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Adopt TDD for a smooth Scrum experience for your teams

As you might already be aware, TDD stands for Test Driven Development. Adoption of TDD is a key factor for the success of your Scrum teams and in turn for your success as a Scrum Master. I will explain the why and how of TDD and how it helps smoothen Scrum experience in this article. As you might be already doing, with Scrum approach, there are no grandiose design sessions/detailed designs done up-front but the focus is getting working pieces of code out and fail fast if there are any issues. The key reason being – designs change as you progress with the development of code and your code should be flexible enough to absorb major or minor changes until towards end of the development. If complete designs are done up-front to the detailed level, code is written assuming the designs are concrete and becomes rigid. This type of code can’t accept changes easily and as every developer is aware, changes to requirements are very common during implementation cycle.  A framework that can help the Scrum teams accept the changes easily, make the changes and quickly assess the effects of these changes can help alleviate these issues. Once the impacts are clear, it doesn’t take too long to get the implementation back to stable state. TDD provides one such framework for Agile development.  TDD (Test Driven Development) Following is the broad outline of adopting TDD during development. I will take developing APIs for a product as an example, which can be easily extended to other use cases. Do a high-level design of the components and APIs you are going to have. Prepare the interfaces against which you can write tests. Adopt a framework like JUnits for writing your test cases. Get the developers up-to-speed on writing these unit tests. For whatever components you are developing APIs, create a skeleton of tests and test cases. Normally, you would write a set of positive and negative test cases. This is the first step even before you write a single piece of implantation code. Make sure majority of the unit test cases are covered in this round of skeletal test cases. Implement the APIs with no code, i.e. now they can be called but will not yet return proper values. For example, they may return nulls where an object is expected. Since implementation of APIs is not yet ready, all of your tests will fail. That’s ok to start with. Now as development of APIs progresses, test cases will start to succeed. At the end of, say, sprint #1, you may have 20% of your test cases working. In parallel, add more or update your test cases to handle more complex usages of the APIs. The goal is to get 100% success rate of test cases, which should happen as the development is completed and more code is added. For example, this is how your tests may look to begin with:     @Test     public void testSingleObjectCreate() throws Exception     {       Object a = createObject(...);         Assert.assertNotNull(a);     }     @Test     public void testMultipleObjectsCreate() throws Exception     {       Object [] objs = createObjects(...);         Assert.assertNotNull(objs);     }     @Test     public void testSingleObjectReplace() throws Exception     {       Object replacedA = replaceObject(a);         Assert.assertNotNull(replacedA);     }     @Test     public void testMultipleObjectsReplace() throws Exception     {       Object[] updatedObjs = replaceObject(objs);         Assert.assertNotNull(updatedObjs);     }          @Test     public void testSingleObjectDelete() throws Exception     {       boolean deleted = deleteObject(a);         Assert.assertTrue(deleted);     }     Note that all of these tests will fail to begin since APIs are not yet implemented. Your goal is to get all of the tests passing incrementally, by implementing the underlying functionality. Once this set of test suites are built, they can become part of a continuous integration setup and are run as soon as changes are submitted to the source code system, giving an immediate feedback on whether there are test cases failing because of new code that is delivered. Following diagram summarizes this approach:   How does this help your Scrum team? TDD can augment Scrum processes in 3 ways: Ability to absorb changes to code on a continuous basis. Fail fast: Failures happen sooner than later. Reduce technical debt Let me cover details of each of these points. Ability to absorb changes to code on a continuous basis: As a Scrum Master, your job is to make sure that the working code gets produced at the end of each sprint and minimize the technical debt for going forward. At the same time, you want the code to be flexible so that changes can be accepted on a continual basis to improve the existing code or be able to absorb new changes, based on product owner or stakeholder feedback. This is especially important since you don’t get into detailed designs up-front and absorb changes as you progress to make implementation better. Having the suite of unit tests is one of your weapons in the war chest to make this happen – after all, code which is delivered at the end of release but doesn’t address the key requirements is of not of much use. Take this case – in the midst of development, one of the developers changes the inner workings of one of the APIs and now it fails for a given set of inputs (which used to work before the change). Now your unit test which depended on the success status of API starts to fail, giving you an immediate indication of the change. However, developer can take the risk of the change, knowing that the test framework will catch any side effects of such a change. As a second case, say half-way through the development cycle, there is a need for major change that impacts majority of the components. Unless you have a suite of test cases backing you, you just don’t know the impact and how much additional work is possibly required. (Knowing your developers, you know how hard it is to get a proper estimate of additional work!). Instead, now you can depend on your test suites and see how many are failing when the changes are put in place – if there are a large set of test cases failing, you are most likely looking at a larger impact change to the whole sprint and need to re-access the scope and priorities. Additionally, it makes everybody in the team aware of the impacts.  Fail fast - Failures happen sooner than later: Adopting TDD facilitates one of the key principles of Scrum – fail fast. With TDD, you start with failing tests, make them work as you progress and make sure they won’t fail again due to some unexpected changes. If there are such failures, your TDD set of tests alert you immediately. Knowing there is such a framework, developers will be more open to changes – since failures are caught immediately. Overall, this becomes a mechanism which gives a quick feedback on the impacts of a change and makes developers open for adopting the changes rather than shying away from taking the risk of late changes to the system. Reduce creation of Technical Debt: If developers can’t absorb changes fast enough, you will run out of time during sprint to do further changes. Pushing required changes out of sprint and eventually out of a release leads to the technical debt of future changes and re-work, which is not a desired outcome for any Scrum Master. Having a framework to facilitate quick changes avoids creation of technical debt. Key is to start with TDD from day one One of the key factors is to start with TDD from day 1 – it must not be an afterthought to be added after the code implementation. For any new code, tests should be written first, let them fail and implement code to make the tests work. For a Scrum Master, it is a key that developers are creating tasks to add unit tests for a given user story and have mechanisms in-place to continuously validate the code using build frameworks. Combining TDD with Code coverage can be very powerful TDD approach when used along with code coverage tools provides a very powerful combination to make sure your code base is stable all the time and all parts of the code are being tested. Greater the code coverage, better confidence you have to do drastic changes to your implementation code. For example, the following screenshot of code coverage shows which parts of the code are being exercised (green) versus which are not (in red). More unit tests need to get added to provide coverage for the code paths not being tested. Adopting TDD for existing products TDD can be adopted for existing product code as well, which lacks unit test coverage. It is not usually productive to add tests for existing code unless major changes are planned. Tests can be added to the incremental functionality that is being added, being aware that you may impact the existing code and may not know if you have caused failures in the already existing code. TDD Tools There are several tools that are available in the market, which help in TDD adoption. For unit testing of Java code, JUnit framework is the best choice. For continuous build and test, frameworks like Cruise Control or tools like Jenkins can be used. Code Coverage can be analyzed using tools like Emma and Clover. These have Eclipse plugins available as well. In conclusion, adopting TDD goes a long way in ensuring code quality is maintained in the long run and changes can be done to the codebase ensuring continuously working software. This essentially gives control for your Scrum teams to manage the software better and address the end user needs quickly.

Adopt TDD for a smooth Scrum experience for your teams

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Adopt TDD for a smooth Scrum experience for your teams

As you might already be aware, TDD stands for Test Driven Development. Adoption of TDD is a key factor for the success of your Scrum teams and in turn for your success as a Scrum Master. I will explain the why and how of TDD and how it helps smoothen Scrum experience in this article.

As you might be already doing, with Scrum approach, there are no grandiose design sessions/detailed designs done up-front but the focus is getting working pieces of code out and fail fast if there are any issues. The key reason being – designs change as you progress with the development of code and your code should be flexible enough to absorb major or minor changes until towards end of the development. If complete designs are done up-front to the detailed level, code is written assuming the designs are concrete and becomes rigid. This type of code can’t accept changes easily and as every developer is aware, changes to requirements are very common during implementation cycle. 

A framework that can help the Scrum teams accept the changes easily, make the changes and quickly assess the effects of these changes can help alleviate these issues. Once the impacts are clear, it doesn’t take too long to get the implementation back to stable state. TDD provides one such framework for Agile development. 

TDD (Test Driven Development)

Following is the broad outline of adopting TDD during development. I will take developing APIs for a product as an example, which can be easily extended to other use cases.

  • Do a high-level design of the components and APIs you are going to have. Prepare the interfaces against which you can write tests.
  • Adopt a framework like JUnits for writing your test cases. Get the developers up-to-speed on writing these unit tests.
  • For whatever components you are developing APIs, create a skeleton of tests and test cases. Normally, you would write a set of positive and negative test cases. This is the first step even before you write a single piece of implantation code. Make sure majority of the unit test cases are covered in this round of skeletal test cases.
  • Implement the APIs with no code, i.e. now they can be called but will not yet return proper values. For example, they may return nulls where an object is expected.
  • Since implementation of APIs is not yet ready, all of your tests will fail. That’s ok to start with.
  • Now as development of APIs progresses, test cases will start to succeed. At the end of, say, sprint #1, you may have 20% of your test cases working. In parallel, add more or update your test cases to handle more complex usages of the APIs.
  • The goal is to get 100% success rate of test cases, which should happen as the development is completed and more code is added.

For example, this is how your tests may look to begin with:

    @Test
    public void testSingleObjectCreate() throws Exception
    {
      Object a = createObject(...);
        Assert.assertNotNull(a);
    }

    @Test
    public void testMultipleObjectsCreate() throws Exception
    {
      Object [] objs = createObjects(...);
        Assert.assertNotNull(objs);
    }

    @Test
    public void testSingleObjectReplace() throws Exception
    {
      Object replacedA = replaceObject(a);
        Assert.assertNotNull(replacedA);
    }

    @Test
    public void testMultipleObjectsReplace() throws Exception
    {
      Object[] updatedObjs = replaceObject(objs);
        Assert.assertNotNull(updatedObjs);
    }
    
    @Test
    public void testSingleObjectDelete() throws Exception
    {
      boolean deleted = deleteObject(a);
        Assert.assertTrue(deleted);
    }    

Note that all of these tests will fail to begin since APIs are not yet implemented. Your goal is to get all of the tests passing incrementally, by implementing the underlying functionality.

Once this set of test suites are built, they can become part of a continuous integration setup and are run as soon as changes are submitted to the source code system, giving an immediate feedback on whether there are test cases failing because of new code that is delivered.

Following diagram summarizes this approach:


 

How does this help your Scrum team?
TDD can augment Scrum processes in 3 ways:

  • Ability to absorb changes to code on a continuous basis.
  • Fail fast: Failures happen sooner than later.
  • Reduce technical debt

Let me cover details of each of these points.

Ability to absorb changes to code on a continuous basis: As a Scrum Master, your job is to make sure that the working code gets produced at the end of each sprint and minimize the technical debt for going forward. At the same time, you want the code to be flexible so that changes can be accepted on a continual basis to improve the existing code or be able to absorb new changes, based on product owner or stakeholder feedback. This is especially important since you don’t get into detailed designs up-front and absorb changes as you progress to make implementation better. Having the suite of unit tests is one of your weapons in the war chest to make this happen – after all, code which is delivered at the end of release but doesn’t address the key requirements is of not of much use.

Take this case – in the midst of development, one of the developers changes the inner workings of one of the APIs and now it fails for a given set of inputs (which used to work before the change). Now your unit test which depended on the success status of API starts to fail, giving you an immediate indication of the change. However, developer can take the risk of the change, knowing that the test framework will catch any side effects of such a change.

As a second case, say half-way through the development cycle, there is a need for major change that impacts majority of the components. Unless you have a suite of test cases backing you, you just don’t know the impact and how much additional work is possibly required. (Knowing your developers, you know how hard it is to get a proper estimate of additional work!). Instead, now you can depend on your test suites and see how many are failing when the changes are put in place – if there are a large set of test cases failing, you are most likely looking at a larger impact change to the whole sprint and need to re-access the scope and priorities. Additionally, it makes everybody in the team aware of the impacts. 

Fail fast - Failures happen sooner than later: Adopting TDD facilitates one of the key principles of Scrum – fail fast. With TDD, you start with failing tests, make them work as you progress and make sure they won’t fail again due to some unexpected changes. If there are such failures, your TDD set of tests alert you immediately. Knowing there is such a framework, developers will be more open to changes – since failures are caught immediately. Overall, this becomes a mechanism which gives a quick feedback on the impacts of a change and makes developers open for adopting the changes rather than shying away from taking the risk of late changes to the system.

Reduce creation of Technical Debt: If developers can’t absorb changes fast enough, you will run out of time during sprint to do further changes. Pushing required changes out of sprint and eventually out of a release leads to the technical debt of future changes and re-work, which is not a desired outcome for any Scrum Master. Having a framework to facilitate quick changes avoids creation of technical debt.

Key is to start with TDD from day one
One of the key factors is to start with TDD from day 1 – it must not be an afterthought to be added after the code implementation. For any new code, tests should be written first, let them fail and implement code to make the tests work. For a Scrum Master, it is a key that developers are creating tasks to add unit tests for a given user story and have mechanisms in-place to continuously validate the code using build frameworks.

Combining TDD with Code coverage can be very powerful
TDD approach when used along with code coverage tools provides a very powerful combination to make sure your code base is stable all the time and all parts of the code are being tested. Greater the code coverage, better confidence you have to do drastic changes to your implementation code.
For example, the following screenshot of code coverage shows which parts of the code are being exercised (green) versus which are not (in red). More unit tests need to get added to provide coverage for the code paths not being tested.



Adopting TDD for existing products
TDD can be adopted for existing product code as well, which lacks unit test coverage. It is not usually productive to add tests for existing code unless major changes are planned. Tests can be added to the incremental functionality that is being added, being aware that you may impact the existing code and may not know if you have caused failures in the already existing code.

TDD Tools

  • There are several tools that are available in the market, which help in TDD adoption.
  • For unit testing of Java code, JUnit framework is the best choice.
  • For continuous build and test, frameworks like Cruise Control or tools like Jenkins can be used.
  • Code Coverage can be analyzed using tools like Emma and Clover. These have Eclipse plugins available as well.

In conclusion, adopting TDD goes a long way in ensuring code quality is maintained in the long run and changes can be done to the codebase ensuring continuously working software. This essentially gives control for your Scrum teams to manage the software better and address the end user needs quickly.

Mohana

Mohana Kera

Blog Author

Mohana Kera is Senior technical leader with strong hands-on technology experience and in-depth experience in building Scrum teams and doing multiple product releases using Scrum. He has more than 10 years of experience in Agile methodologies and has worked with large cross-geo teams for product deliveries. He has effectively employed Agile(Scrum) method to build cohesive development teams, address efficiency issues and deliver projects on time and effectively, from a startup to multinational corporation, working with small to large teams.
 

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By serving these entities, the Scrum Master can create a high performing team, a valuable product and an efficient organization that is able to meet business objectives and keep customers happy.  Though the term Scrum Master may be deceptive, the Scrum Master is not a master of the team but in fact serves the team in order to ensure smooth functioning and productivity.Servant Leadership and Scrum Master Roles of Servant LeadershipServant leadership:The day-to-day activity of a Scrum Master involves servant leadership. Servant leadership in a scrum team involves performance planning, coaching, helping the team self- organize, resolving conflicts through conflict management, removing obstacles that hinder progress and serving the team. The Scrum Master, while practicing servant leadership, helps the team grow and mature and become independent enough to make their own decisions. Servant leadership in Scrum is all about making the team self-reliant, so they can cope with the pressures of the role. As a servant leader the Scrum Master creates a high performing team, helps them become collaborative and high performing in order to achieve goals and meet the requirements of the customer.  Service to the Scrum Team: As a servant leader, the primary responsibility of the Scrum Master is to help the development team perform. They help the team perform to the best of their abilities by giving them an environment that is conducive to work in, encouraging them, guiding them and removing obstacles that may hinder progress. As a coach, the Scrum Master will guide the team on scrum processes and help them adhere to Agile values during the development of the product. The Scrum Master is responsible for the scrum team’s effectiveness, and they work tirelessly to ensure that the team is motivated, encouraged, creative and innovative. The Scrum Master through servant leadership helps the team improve Scrum practices which helps them become more productive and generate value. The Scrum Team’s role in motivating and helping the team comes through in the daily stand-up meetings that are arranged as part of the sprint. The Scrum Master encourages team members to share their grievances and progress made through the sprint. Team members can talk about obstacles that may be hindering their work and due cognizance will be taken up by the Scrum master to ensure that these obstacles are removed.  According to the Scrum Guide, the Scrum Master helps the Development Team by: Coaching the team in becoming self-organized and cross-functional Helping the Scrum Team focus on creating high-value increments by removing impediments Helping the team deliver within the timeframe of the sprint Service to the Product Owner: The Scrum Master is a servant leader not just for the development team but also the Product Owner. While the Product Owner is primarily responsible for the product backlog, they cannot do this alone. The Scrum Master aids the development team and the Product Owner with effective product backlog management.The Scrum Master is involved at every stage of the product backlog grooming, helping the product owner with Scrum events, product planning and to identify backlog items along with the development team. The Scrum Master helps the Product Owner define the product vision to the team.   According to the Scrum Guide, the Scrum Master helps the Product Owner by: Helping in Product Goal definition and Product Backlog management Helping the Scrum Team understand manage the Product Backlog items Setting up empirical product planning in complex environments and, Managing and facilitating stakeholder collaboration.Service to the Organization: The Scrum Master is a coach and motivator not just for the development team but goes beyond the team to spread the awareness of Scrum in the entire organization. Scrum Masters coach and help teams and departments understand Scrum and develop an Agile mind-set. Besides servant leadership to the team a Scrum Master is also involved in promoting the ideas and values of Scrum. An organization can get an agile mind-set only if the entire organization adopts Scrum and not just a few teams. This is where the Scrum Master comes in, helping other teams not involved with Scum to gain the Agile mind-set, through training and coaching. The Scrum Master is an Agile evangelist and promotes Scrum enterprise-wide.According to Scrum.org the Scrum Master serves the organization by: Leading, training, and coaching the organization in adopting Scrum Planning and advising Scrum implementations within the organization Coaching employees and stakeholders in the way Scrum works Helping stakeholders work with Scrum TeamsSome Servant-Leader Behaviours for every Scrum MasterBeing empathetic: This is the foremost personality trait required for anyone wanting to become a Scrum Master. Your empathy will shine through in your interactions with the team members and your dealings with the stakeholders. You should be able to see problems from the point of view of each party and work towards solving these problems. Caring: As a caring and empathetic Scrum Master, your team will feel free to approach you and share their concerns. Providing a listening ear will make you more approachable. You will be able to more clearly understand the impediments that are stopping project progress and work towards providing a solution.  Managing Conflicts: Not all team members will get along with each other and this can cause disruptions and problems within the team, lowering their productivity. As a Scrum Master you need to be great at conflict management, help others solve their problems, work with each other and create a high performing and harmonious team. Building relationships: You need to build a rapport with your team, the product owner and the stakeholders. This will help you communicate freely and help others approach you with their problems and issues. You need to build that relationship of trust and take everyone along on the journey of success.  Being ethical: Ethics play an important role in software development, especially since software now controls every aspect of our lives. The product created should be free of malice and fraud. The Scrum Master should guide the team in delivering the product at a value and standard that is expected and agreed upon with the stakeholder. There should not be any shortcuts or concessions made on the quality of the product delivered as this will affect not just the Scrum Master and the team’s reputation but will cause a dent in the reputation of the organization.   Conclusion  Servant leadership and the Scrum Master’s role is the backbone of Scrum. The Scrum Master as a servant leader re-emphasizes the values of Scrum and helps to enhance teamwork, collaboration, motivation and value. Under the able servant leadership of the Scrum Master, individual members and the team will grow, become more confident and help in delivering value.  
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Scrum Master – The Scrum Team’s Servan...

The term servant leader is synonymous with a Scrum... Read More

A Guide to Scaling Scrum

Scrum has been proven to work well for small teams. But the true benefits of Agile can only be reaped if Agile and Scrum are scaled at the enterprise level. However, this is easier said than done. According to statistics, 47% of Agile transformations are not successful. While this is a worrying trend, there are still hundreds of organizations who have got it right and are able to survive the competition by innovating faster, delivering value and adapting to changing markets. How are they doing it? By using scaled Scrum.There are several tools and frameworks available for scaling Scrum at the enterprise level. In this blog, we attempt to look at a few of these.  Scaling Scrum with NexusNexus is among the most popular frameworks for scaling Scrum. According to the Nexus Guide, “Nexus is a framework for developing and sustaining scaled product delivery initiatives. It builds upon Scrum, extending it only where absolutely necessary to minimize and manage dependencies between multiple Scrum Teams while promoting empiricism and the Scrum Values.” How is Nexus different from Scrum? Scrum defines three primary roles: The Product Owner, the Scrum Master and the development team. These three roles work together in one team.The Nexus framework consists of several Scrum teams that work together toward a common product goal and defines the Nexus Integration Team as an additional accountability.  Nexus helps to build on the values of Scrum and also solves the collaboration and dependency challenges that tend to occur between teams in Scrum.Benefits of using Nexus Nexus extends Scrum in the following ways:  Accountabilities: Nexus introduces the Nexus Integration Team, which consists of the Scrum Master, Product Owner, and members. This team is accountable for delivering a workable product at the end of each sprint.  Events: Nexus events aim to add to or supplement Scrum events and serve not just individual teams but also the Nexus Integration Team. The objective of a sprint is to achieve the Nexus sprint goal. Artifacts: Although the teams are different, within the Nexus framework they all work towards a single goal and follow a single product backlog. There’s a high amount of transparency and work is allocated to each team. The Nexus Integration TeamAccording to the Nexus Guide, “the Nexus Integration Team exists to coordinate, coach, and supervise the application of Nexus and the operation of Scrum so the best outcomes are derived.” The Nexus Integration Team or NIT comprises of the Scrum Master, the Product Owner and Nexus integration team members. There are generally three to nine Scrum teams working together in Nexus. All of them follow a single product backlog and work towards delivering a single product. The Nexus Integration Team forms an essential role within Nexus and is tasked with providing transparent accountability among the teams in Nexus.Product OwnerThe Product Owner is accountable for maximizing the product value and the work carried out in Nexus. Their primary task is to order and refine the product backlog. Being a member of the Nexus Integration Team, the product owner will work with all the Scrum teams in the Nexus Integration team. The product owner and the teams work towards better defining and refining the product backlog.Scrum MasterJust like in regular Scrum, the Scrum Master in the Nexus Integration Team is also responsible for ensuring that the Nexus framework is understood by everyone on the team as prescribed by the Nexus Guide.   MembersThe members of the Nexus Integration Team are the Scrum team members who aid the Scrum teams in adoption of tools and practices that will help the team and members deliver value at the end of each sprint that meets the definition of done. Nexus Integration Team membership should be considered more important than the individual Scrum Team membership and members should work towards first fulfilling their Nexus team responsibilities.What are the Events in Nexus?Nexus adds or augments the events as defined by Scrum. The Nexus event durations are like Scrum event durations and are guided by the Scrum Guide.  Nexus events consist of: Sprint- A Nexus sprint is the same as in Scrum, at the end of which a single increment is delivered.  Cross team refinement- The aim of Nexus is to enhance collaboration and reduce cross team dependencies. Cross team refinement helps to make dependencies and responsibilities more transparent. This makes it easier for Scrum teams within the Nexus to clearly identify and deliver their allocated tasks.  Nexus Sprint Planning- Nexus sprint planning will involve the participation of the Product Owner and concerned teams' members from each team. The purpose of the Nexus Sprint Planning is to assign and co-ordinate activities for a single sprint.  Nexus Daily Scrum- This is like the daily stand up in Scrum. Nexus daily scrum is used to identify any issues and track progress. Any issues are immediately prioritized and solved so that they do not hinder the work of the developers.  Nexus Sprint Review- This event is held at the end of sprints to provide feedback on the increment that has been built and on any future updates that have to be made. Nexus Sprint Retrospective- Like in Scrum, Nexus retrospectives are an important part of the project and are used to reflect on how quality and consistency can be improved.  Some Nexus ArtifactsNexus artifacts are the same as Scrum artifacts and when implemented correctly ensure transparency and value maximization. Every artifact is designed to give a commitment. For example, the product backlog is the artifact and its commitment is the product goal. Other artifacts and their commitments include: Nexus Sprint Backlog-Nexus Sprint Goal Integrated Increment-Definition of Done Along with Nexus, LeSS is another popular framework for scaling agile.  Scaling Scrum with LeSS The Large-Scale Scrum (LeSS) framework is an offering from Atlassian and is a framework for scaling Scrum to multiple teams that are working on the same product. The idea behind LeSS is to start with a single Scrum team as defined in the Scrum Guide and then replicate it to multiple teams who are working on a single product. LeSS has earned the label of being “barely sufficient” as it is a simple framework to apply and uses the basic concepts of Scrum to scale.  How do Sprint Planning meetings in LeSS work?  LeSS generally carries out sprint planning in two stages. Sprint Planning One focuses on selecting items that are of topmost priority, solving unanswered issues and defining the sprint goal. The Sprint Planning Two is like the sprint plan of regular Scrum and focuses on creating a plan of action for getting things done.  Daily meeting  The daily Scrum meeting in LeSS is similar to how it is done in normal single Scrum teams and involves team members discussing the work accomplished and the work to be done during the day. It is a time-boxed meeting and helps teams address any issues that may be hindering work.   Sprint Delivery Meeting (Review) The sprint review meeting is an essential part of LeSS and helps teams and stakeholders review the product built during the sprint and suggest changes and new ideas.   Retrospective The retrospective for LeSS is similar to one team Scrum. These retrospectives held at the end of the sprint will help teams to reflect on the progress of tasks, and identify the obstacles that may hinder or impede the overall project.  Let’s take a look at some of the other frameworks that are used for scaling agile. Scaling Scrum with SAFe®The Scaled Agile Framework, SAFe in short, follows the principles of lean and agile and helps in scaling Scrum to the enterprise. It helps to manage alignment, collaboration, and delivery from multiple agile teams to ensure enterprise success. It systematically focuses on applying Scrum at each level of the enterprise, to maximize value and ensure a successful agile transformation.A successful SAFe adoption ensures end-to-end business agility with significant improvements in strategy, delivery, execution and business competencies. It helps organizations overcome competition and ensure innovative business solutions to gain customer trust and partnership. The SAFe framework is continuously improvised in order to help organizations cope with the digital age and ensure that business outcomes are delivered.Scaling Scrum with the Scrum@Scale frameworkAnother framework that allows organizations to implement Scrum at scale is the Scrum@Scale framework. This framework expands on the core principles of Scrum and helps to scale Scrum over a wide range of industries and sectors, ensuring customer satisfaction and creation of successful products. It promotes communication across all teams and departments, and optimizes resources, removes roadblocks and ensures creation of innovative products.A Final Word By driving Agile at the organizational level, companies can gain all the benefits of team-level Scrum at scale. More often than not the principles of team level Scrum are not sustainable at the enterprise level and the transformation fails. Tested and proven Agile scaling frameworks are now able to turn this around, and help organizations scale up the principles and practices of Scrum to become more adaptable, flexible and responsive. Professionals can master these frameworks and help their organization adopt the culture, mind-set and principles of Scrum and agile.  
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A Guide to Scaling Scrum

Scrum has been proven to work well for small tea... Read More

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