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Multiprogramming Operating System: Types, Features & Examples

03rd Jan, 2024
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    Multiprogramming Operating System: Types, Features & Examples

    An operating system that allows multiple programmes to run simultaneously on a single processor machine is known as a multiprogramming operating system. The other programmes are prepared to use the CPU while one programme waits for an input/output transfer.

    Imagine that I/O is a part of the process that is currently running (which, by definition, does not need the CPU to be accomplished). The OS might then terminate that process and hand off the command to another ready-to-run in-memory programme (i.e., context switching). This keeps the system from idly waiting for the I/O work to finish, wasting CPU time. A process that is currently running keeps going until it either releases the CPU voluntarily or blocks for an I/O operation.

    Therefore, the primary goal of multiprogramming is to keep the CPU active for as long as there are active processes. The CPU won't be idle in a multiprogramming OS, so it'll always be active. The web development community is huge. You can find much knowledge in the Advanced Web Development Course. We'll explain the multiprogramming operating system in this article.

    Multiprogramming Operating System

    Source: Javatpoint.com

    What is Multiprogramming Operating System?

    On a computer with a single processor, a multiprogramming operating system can run numerous programs. In a multiprogramming operating system, if one program needs to wait for an input/output transfer, the other program is prepared to use the CPU. Therefore, different tasks might share CPU time. However, it is not required that they carry out their duties at the same time.

    The terms "Task," "Process," and "Job" all refer to the execution of a program. Compared to serial and batch processing systems, concurrent program executions increase system resource consumption and throughput.

    Multiprogramming's main objective is to manage the system's resources. The file system, command processor, transient area, and I/O control system are the main elements of a multiprogramming system. To store various programmes based on sub-segmenting areas of the transient area, multiprogramming operating systems were created. The operating system's core operations are connected to the resource management procedures.

    Managing the various resources of the entire system is one of the main goals of multiprogramming. The fundamental idea behind multiprogramming systems is multiprogramming. These resources comprise the file system, memory, processors, input and output devices, among others, but are not limited to them. Therefore, multiprogramming operating systems are made to store and run multiple programmes at once (not necessarily in real-time). The operating system's core functions are given access to the routine managing resources.

    What is Multiprogramming Operating System

    Source: Scalar.com

    Examples of Multiprogramming Operating Systems

    Following are the multiprogramming operating system example:

    • Desktop operating systems, including Windows, macOS, and various Linux distributions. These are contemporary operating systems that make use of a variety of multiprogramming concepts. A system running one of these (or more) operating systems allows a user to run multiple jobs at once. For instance, many games have been developed to utilize just one processor core. 
    • One can send and receive text messages while simultaneously listening to music on a phone running Android, iOS, or another mobile operating system.
    • application software, including media players, Office, and well-known web browsers. Any modern web browser would allow a user to open as many windows or tabs as necessary in order to visit multiple websites at once. You can enroll in the best Full Stack Development course online to create an excellent web application. 

    Features of Multiprogramming Operating System

    The multiprogramming operating system has many features. The following are some of the features of a multiprogramming operating system: 

    • It offers a slower response time.
    • Running several tasks at once in one application might be helpful.
    • It aids in improving the computer's overall job throughput.
    • The multiprogramming system can be used by multiple users at once.
    • Jobs that are completed quickly are those that are completed quickly.
    • It might aid in reducing turnaround time for urgent tasks.
    • It increases CPU efficiency and is constantly active.
    • The resources are widely used.

    Types of Multiprogramming Operating Systems

    Two major types of multiprogramming operating systems exist. These are listed below:

    • Multitasking Operating System 
    • Multiuser Operating System 

    1. Multitasking Operating System

    A multitasking OS enables the simultaneous operation of two or more programmes. The operating system does this by moving each programme into or out of memory one at a time. A programme that has been switched out of memory is temporarily saved on the disc until it is required once more.

    Multitasking Operating System

    Source: Scalar.com

    2. Multiuser Operating System

    A powerful central computer can be shared by many users from various terminals thanks to a multiuser operating system. This is done by the operating system quickly switching between terminals, each of which is allotted a certain amount of processor time on the main computer. Each user appears to have continuous access to the main computer because the operating system changes between terminals so quickly. On a system like this, the number of users increases the likelihood that the response time of the central computer will be more noticeable.

    Multiuser Operating System

    Source: Scalar.com

    Working of the Multiprogramming Operating System (OS)

    On a single computer system, multiprogramming involves the concurrent execution of numerous tasks. In multiprogramming operating systems, the CPU is temporarily used by another programme while one waits for an I/O operation to complete. Thus, it is feasible for numerous tasks to share the CPU. It should be noted that multiprogramming does not entail running several processes at once. It does imply that a variety of tasks can make use of resources like CPU, memory, etc. A portion of one process will be run, then another portion of another, and so on.

    The actual use of a processor or other shared resource by more than one process at once will never be permitted. However, the way in which these resources are accessed is nothing like sequential or serial. In the sequential approach, the CPU would be allotted to one programme. The CPU will then be assigned to another job after this one has finished running, and so on, in a serial fashion.

    By introducing several concepts like pre-emption, prioritising, scheduling, etc., multiprogramming enables more effective resource utilisation. Simply put, a programme does not have to wait for the process that is currently using the CPU to finish its execution.

    Difference Between Multiprogramming and Multi-tasking Operating Systems

    Following are the differences between multitasking and multiprogramming operating system: 

    1. Multiprogramming

    By organizing jobs (code and data) so that the CPU always has one to execute, multiprogramming improves CPU utilization. The goal is to keep several tasks active in main memory. CPU can be reassigned to another job if one job becomes overloaded with IO.

    Multiprogramming OS

    Source: Geeksforgeeks.org

    2. Multi-tasking 

    A logical progression from multiprogramming is multitasking. An OS's capacity to run multiple tasks concurrently on a CPU machine is known as multitasking. Common resources are shared by these various tasks (like CPU and memory). In multi-tasking systems, the CPU executes multiple jobs by switching between them, typically using a short-time quantum. Because the switches happen so quickly, users may feel as though they are interacting with each task that is being executed simultaneously.

    Multi-tasking OS

    Source: Geeksforgeeks.org

    Multiprogramming vs Multi-tasking

    1Context switching is a used concept.Time sharing and the context switching concepts are used.
    2When a job in a multi-programmed system needs to wait, the operating system simply switches to and runs a different job.Time sharing mode is the most common way to use the processor. When an allotted amount of time has passed or when the current process must wait for another reason, switching takes place.
    3By organizing jobs, multiprogramming raises CPU utilization.The CPU is used more while multitasking, which also improves responsiveness.
    4The goal is to minimize CPU idling for as long as you can.By enhancing responsiveness Time Sharing, the CPU Utilization concept is intended to be further extended.

    Advantages of Multiprogramming Operating System

    The following are the advantages of a multiprogramming operating system: 

    • Unless there are no tasks to complete, the processor is rarely idle and is usually in use. 
    • The jobs all run in parallel, which makes the system quick. 
    • Jobs with a short CPU requirement time are completed sooner than those with a long CPU requirement time. 
    • Multiple users can be supported on a computer system by multiprogramming operating systems. 
    • The utilization of resources is effective and uniform. 
    • The reduced overall time needed to complete a task. 
    • Operating systems that support multiple programming languages are adept at handling applications that require the execution of numerous tasks. 

    Disadvantages of Multiprogramming Operating System

    The following are the disadvantages of multiprogramming operating system: 

    • It's quite sophisticated and complex. 
    • CPU planning is essential. 
    • The operating system needs memory management because all tasks are stored in the main memory. 
    • Managing all processes and tasks is the more challenging task. 
    • If there are many jobs available, long-term positions will require a lengthy wait. 

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    A multiprogramming operating system is one that can execute multiple programmes simultaneously on a single processor. In an operating system with multiple programmes, other programmes use the CPU and other resources while one programme waits for an I/O transfer. 

    Multiprogramming is the process of running multiple tasks concurrently on the same computer system. Managing the various resources of the entire system is one of the main goals of multiprogramming. Windows, iOS, Excel, Firefox, and other multiprogramming operating systems are examples. If you are a beginner and want to learn more about React.js projects, you can go for KnowledgeHut’s Best Web Development Course Online.

    Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    1Why is multiprogramming used in OS?

    Multiple users can be supported on a computer system by multiprogramming operating systems. Utilization of resources is effective and uniform. The reduced overall time needed to complete a task. Operating systems that support multiple programming languages are adept at handling applications that require the execution of numerous tasks. 

    2What are the functions of multiprogramming OS?

    The main goal of multiprogramming is to control all system resources. The main parts of a multiprogramming system are the file system, transient area, command processor, and I/O control system. In order to store numerous programmes, the multiprogramming OS is designed to sub-segment the transient area. 

    3What is the objective of multiprogramming?

    Maximizing CPU utilization is the objective of multiprogramming operating systems. I/O and CPU cannot typically be used by the same process at the same time; whenever CPU or I/O is available, another process may use it. 


    Abhresh Sugandhi


    Abhresh is specialized as a corporate trainer, He has a decade of experience in technical training blended with virtual webinars and instructor-led session created courses, tutorials, and articles for organizations. He is also the founder of Nikasio.com, which offers multiple services in technical training, project consulting, content development, etc.

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