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How To Clear CEH in First Attempt?

Cybercrime and hacking attacks are doubling year on year. Not just corporate giants and government entities, but even small scale companies and start-ups are afraid of being victims of cyber theft. Organizations may face major losses not just in their profits but also loss of reputation, data, and customers. Therefore, almost all organizations want to keep their data and privacy of their customers safe from cyber criminals. These organizations spend a fortune on implementing robust technology architecture and on hiring professionals who can identify loopholes in the cyber security systems and patch them up before hackers can get through. These professionals, known as ethical hackers or white hat hackers, can help organizations protect their assets (people, process, and technology) from cybercriminals.Why CEH? The exponential rise in data, and our dependence on virtual systems has also consequently raised attacks from cyber criminals and data breaches. This has made the role of the ethical hacker among the most important job roles in these times. There is a huge demand for cybersecurity experts in almost all types of businesses. To hire security experts, organizations have some basic or minimum benchmarks set. These security experts are expected to have a good understanding of security concepts, and knowledge of the latest tools, processes, and frameworks so that they can be one step ahead of cyber criminals and prevent data breach.  This is where certifications such as the CEH - Certified Ethical Hacker by EC-Council comes into play. The CEH is the most comprehensive program for ethical hackers as it covers the latest hacking trends and familiarises professionals with the technologies that will help prevent data breaches. This international accreditation is recognised world over, so no matter where you are, your skills and knowledge will be considered valid by all organizations, anywhere in the world. To defeat the hacker, you need to think like a hacker. This program is all about developing the hacker mindset but in an ethical way. Once you are ready to jump into this, passing the CEH exam is your 1st milestone in your career. In this article, we will learn how to become a certified ethical hacker in the very first attempt, for which hard work and dedication are highly recommended.  Preparation Steps We will discuss here the 5 steps to prepare for CEH certification.  1. Plan the training Once you decide to achieve the certification, you need a concrete plan for training as well as practice. Choose the best source for training. We highly recommend choosing offline classroom training if you are a student or novice in cybersecurity. Usually, you can complete training in 3-4 months or less.  The reason we recommend an offline course is that meeting other like-minded learners and professionals will help you  develop the ethical hacker mindset. You can get in touch with proper mentors, people with similar mind-sets and take advantage of group study which can reveal many unknown issues, incidents, and examples. Of course, this will cost you more but you can’t learn to swim without getting wet.2. Get your hands dirty – Practice! The plus point of the latest version of CEH v11 is that it is more focused,  practical based and scenario-based with the latest content that equips students with hands-on skills. Remember, security is all about practice and implementation rather than a bunch of documents and do’s and don’ts checklist. In the course of gaining the credential you will learn about methods and tools that you can use to protect the organization such as security implementations, testing, and monitoring. Just bookish knowledge won’t help there. We recommend that spending at least 2 hours daily practice apart from training will improve your skills dramatically.3. Study Guides  While we did mention above not to be bookish, books are a treasure trove of knowledge and even for clearing the CEH you must do a thorough read of the recommended books.  You can religiously follow study guides and clear your concept on every topic in a very descriptive manner. This will answer all your “What and Why” in terms of cybersecurity and ethical hacking. Of course, this is world-class content and therefore you will get exact definitions, descriptions, and diagrams for almost all topics. We recommend studying at least 1 hour daily to get clear on all topics during the training.  4. Study groups - Community Study groups will polish your knowledge and skills for CEH topics. There are many study groups you can join where you can resolve your queries, clear your doubts, take help to learn something, and help others too. This will help you to stay in the company of like-minded people and you will get to learn fast.  However, it is recommended not to share any personal/sensitive information. Beware of any unknown person who asks for sensitive information like your IP address, location, personal information, or anything apart from CEH courseware.   We recommend making a study group with the people you know who are also attempting the exam. You can take the help of your trainer or mentor to manage this group. Be active and participate in group activities like quizzes or group discussions. 5. Self-assessment Keep learning is the key element of CEH training. Brush up your knowledge for the exam perspective as that is your main goal to become certified. For this, you need to learn how to give the exam and what type of questions are asked. For a second, let’s imagine the scenario of a war. If a new trainee soldier having knowledge of arms and wearing his 15 kgs protective suit jumped into the warzone, do you think he can fight better and save the lives of others without having any practice? Probably not, because he is unaware of war scenarios, combat methods, and ways of attack and defense in real war zones where the situation is uncertain. The same concept applies to CEH exams. You may face a lot of weird-looking or twisted or tricky questions with confusing multiple answers. Therefore, once you are done with your CEH training and you have knowledge of all topics, you need to test it like a mock drill of the war zone.There are many sources available where you can practice the exam questions. This platform will help you to understand the methods to ace the exam questions, and complete them within the required timeframe. Here we are sharing some links to practice for your exams. ( Note: We do not promote any website or any platform here. These links are shared to help students find good options for studying.) CEH ASSESSMENT- EC-CouncilEC-Council® CEH™ Exam PrepCEH practice examApart from this, you can follow blogs, industry experts, and relevant videos for more understanding and guidance.Required soft skills Every job roles needs certain skills apart from the core skills needed to perform on the job. These include soft skills that will help you grow as an individual and as a professional.Be Curious – Be hungry for knowledge and for learning new things and gaining new skills.  Be Enthusiastic - Be enthusiastic and motivated throughout your journey as a hacker and you will be rewarded.  Eliminate the distractions - Avoid time-wasting or non-productive activities during the training like spending time on online games or social media. About the exam After getting trained and completing your practice, it is time for the exam. The CEH exam is a 4 hour exam with 125 multiple choice questions. Check the below link for the exam blueprint to get an idea of the percentage ratio of each module during the CEH exam. Examination centres can be chosen based on your location. Keep your exam code with you. The exam organizers have a process to determine the difficulty rating of each question. For more information, you can check out the EC-Council website and get in touch with your training center.Conclusion So, start your journey on becoming a certified cyber security professional with the CEH course and credential. As with anything else, practice makes perfect and you will become better as an ethical hacker with practice. Work hard and you will definitely achieve your CEH certification at the very first attempt. 
How To Clear CEH in First Attempt?
KnowledgeHut

How To Clear CEH in First Attempt?

Cybercrime and hacking attacks are doubling year on year. Not just corporate giants and government entities, but even small scale companies and start-ups are afraid of being victims of cyber theft. Organizations may face major losses not just in their profits but also loss of reputation, data, and customers. Therefore, almost all organizations want to keep their data and privacy of their customers safe from cyber criminals. These organizations spend a fortune on implementing robust technology architecture and on hiring professionals who can identify loopholes in the cyber security systems and patch them up before hackers can get through. These professionals, known as ethical hackers or white hat hackers, can help organizations protect their assets (people, process, and technology) from cybercriminals.Why CEH? The exponential rise in data, and our dependence on virtual systems has also consequently raised attacks from cyber criminals and data breaches. This has made the role of the ethical hacker among the most important job roles in these times. There is a huge demand for cybersecurity experts in almost all types of businesses. To hire security experts, organizations have some basic or minimum benchmarks set. These security experts are expected to have a good understanding of security concepts, and knowledge of the latest tools, processes, and frameworks so that they can be one step ahead of cyber criminals and prevent data breach.  This is where certifications such as the CEH - Certified Ethical Hacker by EC-Council comes into play. The CEH is the most comprehensive program for ethical hackers as it covers the latest hacking trends and familiarises professionals with the technologies that will help prevent data breaches. This international accreditation is recognised world over, so no matter where you are, your skills and knowledge will be considered valid by all organizations, anywhere in the world. To defeat the hacker, you need to think like a hacker. This program is all about developing the hacker mindset but in an ethical way. Once you are ready to jump into this, passing the CEH exam is your 1st milestone in your career. In this article, we will learn how to become a certified ethical hacker in the very first attempt, for which hard work and dedication are highly recommended.  Preparation Steps We will discuss here the 5 steps to prepare for CEH certification.  1. Plan the training Once you decide to achieve the certification, you need a concrete plan for training as well as practice. Choose the best source for training. We highly recommend choosing offline classroom training if you are a student or novice in cybersecurity. Usually, you can complete training in 3-4 months or less.  The reason we recommend an offline course is that meeting other like-minded learners and professionals will help you  develop the ethical hacker mindset. You can get in touch with proper mentors, people with similar mind-sets and take advantage of group study which can reveal many unknown issues, incidents, and examples. Of course, this will cost you more but you can’t learn to swim without getting wet.2. Get your hands dirty – Practice! The plus point of the latest version of CEH v11 is that it is more focused,  practical based and scenario-based with the latest content that equips students with hands-on skills. Remember, security is all about practice and implementation rather than a bunch of documents and do’s and don’ts checklist. In the course of gaining the credential you will learn about methods and tools that you can use to protect the organization such as security implementations, testing, and monitoring. Just bookish knowledge won’t help there. We recommend that spending at least 2 hours daily practice apart from training will improve your skills dramatically.3. Study Guides  While we did mention above not to be bookish, books are a treasure trove of knowledge and even for clearing the CEH you must do a thorough read of the recommended books.  You can religiously follow study guides and clear your concept on every topic in a very descriptive manner. This will answer all your “What and Why” in terms of cybersecurity and ethical hacking. Of course, this is world-class content and therefore you will get exact definitions, descriptions, and diagrams for almost all topics. We recommend studying at least 1 hour daily to get clear on all topics during the training.  4. Study groups - Community Study groups will polish your knowledge and skills for CEH topics. There are many study groups you can join where you can resolve your queries, clear your doubts, take help to learn something, and help others too. This will help you to stay in the company of like-minded people and you will get to learn fast.  However, it is recommended not to share any personal/sensitive information. Beware of any unknown person who asks for sensitive information like your IP address, location, personal information, or anything apart from CEH courseware.   We recommend making a study group with the people you know who are also attempting the exam. You can take the help of your trainer or mentor to manage this group. Be active and participate in group activities like quizzes or group discussions. 5. Self-assessment Keep learning is the key element of CEH training. Brush up your knowledge for the exam perspective as that is your main goal to become certified. For this, you need to learn how to give the exam and what type of questions are asked. For a second, let’s imagine the scenario of a war. If a new trainee soldier having knowledge of arms and wearing his 15 kgs protective suit jumped into the warzone, do you think he can fight better and save the lives of others without having any practice? Probably not, because he is unaware of war scenarios, combat methods, and ways of attack and defense in real war zones where the situation is uncertain. The same concept applies to CEH exams. You may face a lot of weird-looking or twisted or tricky questions with confusing multiple answers. Therefore, once you are done with your CEH training and you have knowledge of all topics, you need to test it like a mock drill of the war zone.There are many sources available where you can practice the exam questions. This platform will help you to understand the methods to ace the exam questions, and complete them within the required timeframe. Here we are sharing some links to practice for your exams. ( Note: We do not promote any website or any platform here. These links are shared to help students find good options for studying.) CEH ASSESSMENT- EC-CouncilEC-Council® CEH™ Exam PrepCEH practice examApart from this, you can follow blogs, industry experts, and relevant videos for more understanding and guidance.Required soft skills Every job roles needs certain skills apart from the core skills needed to perform on the job. These include soft skills that will help you grow as an individual and as a professional.Be Curious – Be hungry for knowledge and for learning new things and gaining new skills.  Be Enthusiastic - Be enthusiastic and motivated throughout your journey as a hacker and you will be rewarded.  Eliminate the distractions - Avoid time-wasting or non-productive activities during the training like spending time on online games or social media. About the exam After getting trained and completing your practice, it is time for the exam. The CEH exam is a 4 hour exam with 125 multiple choice questions. Check the below link for the exam blueprint to get an idea of the percentage ratio of each module during the CEH exam. Examination centres can be chosen based on your location. Keep your exam code with you. The exam organizers have a process to determine the difficulty rating of each question. For more information, you can check out the EC-Council website and get in touch with your training center.Conclusion So, start your journey on becoming a certified cyber security professional with the CEH course and credential. As with anything else, practice makes perfect and you will become better as an ethical hacker with practice. Work hard and you will definitely achieve your CEH certification at the very first attempt. 
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How To Clear CEH in First Attempt?

Cybercrime and hacking attacks are doubling year o... Read More

What Is SQL Injection (SQLi)

In today’s world cyber-attacks are triggered to alter or steal the information of a person or an organization in a huge volume of data. It is very much important to protect the data/database from security related attacks.SQL injection is one of the top trending cyber attack techniques recognized by the world’s top non-profit security foundation OWASP (Open Web Application Security Project). SQL injection attacks are made by inserting or injecting the SQL query input from the client end of the application. In this article, we will learn about the SQL injection, types of attacks using SQL injection and preventive steps.  What is SQL Injection? SQL injection attack is used to insert malicious SQL statements into an entry field for execution. This injection technique is the most common web application hacking attack that allows an attacker to get unauthorised access, commit identity spoofing, tamper, take control or destroy your database. This is an attack that is very simple and easy to carry out even for script kiddies.  As we can see in the above picture, this is the second most common vulnerability that can impact databases. SQL injection flaws occur because of poorly designed web applications that can exploit SQL statements that execute malicious code.  How SQL injection is used is very much dependent on the intention of the hacker. With unauthorized access to a database server, what can attackers do? Here are some examples: Download unauthorized data of a person or an organization Delete/modify data Permanently destroy data/backups Add a virus to a system Alter security Encrypt/steal/alter data and hold it for ransom Publicly shame an organization via a web or social media hack Use data to harm business operations How does SQL injection work? To understand SQL injection, you need to know what SQL is.   SQL – SQL stands for Structured Query Language. This language is mainly developed for interacting with the relational database. For data manipulation, Query is used to insert data, modify the database, or just to access the required data.Image SourceSQL Injection is one of the most vulnerable threats which may exploit the entire database of any private organization or government sector where code is injected in a web page.  An SQL statement will be altered in a manner which goes with ALWAYS TRUE as constraint. (In simple words 1=1  This will be always true) It allows an attacker to view unauthorized data. This might include data belonging to other users, or any other data that the application itself is able to access. An attacker can modify or delete this data, causing persistent changes to the application’s content or behavior.SQL injection TypesThere are a wide variety of SQL injection vulnerabilities, attacks, and techniques, which arise in different situations. Some common SQL injection examples include:Tautologies – Used to Bypass AuthenticationSelect * from USERTable where uid=‘xyz’ and pwd =’x’ or ‘5’=’5’;Union – Used to Extract Data. A different dataset is returned from the Database.  Illegal/Logically Incorrect Queries - Used to Identify injectable parameters.  Piggybacked Queries - Multiple queries are executed without the knowledge of the user which may lead to Database exploitation. Injected queries are added to the normal executable query. Inference - Different responses from the database are cross checked by changing its behavior.  Stored procedure - Injection is done to the stored procedure present in the Database.Common Causes and how to avoid SQL Injection Attack-If we are assuming our application’s code/web forms are well protected against any kind of attack by default, application changes and assumptions that were true in the past or present may not be true in the future and may require additional changes. These assumptions eventually lead to compliance and security auditing failures. Using unsupported or legacy software/code/tools or features may lead to security holes and there could be chances of delay in catching or fixing such issues. Running patched and upgraded versions of code is critical to avoid security exploits. Continuously monitoring for new security vulnerabilities and reacting as needed is an important step towards avoiding unnecessary surprises. Reviewing old code is very important, and timely changes in the code are highly recommended as technologies keeps changing. The versions, functions, and extensions require regular upgrades. Older versions or codes are quite vulnerable and might be unable to maintain the integrity of your application. How to detect SQL injection vulnerabilitiesAs a pentester, you can use two techniques to find SQL injection vulnerabilities with high efficiency - manual and automated testing.Manual Testing During application development there are set of tests performed on each level, that help to detect any SQL injection vulnerability, if it exists. Check with the single ' character ‘ and look for errors or other anomalies. The tester can add some SQL specific syntax into code that can evaluate the original value of the entry point and other values, and check for different responses by the application. Another method is to create a Boolean condition, for example “OR 1=1” and “OR 1=2”, and check again to see if the application response is different.  There are some payloads available that are designed to trigger time delays if executed in SQL query, and you can check if there is any delay in response. Automated TestingThere are many good tools and frameworks available in the market. Here is the list of some of the best tools for SQL injection detection. SQLMap Appsider by Rapid7 Accunetix Wapiti Netsparker etc.How to prevent SQL injection vulnerability? To prevent or avoid SQL injection vulnerability, we must first understand why it occurs, and why it is listed as one of the vulnerabilities in the OWASP top 10.  The SQL injection is so easy to perform, that even a script kiddie can make an attempt.  Another reason is the treasure of critical data that lures the attacker to use SQL injection.  Below is the vulnerable code for SQL injection where the user input is concatenated directly into the query: String query = “;SELECT * FROM products WHERE category = ‘";+ input + "’" Statement statement = connection.createStatement(); ResultSet resultSet = statement.executeQuery(query); Check out the code below that helps to prevents the user input from interfering with the query structure: PreparedStatement statement = connection.prepareStatement("SELECT * FROM products WHERE category = ?");  statement.setString(1, input);  ResultSet resultSet = statement.executeQuery(); Primary recommendations: Use Parameterised queries  Least Privilege Use stored procedures if required White listing the input fields Avoid displaying detailed error messages that are useful to an attacker. It is also important to get patch updates regularly, as every day there are many new vulnerabilities that are found.  It is also recommended to use a Web Application Firewall to protect your application, which can help you to filter and find malicious data.  Where Do We Go Next? It is very important to identify and mitigate this notorious vulnerability and take immediate actions to keep your systems secure. Many skilled attackers are waiting to take advantage of your mistakes, like poor code, so that they can hack into the database. We know this vulnerability is very old but we have to be aware of the outcomes of this type of vulnerability and try to prevent this during the development phase, rather than covering up the liability later.  
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What Is SQL Injection (SQLi)

In today’s world cyber-attacks are triggered to ... Read More

Beginner's Guide to Penetration Testing

Since you are here to read this article,  we assume that you are already aware of the terms “hacking”, “hackers” and other words associated with unauthorised access. Penetration testing or ethical hacking is the process of attempting to gain access into target resources and perform actual attacks to find loopholes in the system and measure the strength of security.In this article we will learn about penetration testing, its requirements and understand how real world ethical hackers perform hacking attacks.Penetration testing (also called pen testing) and Vulnerability Assessment are both individual activities. Vulnerability assessment is carried out to identify the vulnerability of the system or network and patch that particular vulnerability with the creation of some controls. Although the modus operandi may be similar, the motives behind hacking and penetration testing are polar opposites. Hacking is done with the intention of causing harm. It includes footprinting, attacks, gaining access, exploitation etc. And once the motive is fullfiled the hacker clears the tracks in other words, wipes the evidence. The target might not have any prior information regarding this.Penetration testing, on the other hand, is carried out with the motive of enhancing the existing security level of the system. It is carried out with the approval of top management or delegates, who provide support for the testing.  Penetration testing is the actual testing of the system by targeting and performing real attacks without having much information about the target systems. Many companies and government agencies hire penetration testers to check the strength of their security controls.UK’s National Cyber Security Center summarised pentesting in one line.”A method of gaining assurance in the security of an IT system by attempting the breach of system’s security, using some tools and techniques as an adversary might”.Types of Penetration TestingThere are 3 main type of penetration testing: 1. Black Box penetration testing Here the attackers have no prior or predefined information regarding the target. They have to perform common attacks using tools and techniques without any knowledge of the target's IP address, OS details or other information. This type of testing is called covert or Red team testing2. Grey Box Penetration Testing In this type of testing, attackers have some amount of information about the target like location, IP address, OS details, email ID etc. Based on the incomplete information at hand, they have to apply the appropriate method of attack and perform penetration testing.   3. White Box Penetration Testing.White hat testing is comparatively downright testing with full fledged information about the target, where the hacker has all required information to perform the attack. This might include IP address, OS details, known vulnerabilities, application version and so on. This is also known as overt testing or Blue Team testing. Why is Pentesting important in Hacking ?Penetration testing helps organizations to safeguard their assets and prevent loss of data and financial or other assest. It may be carried out by a variety of cyber criminals including hackers, extornists, disgruntled employees or any other undesirable elements.It also helps to check the actual implementation of compliance and find out the non-compliance in the entire system or network, which can eventually lead to big mistakes and result in business loss, heavy fines and defamation.Penetration testing helps shape your information security strategy by identifying vulnerabilities and their impacts, and defining the likelihood of future attacks, that can be mitigated proactively.Penetration testing Methodology Penetration testing is more advanced than any other form of testing. In normal testing, the tester assumes that such a scenario is unlikely to happen, wherein there’s an attempt at unauthorised access and hence might have skipped some functions.  Penetration testing on the other hand requires the tester to think of all possible scenarios of attack and act like an actual attacker to design the perfect system and get the desired result.To achieve this goal, the penetration testing process is designed in 4 major steps. 1. Planning In the planning phase, top management involvement is highly recommended. With the help of delegates, the penetration team identifies the rules, objectives and goals to perform successful penetration testing. Risk of testing, required permission to access the information systems, backup plan, alternative source allocation, required downtime etc. are carried out after discussions between the tester and client.(in case of white hat testing). Without proper planning, pentesting may lead to heavy data loss or any similar failure. It is also important to get approval from the management regarding the scope. Testing without management approval can lead to major production/business impact. The penetration tester can get fired or face legal action in some cases. 2. Target Discovery In this phase, penetration testers have to get as much  information as possible about the target. This includes but is not limited to IP address, OS, email IDs, locations, network maps etc. In major cases, OSINT framework will help the tester to get most of the open information about the target. After getting all the required information, they have to start vulnerability assessment using automated tools. Usually testers have their own database giving the details of the vulnerabilities. Once enough data has been gathered during the target discovery phase3. Exploitation This is the core process of any penetration test. In this phase, testers identify potential vulnerabilities and get those vulnerabilities verified by exploiting them. If the vulnerability actually exists, then the attack takes place successfully. This phase includes a variety of attacks like social engineering, SQL injections, implementation of the backdoors, malware attacks, phishing attacks and more. Also, the goal of this phase is to check if access can be maintained that eventually converts into privilege escalation that can keep stealing the organization’s data or keep acting as a threat for the system. Sometimes, pentesters will leave a clue on the target system that can be reviewed in the post exploitation phase.4. Reporting The reporting phase is the final stage of penetration testing where the test results are compiled as a PT report. This report includes all details about the penetration test. For example,  Objective of penetration testing Tester team  Scope (Target team / system / network) List of vulnerabilities identified by the team Details of exploitation Key findings Calculation of time during access and maintaining access Impact and analysis Tactical and strategic recommendations Summary This report comes under the “confidential” category and only authorised personnel should have access to this report. Note of the “Acceptable use” of this report must be mentioned in this report and agreed to by both parties.Top 10 tools for Penetration testingTools play a major role in penetration testing.  These tools help to identify security weaknesses in the network, server, hardware and application. Penetration tools are nothing but a software application which is developed to check loopholes that are used by the actual hacker.  However, the same tools are also used by pentesters to check the threats that may compromise the security of the organization. This is like a weapon that can kill but can also protect from the enemies.There are hundreds of tools available in the market to perform various penetration testing operations. We will look at some of the most common tools used for penetration testing which are helpful for common testing features and are widely accepted by most organizations.1. MetasploitMetasploit is a widely used penetration testing tool framework. Using metasploit, testing teams can verify and manage security assessments that keep white hat hackers a step ahead.Metasploit has a user friendly GUI interface along with a command line. It also supports all operating systems like Mac OS, Linux and Windows, But it’s more commonly run on Linux.  Metasploit allows testers to break into the system and identify severe flaws. Testers can exploit the flaws and perform actual attacks with this tool. Metasploit provides more than 1500 exploits using metadata.2. WiresharkWireshark is the world's most widely used network protocol analyzer. This tool helps testers to check what's happening on the network at a microscopic level. Wireshark helps for deep inspection of hundreds of protocols along with live captures and offline analysis features. Wireshark also supports all major OS like Windows, Linux, MacOS, Solaris etc.Powerful display filters, rich VoIP analysis, coloring rules, decryption ability and many other features make Wireshark an unbeatable industry leader in the market.3. BeEFBeEF stands for Browser Exploitation Framework. This penetration testing tool is used to check a web browser and explore weaknesses on the client system and network. It also looks past hardened network parameters and client systems.It can use more than one browser for launching directed command modules and further attacks in the context of the browsers.4. Burp suiteBurp suit is ideal for testing web-based applications.  Burp Suite is widely used by most information security professionals.This framework uses web based penetration testing on the JAVA platform with automatic crawling capacity over the application.It has features to map the tack surface and analyze requests between a browser and destination servers.5. NessusFor 20 years, 30000 companies have been using Nessus tools for their penetration testing process. This is the most powerful tool in the world with more than 45000 CES (Cyber Exposure Score) and 100000 plus plugins for scanning the IP addresses, websites and completing sensitive data searches. Using Nessus testers can locate the weak points in the systems.  Nessus can be helpful for locating and identifying missing patches, malware including all operating systems, applications, mobile scanning. Fully featured dashboard, wide range scanning capacity and multi format report facility makes Nessus the best tool for VAPT worldwide.6. NmapFree, flexible, powerful, portable and easy to use, Nmap is an open source network discovery and security auditing tool.Nmap is useful to check and manage service upgrade schedules, monitoring host and running services with uptime, network inventory management etc. It uses raw IP packets to determine whether hosts are available or not. Nmap also helps to check what services are running hosts along with application name, version, operating systems details. Testers can check what type of packet filters are in use. Nmap has the ability to scan a single system to large networks. It supports almost all operating systems.Nmap is so popular that it has been featured in 12 movies including The Matrix, Snowden, Ocean’s 8, Die Hard 4, Girl with the Dragon Tattoo etc.7. AircrackAircrack NG is the tool for assessment of wireless security. Aircrack can monitor captured packets and transfer data to the text file which can help third party tools for monitoring processes. Using Aircrack, pentesters can crack WEP and WPA protocols. The CLI interface of Aircrack allows heavy scripting yet also supports GUIs and operating systems like Windows, OSx etc.8. SQLmapSQLmap is a tool to automate the process of detection and exploitation of SQL injection flaws into the application and database servers. SQLmap comes with a powerful detection engine that supports all database management systems.  It supports all six SQL injection techniques like boolean based blind, time based blind, error based, Union based etc.By providing proper authentication, IP address, port and database name it can bypass SQL injection and connect with the database.9. OWASP Zed Attack Proxy (ZAP)ZAP is a free, open source penetration testing tool for testing web applications. It is also known as “man in the middle proxy” because it stands between the tester’s browser and the web application so that it can intercept messages, modify if required and send to the destination. It supports all major OSs and Docker.It can also construct a map of the application and record the requests and responses and generate alerts if something is wrong.10. SET - Social Engineering ToolkitSET (Social engineering toolkit) is an open source penetration testing framework designed to perform social engineering attacks. It is designed to perform a human-side penetration test to check if any human error can convert into a threat for the organization.SET has a number of custom attack vectors in which targets can get trapped easily.  SET can be integrated with Metasploit framework. Using SET penetration, testers can perform  Phishing attack, website attack, malware attack, create payload and eavesdropping, mass mailing etc.These are the very basic and common tools used by penetration testers or white hat hackers to find out major weaknesses in the systems or network. There are more than 300 tools available on specialised OS for penetration testing like Kali Linux, Parrot Security Operating system, Backbox, DEFT, Samurai Web testing framework, Node Zero etc. SummaryIn this article we have learned what exactly penetration testing is, and what is the importance of testing in the organization. The tools and techniques discussed can vary from organization to organization, but the objective will remain the same - to protect the assets of the organization from outside attackers. Skilled penetration testers can find more and more loopholes, which can then be patched to make systems more secure.Mobile device security and cloud security are also expanding the scope of penetration testing. As a penetration tester,  one has to get ready and know about the vulnerabilities and testing in these areas as well. Remember, this is a game where a penetration tester always has to stay one step ahead of a black hat hacker, since ultimately there can only be one winner; either the attacker or the organization.
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Beginner's Guide to Penetration Testing

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Introduction to Footprinting and Reconnaissance in Ethical Hacking

Footprinting is one of the most convenient ways for hackers to collect information about targets such as computer systems, devices, and networks. Using this method, hackers can unravel information on open ports of the target system, services running, and remote access probabilities.Since it is the initial phase of hacking it is really important to develop an accurate understanding of the entire process. The systematic footprinting of a target enables the attacker to get a blueprint of the target's security posture.In this article, we will get to know how malicious hackers perform footprinting on the organization or target's system, what all they can do, and how it will be harmful to businesses and individuals. On the other hand, white hat hackers who are well versed in footprinting will be able to improve the security of the organizations they work for. With systematic methodology, businesses can identify their vulnerabilities so they can patch and make changes in policy accordingly.Types of footprinting:Who is footprintingNetwork footprintingDNS footprintingCompetitive intelligenceEmail footprintingWebsite footprintingSocial EngineeringGoogle HackingHow to perform footprinting?Footprinting is the first step, during which the hacker gathers as much information as possible to find ways to enter a target system. For successful footprinting, the attacker needs to first check the visibility of the target and see how to gather related information on the internet through open sources. Through careful analysis, the attacker can determine the scope of potential entry points. The following information can be collected:Company namesDomain namesBusiness subsidiaries  IP AddressesBusiness emails  Network phone numbers  Key employeesand so on.In hacking terms, we can call it the "Front Door" of the castle on target.  The first step of footprinting is to determine what to attack to obtain the "footprint" of the target network which includes, but is not limited to the following:HostnamesNetwork address rangesExposed hosts  Exposed applications  OS and its versionsApplication and its versionsand many more.Apart from this, the attackers have to decide the scope of the target with regards to the entire organization or certain subsidiaries or locations. Based on the scope, they start to dig deep into the information like company web-pages, related organizations, employee details, contacts, e-mail addresses, currents events, locations, news, policies, disgruntled employees, mergers, acquisitions, or events to garner some clues, opportunities, and contacts for attackers.Methods of footprinting1. Port ScanningPort scanners are used to determine live hosts on the internet and find out which Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and User Datagram Protocol (UDP) ports are listening on each system, as well as which operating system is installed on the host. To identify the relationship of each host and potential security mechanisms between the attacker and targets, they use traceroutes.Tools:NSLookup - to perform DNS queries and zone transfersTracert - to create network maps of the target.Once port scanning and trace routing are done, attackers will create a network map that represents the target's internet footprinting.2. Google HackingDespite what you may infer from the name, this method does not involve hacking Google! This is a means by which you can collect information from the Google search engine in a smart way.Search engines have many features using which you can get uncommon, but very specific search results from the internet. Using these techniques, hackers and attackers perform a search using advanced operators, examples of which are given below.These types of operators can uncover much sensitive information that can potentially harm the target and should therefore not be revealed.Let's take an example. Go to google.com and paste this- allinurl:tsweb/default.htmYou will get more than 200 websites that have tsweb/default folder. Using this, the hacker gets a chance to get into the organization's servers. This is just one example. There is plenty of such information about targets available online, which hackers can take advantage of.3. Ping SweepIf the attacker wants to know which are the machines on your network that are currently live, they can perform a ping sweep. Ping uses ICMP packets to send echo requests to the target system,  and waits for an echo reply. If the device is not reachable, it will show a "request time out"; but if the device is online and not restricted from responding, it will send an echo reply back. Here are some tools used to perform ping sweeps through a range of devices that determine the active devices on the target network.NmapAngry IP scannerSuper Scan  Pinger etc.4.  Who is lookupThis method can be used to collect basic database queries like domain name, IP Address block, location, and much more information about the organization.Example of FootprintingLet's see an example of footprinting using the Linux tool p0f.p0f is a passive TCP/IP stack fingerprinting tool to identify the system running on machines that send network traffic to the box it is running on, or to a machine that shares a medium with the machine on which it is running. p0f can also assist in analyzing other aspects of the remote system. Basically, it is a  tool used to perform a forensic investigation of a system that has been compromised or is under attack. Using this tool, you can analyze the structure of TCP/IP packets to determine OS and other configurations of the target host. Let's check how to do this.step 1 - Open Linux Terminal and type p0fStep 2 - Explore your target host using any browserOnce the connection is established with the target host, the client will start to interact with the server.You can see that my client IP 10.0.2.15 has established a connection with the target web server 72.163.4.185 using port 80.How to prevent Footprinting?Your every move, each activity, or data available on the internet is a potential footprint that can open layers of information for attackers.Now let's discuss preventive steps to avoid threats and reduce the security risk of the organization and individual.1. Delete or De-activate old accountsOnce your account is assigned online, it can be shared anywhere with your full name, email address, pictures, location, and other information. Official email accounts provided to the employees are also available online. Once the employee has left the organization, the email account must be deleted to avoid fraudulent transactions using the same.  2. Unsubscribe from unwanted mailsAll of us keep subscribing to newsletters, events registrations, offers and to many other mail lists. While some of these lists may be useful, most of them result in unnecessary clutter in our mailbox. Unsubscribe to all unnecessary emails so that you can reduce your digital footprinting on the internet.  3. Use stealth modeThere are many browsers which help you to surf with privacy. This is how you can search online with ease and avoid websites from tracking your interests, location, etc. Using browsers like TOR, Duck Duck Go with some advance settings in your regular browser can restrict the sharing of your information online.4. Use a VPNThere are many VPNs, or Virtual Private Networks, available that you can use for privacy.  A VPN provides you with an extra layer of security to protect your privacy over the internet. This will prevent others from tracking your web activity and being able to collect data by watching your surfing patterns.5. SEOPrevent search engines from crawling through your cached webpages and user anonymous registration details, and minimize unwanted footprints.6. Configure Web serversConfigure your web servers to avoid information leakage and block all unwanted protocols to prevent any unethical external scans. Use TCP/IP and IPSec Protocols.  Always maintain a separation between the internal and external DNS.7.  Do it yourselfPerform footprinting techniques as we have discussed above and do a check to see whether any sensitive or unwanted information of yours is available on the internet. Use the OSINT framework to delve deeper, and remove posted/ shared data that reveals any kind of sensitive information which can be a potential threat. Share tips and tricks to avoid fraud calls and social engineering.What is ReconnaissanceSimilar to footprinting, Reconnaissance is a very important stage in the initial hacking process. In this stage, attackers gather information, much like a detective does! This process involves gathering information about the target flaws, vulnerabilities that can be used in penetration testing, and the beginning of any data breaches.Any information gathered about the target may be a crucial piece of the jigsaw, needed to reveal the critical vulnerabilities of the target.What critical information can be revealed in the reconnaissance phase?1) Network InformationIP addressessubnet masknetwork topologydomain names2) Host Informationuser- namesgroup namesarchitecture typeoperating system family and versionTCP and UDP services running with versions3) Security Policiespassword complexity requirementspassword change frequencyexpired/disabled account retentionphysical security (e.g. access badges, door locks, etc.)firewallsintrusion detection systems4) Personnel detailsdesignationstelephone numbersocial hangoutscomputer skillsThere are two types of reconnaissance.1. Passive reconnaissanceThis is when the attacker gathers information about the target through openly available sources. There are multiple sources available free on the internet which may provide a blueprint of the organization or individual.2. Active reconnaissanceHere, the attacker directly interacts with the target's computer system to gain information using scanning, eavesdropping, and packet capturing techniques. The advantage of active reconnaissance is that the collected information is quite accurate and relevant; however, there is a risk of getting detected.Netcat, Nmap are the best tools for this.What is Enumeration?Once an attacker creates an active connection with the target, they are able to perform directed queries to gain more information. For example,UsernameshostnamesIP addressPasswords (or strength)configurationThe information gathered about the target can be used to identify vulnerabilities in the target system. Once an attacker gains this information, they can steal private data and sometimes, even worse, change the configuration.Types of EnumerationThere are multiple types of enumeration. Let’s take a look at one example.DNS EnumerationDNS enumeration is the technique employed to find all the DNS servers and their corresponding records for an organization. A list of DNS records provides an overview of database records.DNS zone transfer will allow replication of DNS data or DNS files. The user will perform a DNS zone transfer query from the name server. If the name server allows transfer by any other unauthorized user than all DNS names and IP addresses hosted by the name server will return in ASCII Test.Some of the tools that can be for this include nslookup, maltego, dnenum,  dnsrecon, etc.Here is an example that uses nslookup.NSlookup queries DNS servers for machine names and addresses.For example, if we want to find the IP address of Google's web server by entering nslookup, we will enter the below command.nslookup www.google.comand then the output will be like this.C:\>nslookup www.google.com Server:  dnsr1.sbcglobal.net Address:  68.94.156.1 Non-authoritative answer: Name:    www.1.google.com Addresses:  64.233.187.99, 64.233.187.104 Aliases:  www.google.comThe first two lines of output tell us which DNS servers are being queried. In this case, it’s dnsr1.sbcglobal.net in Texas. The non-authoritative answer lists two IP addresses for the Google web servers.Responses from non-authoritative servers do not contain copies of any domains. They have a cache file that is constructed from all the DNS lookups it has performed in the past, for which it has received an authoritative response.In the interactive mode, the user will be given a prompt of >; at which point, the user can enter a variety of options, including attempts to perform a zone transfer.The hackers can enumerate other information like network resources and sharing, routing tables, machine names, applications and banners, users, and groups, etc.There are other types of enumeration.Windows enumerationLinux enumerationLDAP enumerationNetBios enumeration  SNMP enumerationNTP enumeration etc.Steps to prevent enumeration.Use centralized network administration contact details in the NIC (Network Information Center) database to prevent social engineering against IT departments.Configure Name servers to disable DNS zone transfer for untrusted hosts.Configure web servers to prevent indexing of directories without index files and avoid keeping sensitive files and documents on publicly accessible hosts like FTP, HTTP, etc.Configure SMTP servers to ignore emails from unknown recipients.Disable SMBUse NTLM or basic authentication to limit access for authorized users only.Implement the group policy security option named "access restrictions for anonymous connections."ConclusionIn this article, you have learned about the initial steps involved in hacking, during the pre-attack phase, including information gathering, scanning, and mapping the network.The more information the hacker is able to gather, the higher are their chances of a successful attack. If you increase your security right from the initial phase, it will reduce the possibilities for an attacker to get into your system. By controlling your digital footprint, you can increase your security posture and keep your data safe from hackers.
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Introduction to Footprinting and Reconnaissance in...

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How much do Ethical Hackers Earn?

Technology has flourished at break neck speed in the past decade. Inventions and innovations have transformed the way we live and work. We live in an interconnected world where everything is online. While this has made our lives easier, it has also made us vulnerable to sophisticated cyber criminals, who at their malicious best attack not just an individual but even a company, and in more brazen attacks even a nation's security and financial health.According to the latest report by Verizon, 70% of cybercrimes were caused by malicious hackers and outsiders. With a lot of sensitive data now being present online, the perception threat has steadily grown over the years.One of the foremost methods to prevent cybercrime is to reinforce the security of IT systems. Moreover, adding a dedicated team of ethical hackers to the workforce can help fix loopholes and prevent malicious attacks. With the surge in cybercrime, the need for cybersecurity has increased. This in turn has led to a rise in the demand for skilled ethical hackers and information security professionals.What is the CEH certification?The CEH(Certified Ethical Hacking) credential from EC-Council demonstrates that you have hands-on knowledge of niche techniques used by security professionals and hackers to prevent cyber-attacks. CEH also provides skills to assess the security aspects, scan the infrastructure, and detect vulnerabilities in the organizations. With the CEH course, you can:Enter into the industry as a security professionalLearn the hacker mentality to get a step ahead of cybercriminalsBoost your career in IT securityImprove your skills and knowledge which is a primary requirement for career advancementThe demand for Ethical HackersAccording to Forbes, "in this current year of 2020-21, the Global security market is worth $173 billion and within the next 5 years this will grow to around $270 billion." Statistics by the Australian Cyber Security Growth Network show that organizations across the globe are expected to raise their security budget by 8% annually.Source: austcyber.comMalicious cyber activities are increasing around the world, as cybercriminals are using sophisticated strategies for infiltration of systems and networks. Therefore, the demand for cybersecurity experts or ethical hackers will continue to increase.Opportunities for an ethical hackerIn India alone, more than 20,000 websites faced defacement, DDoS, or ransomware attacks just in 2019 as per the report of CERT(Indian Computer Emergency Response Team).Therefore, from private organizations to government entities, everyone needs an ethical hacker or security professional to counter unauthorized hacking and strengthen their security needs. As per the NASSCOM report, there will be 72000 security professionals in the coming years.Types of roles and responsibilities of an Ethical HackerCybersecurity experts will get various types of work opportunities from small scale organizations to giant tech corporations, government agencies, research organizations, and many others.The work of ethical hackers will differ and is not limited to the size and requirement of the organization, but also the skills and experience of hackers. However, here are some overall responsibilities expected from ethical hackers.To protect IT infrastructures, networks, devices, and data from cybercriminalsMonitor application and network performanceTo perform security tests to validate the strength of application, devices, and networkImplement information security management system to be followed by the entire organizationTo set detection and prevention facilities and make a barrier from outer /unauthorized accessTo stay connected with top management with updated risk management and business continuity plans.To perform all the above tasks and operations there are multiple designations hired by organizations, ranging from entry-level security personnel to CISO (Chief Information Security Officer). This pyramid shows the various levels of roles for cyber security professionals.Job roles and salariesEthical hackers can take on a variety of roles.Consulting - As explained earlier, almost all organizations require security professionals to secure their network,  data, devices, etc. Some organizations prefer to outsource the security solution rather than hire on their own.  In this case, the organization expects customized security solutions and suggestions and advice on protection of their assets against cyber-attacks.Bug bounty - Many organizations and tech giants organize bounty programs for hackers to find out vulnerabilities in their applications or websites and offer attractive cash prices.Training - Ethical hackers can provide training to professionals and students for advancement in their careers. These types of training also help to spread awareness in the society against cybercrime and to keep them secure from any potential fraud.Events - Tech giants like Tesla invites hackers to hack their cars. There are similar events for hackers to perform their skills and earn prizes, or in some cases jobs with handsome packages.The salary range for ethical hackersLucrative salaries are the most attractive part of this profession. Salaries in this field vary based on location, designation, skill, and experience. As we have seen in the pyramid earlier, there are multiple roles in the security field, with packages increasing from bottom to top. All organizations value their security, and are ready to pay top dollar for qualified candidates.As per a survey, the average salary of an ethical hacker or information security officer is INR 12,00,000 per annum with 3-5 years of experience. This is just an average figure. In some cases in New Delhi & Mumbai, suitable candidates got paid as much as up to INR 18,00,000 p.a. even without work experience.The package information mentioned above was just for India. Let's have a look at the below table to understand the worldwide salary ratio based on designation and experience.Do you have the skills for it?Before you decide to pursue ethical hacking as a profession, here are some skills you have to master:FocusPatienceStrategy making abilityGood CommunicationCuriosityDisciplineZest for learningThinking out of the boxPositive attitudeTop 10 technical skills:-Excellent computer skills  LinuxNetworking & InfrastructureProgramming skillsDatabase management systemsCryptographyCloud technologiesWeb applicationWireless technologiesPenetration TestingImportance of ethicsHave you heard the term 'Royal Guards'?  It refers to an elite group of highly skilled warriors who act as a monarch’s personal security guards. The monarch and the kingdom trust them and feel safe while surrounded by royal guards.In this field as well, an ethical hacker or a team of security professionals act as royal guards of the organization. Organizations trust the security professionals expecting security and implicit loyalty. Security professionals must be highly ethical, as they can have access to the most vital information systems, data, or any other assets. An ethical hacker must follow ethical /genuine practices during the entire employment term (and even after leaving a company) and uphold the trust of the management.EC-Council has written 19 steps of  'Code - of - Ethics' which must be followed by all ethical hackers to maintain the dignity of the profession.Below is a sample:As an ethical hacker, you must keep private and confidential information gained in your professional work (in particular as it pertains to client lists and client personal information). You should not collect, give, sell, or transfer any personal information (such as name, e-mail address, Social Security number, or another unique identifier) to a third party without the client's prior consent.ConclusionHighly skilled hackers will always be in demand because in the digital age, all organizations need to stay protected from hackers at any cost. This is a career that is surely future-proof!
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How much do Ethical Hackers Earn?

Technology has flourished at break neck speed in t... Read More

The Top Information Security Certifications to Consider

Cybercrimes have the ability to cripple even robust security systems in a matter of minutes. Malicious hacking has compromised the sensitive data of many individuals and enterprises. The only way to counter malicious hacking is to detect vulnerabilities in systems beforehand and take preventive measures.This is where ‘ethical hackers’ or ‘white hat hackers’ come into the scene. An ethical hacker, according to the EC-Council, is an individual who specializes in ethical hacking tools, techniques, and methodologies to secure an organization’s information systems. They work with organizations to make their security systems more fool proof. Ethical Hackers have become national treasures to governments as well as the most coveted assets to workforces in some of the finest companies across industries.If you are contemplating a career in ethical hacking, below are the top certifications you could consider getting to get a foothold in the ethical hacking industry.Certified Ethical Hacking (CEH)CEH is the oldest and most popular certification in ethical hacking. It is accredited by the prestigious EC-Council and is considered a must-have for aspiring ethical hackers. The latest version is CEH v11 and it trains you in the latest commercial-grade hacking tools, and methodologies every ethical hacker and information security professional should be aware of.On completion of the CEH course, you will have the skill set to detect vulnerabilities in target systems and undertake preventive measures to resolve them for the security of systems. The training will help you develop the mindset of an ethical hacker and validates your credibility as a skilled professional in white hacking.As far as jobs are concerned, the opportunities for CEH certified hackers are numerous. Typical job roles include:Penetration testerNetwork security specialistEthical hackerSecurity consultantSite administrator & auditor.This certification gives you the opportunity to not only work with corporates but also Government organizations. Since the threat of cybercrimes is always present, ethical hacking experts are an asset to the Govt IT sector, National Security Agency (NSA), the Committee on National Security Systems (CNSS) and the Department of Defense (DoD).Certified Information System Security Professional (CISSP)The CISSP certification trains you to design, implement and manage even the most complex cybersecurity programs. Accredited by the (ISC)², it validates your prowess as a security professional. It trains you in different areas like access control systems and methodology, business continuity planning and disaster recovery planning, physical security, operations, security, management practices, telecommunications and networking, security architecture application and systems development, law, and ethics.In order to be eligible for the CISSP credential, you should have a minimum of 5 years of relatable experience or four years of the aforementioned work experience, plus an information security degree from a National Center of Academic Excellence or a regional equivalent.With the CISSP, you become eligible for the following job titles:Security consultantSecurity analyst/ managerSecurity systems engineer/auditorDirector of securityIT manager/DirectorNetwork ArchitectSecurity ArchitectCertified Information Systems Auditor (CISA)People who hold CISA certifications are responsible for implementing the security controls in organisations. CISA is a sought after certification from ISACA, a global association that serves more than 145,000 members in more than 188 countries worldwide. CISA is the gold standard of achievement for professionals trained in auditing, monitoring, and assessing an organization’s business and IT systems. As a CISA certified auditor, you will have adequate knowledge to identify risks in target systems and fix them before malicious attacks occur.Certified Information Security Manager (CISM)The CISM certification, also from ISACA, indicates your expertise in multiple domains like information security governance, program development and management, risk management and incident management. It is highly recommended for security consultants and managers who have technical expertise in information security and controls. CISM is a natural fit after the CISSP certification, especially for a smooth transition into managing and overseeing information security at a strategic level.Certified in Risk and Information Systems Control (CRISC)This certification from ISACA validates your capacity to identify and manage IT risks while implementing and maintaining information systems controls. A highly-valued credential, the course explores various topics like IT Risk Identification, IT Risk Assessment, Risk Response and Mitigation Risk and Control Monitoring and Reporting.ISO 27001:2013 LI/LAISO27001 is a widely recognized certification in the information security industry. It has multiple related modules that explore various information security controls.There are two job titles you can pursue after this certification: Lead Implementer and Lead Auditor. The Lead Implementor is responsible for implementing the security measures in target systems as per ISO 27001:2013 standards. The Lead Auditor is hired by certification bodies to audit organizations that have applied for ISO certification and check if measures have been implemented properly.Certified Penetration Tester (CPT)Issued by the Information Assurance Certification Review Board (IACRB), this program trains you to become a well-versed penetration tester. Penetration testing or pen testing is the assessment of computers, application security architecture, and networks to detect loopholes that are prone to malicious hacking. The course trains you in Pen Testing, Network Testing and attacks, Windows vulnerability, Linux/Unix vulnerability, Enumeration, Web App Testing and Wireless Testing.CompTIA PenTest+This is another leading certification in cybersecurity from CompTIA.org. It offers security+ as a beginner certification, and Pentest+ as an advance level certification. CompTIA Pentest+ covers the entire process of vulnerability assessment starting from information gathering, scanning, exploitation, and reporting.This certificate will give you information about:Exploits and its useVulnerability enumerationInformation about BASH, PowerShell(windows), Python scriptReport CreationLicensed Penetration Tester (LPT)Yet another certification provided by EC-Council, is the Expert level Pen testing certification. This is an intensive certification program meant for expert cybersecurity professionals. Through this course, you will learn how to perform advanced penetration testing concepts such as fuzzing, PowerShell scripting, BASH, Python, Perl, and Ruby environments, scripting, and mobile device penetration testing, among others.Considering the above certifications, the onus to choose the right one is upon every aspiring cybersecurity professional out there. For a smooth learning journey, get started with a basic training program like CEH and gradually move on to the rest. Choose a recognized training provider with years of experience to help you chase your career goals with confidence.
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The Top Information Security Certifications to Con...

Cybercrimes have the ability to cripple even robus... Read More