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What are the Commonly Used Machine Learning Algorithms?

Machine Learning is a sub-branch of Artificial Intelligence, used for the analysis of data. It learns from the data that is input and predicts the output from the data rather than being explicitly programmed. Machine Learning is among the fastest evolving trends in the IT industry. It has found tremendous use in sectors across industries, with its ability to solve complex problems which humans are not able to solve using traditional techniques. ML is now being used in IT, retail, insurance, government and the military. There is no end to what can be achieved with the right ML algorithm.  Machine Learning is comprised of different types of algorithms, each of which performs a unique task. Users deploy these algorithms based on the problem statement and complexity of the problem they deal with. Generally, ML algorithms are a combination of both “Mathematics and Logic” that help write new algorithms for the problem statements or to implement existing algorithms with slight modifications. If ML algorithms consume more amounts of data while solving a problem, it results in better performance. Thus, Machine Learning works on the strategy of: “The more the data that is fed as input, the better is the performance of the model at the end”  Machine Learning follows a systematic way of solving problems to get the desired results in the end. Initially, it collects data from different sources. Then it is subjected to an Exploratory Data Analysis step to get rid of unwanted data or noise hidden in the data, and to replace or remove Null values from the data to convert it into a structured format. The whole data is subjected to the ML algorithm as input to draw insights and get the desired results at the end of the given problem statement. The accuracy of the model decides the best algorithm for the data we take in at the end.Styles of ML Algorithms Most Machine Learning algorithms are categorized into three types. This categorization is based on the kind of problem the specific algorithm deals with. The categories are:   SUPERVISED   UNSUPERVISED  SEMI – SUPERVISEDIn supervised ML algorithms, the user knows both the Input and Output data before applying any algorithm on the data. In simple terms, this can be said to be an Input-Output pair of data. Here all the data is called training data, and the information consists of labels. The training process of the data is continued till the model achieves the desired accuracy. These sets of algorithms are used to predict the results from the input data.   E.g.: - Classification & Regression algorithms   In unsupervised ML algorithms, the data is not labelled, and the output is also not known. In this case, an ML model is prepared by performing some strategies like Data selection, cleaning, preprocessing, and transformation on the data to get a perfect structure to apply algorithms on the data.  E.g.: - Clustering, Dimensionality Reduction and Association Rule Learning  In semi-supervised ML algorithms, the data consists of both labelled and unlabeled examples. Here the model must learn the structures to organize the data and make predictions from the data at the end.    Overview of Machine Learning Algorithms  Apart from the Learning styles, algorithms are further grouped by similarity. Each group possesses different learning capabilities of algorithms to solve the given problem statements and produce good results at the end. A grouping of machine learning algorithms is basically done using the area of problems they deal with, in order to increase their accuracy and reliability.  ML algorithms are grouped based on whether they are numerical, categorical, boolean, grouping, classification, video, audio, images etc. The grouping brings out a clear picture of the particular type of data taken, that addresses the specific problems faced by the user. The grouping is done to ensure that the accuracy increases while using the algorithms, as compared to the previous ones. A developer can negotiate that his/her model is the best model, when he/she compares the accuracy of his model with that of the other algorithms. This comparison helps us in finding the algorithm that best suits the given problem statement.   In today’s scenario, Machine Learning algorithms have gained great significance in many industries and can be used to advantage in day-to-day life. Machine Learning is a boon for all types of industries, as it solves many difficult problems, and helps to mitigate risk and loss of human power. This technology is used in robotic process automation, satellites, space research centres, underwater areas, self-driving cars, the automotive industry, the health industry and many others.  ML can be used to solve problems of any scale—big or small. Its advantage lies in its intuitive power. The more you teach a machine learning model, the more it learns from the data and the more perfect it becomes, helping you get better output with higher accuracy. ML is now moving towards automation and this potent combination of machine learning and automation can change our lives like we have never imagined.  The application of “Re-engineering” has been evolving at present with Machine Learning. The older applications are complex and require a large amount of code to be written, whereas ML helps make applications with fewer code, written in a universal ML language that can be better understood by developers who can make the application richer by adding more to it. Regression Algorithms It tells the relationship between two variables, like an input variable that takes data into the model with some parameters and predicts the output variable. Regression algorithms are used to predict continuous values.  They are mainly used to predict the linear data in the output, from the input data we take from a user and apply it to the model. These are the simplest algorithms to implement in real-world projects as they deal with Numerical data in preparing the model. In ML, the types of regression algorithms are as follows: Linear Regression Logistic Regression Stepwise Regression Source linkInstance Based Algorithms These algorithms are based on data and training data because the model learns from activities to predict the new cases of data given by the user. They are used for decision-based problems with instances.   Here, the model learns from the training data. The new data is compared against the trained data with a similarity measure in the data to find the best match and make predictions according to the model performance in the data classification. Generally, these types of algorithms build up a database of data and are applied upon large databases. They are also called memory-based algorithms. In machine learning, the various kinds of Instance-Based Algorithms are as follows:   Image SourceRegularization Algorithms These algorithms are used to make slight changes to the model prepared by a developer. Regularization algorithms help to overcome the problem of Over-fitting of data during the training of the model. Over-fitting learns the unwanted areas from the data, its noise, etc., and at the end, it may lead to the wrong prediction in the new data given by the user.  To overcome such types of problems during the development of the model, the regularization concept is used. In machine learning, there are two types of Regularization Algorithms, and they are: L1 Regularization or Lasso Regularization L2 Regularization or Ridge Regularization Elastic Net Image sourceDecision Tree Algorithm These algorithms are best used for decision-based problem solving on the data's attributes and are represented using a tree-like structure consisting of leaves and nodes. It consists of a root node that describes the problem we are dealing with, and it is further split into leaves, with the leaf node indicating the end to the tree. The tree structure is extended with the number of nodes till a perfect prediction is made from the given data using the model.  Decision tree algorithms are best used in classification as well as regression problems. These can operate on both small amounts and large amounts of data. Decisions taken using this algorithm are often fast and accurate. In machine learning the different types of Decision Tree algorithms include Classification and Regression Tree (CART)Decision stump Chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) Image sourceBayesian Algorithms These types of algorithms are built based on the Bayes theorem. All the algorithms in this category have a probabilistic approach in solving the problems. They tell about the probability of prediction of the outcome at the end using the given data. We can draw probabilistic insights from the data.  These are the most used algorithms in stock predictions or weather predictions, done by taking in a lot of data and examining them to predict the best outcome. They can solve both the classification and regression types of problems. In machine learning, some of the different types of these algorithms are: Naïve Bayes Bayesian Belief Networks Bayesian Networks Gaussian Naïve Bayes Clustering Algorithms Image sourceThe word clustering indicates a grouping of something. Clustering algorithms contain similar types grouped or clustered together with common similarities between the data. The models in this algorithm are generally approached in a Centroid based and a Hierarchal way. They inherit structures from the older structures and find out the new ones. The data is mostly organized into groups, based on the similarity present in the structures. In ML, the different types of clustering algorithms are: K-means clustering Hierarchal clustering K-medians Clustering Image sourceAssociation Rule Learning Algorithms These algorithms explain the relationship between the data, with the help of some rules that are predefined by them. They contain a minimum threshold predefined by the user, and this process is carried out until we get the desired results. This process is held in a sequence of steps satisfying the threshold value given by the user. If the operation fails to satisfy the minimum threshold value, the given function's data is eliminated further. The rules defined by these types of algorithms help to discover commercially useful and important associations among large datasets. In ML, the different types of Association algorithms are:Apriori Algorithm Eclat Algorithm Image sourceArtificial Neural Networks Algorithms Artificial neural network algorithms are similar to the functioning of the neural networks in our brain. Generally, these algorithms fall under the category of Deep Learning, which is a core field in Machine Learning. The ANN also has a little significance in Machine Learning as it can deal with solving the problems related to Classification and Regression. In ML, the different types of algorithms in this category are:Perceptron Back-propagation Stochastic Gradient Descent Multilayer Perceptron etcImage sourceDeep Learning Algorithms They are the core part of Machine Learning algorithms and deal with large amounts of data to get better accuracy and results. These represent an updated version of Artificial Neural Networks, used to perform better computation on the given data. Deep Learning Algorithms consists of various algorithms that can solve many real-time problems, even with huge amounts of data present. These algorithms can be used in Speech Recognition, Video analysis & Recognition, Audio, and in Text formats. The different types of Deep Learning algorithms are: Convolution Neural Networks (CNN)Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN)Long Short-Term memory networks (LSTMs)  Dimensionality Reduction Algorithms These types of algorithms are quite similar to clustering algorithms in inheriting structures from the data. They are Unsupervised machine learning algorithms, and draw insights from data in an Unsupervised manner. They follow a special technique in describing data using lesser information, i.e., they can describe whole data using some pictorial representations, graphs, pie charts etc. Even though it is an Unsupervised ML algorithm, by presenting the data in a visual format we can simplify the tasks and can solve the given problems using a Supervised learning approach. These algorithms are mainly helpful in solving classification and Regression Problems. In ML the algorithms under this category are: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA)Multidimensional Scaling (MS)  Image sourceEnsemble Algorithms These are unique algorithms from the machine learning perspective. These models comprise multiple weaker models that are independently trained. The predictions given by these weaker models are combined to form an overall prediction from the data. It requires a lot of effort to combine the weak models and form an effective model among the weaker models to generate great accuracy.  These are very popular and powerful algorithms in ML. In real-world scenarios, we use this type of algorithm a lot, as we cannot get good accuracy from the input data. These algorithms are used to boost the accuracy of the model for the better prediction of the given problem compared to other algorithms. In ML the different types of algorithms in this category are: BoostingBagging (Bootstrapped Aggregation) Adaboost Random Forest Gradient Boosting Mechanism Weighted Average (Blending) Image sourcePopularity of Machine Learning Algorithms Machine Learning Algorithms are going to revolutionize our way of life—by helping us solve not just critical problems but offering solutions to our everyday needs.  Almost all industries today use the techniques of ML to find solutions to their problems.  ML algorithms are constantly evolving, by learning and improving themselves. The algorithm’s ability to learn from the data on its own further helps in predicting better outcomes with improved accuracy.  ML deals with many problems related to Audio, Video, Text, Classification of species or items and so on. These algorithms are further extending their applications into the fields of Robotics, Health care, Automation and more. Many industries are getting automated with the use of latest technologies like Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligence, and Data science. The main use of ML algorithms is to predict the outcomes based on the given input data by creating a model that in turn produce better results. Some of the popular applications of ML are found in sales prediction, weather prediction, stocks exchange detection etc. How to study Machine Learning Algorithms Algorithms are at the heart of machine learning. There is no predefined structure or format indicating how you should study algorithms. You should, however, have a clear picture of what the algorithm is, how it works, and where and how it should be implemented.  It is important to know the Mathematics and logic behind the algorithm, as Mathematics is key to the right implementation of the algorithm to solve real-world problems. After learning math concepts, ML enthusiasts must implement the algorithm in a programming language to know how it works. At present PYTHON and R are the two programming languages that are most widely used to implement Machine Learning in the real world. You can refer to websites, blogs, or enrol in trainings, to get a clear picture of the world of ML and algorithms.  How to Run Machine Learning Algorithms To run Machine Learning algorithms, we need to have a platform to write the Script and run the script to see the outcome. We can run ML algorithms in Python IDLE, Jupyter Notebooks, Anaconda, Google Colab, Kaggle etc., but the most widely used tool by many people is Jupyter Notebooks, due to the ease of writing and running code. When writing and running ML algorithms, a series of steps are involved such as importing the required Libraries, loading the dataset from the system or any other sources, defining the model, testing the model, and predicting the outcome with better accuracy.   ConclusionThis blog provides an overview of different types of ML Algorithms, where they are used, how to study the algorithms and how they can be run, the steps involved and so on. We hope this article has helped you to get a basic idea of machine learning, if you want to pursue a career in this field.   

What are the Commonly Used Machine Learning Algorithms?

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What are the Commonly Used Machine Learning Algorithms?

Machine Learning is a sub-branch of Artificial Intelligence, used for the analysis of data. It learns from the data that is input and predicts the output from the data rather than being explicitly programmed. Machine Learning is among the fastest evolving trends in the IindustryIt has found tremendous use in sectors across industries, with its ability to solve complex problems which humans are not able to solve using traditional techniques. ML is now being used in IT, retail, insurance, government and the military. There is no end to what can be achieved with the right ML algorithm 

Machine Learning is comprised of different types of algorithms, each of which performs a unique task. Users deploy these algorithms based on the problem statement and complexity of the problem they deal with. Generally, ML algorithms are a combination of both “Mathematics and Logic” that help write new algorithms for the problem statements or to implement existing algorithms with slight modifications. If ML algorithms consume more amounts of data while solving a problem, it results in better performance. Thus, Machine Learning works on the strategy of: 

The more the data that is fed as inputthe better is the performance of the model at the end  

Machine Learning follows a systematic way of solving problems to get the desired results in the end. Initially, it collects data from different sources. Then it is subjected to an Exploratory Data Analysis step to get rid of unwanted data or noise hidden in the data, and to replace or remove Null values from the data to convert it into a structured format. The whole data is subjected to the ML algorithm as input to draw insights and get the desired results at the end of the given problem statement. The accuracy of the model decides the best algorithm for the data we take in at the end.

Styles of ML Algorithms 

Most Machine Learning algorithms are categorized into three types. This categorization is based on the kind of problem the specific algorithm deals with. The categories are:   

  1. SUPERVISED   
  2. UNSUPERVISED  
  3. SEMI – SUPERVISED

In supervised ML algorithms, the user knows both the Input and Output data before applying any algorithm on the data. In simple terms, this can be said to be an Input-Output pair of data. Here all the data is called training data, and the information consists of labels. The training process of the data is continued till the model achieves the desired accuracy. These sets of algorithms are used to predict the results from the input data.   

E.g.: - Classification & Regression algorithms   

In unsupervised ML algorithms, the data is not labelled, and the output is also not known. In this case, an ML model is prepared by performing some strategies like Data selection, cleaning, preprocessing, and transformation on the data to get a perfect structure to apply algorithms on the data.  

E.g.: - Clustering, Dimensionality Reduction and Association Rule Learning  

In semi-supervised ML algorithms, the data consists of both labelled and unlabeled examples. Here the model must learn the structures to organize the data and make predictions from the data at the end.   

 lustering, Dimensionality Reduction and Association Rule Learning

Overview of Machine Learning Algorithms 

 Apart from the Learning styles, algorithms are further grouped by similarity. Each group possesses different learning capabilities of algorithms to solve the given problem statements and produce good results at the end. A grouping of machine learning algorithms is basically done using the area of problems they deal with, in order to increase their accuracy and reliability.  

ML algorithms are grouped based on whether they are numerical, categorical, boolean, grouping, classification, video, audio, images etc. The grouping brings out a clear picture of the particular type of data taken, that addresses the specific problems faced by the user. The grouping is done to ensure that the accuracy increases while using the algorithms, as compared to the previous ones. A developer can negotiate that his/her model is the best model, when he/she compares the accuracy of his model with that of the other algorithms. This comparison helps us in finding the algorithm that best suits the given problem statement.   

In today’s scenario, Machine Learning algorithms have gained great significance in many industries and can be used to advantage in day-to-day life. Machine Learning is a boon for all types of industries, as it solves many difficult problems, and helps to mitigate risk and loss of human power. This technology is used in robotic process automation, satellites, space research centres, underwater areas, self-driving cars, the automotive industry, the health industry and many others 

ML can be used to solve problems of any scale—big or small. Its advantage lies in its intuitive power. The more you teach a machine learning model, the more it learns from the data and the more perfect it becomes, helping you get better output with higher accuracy. ML is now moving towards automation and this potent combination of machine learning and automation can change our lives like we have never imagined.  

The application of “Re-engineering” has been evolving at present with Machine Learning. The older applications are complex and require a large amount of code to be written, whereas ML helps make applications with fewer code, written in a universal ML language that can be better understood by developers who can make the application richer by adding more to it. 

Regression Algorithms 

It tells the relationship between two variables, like an input variable that takes data into the model with some parameters and predicts the output variable. Regression algorithms are used to predict continuous values.  

They are mainly used to predict the linear data in the output, from the input data we take from a user and apply it to the model. These are the simplest algorithms to implement in real-world projects as they deal with Numerical data in preparing the model. In ML, the types of regression algorithms are as follows: 

  1. Linear Regression 
  2. Logistic Regression 
  3. Stepwise Regression 

Regression Algorithms

Source link

Instance Based Algorithms 

These algorithms are based on data and training data because the model learns from activities to predict the new cases of data given by the user. They are used for decision-based problems with instances.   

Here, the model learns from the training data. The new data is compared against the trained data with a similarity measure in the data to find the best match and make predictions according to the model performance in the data classification. Generally, these types of algorithms build up a database of data and are applied upon large databases. They are also called memory-based algorithms. In machine learning, the various kinds of Instance-Based Algorithms are as follows:   Instance-Based Algorithms

Image Source

Regularization Algorithms 

These algorithms are used to make slight changes to the model prepared by a developer. Regularization algorithms help to overcome the problem of Over-fitting of data during the training of the model. Over-fitting learns the unwanted areas from the data, its noise, etc., and at the end, it may lead to the wrong prediction in the new data given by the user.  To overcome such types of problems during the development of the model, the regularization concept is used. In machine learning, there are two types of Regularization Algorithms, and they are: 

  1. L1 Regularization or Lasso Regularization 
  2. L2 Regularization or Ridge Regularization 
  3. Elastic Net 

Regularization Algorithms

Image source

Decision Tree Algorithm 

These algorithms are best used for decision-based problem solving on the data's attributes and are represented using a tree-like structure consisting of leaves and nodes. It consists of a root node that describes the problem we are dealing with, and it is further split into leaves, with the leaf node indicating the end to the tree. The tree structure is extended with the number of nodes till a perfect prediction is made from the given data using the model.  

Decision tree algorithms are best used in classification as well as regression problems. These can operate on both small amounts and large amounts of data. Decisions taken using this algorithm are often fast and accurate. In machine learning the different types of Decision Tree algorithms include 

  1. Classification and Regression Tree (CART)
  2. Decision stump 
  3. Chi-squared automatic interaction detection (CHAID) 

Decision Tree Algorithms

Image source

Bayesian Algorithms 

Decision Tree Algorithms

These types of algorithms are built based on the Bayes theorem. All the algorithms in this category have a probabilistic approach in solving the problems. They tell about the probability of prediction of the outcome at the end using the given data. We can draw probabilistic insights from the data.  

These are the most used algorithms in stock predictions or weather predictions, done by taking in a lot of data and examining them to predict the best outcome. They can solve both the classification and regression types of problems. In machine learning, some of the different types of these algorithms are: 

  1. Naïve Bayes 
  2. Bayesian Belief Networks 
  3. Bayesian Networks 
  4. Gaussian Naïve Bayes 

Clustering Algorithms 

Clustering Algorithms

Image source

The word clustering indicates a grouping of something. Clustering algorithms contain similar types grouped or clustered together with common similarities between the data. The models in this algorithm are generally approached in a Centroid based and a Hierarchal way. They inherit structures from the older structures and find out the new ones. The data is mostly organized into groups, based on the similarity present in the structures. In ML, the different types of clustering algorithms are: 

  1. K-means clustering 
  2. Hierarchal clustering 
  3. K-medians Clustering 

Clustering Algorithms

Image source

Association Rule Learning Algorithms 

These algorithms explain the relationship between the data, with the help of some rules that are predefined by them. They contain a minimum threshold predefined by the user, and this process is carried out until we get the desired results. This process is held in a sequence of steps satisfying the threshold value given by the user. If the operation fails to satisfy the minimum threshold value, the given function's data is eliminated further. The rules defined by these types of algorithms help to discover commercially useful and important associations among large datasets. In ML, the different types of Association algorithms are:

  1. Apriori Algorithm 
  2. Eclat Algorithm 

Association Rule Learning Algorithms

Image source

Artificial Neural Networks Algorithms 

Artificial neural network algorithms are similar to the functioning of the neural networks in our brain. Generally, these algorithms fall under the category of Deep Learning, which is a core field in Machine Learning. The ANN also has a little significance in Machine Learning as it can deal with solving the problems related to Classification and Regression. In ML, the different types of algorithms in this category are:

  1. Perceptron 
  2. Back-propagation 
  3. Stochastic Gradient Descent 
  4. Multilayer Perceptron etc

Artificial Neural Networks Algorithms

Image source

Deep Learning Algorithms 

They are the core part of Machine Learning algorithms and deal with large amounts of data to get better accuracy and results. These represent an updated version of Artificial Neural Networks, used to perform better computation on the given data. Deep Learning Algorithms consists of various algorithms that can solve many real-time problems, even with huge amounts of data present. These algorithms can be used in Speech Recognition, Video analysis & Recognition, Audio, and in Text formats. The different types of Deep Learning algorithms are: 

  1. Convolution Neural Networks (CNN)
  2. Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN)
  3. Long Short-Term memory networks (LSTMs)  

Dimensionality Reduction Algorithms 

These types of algorithms are quite similar to clustering algorithms in inheriting structures from the data. They are Unsupervised machine learning algorithms, and draw insights from data in an Unsupervised manner. They follow a special technique in describing data using lesser information, i.e., they can describe whole data using some pictorial representations, graphs, pie charts etc. 

Even though it is an Unsupervised ML algorithm, by presenting the data in a visual format we can simplify the tasks and can solve the given problems using Supervised learning approach. These algorithms are mainly helpful in solving classification and Regression Problems. In ML the algorithms under this category are: 

  1. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) 
  2. Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) 
  3. Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA)
  4. Multidimensional Scaling (MS)  

Dimensionality Reduction Algorithms

Image source

Ensemble Algorithms 

These are unique algorithms from the machine learning perspective. These models comprise multiple weaker models that are independently trained. The predictions given by these weaker models are combined to form an overall prediction from the data. It requires a lot of effort to combine the weak models and form an effective model among the weaker models to generate great accuracy.  

These are very popular and powerful algorithms in ML. In real-world scenarios, we use this type of algorithm a lot, as we cannot get good accuracy from the input data. These algorithms are used to boost the accuracy of the model for the better prediction of the given problem compared to other algorithms. In ML the different types of algorithms in this category are: 

  1. Boosting
  2. Bagging (Bootstrapped Aggregation) 
  3. Adaboost 
  4. Random Forest 
  5. Gradient Boosting Mechanism 
  6. Weighted Average (Blending) 

Ensemble Algorithms

Image source

Popularity of Machine Learning Algorithms 

Machine Learning Algorithms are going to revolutionize our way of life—by helping us solve not just critical problems but offering solutions to our everyday needs.  Almost all industries today use the techniques of ML to find solutions to their problems.  ML algorithms are constantly evolvingby learning and improving themselves. The algorithm’s ability to learn from the data on its own further helps in predicting better outcomes with improved accuracy.  

ML deals with many problems related to Audio, Video, Text, Classification of species or items and so on. These algorithms are further extending their applications into the fields of Robotics, Health care, Automation and moreMany industries are getting automated with the use of latest technologies like Machine Learning, Artificial Intelligenceand Data science. The main use of ML algorithms is to predict the outcomes based on the given input data by creating a model that in turn produce better results. Some of the popular applications of ML are found in sales prediction, weather prediction, stocks exchange detection etc. 

How to study Machine Learning Algorithms 

Algorithms are at the heart of machine learning. There is no predefined structure or format indicating how you should study algorithms. You should, however, have a clear picture of what the algorithm is, how it works, and where and how it should be implemented.  

It is important to know the Mathematics and logic behind the algorithm, as Mathematics is key to the right implementation of the algorithm to solve real-world problems. After learning math concepts, ML enthusiasts must implement the algorithm in a programming language to know how it works. At present PYTHON and R are the two programming languages that are most widely used to implement Machine Learning in the real world. You can refer to websites, blogs, or enrol in trainings, to get a clear picture of the world of ML and algorithms.  

How to Run Machine Learning Algorithms 

To run Machine Learning algorithms, we need to have a platform to write the Script and run the script to see the outcome. We can run ML algorithms in Python IDLE, Jupyter Notebooks, Anaconda, Google Colab, Kaggle etc., but the most widely used tool by many people is Jupyter Notebooks, due to the ease of writing and running code. When writing and running ML algorithms, a series of steps are involved such as importing the required Libraries, loading the dataset from the system or any other sources, defining the model, testing the model, and predicting the outcome with better accuracy.   

Conclusion

This blog provides an overview of different types of ML Algorithms, where they are used, how to study the algorithms and how they can be run, the steps involved and so on. We hope this article has helped you to get a basic idea of machine learning, if you want to pursue a career in this field  

Harsha

Harsha Vardhan Garlapati

Blog Writer at KnowledgeHut

Harsha Vardhan Garlapati is a Data Science Enthusiast and loves working with data to draw meaningful insights from it and further convert those results and implement them in business growth. He is a final year undergraduate student and passionate about Data Science. He is a smart worker, passionate learner,  an Ice-Breaker and loves to participate in Hackathons to work on real time projects. He is a Toastmaster Member at S.R.K.R Toastmasters Club, a Public Speaker, a good Innovator and problem solver.

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Top Data Analytics Certifications

What is data analytics?In the world of IT, every small bit of data count; even information that looks like pure nonsense has its significance. So, how do we retrieve the significance from this data? This is where Data Science and analytics comes into the picture.  Data Analytics is a process where data is inspected, transformed and interpreted to discover some useful bits of information from all the noise and make decisions accordingly. It forms the entire basis of the social media industry and finds a lot of use in IT, finance, hospitality and even social sciences. The scope in data analytics is nearly endless since all facets of life deal with the storage, processing and interpretation of data.Why data analytics? Data Analytics in this Information Age has nearly endless opportunities since literally everything in this era hinges on the importance of proper processing and data analysis. The insights from any data are crucial for any business. The field of data Analytics has grown more than 50 times from the early 2000s to 2021. Companies specialising in banking, healthcare, fraud detection, e-commerce, telecommunication, infrastructure and risk management hire data analysts and professionals every year in huge numbers.Need for certification:Skills are the first and foremost criteria for a job, but these skills need to be validated and recognised by reputed organisations for them to impress a potential employer. In the field of Data Analytics, it is pretty crucial to show your certifications. Hence, an employer knows you have hands-on experience in the field and can handle the workload of a real-world setting beyond just theoretical knowledge. Once you get a base certification, you can work your way up to higher and higher positions and enjoy lucrative pay packages. Top Data Analytics Certifications Certified Analytics Professional (CAP) Microsoft Certified Azure Data Scientist Associate Cloudera Certified Associate (CCA) Data Analyst Associate Certified Analytics Professional (aCAP) SAS Certified Data Analyst (Using SAS91. Certified Analytics Professional (CAP)A certification from an organisation called INFORMS, CAP is a notoriously rigorous certification and stands out like a star on an applicant's resume. Those who complete this program gain an invaluable credential and are able to distinguish themselves from the competition. It gives a candidate a comprehensive understanding of the analytical process's various fine aspects--from framing hypotheses and analytic problems to the proper methodology, along with acquisition, model building and deployment process with long-term life cycle management. It needs to be renewed after three years.The application process is in itself quite complex, and it also involves signing the CAP Code of Ethics before one is given the certification. The CAP panel reviews each application, and those who pass this review are the only ones who can give the exam.  Prerequisite: A bachelor’s degree with 5 years of professional experience or a master's degree with 3 years of professional experience.  Exam Fee & Format: The base price is $695. For individuals who are members of INFORMS the price is $495. (Source) The pass percentage is 70%. The format is a four option MCQ paper. Salary: $76808 per year (Source) 2. Cloudera Certified Associate (CCA) Data Analyst Cloudera has a well-earned reputation in the IT sector, and its Associate Data analyst certification can help bolster the resume of Business intelligence specialists, system architects, data analysts, database administrators as well as developers. It has a specific focus on SQL developers who aim to show their proficiency on the platform.This certificate validates an applicant's ability to operate in a CDH environment by Cloudera using Impala and Hive tools. One doesn't need to turn to expensive tuitions and academies as Cloudera offers an Analyst Training course with almost the same objectives as the exam, leaving one with a good grasp of the fundamentals.   Prerequisites: basic knowledge of SQL and Linux Command line Exam Fee & Format: The cost of the exam is $295 (Source), The test is a performance-based test containing 8-12 questions to be completed in a proctored environment under 129 minutes.  Expected Salary: You can earn the job title of Cloudera Data Analyst that pays up to $113,286 per year. (Source)3. Associate Certified Analytics Professional (aCAP)aCAP is an entry-level certification for Analytics professionals with lesser experience but effective knowledge, which helps in real-life situations. It is for those candidates who have a master’s degree in a field related to data analytics.  It is one of the few vendor-neutral certifications on the list and must be converted to CAP within 6 years, so it offers a good opportunity for those with a long term path in a Data Analytics career. It also needs to be renewed every three years, like the CAP certification. Like its professional counterpart, aCAP helps a candidate step out in a vendor-neutral manner and drastically increases their professional credibility.  Prerequisite: Master’s degree in any discipline related to data Analytics. Exam Fee: The base price is $300. For individuals who are members of INFORMS the price is $200. (Source). There is an extensive syllabus which covers: i. Business Problem Framing, ii. Analytics Problem Framing, iii. Data, iv. Methodology Selection, v. Model Building, vi. Deployment, vii. Lifecycle Management of the Analytics process, problem-solving, data science and visualisation and much more.4. SAS Certified Data Analyst (Using SAS9)From one of the pioneers in IT and Statistics - the SAS Institute of Data Management - a SAS Certified Data Scientist can gain insights and analyse various aspects of data from businesses using tools like the SAS software and other open-source methodology. It also validates competency in using complex machine learning models and inferring results to interpret future business strategy and release models using the SAS environment. SAS Academy for Data Science is a viable institute for those who want to receive proper training for the exam and use this as a basis for their career.  Prerequisites: To earn this credential, one needs to pass 5 exams, two from the SAS Certified Big Data Professional credential and three exams from the SAS Certified Advanced Analytics Professional Credential. Exam Fee: The cost for each exam is $180. (Source) An exception is Predictive Modelling using the SAS Enterprise Miner, costing $250, This exam can be taken in the English language. One can join the SAS Academy for Data Science and also take a practice exam beforehand. Salary: You can get a job as a SAS Data Analyst that pays up to $90,000 per year! (Source) 5. IBM Data Science Professional CertificateWhenever someone studies the history of a computer, IBM (International Business Machines) is the first brand that comes up. IBM is still alive and kicking, now having forayed into and becoming a major player in the Big Data segment. The IBM Data Science Professional certificate is one of the beginner-level certificates if you want to sink your hands into the world of data analysis. It shows a candidate's skills in various topics pertaining to data sciences, including various open-source tools, Python databases, SWL, data visualisation, and data methodologies.  One needs to complete nine courses to earn the certificate. It takes around three months if one works twelve hours per week. It also involves the completion of various hands-on assignments and building a portfolio. A candidate earns the Professional certificate from Coursera and a badge from IBM that recognises a candidate's proficiency in the area. Prerequisites: It is the optimal course for freshers since it requires no requisite programming knowledge or proficiency in Analytics. Exam Fee: It costs $39 per month (Source) to access the course materials and the certificate. The course is handled by the Coursera organisation. Expected Salary: This certification can earn you the title of IBM Data Scientist and help you earn a salary of $134,846 per annum. (Source) 6. Microsoft Certified Azure Data Scientist AssociateIt's one of the most well-known certifications for newcomers to step into the field of Big Data and Data analytics. This credential is offered by the leader in the industry, Microsoft Azure. This credential validates a candidate's ability to work with Microsoft Azure developing environment and proficiency in analysing big data, preparing data for the modelling process, and then progressing to designing models. One advantage of this credential is that it has no expiry date and does not need renewal; it also authorises the candidate’s extensive knowledge in predictive Analytics. Prerequisites: knowledge and experience in data science and using Azure Machine Learning and Azure Databricks. Exam Fee: It costs $165 to (Source) register for the exam. One advantage is that there is no need to attend proxy institutions to prepare for this exam, as Microsoft offers free training materials as well as an instructor-led course that is paid. There is a comprehensive collection of resources available to a candidate. Expected Salary: The job title typically offered is Microsoft Data Scientist and it typically fetches a yearly pay of $130,993.(Source) Why be a Data Analytics professional? For those already working in the field of data, being a Data Analyst is one of the most viable options. The salary of a data analyst ranges from $65,000 to $85,000 depending on number of years of experience. This lucrative salary makes it worth the investment to get a certification and advance your skills to the next level so that you can work for multinational companies by interpreting and organising data and using this analysis to accelerate businesses. These certificates demonstrate that you have the required knowledge needed to operate data models of the volumes needed by big organizations. 1. Demand is more than supply With the advent of the Information Age, there has been a huge boom in companies that either entirely or partially deal with IT. For many companies IT forms the core of their business. Every business has to deal with data, and it is crucial to get accurate insights from this data and use it to further business interests and expand profits. The interpretation of data also aims to guide them in the future to make the best business decisions.  Complex business intelligence algorithms are in place these days. They need trained professionals to operate them; since this field is relatively new, there is a shortage of experts. Thus, there are vacancies for data analyst positions with lucrative pay if one is qualified enough.2. Good pay with benefitsA data analyst is an extremely lucrative profession, with an average base pay of $71,909 (Source), employee benefits, a good work-home balance, and other perks. It has been consistently rated as being among the hottest careers of the decade and allows professionals to have a long and satisfying career.   Companies Hiring Certified Data Analytics Professionals Oracle A California based brand, Oracle is a software company that is most famous for its data solutions. With over 130000 employees and a revenue of 39 billion, it is surely one of the bigger players in Data Analytics.  MicroStrategy   Unlike its name, this company is anything but micro, with more than 400 million worth of revenue. It provides a suite of analytical products along with business mobility solutions. It is a key player in the mobile space, working natively with Android and iOS.   SAS   One of the companies in the list which provides certifications and is also without a doubt one of the largest names in the field of Big Data, machine learning and Data Analytics, is SAS. The name SAS is derived from Statistical Analysis System. This company is trusted and has a solid reputation. It is also behind the SAS Institute for Data Science. Hence, SAS is the organisation you would want to go to if you're aiming for a long-term career in data science.    Conclusion To conclude, big data and data Analytics are a field of endless opportunities. By investing in the right credential, one can pave the way to a viable and lucrative career path. Beware though, there are lots of companies that provide certifications, but only recognised and reputed credentials will give you the opportunities you are seeking. Hiring companies look for these certifications as a mark of authenticity of your hands-on experience and the amount of work you can handle effectively. Therefore, the credential you choose for yourself plays a vital role in the career you can have in the field of Data analytics.  Happy learning!    
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Top Data Analytics Certifications

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Why Should You Start a Career in Machine Learning?

If you are even remotely interested in technology you would have heard of machine learning. In fact machine learning is now a buzzword and there are dozens of articles and research papers dedicated to it.  Machine learning is a technique which makes the machine learn from past experiences. Complex domain problems can be resolved quickly and efficiently using Machine Learning techniques.  We are living in an age where huge amounts of data are produced every second. This explosion of data has led to creation of machine learning models which can be used to analyse data and to benefit businesses.  This article tries to answer a few important concepts related to Machine Learning and informs you about the career path in this prestigious and important domain.What is Machine Learning?So, here’s your introduction to Machine Learning. This term was coined in the year 1997. “A computer program is said to learn from experience E with respect to some class of tasks T and performance measure P, if its performance at the tasks improves with the experiences.”, as defined in the book on ML written by Mitchell in 1997. The difference between a traditional programming and programming using Machine Learning is depicted here, the first Approach (a) is a traditional approach, and second approach (b) is a Machine Learning based approach.Machine Learning encompasses the techniques in AI which allow the system to learn automatically looking at the data available. While learning, the system tries to improve the experience without making any explicit efforts in programming. Any machine learning application follows the following steps broadlySelecting the training datasetAs the definition indicates, machine learning algorithms require past experience, that is data, for learning. So, selection of appropriate data is the key for any machine learning application.Preparing the dataset by preprocessing the dataOnce the decision about the data is made, it needs to be prepared for use. Machine learning algorithms are very susceptible to the small changes in data. To get the right insights, data must be preprocessed which includes data cleaning and data transformation.  Exploring the basic statistics and properties of dataTo understand what the data wishes to convey, the data engineer or Machine Learning engineer needs to understand the properties of data in detail. These details are understood by studying the statistical properties of data. Visualization is an important process to understand the data in detail.Selecting the appropriate algorithm to apply on the datasetOnce the data is ready and understood in detail, then appropriate Machine Learning algorithms or models are selected. The choice of algorithm depends on characteristics of data as well as type of task to be performed on the data. The choice also depends on what kind of output is required from the data.Checking the performance and fine-tuning the parameters of the algorithmThe model or algorithm chosen is fine-tuned to get improved performance. If multiple models are applied, then they are weighed against the performance. The final algorithm is again fine-tuned to get appropriate output and performance.Why Pursue a Career in Machine Learning in 2021?A recent survey has estimated that the jobs in AI and ML have grown by more than 300%. Even before the pandemic struck, Machine Learning skills were in high demand and the demand is expected to increase two-fold in the near future.A career in machine learning gives you the opportunity to make significant contributions in AI, the future of technology. All the big and small businesses are adopting Machine Learning models to improve their bottom-line margins and return on investment.  The use of Machine Learning has gone beyond just technology and it is now used in diverse industries including healthcare, automobile, manufacturing, government and more. This has greatly enhanced the value of Machine Learning experts who can earn an average salary of $112,000.  Huge numbers of jobs are expected to be created in the coming years.  Here are a few reasons why one should pursue a career in Machine Learning:The global machine learning market is expected to touch $20.83B in 2024, according to Forbes.  We are living in a digital age and this explosion of data has made the use of machine learning models a necessity. Machine Learning is the only way to extract meaning out of data and businesses need Machine Learning engineers to analyze huge data and gain insights from them to improve their businesses.If you like numbers, if you like research, if you like to read and test and if you have a passion to analyse, then machine learning is the career for you. Learning the right tools and programming languages will help you use machine learning to provide appropriate solutions to complex problems, overcome challenges and grow the business.Machine Learning is a great career option for those interested in computer science and mathematics. They can come up with new Machine Learning algorithms and techniques to cater to the needs of various business domains.As explained above, a career in machine learning is both rewarding and lucrative. There are huge number of opportunities available if you have the right expertise and knowledge. On an average, Machine Learning engineers get higher salaries, than other software developers.Years of experience in the Machine Learning domain, helps you break into data scientist roles, which is not just among the hottest careers of our generation but also a highly respected and lucrative career. Right skills in the right business domain helps you progress and make a mark for yourself in your organization. For example, if you have expertise in pharmaceutical industries and experience working in Machine learning, then you may land job roles as a data scientist consultant in big pharmaceutical companies.Statistics on Machine learning growth and the industries that use MLAccording to a research paper in AI Multiple (https://research.aimultiple.com/ml-stats/), the Machine Learning market will grow to 9 Billion USD by the end of 2022. There are various areas where Machine Learning models and solutions are getting deployed, and businesses see an overall increase of 44% investments in this area. North America is one of the leading regions in the adoption of Machine Learning followed by Asia.The Global Machine Learning market will grow by 42% which is evident from the following graph. Image sourceThere is a huge demand for Machine Learning modelling because of the large use of Cloud Based Applications and Services. The pandemic has changed the face of businesses, making them heavily dependent on Cloud and AI based services. Google, IBM, and Amazon are just some of the companies that have invested heavily in AI and Machine Learning based application development, to provide robust solutions for problems faced by small to large scale businesses. Machine Learning and Cloud based solutions are scalable and secure for all types of business.ML analyses and interprets data patterns, computing and developing algorithms for various business purposes.Advantages of Machine Learning courseNow that we have established the advantages of perusing a career in Machine Learning, let’s understand from where to start our machine learning journey. The best option would be to start with a Machine Learning course. There are various platforms which offer popular Machine Learning courses. One can always start with an online course which is both effective and safe in these COVID times.These courses start with an introduction to Machine Learning and then slowly help you to build your skills in the domain. Many courses even start with the basics of programming languages such as Python, which are important for building Machine Learning models. Courses from reputed institutions will hand hold you through the basics. Once the basics are clear, you may switch to an offline course and get the required certification.Online certifications have the same value as offline classes. They are a great way to clear your doubts and get personalized help to grow your knowledge. These courses can be completed along with your normal job or education, as most are self-paced and can be taken at a time of your convenience. There are plenty of online blogs and articles to aid you in completion of your certification.Machine Learning courses include many real time case studies which help you in understanding the basics and application aspects. Learning and applying are both important and are covered in good Machine Learning Courses. So, do your research and pick an online tutorial that is from a reputable institute.What Does the Career Path in Machine Learning Look Like?One can start their career in Machine Learning domain as a developer or application programmer. But the acquisition of the right skills and experience can lead you to various career paths. Following are some of the career options in Machine Learning (not an exhaustive list):Data ScientistA data scientist is a person with rich experience in a particular business field. A person who has a knowledge of domain, as well as machine learning modelling, is a data scientist. Data Scientists’ job is to study the data carefully and suggest accurate models to improve the business.AI and Machine Learning EngineerAn AI engineer is responsible for choosing the proper Machine Learning Algorithm based on natural language processing and neural network. They are responsible for applying it in AI applications like personalized advertising.  A Machine Learning Engineer is responsible for creating the appropriate models for improvement of the businessData EngineerA Data Engineer, as the name suggests, is responsible to collect data and make it ready for the application of Machine Learning models. Identification of the right data and making it ready for extraction of further insights is the main work of a data engineer.Business AnalystA person who studies the business and analyzes the data to get insights from it is a Business Analyst. He or she is responsible for extracting the insights from the data at hand.Business Intelligence (BI) DeveloperA BI developer uses Machine Learning and Data Analytics techniques to work on a large amount of data. Proper representation of data to suit business decisions, using the latest tools for creation of intuitive dashboards is the role of a BI developer.  Human Machine Interface learning engineerCreating tools using machine learning techniques to ease the human machine interaction or automate decisions, is the role of a Human Machine Interface learning engineer. This person helps in generating choices for users to ease their work.Natural Language Processing (NLP) engineer or developerAs the name suggests, this person develops various techniques to process Natural Language constructs. Building applications or systems using machine learning techniques to build Natural Language based applications is their main task. They create multilingual Chatbots for use in websites and other applications.Why are Machine Learning Roles so popular?As mentioned above, the market growth of AI and ML has increased tremendously over the past years. The Machine Learning Techniques are applied in every domain including marketing, sales, product recommendations, brand retention, creating advertising, understanding the sentiments of customer, security, banking and more. Machine learning algorithms are also used in emails to ease the users work. This says a lot, and proves that a career in Machine Learning is in high demand as all businesses are incorporating various machine learning techniques and are improving their business.One can harness this popularity by skilling up with Machine Learning skills. Machine Learning models are now being used by every company, irrespective of their size--small or big, to get insights on their data and use these insights to improve the business. As every company wishes to grow faster, they are deploying more machine learning engineers to get their work done on time. Also, the migration of businesses to Cloud services for better security and scalability, has increased their requirement for more Machine Learning algorithms and models to cater to their needs.Introducing the Machine learning techniques and solutions has brought huge returns for businesses.  Machine Learning solution providers like Google, IBM, Microsoft etc. are investing in human resources for development of Machine Learning models and algorithms. The tools developed by them are popularly used by businesses to get early returns. It has been observed that there is significant increase in patents in Machine Learning domains since the past few years, indicating the quantum of work happening in this domain.Machine Learning SkillsLet’s visit a few important skills one must acquire to work in the domain of Machine Learning.Programming languagesKnowledge of programming is very important for a career in Machine Learning. Languages like Python and R are popularly used to develop applications using Machine Learning models and algorithms. Python, being the simplest and most flexible language, is very popular for AI and Machine Learning applications. These languages provide rich support of libraries for implementation of Machine Learning Algorithms. A person who is good in programming can work very efficiently in this domain.Mathematics and StatisticsThe base for Machine Learning is mathematics and statistics. Statistics applied to data help in understanding it in micro detail. Many machine learning models are based on the probability theory and require knowledge of linear algebra, transformations etc. A good understanding of statistics and probability increases the early adoption to Machine Learning domain.Analytical toolsA plethora of analytical tools are available where machine learning models are already implemented and made available for use. Also, these tools are very good for visualization purposes. Tools like IBM Cognos, PowerBI, Tableue etc are important to pursue a career as a  Machine Learning engineer.Machine Learning Algorithms and librariesTo become a master in this domain, one must master the libraries which are provided with various programming languages. The basic understanding of how machine learning algorithms work and are implemented is crucial.Data Modelling for Machine Learning based systemsData lies at the core of any Machine Learning application. So, modelling the data to suit the application of Machine Learning algorithms is an important task. Data modelling experts are the heart of development teams that develop machine learning based systems. SQL based solutions like Oracle, SQL Server, and NoSQL solutions are important for modelling data required for Machine Learning applications. MongoDB, DynamoDB, Riak are some important NOSQL based solutions available to process unstructured data for Machine Learning applications.Other than these skills, there are two other skills that may prove to be beneficial for those planning on a career in the Machine Learning domain:Natural Language processing techniquesFor E-commerce sites, customer feedback is very important and crucial in determining the roadmap of future products. Many customers give reviews for the products that they have used or give suggestions for improvement. These feedbacks and opinions are analyzed to gain more insights about the customers buying habits as well as about the products. This is part of natural language processing using Machine Learning. The likes of Google, Facebook, Twitter are developing machine learning algorithms for Natural Language Processing and are constantly working on improving their solutions. Knowledge of basics of Natural Language Processing techniques and libraries is must in the domain of Machine Learning.Image ProcessingKnowledge of Image and Video processing is very crucial when a solution is required to be developed in the area of security, weather forecasting, crop prediction etc. Machine Learning based solutions are very effective in these domains. Tools like Matlab, Octave, OpenCV are some important tools available to develop Machine Learning based solutions which require image or video processing.ConclusionMachine Learning is a technique to automate the tasks based on past experiences. This is among the most lucrative career choices right now and will continue to remain so in the future. Job opportunities are increasing day by day in this domain. Acquiring the right skills by opting for a proper Machine Learning course is important to grow in this domain. You can have an impressive career trajectory as a machine learning expert, provided you have the right skills and expertise.
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Why Should You Start a Career in Machine Learning?

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Types of Probability Distributions Every Data Science Expert Should know

Data Science has become one of the most popular interdisciplinary fields. It uses scientific approaches, methods, algorithms, and operations to obtain facts and insights from unstructured, semi-structured, and structured datasets. Organizations use these collected facts and insights for efficient production, business growth, and to predict user requirements. Probability distribution plays a significant role in performing data analysis equipping a dataset for training a model. In this article, you will learn about the types of Probability Distribution, random variables, types of discrete distributions, and continuous distribution.  What is Probability Distribution? A Probability Distribution is a statistical method that determines all the probable values and possibilities that a random variable can deliver from a particular range. This range of values will have a lower bound and an upper bound, which we call the minimum and the maximum possible values.  Various factors on which plotting of a value depends are standard deviation, mean (or average), skewness, and kurtosis. All of these play a significant role in Data science as well. We can use probability distribution in physics, engineering, finance, data analysis, machine learning, etc. Significance of Probability distributions in Data Science In a way, most of the data science and machine learning operations are dependent on several assumptions about the probability of your data. Probability distribution allows a skilled data analyst to recognize and comprehend patterns from large data sets; that is, otherwise, entirely random variables and values. Thus, it makes probability distribution a toolkit based on which we can summarize a large data set. The density function and distribution techniques can also help in plotting data, thus supporting data analysts to visualize data and extract meaning. General Properties of Probability Distributions Probability distribution determines the likelihood of any outcome. The mathematical expression takes a specific value of x and shows the possibility of a random variable with p(x). Some general properties of the probability distribution are – The total of all probabilities for any possible value becomes equal to 1. In a probability distribution, the possibility of finding any specific value or a range of values must lie between 0 and 1. Probability distributions tell us the dispersal of the values from the random variable. Consequently, the type of variable also helps determine the type of probability distribution.Common Data Types Before jumping directly into explaining the different probability distributions, let us first understand the different types of probability distributions or the main categories of the probability distribution. Data analysts and data engineers have to deal with a broad spectrum of data, such as text, numerical, image, audio, voice, and many more. Each of these have a specific means to be represented and analyzed. Data in a probability distribution can either be discrete or continuous. Numerical data especially takes one of the two forms. Discrete data: They take specific values where the outcome of the data remains fixed. Like, for example, the consequence of rolling two dice or the number of overs in a T-20 match. In the first case, the result lies between 2 and 12. In the second case, the event will be less than 20. Different types of discrete distributions that use discrete data are: Binomial Distribution Hypergeometric Distribution Geometric Distribution Poisson Distribution Negative Binomial Distribution Multinomial Distribution  Continuous data: It can obtain any value irrespective of bound or limit. Example: weight, height, any trigonometric value, age, etc. Different types of continuous distributions that use continuous data are: Beta distribution Cauchy distribution Exponential distribution Gamma distribution Logistic distribution Weibull distribution Types of Probability Distribution explained Here are some of the popular types of Probability distributions used by data science professionals. (Try all the code using Jupyter Notebook) Normal Distribution: It is also known as Gaussian distribution. It is one of the simplest types of continuous distribution. This probability distribution is symmetrical around its mean value. It also shows that data at close proximity of the mean is frequently occurring, compared to data that is away from it. Here, mean = 0, variance = finite valueHere, you can see 0 at the center is the Normal Distribution for different mean and variance values. Here is a code example showing the use of Normal Distribution: from scipy.stats import norm  import matplotlib.pyplot as mpl  import numpy as np  def normalDist() -> None:      fig, ax = mpl.subplots(1, 1)      mean, var, skew, kurt = norm.stats(moments = 'mvsk')      x = np.linspace(norm.ppf(0.01),  norm.ppf(0.99), 100)      ax.plot(x, norm.pdf(x),          'r-', lw = 5, alpha = 0.6, label = 'norm pdf')      ax.plot(x, norm.cdf(x),          'b-', lw = 5, alpha = 0.6, label = 'norm cdf')      vals = norm.ppf([0.001, 0.5, 0.999])      np.allclose([0.001, 0.5, 0.999], norm.cdf(vals))      r = norm.rvs(size = 1000)      ax.hist(r, normed = True, histtype = 'stepfilled', alpha = 0.2)      ax.legend(loc = 'best', frameon = False)      mpl.show()  normalDist() Output: Bernoulli Distribution: It is the simplest type of probability distribution. It is a particular case of Binomial distribution, where n=1. It means a binomial distribution takes 'n' number of trials, where n > 1 whereas, the Bernoulli distribution takes only a single trial.   Probability Mass Function of a Bernoulli’s Distribution is:  where p = probability of success and q = probability of failureHere is a code example showing the use of Bernoulli Distribution: from scipy.stats import bernoulli  import seaborn as sb    def bernoulliDist():      data_bern = bernoulli.rvs(size=1200, p = 0.7)      ax = sb.distplot(          data_bern,           kde = True,           color = 'g',           hist_kws = {'alpha' : 1},          kde_kws = {'color': 'y', 'lw': 3, 'label': 'KDE'})      ax.set(xlabel = 'Bernouli Values', ylabel = 'Frequency Distribution')  bernoulliDist() Output:Continuous Uniform Distribution: In this type of continuous distribution, all outcomes are equally possible; each variable gets the same probability of hit as a consequence. This symmetric probabilistic distribution has random variables at an equal interval, with the probability of 1/(b-a). Here is a code example showing the use of Uniform Distribution: from numpy import random  import matplotlib.pyplot as mpl  import seaborn as sb  def uniformDist():      sb.distplot(random.uniform(size = 1200), hist = True)      mpl.show()  uniformDist() Output: Log-Normal Distribution: A Log-Normal distribution is another type of continuous distribution of logarithmic values that form a normal distribution. We can transform a log-normal distribution into a normal distribution. Here is a code example showing the use of Log-Normal Distribution import matplotlib.pyplot as mpl  def lognormalDist():      muu, sig = 3, 1      s = np.random.lognormal(muu, sig, 1000)      cnt, bins, ignored = mpl.hist(s, 80, normed = True, align ='mid', color = 'y')      x = np.linspace(min(bins), max(bins), 10000)      calc = (np.exp( -(np.log(x) - muu) **2 / (2 * sig**2))             / (x * sig * np.sqrt(2 * np.pi)))      mpl.plot(x, calc, linewidth = 2.5, color = 'g')      mpl.axis('tight')      mpl.show()  lognormalDist() Output: Pareto Distribution: It is one of the most critical types of continuous distribution. The Pareto Distribution is a skewed statistical distribution that uses power-law to describe quality control, scientific, social, geophysical, actuarial, and many other types of observable phenomena. The distribution shows slow or heavy-decaying tails in the plot, where much of the data reside at its extreme end. Here is a code example showing the use of Pareto Distribution – import numpy as np  from matplotlib import pyplot as plt  from scipy.stats import pareto  def paretoDist():      xm = 1.5        alp = [2, 4, 6]       x = np.linspace(0, 4, 800)      output = np.array([pareto.pdf(x, scale = xm, b = a) for a in alp])      plt.plot(x, output.T)      plt.show()  paretoDist() Output:Exponential Distribution: It is a type of continuous distribution that determines the time elapsed between events (in a Poisson process). Let’s suppose, that you have the Poisson distribution model that holds the number of events happening in a given period. We can model the time between each birth using an exponential distribution.Here is a code example showing the use of Pareto Distribution – from numpy import random  import matplotlib.pyplot as mpl  import seaborn as sb  def expDist():      sb.distplot(random.exponential(size = 1200), hist = True)      mpl.show()   expDist()Output:Types of the Discrete probability distribution – There are various types of Discrete Probability Distribution a Data science aspirant should know about. Some of them are – Binomial Distribution: It is one of the popular discrete distributions that determine the probability of x success in the 'n' trial. We can use Binomial distribution in situations where we want to extract the probability of SUCCESS or FAILURE from an experiment or survey which went through multiple repetitions. A Binomial distribution holds a fixed number of trials. Also, a binomial event should be independent, and the probability of obtaining failure or success should remain the same. Here is a code example showing the use of Binomial Distribution – from numpy import random  import matplotlib.pyplot as mpl  import seaborn as sb    def binomialDist():      sb.distplot(random.normal(loc = 50, scale = 6, size = 1200), hist = False, label = 'normal')      sb.distplot(random.binomial(n = 100, p = 0.6, size = 1200), hist = False, label = 'binomial')      plt.show()    binomialDist() Output:Geometric Distribution: The geometric probability distribution is one of the crucial types of continuous distributions that determine the probability of any event having likelihood ‘p’ and will happen (occur) after 'n' number of Bernoulli trials. Here 'n' is a discrete random variable. In this distribution, the experiment goes on until we encounter either a success or a failure. The experiment does not depend on the number of trials. Here is a code example showing the use of Geometric Distribution – import matplotlib.pyplot as mpl  def probability_to_occur_at(attempt, probability):      return (1-p)**(attempt - 1) * probability  p = 0.3  attempt = 4  attempts_to_show = range(21)[1:]  print('Possibility that this event will occur on the 7th try: ', probability_to_occur_at(attempt, p))  mpl.xlabel('Number of Trials')  mpl.ylabel('Probability of the Event')  barlist = mpl.bar(attempts_to_show, height=[probability_to_occur_at(x, p) for x in attempts_to_show], tick_label=attempts_to_show)  barlist[attempt].set_color('g')  mpl.show() Output:Poisson Distribution: Poisson distribution is one of the popular types of discrete distribution that shows how many times an event has the possibility of occurrence in a specific set of time. We can obtain this by limiting the Bernoulli distribution from 0 to infinity. Data analysts often use the Poisson distributions to comprehend independent events occurring at a steady rate in a given time interval. Here is a code example showing the use of Poisson Distribution from scipy.stats import poisson  import seaborn as sb  import numpy as np  import matplotlib.pyplot as mpl  def poissonDist():       mpl.figure(figsize = (10, 10))      data_binom = poisson.rvs(mu = 3, size = 5000)      ax = sb.distplot(data_binom, kde=True, color = 'g',                       bins=np.arange(data_binom.min(), data_binom.max() + 1),                       kde_kws={'color': 'y', 'lw': 4, 'label': 'KDE'})      ax.set(xlabel = 'Poisson Distribution', ylabel='Data Frequency')      mpl.show()      poissonDist() Output:Multinomial Distribution: A multinomial distribution is another popular type of discrete probability distribution that calculates the outcome of an event having two or more variables. The term multi means more than one. The Binomial distribution is a particular type of multinomial distribution with two possible outcomes - true/false or heads/tails. Here is a code example showing the use of Multinomial Distribution – import numpy as np  import matplotlib.pyplot as mpl  np.random.seed(99)   n = 12                      pvalue = [0.3, 0.46, 0.22]     s = []  p = []     for size in np.logspace(2, 3):      outcomes = np.random.multinomial(n, pvalue, size=int(size))        prob = sum((outcomes[:,0] == 7) & (outcomes[:,1] == 2) & (outcomes[:,2] == 3))/len(outcomes)      p.append(prob)      s.append(int(size))  fig1 = mpl.figure()  mpl.plot(s, p, 'o-')  mpl.plot(s, [0.0248]*len(s), '--r')  mpl.grid()  mpl.xlim(xmin = 0)  mpl.xlabel('Number of Events')  mpl.ylabel('Function p(X = K)') Output:Negative Binomial Distribution: It is also a type of discrete probability distribution for random variables having negative binomial events. It is also known as the Pascal distribution, where the random variable tells us the number of repeated trials produced during a specific number of experiments.  Here is a code example showing the use of Negative Binomial Distribution – import matplotlib.pyplot as mpl   import numpy as np   from scipy.stats import nbinom    x = np.linspace(0, 6, 70)   gr, kr = 0.3, 0.7        g = nbinom.ppf(x, gr, kr)   s = nbinom.pmf(x, gr, kr)   mpl.plot(x, g, "*", x, s, "r--") Output: Apart from these mentioned distribution types, various other types of probability distributions exist that data science professionals can use to extract reliable datasets. In the next topic, we will understand some interconnections & relationships between various types of probability distributions. Relationship between various Probability distributions – It is surprising to see that different types of probability distributions are interconnected. In the chart shown below, the dashed line is for limited connections between two families of distribution, whereas the solid lines show the exact relationship between them in terms of transformation, variable, type, etc. Conclusion  Probability distributions are prevalent among data analysts and data science professionals because of their wide usage. Today, companies and enterprises hire data science professionals in many sectors, namely, computer science, health, insurance, engineering, and even social science, where probability distributions appear as fundamental tools for application. It is essential for Data analysts and data scientists. to know the core of statistics. Probability Distributions perform a requisite role in analyzing data and cooking a dataset to train the algorithms efficiently. If you want to learn more about data science - particularly probability distributions and their uses, check out KnowledgeHut's comprehensive Data science course. 
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Types of Probability Distributions Every Data Scie...

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