Are Callbacks in Node.JS

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How to Work with Lists in React.Js

React is a JavaScript library designed for developing quick and interactive user interfaces for web and mobile applications. It is an open-source, component-based, front-end library accountable only for the application's view layer. In Model View Controller (MVC) architecture, the view layer is liable for the app's looks and feel. React was founded by Jordan Walke, a software engineer at Facebook.Why has React gained popularity?React's fame today has overshadowed that of all other front-end development frameworks. Here is why:1. Simple creation of powerful and dynamic applications:React makes it more comfortable to create powerful and dynamic web applications because it demands less coding and contributes more functionality than JavaScript, where coding often gets complex instantly.2. Enhanced performance: React utilizes Virtual DOM, thereby creating web applications quicker. Virtual DOM matches the components' previous states and updates only the Real DOM items that were modified, instead of refreshing all of the features again, as traditional web applications do.  3. Reusable segments: Components are the building blocks of any React application, and a single app typically consists of various ingredients. These segments possess their philosophy and controls, and they can be reused everywhere in the application, which in turn dramatically lessens the application's evolution time. 4. Unidirectional information flow: React accompanies a unidirectional data flow. This means that when creating a React app, developers often nest child components within parent components. Since the data moves in a single direction, it becomes simpler to debug errors and understand where an obstacle occurs in an application at the moment in question. 5. Light learning curve: React is simple to learn, as it primarily combines basic HTML and JavaScript concepts with remarkable helpful additions. Still, as is the problem with other tools and frameworks, you have to spend some time to get a decent understanding of React's library. 6. Develop web and mobile apps: We already know that React is utilized to build web applications, but that's not the only thing it can do. There is a framework named React Native, procured from React itself, that is hugely successful and is employed for creating mobile applications. So, in truth, React can be utilized for making both web and mobile applications. 7. Dedicated tools for smooth debugging: Facebook has delivered a Chrome extension that can be utilized to debug React applications. This allows quicker and easier ways of debugging React web applications. The earlier reasons support the React library's reputation, and it is being utilized by many organizations and businesses. Introduction to ‘key’ attribute and its importance Keys support React to identify which items have been modified, are combined, or are eliminated. Keys should be assigned to the elements inside the array to provide the elements with a steady identity. React keys are essential when working with dynamically created components or when your lists are altered by users. Setting the key value will keep components unique, later after the conversion. Using KeysLet's dynamically generate Content elements with a unique index(i). The mapfunction() will generate three elements from our data array. Since the key-value needs to be unique for every aspect, we will assign i as a key for each built element. import React from 'react';  import ReactDOM from 'react-dom';  class App extends React.Component {     constructor() {        super();          this.state = {           data:            [              {                 component: 'The first element generated',                 id: 7              },              {                 component: 'The second element generated',                 id: 8              },              {                 component: 'The third element generated,                 id: 9              }           ]        }     }     render() {        return (                                          {this.state.data.map((dynamicComponent, i) = )}                                 );     }  }  class Content extends React.Component {     render() {        return (                         {this.props.componentData.component}              {this.props.componentData.id}                   );     }  }  ReactDOM.render(, document.getElementById('app'))Output  component: 'The first element generated',   id: 7   component: 'The second element generated',   id: 8   component: 'The third element generated,   id: 9 Lists are everywhere Lists are handy when it comes to developing the UI of any website. Lists are mainly used for displaying menus on a website, for example, the navbar menu. In conventional JavaScript, we can use arrays for creating lists. We can produce lists in React in a similar manner as we do in standard JavaScript. Creating a list of elements in ReactLet us now generate a list in React. Render the list in the below code as an unordered list in the browser rather than only logging in to the console. We will traverse the list using the JavaScript map() function and update elements to be embedded between   elements. Finally we will enclose this new list within   elements and render it to the DOM. import React from 'react';  import ReactDOM from 'react-dom';  const numbers = [2,3,4,5,6];  const updatedNums = numbers.map((number)=>{      return {number};  });  ReactDOM.render(                {updatedNums}      ,       document.getElementById('root')  ); The above code will be shown list as below  2  3  4  5  6 1. react native flatlist: This is a convenient react utility component designed to simplify handling the rendering list with ease. It can take grouping, sorting, filtering, searching, sorting, paginating, styling with very simple props. Instate Assure that react and react-dom version 16.8.0+ should be installed npm install flatlist-react Quick Start Take into consideration the following list passed to component PeopleList: // App.jsx people = [ {firstName: 'John', lastName: 'Correia', info: {age: 25}}, {firstName: 'Tim, lastName: 'Doe', info: {age: 18}}, {firstName: 'Joe', lastName: 'Doe', info: {age: 36}}, {firstName: 'Michelle', lastName: 'Carvalho', info: {age: 28}}, {firstName: 'Kathy, lastName: 'Correia', info:{age: 29}}, {firstName: 'Dave', lastName: 'Quichote', info: {age: 35}}, {firstName: 'Maria', lastName: 'Correia', info: {age: 0}}, {firstName: 'Brian', lastName: 'Gonzales', info: {age: 85}}, {firstName: 'Anna', lastName: 'Correia', info: {age: 34}} ] Now inside the component file, a function renderPerson would pass to renderItem: // PeopleList.jsx import FlatList from 'flatlist-react'; renderPerson = (person, idx) => { return ( {person.firstName} {person.lastName} ({person.info.age}) ); } return ( List is empty!} sortBy={["firstName", {key: "lastName", descending: true}]} groupBy={person => person.info.age > 18 ? 'Over 18' : 'Under 18'} /> )2. react dropdownlistSimple Dropdown inspired by react-select Why The default HTML select component is hard to style Fulfills requirement of grouped menus if Advanced select is required, check react-select Basic usage of react-dropdown  import Dropdown from 'react-dropdown'; import 'react-dropdown/style.css'; const options = [ 'one', 'two', 'three' ]; const defaultOption = options[0]; ;3. react native list view  Create a list in React Native. We will import the List in our Home component and show it on screen. App.js  import React from 'react'  import List from './List.js'  const App = () => {     return (             )  }  export default App Use map() method as this will iterate over various items and render each one. List.js  import React, { Component } from 'react'  import { Text, View, TouchableOpacity, StyleSheet } from 'react-native'   class List extends Component {     state = {        names: [           {              id: 0,              name: 'Ben',           },           {              id: 1,              name: 'Susan',           },           {              id: 2,              name: 'Robert',           },           {              id: 3,              name: 'Mary',           }        ]     }     alertItemName = (item) => {        alert(item.name)     }     render() {        return (                         {                 this.state.names.map((item, index) => (                     this.alertItemName(item)}>                                                 {item.name}                                                            ))              }                   )     }  }  export default List  const styles = StyleSheet.create ({     container: {        padding: 10,        marginTop: 3,        backgroundColor: '#d9f9b1',        alignItems: 'center',     },     text: {        color: '#4f603c'     }  }) 5. material ui list   Material-UI is a customizable and straightforward component library to build faster, beautiful, and more accessible React applications. Follow your design system, or start with Material Design. import './App.css'; import {Button} from '@material-ui/core'; //importing material ui component function App() {  return ( Press me //using the material ui component in our project ); } export default App; Refresh browser and will see a button with the words press me.6. react todo listCreate populating todo list items.import React, { Component } from "react"; export default class FormTodo extends Component { state = { inputValue: "", todos: [], }; inputChange = (e) => { this.setState({ inputValue: e.target.value, }); }; buttonSubmit = (e) => { this.setState({ // todos: [this.state.inputValue], todos: [this.state.inputValue, ...this.state.todos], inputValue: "", // input field clearing on submitting }); }; render() { return ( Add task {this.state.todos.map((todo) => ( {todo} ))} ); } }Simple Reactjs List with Simple ArrayDisplay data of a simple array having a list of countries in it. We will use .map to render the item in React. import React from "react";   function App() {  const CustomerName= [  { name: "Ram" },  { name: "Shyam" },  { name: "Mahendra" },  { name: "Vikrant" },  { name: "Ramesh" },  { name: "Mahesh" }  ];  return (    {CustomerName.map((data) => (  {data.name}  ))}    );  } Display Nested Lists in ReactWe needed to show data in nested form. import React from 'react';  function App() {  const users = [  {  id: "01",  name: "John Manchak",  email: "sincerity@may.biz",  zipcode: 14112  },  {  id: "02",  name: "Jim Howell",  email: "Shanni@melissa.com",  zipcode: 15111  }  ];   const finalArray = [users, users];  return (      {finalArray.map((nestedItem, i) => (    List {i}   {nestedItem.map(data => (    {data.name}  {data.email}  {data.zipcode}    ))}    ))}      );  } Building a collapsible listWe can create a simple collapsible component in react js. We will be passing the heading as a property to the element, and the .jsx that gets wrapped inside the component would be toggled on clicking the header. class Collapsible extends React.Component {  constructor(props){  super(props);  this.state = {  open: false  }  this.togglePanel = this.togglePanel.bind(this);  }  togglePanel(e){  this.setState({open: !this.state.open})  }  render() {  return (  this.togglePanel(e)} className=’header’>  {this.props.title}  {this.state.open ? (    {this.props.children}    ) : null}  );  }  }  /* CSS */  .header{  cursor: pointer;  border: solid 1px #f2f2f2;  padding: 15px;  background-color: #0089CC;  color: #FFF;  font-family: verdana;  }  .content{  cursor: pointer;  border-left: solid 1px #f2f2f2;  border-right: solid 1px #f2f2f2;  border-bottom: solid 1px #f2f2f2;  border-radius: 0 0 5px 5px;  padding: 15px;  font-family: verdana;  font-size: 14px;  } Sorting listsReactJs can create sorting lists as below: import { SortableItem, swapArrayPositions } from 'react-sort-list';  import { useState } from 'react';  let todos = [    {id: 1, title: "TaskItem 1"},    {id: 2, title: "TaskItem 2"},    {id: 3, title: "TaskItem 3"}  ]  function App() {    const [todoState, setTodoState] = useState(todos);    function swap(dragIndex, dropIndex) {      let swappedTodos = swapArrayPositions(todoState, dragIndex, dropIndex);      setTodoState([...swappedTodos]);        }    return (            {todoState.map(function (todo, index) {            return (                               {todo.title}                           )        })}          );  }  export default App;Inserting / Removing an element from the listIn ReactJs we can add or remove dynamically from the list as below: var App = React.createClass({    getInitialState : function() {      return (        {          fruits : {            'fruit-1' : 'orange',            'fruit-2' : 'apple'          }        }       )      },      addFruit : function(fruit) {        //create a unike key for each new fruit item        var timestamp = (new Date()).getTime();        // update the state object        this.state.fruits['fruit-' + timestamp ] = fruit;        // set the state        this.setState({ fruits : this.state.fruits });       },       removeFruit : function(fruitKey) {        // update the state object        delete this.state.fruits[fruitKey];        // set the state        this.setState({ fruits : this.state.fruits });        //alert(fruitKey);       },       render: function() {        return (                                                                 );        }       });       var FruitList = React.createClass({        render : function() {          return (                                          {                  Object.keys(this.props.fruits).map(function(key) {                    return {this.props.fruits[key]}                  }.bind(this))                }                                       );          }        });        var AddFruitForm = React.createClass({          createFruit : function(e) {            e.preventDefault();            //get the fruit object name from the form            var fruit = this.refs.fruitName.value;            //call the addFruit method of the App component            //to change the state of the fruit list by adding a new item            if(fruit.length > 0) {              this.props.addFruit(fruit);            }            //reset the form            this.refs.fruitForm.reset();          },          render : function() {            return(                                                                    Fruit Name                                                                      Add Fruit                          )          }        });        var RemoveFruitForm = React.createClass({          selectFruittoRemove : function(e) {            var fruit = e.target.value;            //get the fruit object name from the form            //var fruit = this.refs.removeFruitSelect.value;            //call the addFruit method of the App component            //to change the state of the fruit list by adding a new item            this.props.removeFruit(fruit);            //reset the form            this.refs.removeFruitForm.reset();          },          render : function() {            return(                                                               List of Fruits                                      Remove a fruit                    {                      Object.keys(this.props.fruits).map(function(key) {                        return {this.props.fruits[key]}                      }.bind(this))                    }                                                                            )          }        });        React.render(          ,          document.getElementById('app')        ); Building a newsfeed componentEssentialsA basic understanding of JavaScript (ES6) and React is required. The following needs to be installed on your machine: Node.js (v6 and above) Npm Create a new empty directory news-app and run npm init -y from within it to initialize the project with a package.json file.Set React app We will bootstrap our React application with create-react-app.  command: npm install -g create-react-app Once the installation process is completed, run the command below to set up your React application: create-react-app client Install the other dependencies; we will need to build the app frontend. npm install pusher-js pushid pushid helps us generate a random ID string which we’ll be needing when creating the news feed. Run yarn start to launch the development server once all the dependencies have been installed. Application logicimport React, { Component } from 'react';     import Pusher from 'pusher-js';     import pushid from 'pushid';     import './App.css';     class App extends Component {       state = {         newsItems: [],       }       componentDidMount() {         fetch('http://localhost:5000/live')           .then(response => response.json())           .then(articles => {             this.setState({               newsItems: [...this.state.newsItems, ...articles],             });           }).catch(error => console.log(error));         const pusher = new Pusher('', {           cluster: '',           encrypted: true,         });         const channel = pusher.subscribe('news-channel');         channel.bind('update-news', data => {           this.setState({             newsItems: [...data.articles, ...this.state.newsItems],           });         });       }       render() {         const NewsItem = (article, id) => (           {article.title}         );        const newsItems = this.state.newsItems.map(e => NewsItem(e, pushid()));         return (                       Live Bitcoin Feed             {newsItems}                   );       }     }     export default App;   Application styles Change its contents to look like this:  .App {       width: 100%;       max-width: 700px;       margin: 0 auto;     }     .App-title {       text-align: center;     }     .text-input {       width: 100%;       border: 1px solid #f7f7f7;       padding: 10px;     }     .text-input:hover {       box-shadow: 0 1px 4px 0 rgba(12, 12, 13, 0.2), 0 0 0 1px rgba(0, 0, 0, 0.25);     }     .news-items {       list-style: none;       padding-left: 0;     }     .news-items li {       margin-bottom: 10px;     }Server Setup Let’s install a simplistic Express server to fetch news items from and trigger real-time updates with Pusher. npm install express cors dotenv newsapi Pusher --save Create a new server.js file and open it up in your text editor. Add the following code to server.js: require('dotenv').config({ path: 'variables.env' });      const express = require('express');      const cors = require('cors');      const Pusher = require('pusher');      const NewsAPI = require('newsapi');      const app = express();      const pusher = new Pusher({        appId: process.env.PUSHER_APP_ID,        key: process.env.PUSHER_APP_KEY,        secret: process.env.PUSHER_APP_SECRET,        cluster: process.env.PUSHER_APP_CLUSTER,        encrypted: true,      });      const newsapi = new NewsAPI(process.env.NEWS_API_KEY);      const fetchNews = (searchTerm, pageNum) =>        newsapi.v2.everything({          q: searchTerm,          language: 'en',          page: pageNum,          pageSize: 5,        });      app.use(cors());      function updateFeed(topic) {        let counter = 2;        setInterval(() => {          fetchNews(topic, counter)            .then(response => {              pusher.trigger('news-channel', 'update-news', {                articles: response.articles,              });              counter += 1;            })            .catch(error => console.log(error));        }, 5000);      }      app.get('/live', (req, res) => {        const topic = 'bitcoin';        fetchNews(topic, 1)          .then(response => {            res.json(response.articles);            updateFeed(topic);          })          .catch(error => console.log(error));      });      app.set('port', process.env.PORT || 5000);      const server = app.listen(app.get('port'), () => {        console.log(`Express running → PORT ${server.address().port}`);      }); Once the /live endpoint is connected, news articles about bitcoin are regained from newsapi.org and transmitted back to the client.Begin the server by running node server.js from the root of your project directory. At this detail, news feed updates in real-time. Conclusion  React.js is a very new but also established library to make reusable view components that are encapsulated, sharable and easy to maintain. Many companies are using it in their production environments. The community is very active and extends React.js with new functionality on a daily basis. Learning React can make a world of difference to your career. React.js experts are highly sought after by established companies, to build user interfaces and help in the transition from old-fashioned technologies to one of the hottest new view libraries currently available. 
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How to Work with Lists in React.Js

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What’s New in Leading SAFe® 5.0

The global SAFe® summit, organized by Scaled Agile Inc. has declared a new variant of the Scaled Agile Framework. The new, simplified version of the model features business activity, focusing on providing a positive customer experience and expanding the critical aspect of portfolio management. SAFe® has added more clarity, structure, and direction. This post attempts to provide an overview of some major changes in SAFe® 5.0.  This new release is intended to extend SAFe® to encompass the complete enterprise and enable improved business activity. This post attempts to provide an overview of some major changes in SAFe® 5.0.  Important Highlights of SAFe® update  Gives the big picture for better features, flow, and continuous delivery   Developing value streams patterns supports model around the request from customers  Applying SAFe® to hardware improvement accelerates the delivery of cyber-physical systems  New direction and guidance around DevOps technical skills and tools for continuous delivery pipeline  More comprehensive direction for implementing Lean-Agile methods to business domains supports business agility  Integrated participatory budgeting promotes a dynamic and collaborative method of allocating funding to value streams  New designs, patterns, and behaviors for teams and ARTs simplifies their values  Incremental updates to SAFe® 5 will guarantee it stays current with new and evolving business and technology trends.WHAT’S NEW? Below are the highlights of what’s new in SAFe® 5.0. Customer focus in SAFe® 5.0 One of the primary changes is to focus on a customer-centric approach. Version SAFe® 5.0’s motto is to give a satisfactory experience to the customer. SAFe® recommends focusing more on what the customer is getting from the business and helps them focus on decision-making. The most important ingredient is revamped core competency, which focuses on understanding the needs of customers, setting customer lifetime value, and then building products that are customer-centric. New Big Picture The below graphic incorporates the contents of SAFe®, comprising a sketch of-- Essential SAFe®, Large Solution SAFe®, Portfolio SAFe®, and Full SAFe® and the consolidated updatesSource LinkConcentrate/ Focus on Business Agility.  Business Agility is the ability to face and grow by immediately responding to buoyant market conditions, varying customer needs, and emerging technologies. It requires that everyone is committed to delivering solutions—business and technology leaders, development, IT operations, legal, marketing, finance, support, compliance, security, and others—use Lean and Agile applications to continuously deliver innovative, high-quality products and services quicker. It is the differentiator that will determine the winners and failures in the digital economy. SAFe® defines business agility as “The capacity to compete and succeed in the digital age by reacting quickly to market fluctuations and opportunities with innovative business resolutions. It expects all those concerned in furnishing solutions i.e. business and technology leaders, development, IT policies and procedures, law, marketing, finance, maintenance and support, compliance, security/ protection from hackers, and others – to apply lean and agile methods to continuously provide innovative, quality products and services quicker than the competition.” How will business agility solve the problem? Enterprises start as a customer-centric network. As the organization progresses, the entrepreneurial network moves adjacent to the newly constituted “hierarchical arrangement” which is anticipated for the organization to mature. As the hierarchy grows to accomplish the organization’s revenue and growth needs, it begins to clash with the entrepreneurial network, which leads to network failure and customer-centricity getting lost in between. Nonetheless, this allows organizations to develop, but if a change in technology or customer requirement arises, companies fail to react and change. Instead of discarding the current system, a secondary system “SAFe® 5.0 Business Agility” could be executed which allows concentrating more on formulating value streams, not just departments. New SAFe® Overview SAFe®'s seven center capabilities encourage business readiness. The visual underneath shows an unmistakable image of SAFe®'s Seven Core Competencies of the Lean Enterprise and furthermore shows their 21 measurements that assist business readiness.   Execution competencies are displayed on the left, while the support strategy competencies are on the right. The Agile-Lean Leadership competency which is the foundation is in the bottom middle. The customer is prominently emphasized in the middle as the focal feature for all the competencies. Measure and Grow at the top right is a suggestion of the importance of cyclic self-assessments to track the organization’s journey towards the principles and practices that facilitate business agility.  Source LinkMeasuring Business Agility The SAFe® framework now includes Business Agility Assessment that empowers organizations to estimate their level of business agility and get support on expediting growth. The assessment incorporates the ratings of organizations according to various standards and levels within each core competency. Outcomes from this evaluation, represented by the radar below, can be represented as a baseline. As such, these can support organizations to determine the current status and know which fields to concentrate on for enhanced growth. It can help to prioritize for maximum accomplishment on the path to business agility. TWO NEW COMPETENCIES SAFe® 5.0 acquaints us with two new abilities-- Continuous Learning Culture, and Organizational Agility. Both of the skills are depicted in detail below. Continuous Learning Culture   The Learning Culture competency outlines a set of values and methods that inspire people and the complete organization to upgrade knowledge, skill, performance, and innovation. The aforementioned culture is achieved by encouraging the organization to upgrade knowledge, executing constant improvement, and promoting a culture of innovation.   The image below outlines the three dimensions of a continuous learning culture:Learning Organization – Employees would desire to upgrade themselves at each level and therefore the organization transforms and can endure an ever-changing world.  Innovation Culture – Employees are encouraged and empowered to explore and accomplish original concepts that expedite future value delivery.  Constant Improvement – Every part of the enterprise concentrates on continuously enhancing its solutions, products, and methods. Organizational Agility  The Agility competency of an Organization defines how Lean-thinking and Agile teams optimize their business processes, amplify the approach with clear and definitive new consignments, and immediately benefit the organization as expected to capitalize on new possibilities and opportunities. This new article explains the three dimensions of organizational agility:  Lean and Agile Teams – Teams that are connected with solution delivery are trained in Lean and Agile systems and know how to adopt and exemplify the values, policies, and practices.   Lean operations business team – Teams follow Lean principles to concede, map and continuously improve the business systems that support the business products and services.   Strategy Flexibility – The enterprise is manageable and flexible enough to continuously sense the market, and immediately adjust tactics when required.FIVE COMPETENCIES RESTRUCTURED Team and Technical Agility  The Technical Agility team outlines the Lean-Agile principles and methods that high-performing Agile teams use to provide high-quality resolutions for customers. The outcome is improved productivity, more stability, quality, faster time-to-market, and quick anticipated delivery of value. This competency has been written and is classified into the following dimensions: Agile TeamsHigh Performance of the cross-functional teams ensures competency by employing efficient Agile principles and practices.Agile Unit TeamsAgile teams function within the context of a SAFe® Agile Release Train (ART), a long-lasting, team of Agile teams that bestows a shared insight and direction and is ultimately accountable for delivering solutions.  Built-in QualityAgile teams execute Agile iterations to provide high-quality, well-designed recommendations that help current and prospective business requirements.Agile Product Delivery  Agile Product Delivery is a customer-centric approach to determine, develop, and deliver a constant stream of products and services that are of value to customers and users. This supports the organization to provide solutions that delight customers, reduce development costs/ risk, and reduce competition.  DevOps and Release competency has been combined into a couple of dimensions of Agile Product Delivery as shown in the Figure below:Customer-centric Thinking – Customer centricity puts the customer at a locus and uses design reasoning to ensure that the resolution implemented will be useful, possible, achievable, and can sustain in any circumstances.  Acquire on-demand and Declare on Request– Developing on flow enhances control in product development.  Releasing the value engagements to customers in segments would help customers to satisfy their requirements.  DevOps and the Continuous Delivery – DevOps and the Continuous Delivery Pipeline create the foundation that assists organizations to deliver excellence, in cumulative parts or in segments, at any point to satisfy consumer and market requirements. Lean Portfolio Management  The Lean Portfolio Management aligns strategies and achievements by implementing Lean methods approaches/ strategies, Agile portfolio methods, and governance. These collaborations deliver organizations the expertise to meet existing commitments and enable innovation.This competency has been revised and is classified into the following dimensions:Strategy & Investment Funding ensures the entire portfolio is aligned and financed to formulate and support the solutions expected to adhere to business targets.    Agile Portfolio Operations encourage decentralized program performance and promote operational excellence.    Lean Governance accommodates decision-making of spending, auditing, forecasting engagements, and measurement.Organization Solution Delivery  The Organization Solution Delivery competency shows how to apply Lean-Agile principles and methods to product specification, expansion, deployment, accomplishment, and progress of advanced software applications, networks, etc The Business and Lean Engineering Systems competency has been renamed as Enterprise Solution Delivery and it incorporates the following dimensions: Lean Solution and Systems   Engineering applies Lean-Agile practices to manage and coordinate all the activities needed to execute, test, deploy, evolve, and sequentially decommission these systems.   Coordinating Suppliers   Suppliers are coordinated and aligned to a set of value streams. This uses coordinated vision, backlogs, and roadmaps with common program Increment points.   Continually Evolve Live Systems assure large systems, and their growing pipeline supports continuous delivery. Lean-Agile Leadership  The Lean-Agile Leadership competency specifies how Lean-Agile Leaders manage and maintain organizational change by empowering individuals and teams to reach their highest potential. Adopting a Lean-Agile mindset results in more engaged employees, increased productivity and innovation, and successful organizational change.  The Lean-Agile leadership was revised and is grouped into the following dimensions:Set by example – Leaders achieve earned prestige by inspiring the team to incorporate the leader’s example into their own personal development journey.  Principles and Mindset – Embedding the Lean-Agile approach of working in their ideas, choices, acknowledgments, and activities, leaders model the required norm throughout the organization.  Managing Change – Leaders lead the transformation by designing the environment, preparing the people, and providing the necessary resources to realize the aspired outcomes. CUSTOMER FOCUSED DESIGN THINKING The Customer Centricity mindset has extended its focus to the mechanisms and systems that are aimed at resolving issues that customers face.  Customer Centricity The customer-centric organization conducts market research to create actionable items of the problems that customers face, the solution specifications, and the solutions required to resolve issues. FOR BUSINESS TEAMS SAFe®  Team of teams in SAFe® acts as an agile release train and it presents value to the organization. They adopt the Lean and Agile values, principles, and practices that are relevant to their responsibilities and adjust their existing processes accordingly. The Agile Release Train (ART) is a long-lived team of Agile teams, which, accompanied by different stakeholders, incrementally develops, delivers, and where applicable operates one or more solutions in a value stream. ARTs comprise cross-functional teams and possess all the abilities—software, hardware, firmware, and others—needed to define, implement, test, deploy, release, and where applicable, operate solutions.ARTs operate on a set of common principles:  If a Feature misses a timed departure and is not planned in the current PI, it can be taken in the next one.  Each train delivers a new increment every two weeks.  Teams on the train are synchronized on the related PI of 8 – 12 weeks and have common Iteration start/end dates and duration.  Each ART estimates how much can be delivered in a PI.  Agile Teams welcome the ‘Agile Manifesto’ and SAFe® Core Values and Principles. They apply Scrum, Extreme Programming (XP), Kanban, etc Built-In Quality practices.  Most people in ART are committed full-time to the train. The ART plans work periodically mostly face-to-face PI Planning events.  An Inspect and Adapt event is held at the end of every PI.  Teams and management identify backlog items via a structured, problem-solving workshop.  ARTs apply flow and synchronization to better accomplish the internal variability of investigation and improvement.  NEW SAFE® IMPLEMENTATION ROADMAP The Scaled Agile Framework for enterprises contributes integrated, well established scaling patterns that have benefited many organizations around the world to solve their business obstacles associated with speed, multiple teams' alignment, flexibility & quality, and improvement with successful Agile delivery.    The SAFe® Roadmap outlines the levels of the organization and implements SAFe® in an arranged, stable, and successful fashion. While adopting SAFe® would vary based on circumstances, the Implementation Roadmap offers insight into a fairly common implementation pattern. The roadmap has been developed by proven change management strategies and the experience of hundreds of global enterprises that have adopted SAFe®.   The SAFe® Implementation Roadmap includes 12 critical moves for the successful embracing of Lean-Agile principles and mindset and their applicability throughout the organization.WHAT ARE THE CHANGES FROM 4.5 TO 5.0  Below are the diverse levels in SAFe® 4.5 and SAFe® 5.0. SAFe®  5.0 Level  SAFe® 5.0 is the most advanced level that comes with an important update to the last version 4.5. It comes with two extra competencies i.e. Lean Enterprise and Business Agility. SAFe® 5.0 with extra two competencies also focuses on core competencies of SAFe® 4.5 that includes Technical and Team Agility, Release on Demand and DevOps, Lean Systems Engineering and Business Solutions, Lean Portfolio and Lean-Agile Leadership.  SAFe®  4.5 Level Four levels are incorporated in this SAFe® implementation-- they are Portfolio, Value Stream, Program, and Team. It is mainly used for resolutions that require several professionals to create, deploy, manage and maintain softwareWHAT DOES VERSION 5.0 IMPLY Scaled Agile Framework inspires realization within organizations that there is a need to transform development teams. They require to transform organization-wide in order to compete in today’s landscape. The focus has now whirled towards full business agility. In reference to SAFe® 5.0, Business Agility empowers organizations to capitalize on rising opportunities by allowing people to make quick settlements, designate money, and adjust the right people to work.  SAFe® confirms that a framework alone is not sufficient to achieve a successful transformation; the true difference makers are the talent i.e., leaders and teams of the organization. Globalization, fast-moving markets and the unprecedented pace of technological innovation provokes organizations to transform to survive. But their current business models, organizational hierarchy, and technology infrastructure often hold back organizations from transforming fast.  Important Highlights of SAFe® 5.0:  Focus on customer centricity and design thinking empowers the organization to recognize the problem and design the right solution.  New Measures and guidance help the organization circumscribe its current state of business agility and recognize tactical steps to enhance economic outcomes and reach its desired state.  Continuous Learning Culture competency provides a collection of values and practices that inspires everyone in the enterprise to continuously learn and innovate with mutual cooperation.  Organizational Agility helps teams optimize their enterprise processes, develop strategies with clear commitments and quickly accommodate to realize new opportunities.  SAFe® 5.0 allows teams to engage in delivering and supporting innovative business resolutions.  It organizes and helps enterprise regulate their development efforts around the full, end-to-end value flow. CONCLUSIONSAFe® 5.0 brings the significant modifications that were required for organizations to improve but also not lose core focus on customers. With business agility, organizations can now concentrate on generating value streams for their overall maturity and growth rather than focus on each department individually. The two new core competencies will empower the organizations to generate a learning culture to encourage continuous improvement in innovative solutions, performance, and growth and also modify or accommodate artifices according to the variation in market trends. Overall, it helps in bringing back the focus without losing it in the hierarchical structure of organizations.
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What’s New in Leading SAFe® 5.0

The global SAFe® summit, organized by Scaled Ag... Read More

The Best Product Development Process

What Is Product Development? Product development relates to the creation of a new product that has some benefit; up-gradation of the existing product; or improvement of the production process, method, or system. In other words, it is all about bringing a change for the better in the present goods or services or the mode of production.  Product development includes the following elements:Creation and Innovation pave the process for new discoveries and the creation of a new product that offers benefits to the consumers. Amendment of the existing products is essential to enhance the past products and to attain perfection. Improvement of the existing production process, methods, and practices helps give customers an improved experience. It is cost-efficient for the organization too. For Example; Apple CEO Steve Jobs envisioned an idea of using a touch screen to interact with a computer, which would allow him to directly type onto the display, instead of using a stylus. This idea of a touch screen was first implemented for the first iPhone that was launched in 2007 in the US. Apple, with its new product development, revolutionized the way we use mobile gadgets.Why Is It So Important to have a Product Development Process? Product development is the procedure for the successful development of new products or adding new features to the current product. In business terms, the product development policy provides a skeleton that aids enhancement of the performance and quality of products.  The approaches outlined below can bring up scores of advantages to help and expand the business in today’s contentious market. Control over productThe development of a product without a decent approach is quite a precarious challenge. To manage and to be sure of success, it is necessary to plan the development of your products or services and this is what the business or organization requires. The planning would help in fulfilling business goals. Enhanced performanceSeveral times, even after spending thousands of dollars on promotion or marketing the product, a business owner faces setbacks because of poor quality of the product. Hence, it is important to monitor the production and other processes to preserve a record of wrongdoings and improve the same. Reduce costCreating and implementing new products leads to additional cost to the company. The owner has to bear a huge cost in the primary stages of product development, but after the execution process, it is noticed that there is a decrease in product development cost.The History of Product Development Processes Product improvement is closely tied to creativity, invention, and insight—and follows the vision of an idea. For example: the present-day Gas stove is the consequence of some ancient human's insight that a fire is created by rubbing two stones together: the rest was product development. According to Michael McGrath (in Next Generation Product Development), keen focus on the development process began late in the 19th century. McGrath divides the time since into "generations" of product development importance. First ending in 1950s, the focus was on commercialization of discoveries; in the second, formalization of product development as a process began, and this lasted until the 1980s. In the third "generation" of product development, corporate management concentrated on getting products to market faster. In the 21st century, according to McGrath, stress had shifted to R&D-based development. All types of strategies to product development proceed to exist side-by-side. As in gambling, no "method" ensures success.Product Development Process Models There are different software development life cycle models defined which are helpful in designing the software development process.  Some important and popular SDLC models supported in the industry are as follows: Waterfall Process Model Iterative Process Model Spiral Process Model V Process Model Big Bang Process Model Agile Process Model RAD Process Model Prototyping Process Models Waterfall ModelThe Waterfall Model is the traditional Process Model. It is considered as a linear-sequential life cycle model. Waterfall model at each stage must accomplish the next phase before and there should be no overlapping phases.Iterative Process Model  Iterative process starts with an easy implementation of a subset of the software requirements and iteratively improves the evolving versions until the full system is implemented.  With every  new iteration, new design modifications are produced and new functional capabilities are added.  Spiral Process Model The spiral model has four phases. A software project repeatedly passes through these phases in iterations called Spirals i.e. Identification, Design, Construct or Build and Evaluation and Risk Analysis. V Process Model The V-model is an SDLC model where execution of processes occurs in a sequential manner in a V-shape. It is also acknowledged as Verification and Validation model. The V-Model is an extension of the waterfall model. Big Bang Process Model The Big Bang model is an SDLC model where we do not follow any definite process. The development begins with the required money and efforts as the input, and the output is the software developed which may or may not be as per customer demand. Agile Process Model Agile product development life cycle promotes frequent inspection and adaptation. The methodologies rely on the experience of small teams and teamwork to address any changes and promote trusted customer collaboration. Agile product development methods begin things in small increments. Iterations are small; typically of one to four weeks duration. RAD Process Model The RAD (Rapid Application Development) model is based on prototyping and iterative development with no special planning involved. The method of drafting the software itself involves the planning required for producing the product. Software Prototype Process Model The Software Prototyping refers to building software application prototypes which illustrate the functionality of the product under development, but may not truly hold the precise logic of the original software.What Is the Product Development Lifecycle? The product life cycle is an influential concept in marketing. It defines the stages a product goes through right from its inception to when it is removed from the market. Not all products relinquish the final stage. Some advance and grow while others rise and fail. The main stages of the product life cycle are: Research & development - Researching and developing the product before it is made available for sale in the market Introduction – Driving the product into the market Growth – When sales are expanding at their fastest rate Maturity – Sales are near their highest, but the percentage of growth is slowing down, e.g. new rivals in market or saturation Decline – Final step of the cycle, when sales begin to fallThis can be illustrated by looking at the sales during the time span of the product.What is a New Product Development Process? The product development method is a well-defined series of steps or stages a company uses to achieve its accomplishment of new offerings. Every company develops new product or services, but product development processes vary considerably from one company to another depending on the industry, the product type, whether the product is an incremental improvement or a breakthrough innovation, and the extent to which you focus on product portfolio management. What are the six steps of a traditional new product development process? A typical product development process of this kind has six steps with five gates. Step 1: Product Discovery  Step 2: Definition of Product Step 3: Product Business Case Development  Step 4: Detailed Product Design  Step 5 Validation/Testing of product developed Step 6: Product Launch Step 1: Product Discovery This initial step or stage of the new product development process is where new product ideas originate. A company forms a small team to study the idea and initial draft of the product, perform market analysis, and explore technical and market risk. The concept is the most important step for new products as this is where the most product ideas come from - and this determines the necessity for the development. If the study or product concept is wrong at the early stage, then not only is time wasted but it also increases opportunity cost.    Step 2: Definition of Product This stage encompasses polishing the definition of the product. The team creates the first comprehensive evaluation of the technology, and the market and business features of the new product concept. Developers and managers review and illustrate the important points of differentiation for the new product. If this process is carried out incorrectly, then it can increase time to market or cause the product to misinterpret the needs of the market. Step 3: Product Business Case Development Action supports the organization’s investment in the development of a product by having the team create a comprehensive business plan. This plan comprises exhaustive market research. The team explores the new product and where the intended product fits within it, and also creates a monetary model for the innovative offering that makes presumptions about market share. Step 4: Detailed Product Design The team outlines and assembles a working prototype of the product. In most cases they alpha-test the archetype, working with customers in an iterative manner; receiving feedback, and incorporating it into the prototype. This step in the new product development process is sometimes called Development, and charters the next step, “Validation/Testing.” Step 5: Validation/Testing of product developed Validation and testing mean ensuring the prototype operates as predicted. It also means verifying the product in the opinions of the customers and markets and testing the viability of the financial model of the product. Step 6: Product launch During the product development process, the team realizes everything required to bring the product to market, including marketing and sales plans.   Gate Reviews Each of these six phases finishes within a gate review where the team gives the management specific, pre-defined deliverables, and displays the outcomes required to move on to the next phase of the product development process.The world is moving away from this waterfall product development approach.  It is extremely process heavy and encourages additional interference from Senior Management.Image sourceMinimum Viable Process: A Modern Approach What value does the planning of a new product development bring to customers? Irrespective of its form-i.e. physical or digital, it should be able to solve the customer’s problem. It doesn't matter how complex the problem would be, but it should deliver a high-quality product that brings value to your customers.  In a nutshell, Minimum Viable Product (MVP) is a variant of a software product that has enough functionalities to satisfy the primary needs of the first users and persuade investors to invest money into it. It is not a fully-grown product, but it can nonetheless bring business privileges and has the potential for additional development.  In other words, an MVP is a working prototype that should: Be fast to build Contemplate all resources (money, developers, etc.) on providing customers with real value Create those features that are important for a product to generate value The theory of an MVP was developed by Eric Ries in his book The Lean Startup. The author believes that the most important factor is to focus on business goals and not on the technology which has only secondary importance. Focus on investigating the market and understand the obstacles your potential customers want to solve.  Any product before it is released to the public is a mere theory. Testing in a real-life scenario is important to collect market feedback and then iterate. Each idea, even the most profound one, brings no business value until it is put into practice. An MVP allows you to verify, without making an ample investment of time and money, if the product attracts new customers when launched.  If your product is successful, continue to develop it so it becomes a foundation for a fully-grown product. When MVP needs improvements to be transformed into a product it should be completely reworked. MVP strategy allows you to considerably shorten your time-to-market.  A Modern, Lean Product Development Process Toyota began its journey with lean product development at Toyota Loom Works. Toyota started manufacturing cars. There were differences in manufacturing conditions between Japan and the USA. Toyota had few skilled engineers and had limited prior experience. Car companies in US employed a well-educated work team and benefited from the research and skill-sets of their engineering teams. To tackle this shortfall in knowledge and experience, Toyota escorted an incremental approach to development that built on their current knowledge and this became the basis of the lean systems. Lean Product Development (LPD) is based on lean thinking and lean principles that originally were developed in lean manufacturing. Lean thinking relates to way of thinking and specific practices that maintain less of everything – less resources, less work-in-process, less time, and less cost – to manufacture a physical product, knowledge product or service product.  The five Lean Thinking Principles are: Define and maximize customer value Identify the value stream and reduce waste Make the value-creating steps flow Empower the team Learn and improve Approach: Creating products that delight customers and meet business objectives. Agile methodology versus Waterfall methodology The waterfall project methodology is a traditional pattern for developing engineering systems that were used in manufacturing and construction projects. When executed in software development, specific tasks completed in one phase need to be assessed and validated before moving to the next phase. It is called a linear and sequential approach, where phases flow downward to the next.  The agile project methodology is an example of an incremental model for software development based on principles that focus more on people, decisions, and manageable responses to change. Planning of the whole project is broken down in small increments or short time spans. Each iteration involves the whole SDLC cycle so that a working product is delivered at the end. Some of the distinct differences are: Agile is an incremental and iterative approach; Waterfall is a linear and sequential approach. Agile distributes a project into sprints; Waterfall distributes project into phases. Agile helps to finish many small projects; Waterfall helps to complete one single project. Agile incorporates a product mindset with a focus on customer satisfaction; Waterfall introduces a project mindset with a focus on successful project delivery. Requirements are planned everyday in Agile, while in Waterfall, requirements are adjusted once at the start. Agile enables requirement changes at any time; Waterfall shuns scope changes once the project starts. Testing is done concurrently with development in Agile; testing stage comes only after the build phase in Waterfall. Testing teams in Agile can take part in specifications change; testing teams in Waterfall do not get involved in specification changes. Agile empowers the entire team to manage the project without a project manager; Waterfall requires a project manager who performs an essential role in every phase. Cross-functional teams Cross-functional collaboration involves people from diverse spheres, bringing together their knowledge, expertise, and experience. The major point is “work-interdependency”. Teams have to work together to accomplish results. Cross-team collaboration has become the demand of continually emerging new technologies, with new competitors scrumming, and companies aspiring to stay on top of the game. The success of a cross-functional team depends on several factors, without which a team would be struggling. Highly motivated team members Teams hold responsibility to achieve the mission Open-minded team members Management to support the team No opposing personal goals Clear priorities or direction Adequate communication Cross-functional collaboration can be a great team building measure and can build a more creative atmosphere. The 8 Benefits of Cross-Functional Team Collaboration are: To bring a gulp of creative ideas Engaged employees Spurring innovative ideas Exercising communication skills Developing management skills Chance to get in leadership roles Break stereotype and benefit from diversity Build better team spiritExample: Product development—Agile methodology (Case Study) Below is the case study of a team that faced issues but managed to implement solutions to resolve the issues and delivered output with high standards Issues Products or Services were not delivered on-time. Rework and burden caused employee stress and customer disappointment Lack of clear and well-defined product development methods Excessive projects in the pipeline; team was small, and resources were spread too thin Projects were continuously reprioritized leading to incompetent resource utilization Lack of clarity to project status The absence and missing of key resources led to inefficient product development Lack of strategic management Poor communication and hand-offs between departments Solution implemented Designed a portfolio management system that managed an appropriate and optimal number of projects based on available resources Acquired a scalable and robust lean product development process with integrated lean/agile techniques Implemented cross-functional teams with designated roles and responsibilities Standardized project management processes and enhanced project clarity across the organization Coached the product management team on maturing product strategies and roadmaps Trained and mentored senior management and project team members What made the solution successful? Active and strong senior management buy-in and support played an important role in implementing the solutions at high standards Built organizational knowledge that can be used in other active projects Projects were kept on hold until resources were available Efficient project planning facilitated proper collaboration within cross-functional teams Product development strategies and roadmaps helped the development team Daily stand-up meetings organized helped cross-functional teams to monitor project work, front and center Accommodated implementation timing based on the organization’s capability Effect or Consequence Within a couple of months, important and high priority projects were completed on-time (some early); the client was hence satisfied The client acquired a major contract from the customer due to improved on-time delivery and this, in turn, ensured more business Enhanced communication and coordination across all departments Senior management was competent to evaluate and prioritize the most important projects  Weekly Reports granted visibility to project status Product development and lean/agile processes are now efficiently embedded into the organization The internal conflicts between team members and departments have declined ConclusionNew product development is about transforming new and uninitiated ideas into workable products. This product will be your brainchild, which will provide a contentious advantage and help monopolize the market.The eight stages of product development may seem like a lengthy process, but they are outlined to save time and resources. New product improvement plans and prototypes are experimented with to assure that the new product will meet target market demands and desires. Implement a test launch during the test or marketing stage as a full market launch would be expensive. Finally, the commercialization stage is meticulously planned to maximize product success. A poor launch will affect product sales and could even affect the reputation and vision of the new product.Hence, A Certified Scrum Product Owner® (CSPO®) is one such certification that helps holders become successful product owners by training them on aspects of on-time delivery of high-value releases and maximizing the ROI.
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The Best Product Development Process

What Is Product Development? Product development... Read More

Different Types of Product Teams

The product team is accountable for implementing different strategies for developing the roadmap and defining product features. The team would choose what to build, promote and what is new, and measure accomplishments of organizational roles within the company. A product team is typically composed of cross-functional teammates. They are accountable for product management, marketing, user experience, and analytics.The digitalization of businesses has had companies create more and more applications for their end-users and domestic needs. AI-powered chatbots are now replacing humans when it comes to addressing customer grievances. Many non-tech companies have started outsourcing their work to integral engineering teams with dedicated product owners, product managers, and business analysts, who deliver the product with full responsibility.The company requires a global visionary who can drive the team in the correct direction for product development. The rest depends on the shoulders of the outsourcing team. Startups and large companies benefit from having dedicated development teams.WHAT IS A PRODUCT TEAM?A product team structure is typically composed of cross-functional teammates. They are accountable for product management, product marketing, user experience, and product analytics. Product teams may be provided with assignments for marketing, forecasting, and profit and loss (P&L) responsibilities. Individual product teamThe product team typically combines multiple roles throughout the organization, all of which have an impact on the product and strategic roadmap. This group includes individuals from engineering/development, sales, support, operations, and marketing; all of whom are led by a product manager. Organizational team structureThe product development team includes product managers, associate product managers, research analysts, and business analysts. All organizations are set up a bit differently and this team can also include technical PMs, UX team members, product marketers as well as other roles. Below are the roles and responsibilities of each function within a typical product organization:Functional Areas   Product management Responsibilities of management Set the product perception and approach Organize and deliver releases Assemble and curate unique ideas Create new product features Roles in management Product Director  Product manager Owner of the product Associate product manager Functional Areas  User design experience (UX) Responsibilities of UX User research Create user stories Creating wireframes, mockups, and prototypes Usability testing UX Roles Director UX product manager UX senior designer Designer UX  Functional Areas  Product AnalyticsResponsibilities in Analytics Data sources Integration  Market trends research User journeys User behavior and pain points Analytics Roles Director Manager Analytics Product senior analyst Business analystTHE PRODUCT CORE TEAMThe Core Product team is the one that builds and maintains the key features of the product that has been developed. For e.g., Key features of the Zoho (Project Management tool) are built and maintained by the core team, and this is the reason for its seamless and flawless management of different projects and teams. The better a product is built with outstanding features, the more it gets adopted by users and the more business value it generates.  The Core Product team is also responsible for solving customer problems and helping customers with their issues.  To achieve this, the team focuses on a range of activities as below: Distinguishing unmet needs, underserved audiences, or inadequately solved problems. Implementing solutions that adhere to the expectations of the customers; considering factors such as viability, feasibility, usability, and value. Giving solutions that are robust, fault-tolerant, and maintainable Operating, maintaining, and improving these solutions. THE ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES OF A CORE PRODUCT MANAGERA product manager combines a business plan, design knowledge, and customer requirements in order to develop a product that is suitable, feasible, and valuable. PMs are focused on optimizing a product to accomplish the business goals and user necessities while maximizing return on investment. The product manager contrives all of the white space around the product. The product manager tackles everything that falls outside of the bounds of any of the three (business plan, design knowledge, and customer requirements) core groups. An API product manager and other product managers would have different customers. That means that the product manager needs to be much better at technical skills. As another example, a consumer product manager might be assisting millions of customers, and therefore needs to be extremely quantitative. A B2B product manager would serve a dozen total customers, and therefore needs to be highly skilled at change management, negotiations, and objection approach. Within the same company, we can see a diversity of product managers, because each product manager is managing fundamentally different problems as they are working with different kinds of customers, business stakeholders, and development teams. THE PLATFORM PRODUCT TEAMThe product platform team is responsible for developing the tools and building blocks that allow product developers to formulate relevant features instantly. Product Platform team builds and maintains the frameworks that encapsulate resolutions to regular problems.  Tools built by the platform team speed up iteration and debugging; for example, a tool allowing developers to spin up a fake sandbox instance in order to test new features. The product platform team cooperates with product developers in order to ensure that we are giving the best support. This includes: Giving out questionnaires to identify general improvement pain points and untapped potential for amendments to frameworks and tooling Product platform provides valuable suggestions and thoughts to the team which helps them work efficiently and seamlessly. As we progress, keeping stakeholders associated with regular meetings and updates in order to make sure we’re formulating the right thing. Product platform engineers often have some of the following specialized skills: Ability to complete large-scale codebase migrations. Provide expertise to establish appropriate ideas for the use cases. Efficiently managing the project and satisfying the demands of stakeholders with assorted interests.PLATFORM PRODUCT MANAGER RESPONSIBILITIESA product manager outlines consumer needs and business goals and translates them into viable, innovative products. They compose and execute the necessary steps to move new products through each stage of development i.e. from inception to product launch. Developing roadmaps to drive products, authorizing and communicating product requirements, supervising usability testing and prototype development, prioritizing features, writing improvements, and determining and tracking metrics are daily activities of the platform manager. The product platform manager is bound to meet milestones and deadlines for deliverables; formulating user stories, packaging and promoting, expediting cross-functional teams, and directing market research and competitive analysis. Platform managers working in a computer company focus on improving the overall performance of computer systems, while other platform managers focus on improving platforms upon which computer programs will run. All of these improvements should be done within budget and customer needs. At Yahoo!, the platform manager acts as an alliance between the platform development team and its customers. These managers are accountable for answering customer questions and also explaining customer concerns to the project development team. THE GROWTH TEAM’S GROWTHThe growth product manager ideally operates with a dedicated, cross-functional team, often referred to as a seed, of engineering, analyst, and design resources, joined with additional non-dedicated resources from teams directly impacted by the goal at hand. For example, if the purpose is to improve sales of Product A, the core product manager of that product will be involved in different activities such as implementing user friendly features, digital marketing etc. ‍In limited developed organizations, the growth PM may only have access to a dedicated, full-stack engineer or may have no committed resources at all. In this situation, the growth PM must establish a firm business case to gain access to a number of non-dedicated, cross-functional resources to support. Here are a few tips, if you are building a growth team:Discover Problem - Find a unique problem that could help drive growth. Typically, this is an abandoned area at the company. Product manager should not try to own all of the growth as this will demotivate the team. Development and no retaliation - Appreciate the culture and principles that made the company flourish. Develop these principles and don't re-write them. Failure - Explore quick wins but expect that the team could fail early and often. Give them enough opportunity to finish the task. Communicate and celebrate the success - Use success as a carrot and display how to approach problems.RESPONSIBILITIES OF GROWTH PRODUCT MANAGERGrowth product managers help to reduce obstacles that arise during the development of the product, which intimates that they enable customers and users to promptly find gain within the core product. In other words, growth product managers would be more fruitful when there is already an existing product that hasn’t yet been matured enough for its growth. Lots of organizations would ideally engage core product managers first and then would hire growth product managers as core product managers would facilitate new use cases in the product. The difference can be noticed between core product managers and growth product managers. Core product managers open new superpowers. Growth product managers expedite the pace at which users gain superpowers. Following are the key responsibilities of a growth product manager. Growth product managers are all about eliminating disagreement. Growth product managers instead of owning a specific set of product functionality are highly focused on metrics. Growth product managers are given specific direction to operate across many diverse product functionalities to optimize important metrics. They will be more focused on how to drive more value from existing products. Describing at a high level, growth product managers need to be both obsessively quantitative and creatively qualitative. SCRUM PRODUCT OWNER The product owner is a position on a product development team accountable for maintaining the product backlog in order to accomplish the desired consequence that a product development team attempts to achieve.   Important activities to accomplish in this role include: Clearly recognize and determine product backlog items in order to build a shared understanding of the problem and resolution with the product development team Advance decisions concerning priority of product backlog items in order to deliver maximum outcome with minimum output Discover whether a product backlog item was adequately addressed Guarantee transparency into the upcoming work of the product development team. The product owner role was designed as part of the Scrum framework in line to address hurdles that the product development teams had with various, conflicting direction, or no direction at all with respect to what to develop. Many assume that a product owner is someone who can spend a considerable amount of time with the product development team giving clarification on product backlog items and making decisions about which product backlog items to do. The Product Owner is accountable for maximizing the value of the product resulting from the work of the Development Team. The Product Owner may do the above work, or have the Development Team do it. However, the Product Owner remains accountable. The Product Owner is one person, not a committee. The Product Owner may represent the aspirations of a committee in the Product Backlog, but those desiring to change a Product Backlog item’s priority must address the Product Owner. For the Product Owner to succeed, the whole organization must appreciate his or her decisions. The Product Owner’s conclusions are evident in the content and ordering of the Product Backlog. No one can force the Development Team to operate from a different set of requirements. FEATURE OWNER AND COMPONENT OWNER A feature owner, in reverse, is focused on one or more specific and individual features. The feature owner’s liability is to guarantee that the features function well, for instance, that the drop-off amount of the checkout feature is low. On the other hand, a component owner takes care of one or more segments, such as, the user interface or data access layer. This person makes sure that the architectural component works as anticipated. To do so, the person needs to possess relevant and suitable technical skills.  The picture below illustrates the three different owner roles.Using feature and component owners is a scaling technique. It benefits to grow a product by dividing the product responsibilities. A familiar approach is to have one overall product owner who accomplishes the entire product and several feature and component owners who look after its different elements.PLATFORM OWNERSoftware platform is a collection of digital assets that are used by different products, and a platform owner maintains such a platform. The individual is accountable for maximizing the value of the platform, for example, reducing the time of launching of product to market that are developed and on top of it reducing development cost. A platform owner is similar to a product owner and should have in-depth technological expertise that they would need in order to communicate with the users of the product. The users may be development team members who build products that use that platform. When a platform matures, it may be necessary to share product ownership and propose new features. SAFe® PRODUCT OWNER The agile scaling framework SAFe handles its own product owner role, the SAFe product owner. Despite the similarity of the name, the role significantly deviates from the Scrum product owner. While the Scrum product owner owns a product in its totality, a SAFe product owner looks after the product features, describes user stories, operates on a subset of the product backlog, and communicates with one or more development teams.  The SAFe product owner is focused on the product tactics. The strategic product responsibilities are taken on by another role, the SAFe product manager.  The SAFe model divides the product ownership into two distinct roles:  SAFe product manager owns the strategic product decisions SAFe product owner is in charge of the tactics.  This is in contrast to the Scrum product owner who operates full-stack product ownership, from vision to the tactics, as the following picture shows.   PORTFOLIO OWNER A portfolio owner handles a group of products, and the role is also known as product portfolio manager. Example of a product portfolio is the owner who handles ecommerce, healthcare and publication products/services under one full portfolio. The job of a portfolio owner is to maximize the value that a product portfolio creates. This includes actively accomplishing the portfolio, cooperating with the product owners who look after the products within the portfolio, tuning with the individual product strategies and product roadmaps, aligning major releases, accomplishing dependencies, and creating and improving a common user experience across the various products.  The individual who has solid product management experience and skills and has successfully managed individual products would fit into this role. For a smaller product portfolio, the head of product would take on this role without any hiccups else a dedicated full-time portfolio owner will be expected. CONCLUSIONProduct teams require sound structure and well-defined roles. it starts with a clear strategy that describes what needs to be achieved. A clear product concept, vision and strategy helps teams to cooperate in a dynamic way — no matter how the team is structured. Many product teams rely on purpose-built software to determine and define strategies, manage ideas, formulate visual roadmaps, and examine results in a centralized location. 
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Different Types of Product Teams

The product team is accountable for implementing d... Read More

What is an "Integrated Product Team" ?

Product and process technology is quickly evolving, and competition with opponents is becoming tougher across the globe. Customers are emphasizing enhanced features and authenticity, but reduced defense spending requires stress on excellence and affordability. These changing and challenging circumstances require the implementation of integrated product development concepts to lessen development cycle time and strengthen product quality when delivered to the customer.Integrated Product Development (IPD) focuses on the integrated design of products and production and support processes. The design of the product and the process must be combined to ensure the optimal approach to manufacture and support the product. What Is the Importance of the Product Team? The role of the Product team is to execute business strategy while also playing the purpose of market advocate. They confirm that ideas implemented are in association with the overall corporate strategy. Product team leads the company to deliver competitive products that are in line with market needs and help the company reach business goals.The following points characterize a good product team.The product team has a clear understanding of customers’ challenges and goals. As a team they share a strong purpose and vision and work tirelessly to solve the problem they are facing. The product team lists assumptions for each product or list feature idea and convert these to testable theories. They spend A LOT of time on researching and testing. The product team builds their roadmaps around hurdles that they would like to solve for the customers. The product team involves the whole team in resolving customer challenges. The entire team is employed in designing, prototyping and testing a solution. After the product teams delivers a new feature, they measure the success of it based on the insights of the initial customer discovery. Customer feedback and insights enable the team to learn tirelessly and they try out new approaches for solving their customers’ problems. They have an overall idea of the existing solutions that customers have. They assume what customers struggle with, and what the potentials for improvements could be. The product team is conscious that what is accomplished today might not be the best solution tomorrow. They continuously seek feedback from users, customers, and leads, and are conscious of where the market is moving. They update the customer pain points, personas, customer goals, and product expectations. The product team doesn’t work in isolation. They collude closely with sales, marketing, and support teams. They impart a lean approach for learning and responding to customer behavior all across an organization. The product team will understand the latest technology first and will adopt it only after experimenting with it and ensuring to achieve the solution that fits users' actual usage and expectations. They will contribute to building conceptual MVPs and testing product ideas, rather than wasting valuable time on perfecting technology before placing it in front of users. What Are Integrated Product Teams? An integrated product team (IPT) is a multidisciplinary combination of people who are collectively accountable for delivering a designated product or process. The emphasis of the IPT is on the relationship of all stakeholders in a collaborative forum. IPTs were introduced to the U.S. in 1995 as part of the major acquisition reforms to the way goods and services were acquired. IPTs are used in complex development programs/projects for inspection and decision making. The emphasis of the IPT is on the involvement of all stakeholders in a collaborative forum. There are three types of IPTs that every procurement program will implement: Overarching IPTs: Concentrate on imperative guidance, program evaluation, and issue resolution Working-level IPTs: Recognize and resolve program issues, discover program situation, and examine opportunities for procurement reform Program-level IPTs: Focus on program accomplishment and may include representatives from both government and industry after contract award. Integrated Product and Process Development is the management method that simultaneously integrates all necessary procurement activities through the use of IPT to optimize design, manufacturing, and supportability methods. The remarkable success of the integrated product and process development (IPPD) at companies such as Boeing, Motorola, and Hewlett-Packard has prompted many manufacturers to focus renewed importance on this critical aspect of concurrent engineering. Below are the principles of integrated product development Good consumer relationships, frequent interactions, and feedback practices lead to more solid understanding of customer’s/user’s needs. Customer association enhances the possibility of the product meeting the needs and being successful in the market. Integrate product development, R&D with the business strategy and business plans. Defines the influence on time-to-market, product development and competitive advantage. Quick implementation of Marketing/ program management, manufacturing, material, test, quality, and product support employees in product improvements reduces design renewals, repetition, and production obstacles. Authorized, self-directed teams have more refined control and are dedicated to development goals.   The manufacturing and product support methods should be integrated with the design of products in order to optimize the performance and have a seamless product life cycle process implemented.   Development team members should be associated with the plans and proposals for new products or programs to obtain their input and engagement. Manage non-recurring development expenses by effective planning; incremental, low-risk development; and by maintaining project scope.   Utilize the expertise of the specialists/ experts during product development and optimize product designs. Control schedule balance and welcome improvements/ suggestions by suppliers/experts to generate more reliable products at lower costs.   Quality Design, engineering, architecture, and reliable procedures give an efficient way to recognize the role and interaction of products. Implement lessons learned to avoid repeating past mistakes and conduct surveys to ensure all design problems and risks have been properly addressed.   Integration of CAM mechanisms helps to have design/definition with fewer errors, higher accuracy, and a drop-in lead time to production. Software re-usability with object-oriented design brings a high level of productivity to the software.    Modeling, interpretation, and simulation tools help to develop and refine both product and process design inexpensively. They also help to develop the design and decrease the number of time-consuming iterations for mock-ups and developmental prototypes.   Re-engineering the product design process, decreasing the activities which don't provide value, continuous integration of technical tools, design activities, and recommended methodologies will improve the process design. When Are Integrated Product Teams Crucial? IPTs organize development group to enable Concurrent Engineering, Integrated Product Development, or Lean Product Development. They are used for the purpose of developing and delivering a product or service to their customer(s). While collaboration and transparency across developments are important for the success of every project, it’s certainly dangerous for complex projects with a significant downstream impact. A quick research of IPTs will reveal that they are crucial as they are associated with defense projects. How to Form an Integrated Product Team Creating an IPT takes more than the individuals involved - it requires a well-thought-out framework.Use the following framework to start organizing your integrated product team:Plan DevelopmentCustomer focus decides the needs of customers, products that meet needs, and current capabilities. Perform a gap analysis on these factors. The organization must cater to the product in IPD, not the other way around. Set up a team and determine required resources like hardware, software, space, and outside contractors. Communication and TrainingTrain the team when required. Appoint a team leader who can manage individual team members on the IPD philosophy. Don’t scrimp on investment in training, and use it as an opportunity to cross-pollinate teams who earlier rarely interacted, like business strategy members and software developers.  Improvement of Development ProcessSuccessful product development begins with a tested, clear, and well-executed process. The plan should then follow a logical and disciplined sequence of development phases. Product Development helps to perfect the end-to-end process and this enables a development team to turn great ideas into highly successful products. Team Relationships and ResponsibilitiesTeam relationships unite design and engineering teams to create a friendly work relationship that transposes to intuitive products. Designers and engineers collaborate to support each other’s phases. This helps teams to create innovative and intuitive products.  Create MetricsDefine success and present metrics to different teams for significant comparison. Engineers handling timely delivery, responsiveness, etc are good common measures. Processes, Activities, and DecisionsIPTs must continuously develop. Divide the task to departmental leaders and team members for recording activity and decisions implemented.Why Integrated Product Development Fails to Take Hold There are times when organizations fail to launch integrated product teams or they never do so, and there could be many reasons for this. Even with the most suitable management and employees, an integrated product team might be difficult, if not impossible, to be launched.  Here are some factors to be avoided:Overestimation The ideas or concepts may not too hard to understand, but embedding them in the right position requires knowledge of project management and coordination at all levels affiliated with IPD. If the management observes the IPD concept and rearranges the organizational chart without embracing the spirit of the methodology, it will never gain a foothold. A skilled approach and team of consultants might be essential to improve, set up, and mentor everyone in the team.  PrioritizationSetting up preferences is a talent expected from the experts working in the team and the results anticipated may not appear overnight. There may be too many cogs to get the engine active right away. If stakeholders notice a fad project management method and observe that results will not materialize easily, the integrated product team would fail. The required commitment of the team is the key to the success of any project.  Culture of OrganizationEvery organization’s culture is not set to seamlessly work with IPD principles. A developer workroom may follow Scrum, and a product design agency may acknowledge multi-org coordination. If an organization is resistant to changes, it might not be able to manage IPD.   Clarity of RolesIf there is no concrete direction as to who is accountable for what on a developer team, and who reports to whom, the project would be uncontrollable.  No Follow UpA vital part of the process is following-up and obtaining the progress reports from the team at regular intervals. If the management isn’t monitoring the process; the team might lose their motivation to work with full zeal.  Meager InvestmentA meager amount of money and no time to train the IPD practitioners results in negative improvement of the IPD team and they are bound to fail. A long-term investment would boost returns only when it is managed accurately. We attain proficiency not only in mitigating our errors at each iteration but also in enhancing working relationships among team members.  Team CoordinationThe team members must accept their responsibilities. IPD requires a higher-level of coordination on the part of employees. If team members neglect their roles, the project will collapse for e.g. interacting with vendors has been the purview of account managers, and planning out schedules was the precinct of project managers.DisincentivesIt is essential to analyze, review and realign policies and incentive structures properly, else team members would not cooperate with other team members and this may delay delivery.Key Factors to Make Ipd Adoption Successful  Below are the key factors which, when followed efficiently, would make IPD adoption successful. All stakeholders and management should be aligned to a single objective. The owner should marshal the resources required for the project, else it can negatively impact their project by not providing the needed leadership.  Adopting a scientific strategy and its implementation depends on building the plan, implementation of the plan, and constant review of the implemented plan. Sharing the risk of scope and budget between parties helps in establishing the fine line required for the best project economization. Implementation of modern methods and technology within the organization framework helps in achieving the end results at high standards. Skilled manpower is another essential key factor and organizations should make investments in human capital. The customer is the central focus point of IPD. Constant feedback from the customer is essential for IPD to be a success. IPD is a suitable design approach that, when successfully implemented, can address all the concerns of modern organizations in the globalized world. Project Management Tools and Integrated Product Development  A product development roadmap template can help to sketch out the high-level concept of your product. However, there is a different way to enhance the process: using the right software tools.  Below are the benefits accrued when using the right product management software: Manage your resources more effectively Set a more realistic product development schedule Find the charts that work for you Use real-time reports for deeper insights Centralize communication and your product visionAdvantages of Integrated Product Development What makes IPD so beneficial? Following are the advantages they yield for new product development.  Modernization and TechnologyProject innovations in development and manufacturing are needed to beat competitors in the market. Long-play investments in R&D for your current project may pay off in the future because the IPD formed will be working efficiently. Depreciates CostsIPD’s principle of continuous process improvement, MVP, and reducing redundancy and rework means that costs will decrease.  Overwhelms Risk of Product FailureReinforcing regular communication will result in mitigating design flaws or manufacturing errors. By including stakeholders early on and at all stages of the conversation, issues that could arise in the future can be predicted earlier.  If the team is working together well and sharing notes, product failure is unlikely to happen. Quality and InnovationProduct failure is reduced when the strongest minds of each discipline come together and collaborate, rather than non-practitioners delivering direction or partially-committed vendors just phoning in a one-time job.  Stakeholder ParticipationIPD’s true advantage is that it encourages participation from all stakeholder organizations. Customer perspectives are brought from research, and intellectual consent from all stakeholders is the only way forward. ConclusionIntegrated product development theories are not exceptional and new in product development organizations and many of these methods have been used in the past. But as the size and complexity of companies increased, the industry lost many of these practices. The concepts of IPD are simple, but the implementation of these practices and the process of changing a company’s culture is challenging. Success can be achieved with a well-planned and managed effort. Management must understand not only the concepts of IPD but the process of managing change within the organization.  The purpose of IPD is to decrease later stage design changes, decrease project risks, and keep costs low. A company can accomplish the benefits of full life cycle design alongside the efficiency of multi-disciplinary teams by efficiently executing integrated product development processes. 
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What is an "Integrated Product Team" ?

Product and process technology is quickly evolving... Read More