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How to Install MongoDB on Ubuntu

MongoDB is an open-source document database used in numerous modern Web applications. MongoDB is also known as Mongo. It is classified as a NoSQL database because it does not have a traditional relational database structure based on the table.Unlike relational databases, it uses dynamically based JSON-like documents, meaning that MongoDB requires no predetermined schema before you add data into it. You can change the structure anytime, without setting up a new database update structure.PrerequisitesHardware Requirements:RAM– 1 GB  Storage- 256 GB of Hard Disk SpaceSoftware Requirements:Web Browser: Any browser such as Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Microsoft Edge.Operating System: An Ubuntu 18.04 server installed with a non-root sudo user and firewall.Installation ProcedureStep 1 - Installing MongoDBUbuntu's package repositories contain the latest version of MongoDB.You should include the dedicated MongoDB package repositories in APT sources in order to obtain the latest version of this software. Then you can install the mongodb-org, package which always indicates MongoDB's latest version.1. Use the following command to load the public GPG key for the most recent version of MongoDB. In the URL section of the command, you should change 4.4 with the version you want to install if you intend to use a version of MongoDB other than 4.4:curl -fsSL https://www.mongodb.org/static/pgp/server-4.4.asc | sudo apt-key add -You will get to see ok on the screen if the key was added successfully.curl is a tool on the command line for numerous transmission systems. It reads any data stored on the URL to which it is transferred and shows the content on the output of the system. In this example, cURL displays the GPG key file contents and links it into the following sudo apt-key add - command, adding the GPG key to the keys list.2. This curl command uses the -fsSL options that basically tell cURL to fail silently. That shows that if cURL does not contact the GPG server or the GPG server is down, the error code is not going to be added to the trusted keys list.You can double-check whether the key has been added properly by:$ apt-key listYou will get to see the key in the output like this:Even now,the APT installation doesn’t know where you have to install the latest versions of MongoDB to locate the mongodb-org package.You have two places on the APT Server where you can download and install online package sources: the sources.list file and the directory sources.list.d. The sources.list is a file listing the active APT data sources, with one source for each line. You can also add sources.list.d entries in separate files in the source.list directory.3. Enter the following command, and create a file named mongodb-org-4.4.list in the sources.list.d directory:$ echo "deb [ arch=amd64,arm64 ] https://repo.mongodb.org/apt/ubuntu bionic/mongodb-org/4.4 multiverse" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mongodb-org-4.4.list4. Upgrade your local server package index to APT to know where to find the mongodb-org package after executing this command:$ sudo apt update5. Now, you can install MongoDB:$ sudo apt install mongodb-orgPress Y and then ENTER to confirm that the package is to be installed.MongoDB is installed on the system when the command is completed. It is not ready to be used, however. Next, you're going to run MongoDB and confirm it works.Step 2 - Running the MongoDB ServiceThe previous step's installation configures MongoDB to run as a daemon maintained by the system, which means you can control MongoDB using different systemctl commands. However, the service will not start automatically with this installation process.1. To start the MongoDB service, you can use the following command:$ sudo systemctl start mongod.service2. Check the status of the service at this point. Systemctl will automatically attach this to any argument passed if there aren't any already, so it is not important to include it:$ sudo systemctl status mongodThis command returns this output, which indicates that the service is running:3. Once the service is confirmed to run as expected, start the MongoDB service:$ sudo systemctl enable mongod4. The database can also be verified by connecting to the database and executing a diagnostic command. The following command will show its current version, server address and port. The response of the internal MongoDB connectionStatus command will also be returned:$ mongo --eval 'db.runCommand({ connectionStatus: 1 })'ConnectionStatus checks back the database connection status and returns it. A value of 1 in the answer for the ok field shows that the server works as expected:Output:Note also that a loopback address of the locally located host is running at port 27017 on 127.0.0.1. This is the default port number for MongoDB.Next, we will examine how to manage the system instance of the MongoDB server.Step 3 - Managing the ServicesAs already mentioned, mongoDB is set up as a system service for the installation process. This means that, as other Ubuntu system services, it can be managed with standard systemctl commands.The systemctl status as previously mentioned, controls MongoDB service status:$ sudo systemctl status mongodTo stop the service:$ sudo systemctl stop mongodTo start the service when it is stopped:$ sudo systemctl start mongodTo restart the server when it is running:$ sudo systemctl restart mongodPreviously we have allowed MongoDB to start the server automatically. If this is required to be disabled, use:$ sudo systemctl disable mongodTo re-activate the boot, execute the enable command again:$ sudo systemctl enable mongodStep 4 - Create MongoDB Database Root User and Password1. MongoDB is deactivated by default, so it started off without access control. Run the following command to start the mongo shell.$ mongo2. You can list all available databases with the command below once you are connected to the mongo shell.> show dbs3. Switch first to the admin database and use the following commands to create the root user.> use admin > db.createUser({user:"root", pwd:"=@!#@%$admin1", roles:[{role:"root", db:"admin"}]})4. Without the --auth command line option the mongodb instance has been started. The authentication of users' needs must be enabled by editing the /lib/systemd/system/mongod.service file.$ sudo nano /lib/systemd/system/mongod.service5. See the ExecStart parameter under the [Service] config section and add --auth as a new option:ExecStart=/usr/bin/mongod --auth --config /etc/mongod.confNow, save the service file and exit nano:6. Reload the systemd services:$ sudo systemctl daemon-reload7. Now restart mongodb and try to connect it:$ sudo service mongod restart8. You must now authenticate yourself as a MongoDB user when you attempt to connect to mongodb. For instance:$ mongo -u "root" -p --authenticationDatabase "admin"Step 5 – Creating an example MongoDB database:1. Create a demo database:1. We will add some data into our demo database. You can use mongo shell to interact with MongoDB instance.  Use the following command to open the mongo shell.$ mongo2. After opening MongoDB prompt, create a new database with the name demoDatabase using the following command:$ use demoDatabaseOutput:Every piece of data in a MongoDB database should be part of a collection. But you don't have to explicitly create a collection. When using the insert method, the collection is automatically created.3.Use the following command to add data into a collection:$ db.myCollection.insert([     {'name': 'Abhresh', 'age': 25},    {'name': 'Ishan', 'age': 20},     {'name': 'Nick', 'age': 30} ]);4. After successful insertion, you will get a message like this in the prompt:Check the database sizeBackups are great if you have large databases, and you need to check the size of your database before creating a backup in order to avoid running out of storage area and thus slowing or crashing your server.  You can use the following commands to check the size:$ db.stats().dataSize;Output:Create a BackupYou have to use the -d option to create a backup of a certain database and specify the database name. In addition, you should use the -o option and indicate a path to let mongodump know where to store the backup.Exit from the mongo shell by using CTRL + D  Use the following commands to create a backup:  $ mongodump -d myDatabase -o ~/backups/first_backupIf the backup is successful, you will get this message:Please note that backup creation is very expensive and can reduce the MongoDB instance performance.We have successfully created a backup of MongoDB database and this shows that MongoDB is perfectly working on Ubuntu system.Uninstall MongoDB from UbuntuTo stop MongoDB first when it is currently being executed, remove MongoDB packages using the Advanced Package Tool, the library's MongoDB databases and the MongoDB log from the log directory.Stop MongoDB Daemon Process$ sudo service mongod stopRemove Packages$ sudo apt-get purge mongodb-org*Remove MongoDB logs$ sudo rm -r /var/log/mongodbThe above command will remove the logs and directories.Remove DatabaseWe will remove the MongoDB from the var/lib/mongodb. Please check if you have MongoDb in any other location, then change the MongoDB location in the command.$ sudo rm -r /var/lib/mongodbLearn more about the core concepts of MongoDB administration, indexes, security, Frameworks with MongoDB Admininstration TrainingConclusionYou added the official MongoDB repository to your APT instance and installed the latest version of MongoDB in this tutorial. You then practiced some systemctl commands and tested Mongo's functionality. This article also helped you to know how to create a backup of the MongoDB database.

How to Install MongoDB on Ubuntu

240
  • by Abhresh S
  • 26th May, 2021
  • Last updated on 26th May, 2021
  • 6 mins read
How to Install MongoDB on Ubuntu

MongoDB is an open-source document database used in numerous modern Web applications. MongoDB is also known as Mongo. It is classified as a NoSQL database because it does not have a traditional relational database structure based on the table.

Unlike relational databases, it uses dynamically based JSON-like documents, meaning that MongoDB requires no predetermined schema before you add data into it. You can change the structure anytime, without setting up a new database update structure.

Prerequisites

  • Hardware Requirements:
    • RAM– 1 GB  
    • Storage- 256 GB of Hard Disk Space
  • Software Requirements:
    • Web Browser: Any browser such as Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Microsoft Edge.
    • Operating System: An Ubuntu 18.04 server installed with a non-root sudo user and firewall.

Installation Procedure

Step 1 - Installing MongoDB

Ubuntu's package repositories contain the latest version of MongoDB.

You should include the dedicated MongoDB package repositories in APT sources in order to obtain the latest version of this software. Then you can install the mongodb-org, package which always indicates MongoDB's latest version.

1. Use the following command to load the public GPG key for the most recent version of MongoDB. In the URL section of the command, you should change 4.4 with the version you want to install if you intend to use a version of MongoDB other than 4.4:

curl -fsSL https://www.mongodb.org/static/pgp/server-4.4.asc | sudo apt-key add -

You will get to see ok on the screen if the key was added successfully.

curl is a tool on the command line for numerous transmission systems. It reads any data stored on the URL to which it is transferred and shows the content on the output of the system. In this example, cURL displays the GPG key file contents and links it into the following sudo apt-key add - command, adding the GPG key to the keys list.

2. This curl command uses the -fsSL options that basically tell cURL to fail silently. That shows that if cURL does not contact the GPG server or the GPG server is down, the error code is not going to be added to the trusted keys list.

You can double-check whether the key has been added properly by:

$ apt-key list

You will get to see the key in the output like this:

Even now,the APT installation doesn’t know where you have to install the latest versions of MongoDB to locate the mongodb-org package.

You have two places on the APT Server where you can download and install online package sources: the sources.list file and the directory sources.list.d. The sources.list is a file listing the active APT data sources, with one source for each line. You can also add sources.list.d entries in separate files in the source.list directory.

3. Enter the following command, and create a file named mongodb-org-4.4.list in the sources.list.d directory:

$ echo "deb [ arch=amd64,arm64 ] https://repo.mongodb.org/apt/ubuntu bionic/mongodb-org/4.4 multiverse" | sudo tee /etc/apt/sources.list.d/mongodb-org-4.4.list

4. Upgrade your local server package index to APT to know where to find the mongodb-org package after executing this command:

$ sudo apt update

5. Now, you can install MongoDB:

$ sudo apt install mongodb-org

Press Y and then ENTER to confirm that the package is to be installed.

MongoDB is installed on the system when the command is completed. It is not ready to be used, however. Next, you're going to run MongoDB and confirm it works.

Step 2 - Running the MongoDB Service

The previous step's installation configures MongoDB to run as a daemon maintained by the system, which means you can control MongoDB using different systemctl commands. However, the service will not start automatically with this installation process.

1. To start the MongoDB service, you can use the following command:

$ sudo systemctl start mongod.service

2. Check the status of the service at this point. Systemctl will automatically attach this to any argument passed if there aren't any already, so it is not important to include it:

$ sudo systemctl status mongod

This command returns this output, which indicates that the service is running:

3. Once the service is confirmed to run as expected, start the MongoDB service:

$ sudo systemctl enable mongod

4. The database can also be verified by connecting to the database and executing a diagnostic command. The following command will show its current version, server address and port. The response of the internal MongoDB connectionStatus command will also be returned:

$ mongo --eval 'db.runCommand({ connectionStatus: 1 })'

ConnectionStatus checks back the database connection status and returns it. A value of 1 in the answer for the ok field shows that the server works as expected:

Output:Note also that a loopback address of the locally located host is running at port 27017 on 127.0.0.1. This is the default port number for MongoDB.

Next, we will examine how to manage the system instance of the MongoDB server.

Step 3 - Managing the Services

As already mentioned, mongoDB is set up as a system service for the installation process. This means that, as other Ubuntu system services, it can be managed with standard systemctl commands.

The systemctl status as previously mentioned, controls MongoDB service status:

$ sudo systemctl status mongod

To stop the service:

$ sudo systemctl stop mongod

To start the service when it is stopped:

$ sudo systemctl start mongod

To restart the server when it is running:

$ sudo systemctl restart mongod

Previously we have allowed MongoDB to start the server automatically. If this is required to be disabled, use:

$ sudo systemctl disable mongod

To re-activate the boot, execute the enable command again:

$ sudo systemctl enable mongod

Step 4 - Create MongoDB Database Root User and Password

1. MongoDB is deactivated by default, so it started off without access control. Run the following command to start the mongo shell.

$ mongo

2. You can list all available databases with the command below once you are connected to the mongo shell.

> show dbs

3. Switch first to the admin database and use the following commands to create the root user.

> use admin
> db.createUser({user:"root", pwd:"=@!#@%$admin1", roles:[{role:"root", db:"admin"}]})

4. Without the --auth command line option the mongodb instance has been started. The authentication of users' needs must be enabled by editing the /lib/systemd/system/mongod.service file.

$ sudo nano /lib/systemd/system/mongod.service

5. See the ExecStart parameter under the [Service] config section and add --auth as a new option:

ExecStart=/usr/bin/mongod --auth --config /etc/mongod.conf

Now, save the service file and exit nano:

6. Reload the systemd services:

$ sudo systemctl daemon-reload

7. Now restart mongodb and try to connect it:

$ sudo service mongod restart

8. You must now authenticate yourself as a MongoDB user when you attempt to connect to mongodb. For instance:

$ mongo -u "root" -p --authenticationDatabase "admin"

Step 5 – Creating an example MongoDB database:

1. Create a demo database:

1. We will add some data into our demo database. You can use mongo shell to interact with MongoDB instance.  

Use the following command to open the mongo shell.

$ mongo

2. After opening MongoDB prompt, create a new database with the name demoDatabase using the following command:

$ use demoDatabase

Output:Every piece of data in a MongoDB database should be part of a collection. But you don't have to explicitly create a collection. When using the insert method, the collection is automatically created.

3.Use the following command to add data into a collection:

$ db.myCollection.insert([
    {'name': 'Abhresh', 'age': 25},
   {'name': 'Ishan', 'age': 20},
    {'name': 'Nick', 'age': 30}
]);

4. After successful insertion, you will get a message like this in the prompt:

Check the database size

Backups are great if you have large databases, and you need to check the size of your database before creating a backup in order to avoid running out of storage area and thus slowing or crashing your server.  

You can use the following commands to check the size:

$ db.stats().dataSize;

Output:

Create a Backup

You have to use the -d option to create a backup of a certain database and specify the database name. In addition, you should use the -o option and indicate a path to let mongodump know where to store the backup.

Exit from the mongo shell by using CTRL + D  

Use the following commands to create a backup:  

$ mongodump -d myDatabase -o ~/backups/first_backup

If the backup is successful, you will get this message:

Please note that backup creation is very expensive and can reduce the MongoDB instance performance.

We have successfully created a backup of MongoDB database and this shows that MongoDB is perfectly working on Ubuntu system.

Uninstall MongoDB from Ubuntu

To stop MongoDB first when it is currently being executed, remove MongoDB packages using the Advanced Package Tool, the library's MongoDB databases and the MongoDB log from the log directory.

Stop MongoDB Daemon Process

$ sudo service mongod stop

Remove Packages

$ sudo apt-get purge mongodb-org*

Remove MongoDB logs

$ sudo rm -r /var/log/mongodb

The above command will remove the logs and directories.

Remove Database

We will remove the MongoDB from the var/lib/mongodb. Please check if you have MongoDb in any other location, then change the MongoDB location in the command.

$ sudo rm -r /var/lib/mongodb

Learn more about the core concepts of MongoDB administration, indexes, security, Frameworks with MongoDB Admininstration Training

Conclusion

You added the official MongoDB repository to your APT instance and installed the latest version of MongoDB in this tutorial. You then practiced some systemctl commands and tested Mongo's functionality. This article also helped you to know how to create a backup of the MongoDB database.

Abhresh

Abhresh S

Author

An Online Technical Trainer by profession! And Content writer by hobby! Interested in sharing quality knowledge to make the Industry grow better towards better success and better tomorrow! With a Guru Mantra of - "Keep Learning & Keep Practicing".

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These tasks include minification of JavaScript and CSS files, CSS preprocessing like from SASS to CSS, image optimization and Unit testing. The three popular task runners are npm scripts, gulp and grunt. The npm script is nothing but the package.json file which comes with React projects or is created in a Node.js project using npm init. Gulp and Grunt are much bigger applications and also have a plugin ecosystem that is suited for large JavaScript projects. The basics for these two technologies can be learnt from here. Module Loader and Bundler Both module loaders and bundlers are required for large JavaScript applications. Knowledge of both is required, if the project you are working is a big Vanilla JavaScript project. When a large JavaScript application consists of hundreds of files, the module loader takes care of the dependency and makes sure all the modules are loaded when the application is executed. Examples are RequireJS and SystemJS.Module bundlers also do the same thing, building it at the time of application build rather than at the runtime. Popular examples are Webpack and Rollup. Testing Testing nowadays is very important in any type of project. There are two types of testing; one is known as Unit testing and other as end-to-end testing. For unit testing we write test cases and the most popular tool nowadays is Jest. End-to-end testing is automated testing, which emulates the whole app. Suppose, an app has a login screen and then it shows posts. The testing tool will run the web-app to check whether all the functionalities are done correctly. The two most popular options today are Puppeteer and Cypress. The tutorials to refer for these topics are - Libraries and FrameworkThey are the most important part of the JavaScript ecosystem nowadays. It all started with the release of AngularJS in 2010. Before that period most enterprise apps were made in Java and were desktop apps. But AngularJS changed everything, because it made it easy to manage big projects with JavaScript and helped to create complex web-apps.1. React It is the most popular JavaScript library today and is used by both enterprises and startups that have a huge ecosystem. It is not a complete framework like Angular and we have to install third party dependencies for most things. But if you want to learn a framework that will get you a job, then that framework would be ReactJS, and its demand is not going away for the next 5 years. The component approach and its easy learning curve have made React more popular than other frameworks. A good starting tutorial for React isState Management In React state management can sometimes become complex, when we need to share data between components. We generally take help of external packages in it with the most popular being Redux. But we also have other state management libraries like XState and Recoil. Server-side rendering With performance becoming important nowadays, Server-Side Rendering speeds up the React projects even faster. In SSR projects, the React code is rendered on the server and the client browser directly receives the HTML, CSS, JS bundle. The only framework to do it is NextJS. Static Site Generators Lot of sites don’t need to be updated frequently and it is the place where the only Static Site Generator for ReactJS, which is GatsbyJS shines. With the help of GatsbyJS we can create extremely fast static sites and it gets into Wordpress domain a lot with it. GatsbyJS also has a huge ecosystem of plugins, which enhances its functionalities. React Testing Unit testing is a very important part of ReactJS projects, especially the ones which are very large. Unit testing ensures that we have lower bugs in Production build. The two popular libraries are – Enzyme and Jest. 2. Angular It is a complete framework and unlike React requires very few external dependencies. Everything is built within Angular and we don’t have to go outside for more features. Since it was among the earliest frameworks, older projects are in Angular and it is still widely used in enterprises. A good tutorial to learn Angular is below. 3. Vue Vue is another very popular JavaScript library, which has the best features of both ReactJS and Angular and has become very popular in recent years. It is widely used in both enterprise and startups. A good tutorial to start with Vue is below. 4. NuxtJS It is used for Server-Side Rendering in Vue projects and is similar to the NextJS framework used in ReactJS for SSR.  5. Svelte It is the newest of all frameworks/libraries and has become quite popular, but still not used much in enterprises and startups. It is different from React, Vue and Angular and converts the app at build time rather than at run time as in the other three. Good tutorials to start with Svelte are below. CSS Deep DiveA lot has changed in CSS after it included CSS Grid and Flexbox; it has become much easier for developers to work with. CSS Essentials It is now mandatory for frontend developers to learn CSS Grid and Flexbox, because through it we can develop beautiful layouts with ease. More companies are moving away from CSS Frameworks and have started working with CSS Grid and Flexbox, which are now supported by all browsers. Good tutorials to learn Flexbox and CSS Grid are below. Preprocessors CSS preprocessors are used to add special functionalities in CSS, which it lacks. An example is Sass, which adds special features like variables and nested rules in CSS and is widely used in the industry for larger projects. The other popular one is PostCSS, in which we can use custom plugin and tools in CSS. CSS Frameworks Frameworks were very popular from the early days of CSS, when it was very complicated because of floats. Bootstrap This is the most popular and oldest CSS framework; easy to learn and also has a wide variety of elements, templates and interfaces. Bulma It is another CSS framework, which is very popular and much easier to use than bootstrap. Tailwind CSS This is a fairly new CSS framework and is quite popular nowadays. It follows a different approach than the other frameworks and contains easier classes. Styled Components (React) This is a CSS in JS library and is for React only. It is used to create components out of every style and is very popular in the React world.  CI/CDThe Continuous Integration/ Continuous deployment is mainly used by DevOps. But a frontend engineer should know its basics. It is used to build, test and deploy applications automatically.Github Actions  It is a freely available CI/CD pipeline, which directly integrates to your github based project and can be used in a variety of languages. Deployment It is again a task which mainly falls into the domain of Backend engineers and DevOps, but a frontend engineer should know some basic and simple tools. Static Deployment These products are mainly used to deploy static sites, which consists of HTML, CSS and JavaScript only. Two very popular services are Amazon S3 and Surge.sh Node Application Deployment The projects containing node code cannot be deployed using static deployment. Even if the project is a simple ReactJS project, it also uses node for processing. These applications require services which run the Node code and deploy it. The three most popular services are Vercel, Firebase and Netlify. 2. Backend Roadmap (Including Storage, Services & Deployment)Understanding the BackendBackend is the part of the website that provides the functionality, allowing people to browse their favorite site, purchase a product and log into their account, for instance. All data related to a user or a product or anything else are generally stored in databases or CMS (Content Management System) and when a user visits any website, they are retrieved from there and shown. One of the responsibilities of a backend engineer involves writing APIs, which actually interact with the database and get the data. They are also involved in writing schemas of database and creating the structure of databases. Backend EssentialsFor a backend engineer, working in a Linux environment is an essential skill. A lot of the configurations are done on the terminal. So, he or she should be very good with Linux commands.Also, they should know both commands and the use of any git powered platforms like Github or bitbucket.Languages and FrameworksAll of the popular languages have some framework, which has been used for backend development. These frameworks are generally used to create API endpoints, which are used to fetch or store data in the database. For example, when we scroll articles on Facebook, these articles are fetched from a database and we use the GET method to fetch them. Similarly, when we write an article and hit submit, it uses POST method.Now, different frameworks implement this GET, POST and other APIs also referred to as RESTful APIs in their own way.Java Java is by far the oldest and the most used language for backend development. It is also used for a variety of other tasks like Android development, but it shines in the backend because of its multithreading abilities. So, enterprise grade web-apps and web-apps with a lot of traffic prefer Java, because it handles loads better. The most popular frameworks for backend development in Java are Spring Framework and Hibernate. Some good beginner's tutorials are - JavaScript It is a very popular choice for backend development, because on the frontend side JavaScript is the only choice. So, a lot of frontend engineers can take this choice to become Full-stack developers. Node.js It allows developers to use JavaScript to write server-side code, through which they can write APIs. Actually, the API part can be done by numerous frameworks of Node.js out of which Express is widely used. The other popular framework is Fastify. Some good beginner's tutorials are - Python Python is one of the most popular languages among developers and has been used in a variety of fields. The two most popular frameworks for Python are Flask and Django. Some good beginner tutorials are - C# It is a very popular programming language which was developed by Microsoft and it has the power of C++. Its popularity increased once the .NET framework was released for backend development. As Microsoft is very popular in enterprises, the .NET framework is generally preferred in enterprises. A good tutorial to learn .NET is - Go Go language which is also referred to as Golang, has gained popularity in recent years. It is used a lot in Backend programming and the two popular frameworks are Gin and Beego. DatabaseFor a Backend engineer, after making APIs with framework based on language, it's time to learn about Databases. Databases are used to store most of the things which we see in a web-app, from user login credentials to user posts and everything else. In the earlier days we only used to have one type of Database and that was Relational databases, which use tables to store data. Now we have two other categories also, one being NoSQL databases and the other In-memory databases. 1. Relational databases Relational databases allow you to create, update and delete data stored in a table format. This type of database mostly uses SQL language to access the data, hence is also known as an SQL database. MySQL It is one of the oldest databases and was released in 1995. It is an open-source database and was very popular in the 2000s with the rise of LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) stack. It is still widely in use, but there are other popular Relational databases. A good tutorial to learn MySQL is - PostgreSQL PostgreSQL, which is also known as Postgres is also an old open-source Relational database, which was released in 1996. But it gained popularity recently, as it goes very well with modern stacks containing NodeJS and other backend technologies. A good tutorial to learn PostgreSQL is - Oracle is the most popular and oldest relational database. It was released in 1979 and still remains the number one preference for enterprise customers. All the big banks and other organizations, run on Oracle databases. So, the knowledge of Oracle is a must in many companies for an Engineer. A good tutorial to learn Oracle is - MS-SQL MS-SQL is also known as Microsoft SQL and is yet another commercial Relational database. It has got different editions, used by different audiences. It is also heavily used by enterprise users and powers a whole lot of big systems around the world. A good tutorial to learn MS-SQL is - 2. NoSQL databases NoSQL databases are also called non-SQL databases. The NoSQL databases mainly store data as key-value pairs, but some of them also use a SQL-like structure. These databases have become hugely popular in the 21st century, with the rise of large web-apps which have a lot of concurrent users. These databases can take huge loads, even millions of data connections, required by web-apps like Facebook, Amazon and others. Beside this, it is very easy to horizontally scale  a NoSQL database by adding more clusters, which is a problem in Relational Databases. MongoDB It is the most popular NoSQL database, used by almost every modern app. It is a free to use database, but the hosting is charged if we host on popular cloud services like MongoDB atlas. Its knowledge is a must for backend engineers, who work on the modern stack. MongoDB uses json like documents to store data. A good tutorial to learn MongoDB is - It is a proprietary database service provided by Amazon. It is quite similar to MongoDB and uses key-value pairs to store data. It is also a part of the popular AWS services. A good tutorial to learn DynamoDB is-Cassandra is an open-source and free to use NoSQL database . It takes a different approach when compared to other NoSQL databases, because we use commands like SQL, which are known as CQL (Cassandra Query Language). A good tutorial to learn Cassandra is - 3. In-memory databases The in-memory database is a database, which keeps all of the data in the RAM. This means it is the fastest among all databases.  The most popular and widely used in-memory database is Redis. Redis Redis (Remote Dictionary Server) is an in-memory database, which stores data in RAM in a json like key-value format. It keeps the data persistent by updating everything in the transaction log, because when systems are shut down their RAM is wiped clean. A good tutorial to learn Redis - StorageStoring the data is an important part of any application. Although this is mainly DevOps territory, every backend developer should know the basics for the same. We need to store the database data and also the backend code. Beside this the frontend code must also be stored somewhere. Nowadays everything is stored in the cloud, which is preferred by individuals, startups and enterprises. The two most popular cloud-based storages are – Amazon S3 Azure Blob Storage Good beginner's tutorials for both areServices and APIsThese are theoretical concepts and are implemented by various services, but a backend engineer should know them and how to use them. Restful APIs This is by far the most popular way to get data from a database. It was made more popular, with the rise of web-apps. We do GET, PUT, POST and DELETE operations to read, update, create or delete data from databases. We have earlier discussed different languages and frameworks, which have their own implementations for these operations. Microservices Architecture In microservice architecture, we divide a large and complex project into small, independent services. Each of these is responsible for a specific task and communicates with other services through simple APIs. Each service is built by a small team from the beginning, and separated by boundaries which make it easier to scale up the development effort if needed. GraphQL It is the hottest new kid in the block, which is an alternative to the Restful APIs. The problem with Restful APIs is that if you want some data stored in database, you need to get the whole data sent by the endpoint. On the other hand, with GraphQL, you get a query type language which can return only the part of the data which you require.  DevOps & DeploymentA backend engineer requires a fair bit of DevOps knowledge. So, we will next deep dive into the methodologies in DevOps. 1. Containerization & Orchestration Containers are a method of building, packaging and deploying software. They are similar to but not the same thing as virtual machines (VMs). One of the primary differences is that containers are isolated or abstracted away from the underlying operating system and infrastructure that they run on. In the simplest terms, a container includes both an application’s code and everything that code needs to run properly. Container orchestration is the automatic process of managing the work of individual containers for applications based on microservice architecture. The popular Containerization and Orchestration tools are – Kubernetes Docker Good beginner's tutorials for both are -2. DevOps DevOps is a set of practices that combine software development (Dev) and IT operations (Ops). It aims to shorten the systems development life cycle and provide continuous delivery with high software quality. The two most popular DevOps services are AWS and Azure. Both of them are cloud based and are market leaders. Both of these platforms contain a wide variety of similar services. AWS It consists of over 200 products and services for storage, database, analytics, deployment, serverless function and many more. AWS is the market leader as of now with 33% of market share. The AWS certifications are also one of the most in-demand certifications and a must for frontend engineers as well as Backend engineers. Azure Microsoft Azure is second in terms of market share of cloud-based platforms, with 18% of the market. It also consists of SaaS (Software as a Service), PaaS (Platform as a Service) and IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) like AWS. 3. PaaS (Platform as a Service) There are several smaller players, which provide Platform as a Service and are much easier to use than services like AWS and Azure. With these services you can directly deploy your React or other web-apps, by just hosting them on GitHub and pushing the code. These services are preferred a lot by freelancers, hobbyists and small companies as they don’t require investment in learning complicated services like AWS and Azure. The three most popular PaaS services are Digital Ocean Heroku Netlify 4. Serverless Serverless computing is an execution model where the cloud provider (AWS, Azure, or Google Cloud) is responsible for executing a piece of code by dynamically allocating resources and only charging for the number of resources used to run the code. The code is typically run inside stateless containers that can be triggered by a variety of events including http requests, database events, queuing services, monitoring alerts, file uploads, scheduled events (cron jobs), etc. The code that is sent to the cloud provider for execution is usually in the form of a function. AWS Lambda It is an event-driven, serverless platform which is part of AWS. The various languages supported by AWS Lambda are Node.js, Python, Java, Go, Ruby and .NET. AWS Lambda was designed for use cases such as updates to DynamoDB tables, responding to a website click etc. After that it will “spin down” the database service, to save resources. Azure Functions They are quite similar to AWS Lambda, but are for Microsoft Azure. Azure functions have a browser-based interface to write code to respond to events generated by http requests etc. The service accepts programming languages like C#, F#, Node.js, Python, PHP and Java. Serverless Framework It is an open-source web-framework written using Node.js. The popular services like AWS Lambda, Azure functions and Google cloud functions are based on it. CI/CD A backend developer should know the popular CI/CD (Continuous Integration/Continuous deployment) tools. These tools help to automate the whole process of building, testing and deployment of applications. Github Actions  It is a freely available CI/CD pipeline, which directly integrates to your GitHub based project and can be used in variety of languages. Jenkins Jenkins is the most popular CI/CD automation tool, which helps in building, testing and deployment of applications. Jenkins was written in Java and over the years has been built to support over 1400 plugins, which extend its functionalities. Circle CI Circle CI is also a CI/CD automation tool, which is cloud based and so it is different from Jenkins. It is much easier to use than Jenkins, but has a smaller community and lower user base. SecuritySecurity is an important aspect of any application. Most applications containing user personal data, like email etc, are often targeted by hackers. OWASP The Open Web Application Security Project (or OWASP), is a non-profit organization dedicated to web application security. They have free material available on their website, making it possible for anyone to improve their web application security. Protecting Services & databases against threats Hackers target databases of popular web-apps on a regular basis to get sensitive information about their customers. This data is then sold to the highest bidder on the dark-net. When such public breaches are reported, then it's a reputation loss for the enterprise also. So, a lot of emphasis should be given to Authentication, Access, Backups, and Encryption while setting up a database. The databases should also be monitored for any suspicious activities. Besides this the API routes also need to be protected, so that the hacker cannot manipulate them. Career roles Most of the companies hire Frontend developers, Backend developers and DevOps engineers separately. This is because most of the enterprise projects are huge, in which roles and responsibilities are distributed. But there is a huge demand for Full Stack developers in the startup sector in US and India. These companies need specialists who can get the product out as soon as possible with agile and small teams. Top companies hiringAlmost every company on the planet is hiring web-developers or outsourcing the development work. Since the past decade, the demand for developers has risen exponentially. The top technology companies which hire full stack developers are Facebook, Amazon, Apple, Netflix, Google, Uber, Flipkart, Microsoft and more.  The sites of each of these companies are web-apps (excluding Apple and Microsoft), with complex frontend and backend systems. The frontend generally consists of React or Angular and the backend is a combination of various technologies. The DevOps part is also quite important in these web-apps as they handle millions of concurrent connections at once.Salaries  The salary of a beginner Frontend developer in India starts from Rs. 300,000($ 3980) per year in service-based companies to Rs. 12,00,000($ 15,971) per year in the top tech companies mentioned above. The salary of a Beginner Full-Stack developer in India starts at Rs. 4,50,000 ($ 5989) per year in service companies to Rs. 12,00,000($ 15,971) per year in top tech companies. The salary for an entry level Frontend developer in USA is $ 59,213 per year and for an entry level Full stack developer is $ 61,042 per year.Below are some sources for salaries. Top regions where there is demand There are plenty of remote and freelancing opportunities in web-development across the world. The two countries with most developers and top tech companies are USA and India. Silicon Valley, which is the San Francisco Bay Area, in Northern California, USA is the hub of technology companies.  The top city in India to start a developer job is the Silicon Valley of India – Bengaluru. The number of jobs is more than all the other cities combined and it also has a very good startup ecosystem. Almost all the big technology companies mentioned earlier and top Indian service companies are located in the city. After Bengaluru, the city where the greatest number of technology jobs are based is Hyderabad, followed by Chennai and then Pune. Entry PointsThe demand for web-developers is high and anyone with a passion for creating apps can become a web-developer. An Engineering degree is not mandatory to land a job as a web developer.  The most in-demand skill today and for the next 5 years is React and its ecosystem. So, if you know HTML, CSS, JavaScript and React, it is impossible to not get a job. Career Pathway  Most people start as an intern Front-end developer or Intern Full-Stack developer and in many cases Intern Backend developer. Many companies directly hire junior Frontend/Backend/Full-stack developers.  After that, the next step is the role of Senior Frontend/Backend/Full-stack developers. Many Frontend and Backend developers become full stack developers at this level, by learning additional technologies. Senior resources in Frontend/Backend/Full-stack can then go on to assume Team Lead roles. These people manage small teams in addition to being individual contributors.  After this a professional can become a Project manager, whose main responsibility is managing the team. Another role is that of Technical Project Manager, who manages the team and also has hands-on knowledge in Technology. The last role at this level is that of a Software Architect, who handles and designs big projects and has to look at every aspect of the technology to create the enterprise app. Generally Full-stack developers are preferred in this role, as they need to know all technologies. The highest career milestone is CTO or Chief Technology Officer, who handles all the technology teams and makes all technology decisions in a Technology company. Job SpecializationThere are some Full stack development specializations which I see nowadays in the industry. Full stack developers who work with React in the Frontend and Java in the Backend are in great demand. Similarly, developers who work with Angular in the Frontend and .NET in the backend are in great demand.How KnowledgeHut can helpAll these free resources are a great place to start your Frontend or Full-Stack journey. Beside these there are many other free resources on the internet, but they may not be organized and may not have a structured approach.  This is where KnowledgeHut can make a difference and serve as a one stop shop alternative with its comprehensive Instructor-led live classes. The courses are taught by Industry experts and are perfect for aspirants who wish to become Frontend or FullStack developers.Links for some of the popular courses by KnowledgeHut are appended below-CSS3JavaScriptReactJSNodeJSDevopsConclusion This completes our article on the Full stack developer journey by combining both the Frontend and backend roadmap. There are many people who become backend developers first by working on languages like Java and then go on to learn React to become full stack developers.  Again, many developers learn front-end development first with frameworks like React, and then become full stack developers by learning Node.JS. This path is easier for developers because both React and Node.JS use the same language which is JavaScript.We hope you have found this blog useful, and can now take the right path to become a full stack developer. Good luck on your learning journey!
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Back Up, Restore, and Migrate a MongoDB Database

Popular among both enterprises and startups, MongoDB is a database that is perfectly suited for web-apps that need to scale once the user base increases. MongoDB is different from traditional relational databases because it uses json like objects to store data, instead of tables in relational databases. In this post, we will learn to backup and restore a MongoDB database. In all software products there is an import and export feature, which in database terms, deals with human-readable format. On the other hand, the backup and restore operations use MongoDB specific data, which preserve the MongoDB attributes.  So, when migrating the database, we should prefer backup and restore over import and export. But we should also keep in mind that our source and target systems are compatible, which means that both should be Windows or both should be a Linux based system like Ubuntu/Mac. Prerequisites We are using Windows 10 in this tutorial. Please make sure you have downloaded the MongoDB Community Server and installed in it. It is a very easy setup and you will find lot of good articles on the internet detailing this out. Please ensure that you have added it in the Environment variable in your PC. Backup Considerations In a production environment, backups act as a snapshot of the database at a certain point. Large and complex databases do fail or can be hacked. If that happens, we can use the last backup file to restore the database to the point, before it failed. These are some of the factors which should be taken into consideration when doing a recovery.  1. Recovery Point Objective We should know the objective of the recovery point, which means how much data we are willing to lose during a backup and restoration. A continuous backup is preferred for critical data like bank information and backups should be taken several times during the day. On the other hand, if the data doesn’t change frequently, then the backup can be taken every 6 months.  2. Recovery Time ObjectiveThis tells how quickly the restoration can be done. During restoration the application will be down for some time; and this downtime should be minimized, or else customer relationships will be lost.  3. Database and Snapshot IsolationThis refers to the distance between the primary database server and the backup server. If they are close enough i.e., in the same building, then the recovery time reduces. However, in the event of a physical event such as a fire, there is a likelihood of it been destroyed with the primary database.   4. Restoration Process We should always test our backups in test servers to see if they will work, in case a restoration is required.  5. Available Storage Backup of database generally takes a lot of space and in most cases, it will never be required. So, we should try to minimize the space taken on the disk, by archiving the database into a zip file.  6. Complexity of DeploymentThe backup strategy should be easy to set and should be automated, so that we don’t have to remember to take the backup after regular intervals. Understanding the Basics The first thing that we should know is that MongoDB uses json and bson(binary json) formats for storing data. So, people coming from a JavaScript background can relate to objects for json, which have a key-value pair. Also, json is the preferred format in which we receive or send data to an API endpoint. You can check the json data of a MongoDB database in any tool or online editors. Even the famous Windows application Notepad++ has a json viewer. An example of a json document looks like below. As we can see from the above example, json is very convenient to work with, especially for developers.  But it doesn’t support all the data types available in bson. So, for backup and restoring, we should use binary bson. The second thing to keep in mind is that MongoDB automatically creates databases and collection names if they don’t exist during restore operations. Third, since MongoDB is a document-based database, in many user cases we store large amounts of data in one collection, such as the whole post of an article. MongoDB is also used extensively in large databases and big data. So, reading and inserting the data can consume a lot of CPU, memory and disk space. We should always run the backups during the non-peak hours like night. As already mentioned earlier, we can use import and export functions for backup and restoration of MongoDB databases, but we should use commands like mongodump and mongorestore to backup and restore respectively. MongoDB backup We will first cover backing up the MongoDB database. For this we use the mongodump command.  First open the Windows command prompt and go to the location in which MongoDB is installed. If you have chosen the default setting, while installing MongoDB though the pop-up it will be installed in a location like C:\Program Files\MongoDB\Server\4.4\bin The version number only will change if you are reading this blog in the future. Also, note that it’s better to run the command prompt in the Admin mode. So, once we open the command prompt, we need to change the directory to MongoDB bin folder by giving the below command. cd C:\Program Files\MongoDB\Server\4.4\binNow, enter mongod and press enter. It will show some json text.Now, we can backup to any location. For this post I am backing up on my Desktop in a Backup folder, which I have created through the command line.Now, we have to run mongodump command, but it should be also present in our MongoDB bin folder. If it is not present, we need to download it from and install it. After this, copy the entire exe files from the download to the MongoDB bin folder. MongoDB Backup with no option Now, run the mongodump command from the bin directory. Here, we are not giving any argument so the backup of the whole database will be taken in the same bin directory.MongoDB Backup to an output directory Now, run the mongodump command from the bin directory. Here, the argument –out specifies the directory in which the data backup will be maintained. In our case we are giving the Backup folder in the  Desktop, which we have created earlier. mongodump --out C:\Users\pc\Desktop\Backup Now, go to the desktop and you can find the backup that has been created in our Backup folder.  MongoDB Backup a specific database Now, we can also backup only a database in mongodump using the –db option. I have an example database, so to backup only that I will use the below command. mongodump --db example --out C:\Users\pc\Desktop\Backup As, you can see in the below output only the example database was backed up. MongoDB Backup a specific collection Now, if we want to only backup a specific collection, we need to use the –collection option and give the collection name. Also, note that the database name is mandatory in this case, as mongodb needs to know about the database to search for the collection. I have a products collection within the example database, so to backup only that I will use the below command. mongodump --db example --out C:\Users\pc\Desktop\Backup –collection products As, you can see in the below output only the products collection from example database was backed up. MongoDB Backup from remote MongoDB instances We can get the backup from remote mongodb instances also. I have a lot of MongoDB databases for my personal projects on MongoDB atlas, which is the free to use Cloud database for MongoDB. To get a backup of remote databases, we have to use the connection string with –uri parameter. I used the below command. mongodump --uri "mongodb+srv://xxxx:xxxxxxxxxxx@cluster0.suvl2.mongodb.net/xxxxxDB?retryWrites=true&w=majority" --out C:\Users\pc\Desktop\Backup You can see in the below output the backup of the remote instance. MongoDB Backup procedures We should try to make the backup procedure as automated as possible. One of the best ways is to use a cron job, so that it can run every day. As, discussed earlier it is best to run the backup in the night when the database has the least load.  Setting up a cron job is easier on a Linux or a Mac because the Windows equivalent of it is not good. Alternatively, you can do install mongodb in WSL2 for Windows which supports Ubuntu.  Suppose, on a Linux host which has a mongoDB instance running, you want to run the backup at 04:04 am daily. For this in the terminal, open the cron editor by running the below command in the terminal. sudo crontab –e Now, in the cron editor, you need to add a command like below for our case. 4 4 * * * mongodump --out /var/backups/mongobackups/`date +"%m-%d-%y"`Restoring and migrating a MongoDB database When we restore the MongoDB database from a backup, we will be able to take the exact copy of the MongoDB information, including the indexes. We restore MongoDB by using the command mongorestore, which works only with the binary backup produced by mongodump. Now, we have taken the backup of example database earlier and it is in our Backup folder. We will use the below command to restore it. In the arguments we will specify the name of the database first with –db option. After that with –drop, we make sure that the example database is first dropped. And in the final argument, we specify the path of our backup. mongorestore --db example --drop C:\Users\pc\Desktop\Backup\example Now, if we check in terminal, we have our example database restored properly. Conclusion In this article, we have learned about MongoDB backup and restore. We have learned the different options for the backups, and why and when backups are required. Keep learning! 
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Back Up, Restore, and Migrate a MongoDB Database

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