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Introduction to the Machine Learning Stack

What is Machine LearningArthur Samuel coined the term Machine Learning or ML in 1959. Machine learning is the branch of Artificial Intelligence that allows computers to think and make decisions without explicit instructions.  At a high level, ML is the process of teaching a system to learn, think, and take actions like humans.  Machine Learning helps develop a system that analyses the data with minimal intervention of humans or external sources.  ML uses algorithms to analyse and filter search inputs and correspondingly displays the desirable outputs. Machine Learning implementation can be classified into three parts: Supervised Learning Unsupervised Learning Reinforcement Learning What is Stacking in Machine Learning? Stacking in generalised form can be represented as an aggregation of the Machine Learning Algorithm. Stacking Machine Learning provides you with the advantage of combining the meta-learning algorithm with training your dataset, combining them to predict multiple Machine Learning algorithms and machine learning models. Stacking helps you harness the capabilities of a number of well-established models that perform regression and classification tasking.When it comes to stacking, it is classified into 4 different parts: Generalisation Scikit- Learn API Classification of Stacking Regression of Stacking A generalisation of Stacking: Generalisation is a composition of numerous Machine Learning models performed on a similar dataset, somewhat similar to Bagging and Boosting. Bagging: Used mainly to provide stability and accuracy, it reduces variance and avoids overfitting. Boosting: Used mainly to convert a weak learning algorithm to a strong learning algorithm and reduce bias and variance. Scikit-Learn API: This is among the most popular libraries and contains tools for machine learning and statistical modeling.The basic technique of Stacking in Machine Learning; Divide the training data into 2 disjoint sets. The level to which you train data depends on the base learner. Test base learner and make a prediction. Collect correct responses from the output. Machine Learning StackDive deeper into the Machine Learning engineering stack to have a proper understanding of how it is used and where it is used. Find out the below list of resources: CometML: Comet.ML is the machine learning platform dedicated to data scientists and researchers to help them seamlessly track the performance, modify code, and manage history, models, and databases.   It is somewhat similar to GitHub, which allows training models, tracks code changes, and graphs the dataset. Comet.ml can be easily integrated with other machine learning libraries to maintain the workflow and develop insights for your data. Comet.ml can work with GitHub and other git services, and a developer can merge the pull request easily with your GitHub repository. You can get help from the comet.ml official website regarding the documentation, download, installing, and cheat sheet. GitHub: GitHub is an internet hosting and version control system for software developers. Using Git business and open-source communities, both can host and manage their project, review their code and deploy their software. There are more than 31 million who actively deploy their software and projects on GitHub. The GitHub platform was created in 2007, and in 2020 GitHub made all the core features free to use for everyone. You can add your private repository and perform unlimited collaborations. You can get help from the GitHub official website, or you can learn the basics of GitHub from many websites like FreeCodeCamp or the GitHub documentation. Hadoop: Hadoop provides you with a facility to store data and run an application on a commodity hardware cluster. Hadoop is powered by Apache that can be described as a software library or a framework that enables you to process data or large datasets. Hadoop environment can be scaled from one to a thousand commodities providing computing power and local storage capacity. The benefit of the Hadoop SystemHigh computing power. High fault tolerance. More flexibility Low delivery cost Easily grown system (More scalability). More storage. Challenges faced in using Hadoop SystemMost of the problems require a unique solution. Processing speed is very slow. Need for high data security and safety. High data management and governance requirements.  Where Hadoop is usedData lake. Data Warehouse Low-cost storage and management Building the IoT system Hadoop framework can be classified intoHadoop yarn Hadoop Distributed File System Hadoop MapReduce Hadoop common Keras: Keras is an open-source library, which provides you with the open interface for Artificial Intelligence and Artificial Neural Network using Python. It helps in designing API for human convenience and follows best practices to reduce cost and move toward cognitive load maintenance. It acts as an interface between the TensorFlow library and dataset. Keras was released in 2015. It has a vast ecosystem which you can deploy anywhere. There are many facilities provided by Keras which you can easily access with your requirements. CERN uses Keras, NASA, NIH, LHC, and other scientific organisations to implement their research ideas, offer the best services to their client, and develop a high-quality environment with maximum speed and convenience.  Keras has always focused on user experience offering a simple APIs environment. Keras has abundant documentation and developer guides which are also open-source, which anyone in need can refer to. Luigi: This is a Python module that supports building batch jobs with the background of complex pipelining. Luigi is internally used by Spotify, and helps to run thousands of tasks daily, that are organised in the form of the complex dependency graph. Luigi uses the Hadoop task as a prelim job for the system. Luigi being open-source has no restrictions on its usage by users. The concept of Luigi is based on a unique contribution where there are thousands of open-source contributions or enterprises. Companies using LuigiSpotify. Weebly Deloitte Okko Movio Hopper Mekar M3 Assist Digital Luigi supports cascading Hive and Pig tools to manage the low level of data processing and bind them together in the big chain together. It takes care of workflow management and task dependency.Pandas: If you want to become a Data Scientist, then you must be aware of Pandas--a favourite tool with Data Scientists, and the backbone of many high-profile big data projects. Pandas are needed to clean, analyse, and transform the data according to the project's need. Pandas is a fast and open-source environment for data analysis and managing tools. Pandas is created at the top of the Python language. The latest version of Pandas is Pandas 1.2.3. When you are working with Pandas in your project, you must be aware of these scenariosWant to open the local file? It uses CSV, Excel, or delimited file. Want to open a remote store database? Convert list, dictionary, or NumPy using Pandas. Pandas provide an open-source environment and documentation where you can raise your concern, and they will identify the solution to your problem. PyTorch: PyTorch is developed in Python, which is the successor of the python torch library. PyTorch is also an open-source Machine learning Library; the main use of PyTorch is found in computer vision, NLP, and ML-related fields. It is released under the BSD license. Facebook and Convolutional Architecture operate PyTorch for Fast Feature Embedding (CAFFE2). Other major players are working with it like Twitter, Salesforce, and oxford. PyTorch has emerged as a replacement for NumPy, as it is faster than NumPy in performing the mathematical operations, array operations and provides the most suitable platform. PyTorch provides a more pythonic framework in comparison to TensorFlow. PyTorch follows a straightforward procedure and provides a pre-prepared model to perform a user-defined function. There is a lot of documentation you can refer to at their official site. Modules of PyTorchAutograd Module Optim module In module Key FeaturesMake your project production-ready. Optimised performance. Robust Ecosystem. Cloud support. Spark: Spark or Apache Spark is a project from Apache. It is an open-source, distributed, and general-purpose processing engine. It provides large-scale data processing for big data or large datasets. Spark provides you support for many backgrounds like Java, Python, R, or SQL, and many other technologies. The benefits of Spark includeHigh Speed. High performance. Easy to use UI. Large and complex libraries. Leverage data to a variety of sourcesAmazon S3. Cassandra. Hadoop Distributed File System. OpenStack. APIs Spark containsJava Python Scala Spark SQL R Scikit- learn: Scikit-Learn also known as sklearn, is a free and open-source software Machine Learning Library for Python. Scikit-Learn is the result of a Google summer Code project by David Cournapeau. Scikit-Learn makes use of NumPy for an operation like array operation, algebra, and high performance. The latest version of Scikit-Learn was deployed in Jan 2021, Version of Scikit-Learn 0.24. The benefits of Scikit-Learn includeIt provides simple and efficient tools. Easily assignable and reusable tool. Built on the top of NumPy, scipy, and matplotlib. Scikit-Learn is used inDimensionality reduction. Clustering Regression Classification Pre-processing Model selection and extraction. TensorFlow: TensorFlow is an open-source end-to-end software library used for numerical computation. It does graph-based computations quickly and efficiently leveraging the GPU (Graphics Processing Unit), making it seamless to distribute the work across multiple GPUs and computers. TensorFlow can be used across a range of projects with a particular concentration on the training dataset and Neural network. The benefits of TensorFlowRobust ML model. Easy model building. Provide powerful experiments for research and development. Provide an easy mathematical model. Why StackingStacking provides many benefits over other technologies. It is simple. More scalable. More flexible. More Space Less cost Most machine learning stacks are open source. Provides virtual chassis capability. Aggregation switching. How does stacking work? If you are working in Python, you must be aware of the K-folds clustering or k-mean clustering, and we perform stacking using the k fold method. Divide the dataset into k-folds very similar to the k-cross-validation method. If the model fits in k-1 parts, then the prediction is made for the kth part. Perform the same function for each part of the training data. The base model is fitted into the dataset, and then complete performance is calculated. Prediction from the training set used for the second level prediction. The next level makes predictions for the test dataset. Blending is a subtype of stacking. Installation of libraries on the systemInstalling libraries in Python is an easy task; you just require some pre-requisites. Ensure you can run your Python command using the Command-line interface. Use - python –version on your command line to check if Python is installed in your system. Try to run the pip command in your command-line interface. Python -m pip - - version Check for your pip, setup tools, and wheels recent update. Python -m pip install - - upgrade pip setuptools wheel Create a virtual environment. Use pip for installing libraries and packages into your system. ConclusionTo understand the basics of data science, machine learning, data analytics, and artificial intelligence, you must be aware of machine learning stacking, which helps store and manage the data and large datasets. There is a list of open-source models and platforms where you can find the complete documentation about the machine learning stacking and required tools. This machine learning toolbox is robust and reliable. Stacking uses the meta-learning model to develop the data and store them in the required model. Stacking has the capabilities to harness and perform classification, regression, and prediction on the provided dataset. It helps to constitute regression and classification predictive modelling. The model has been classified into two models, level 0, known as the base model, and the other model-level 1, known as a meta-model.

Introduction to the Machine Learning Stack

7K
  • by Abhresh S
  • 05th May, 2021
  • Last updated on 17th May, 2021
  • 11 mins read
Introduction to the Machine Learning Stack

What is Machine Learning

Arthur Samuel coined the term Machine Learning or ML in 1959. Machine learning is the branch of Artificial Intelligence that allows computers to think and make decisions without explicit instructions.  At a high level, ML is the process of teaching a system to learn, think, and take actions like humans.  

Machine Learning helps develop a system that analyses the data with minimal intervention of humans or external sources.  ML uses algorithms to analyse and filter search inputs and correspondingly displays the desirable outputs. 

Machine Learning implementation can be classified into three parts: 

  • Supervised Learning 
  • Unsupervised Learning 
  • Reinforcement Learning 

What is Stacking in Machine Learning? 

Stacking in generalised form can be represented as an aggregation of the Machine Learning Algorithm. Stacking Machine Learning provides you with the advantage of combining the meta-learning algorithm with training your dataset, combining them to predict multiple Machine Learning algorithms and machine learning models. 

Stacking helps you harness the capabilities of a number of well-established models that perform regression and classification tasking.

When it comes to stacking, it is classified into 4 different parts: 

  • Generalisation 
  • Scikit- Learn API 
  • Classification of Stacking 
  • Regression of Stacking 

A generalisation of Stacking: Generalisation is a composition of numerous Machine Learning models performed on a similar dataset, somewhat similar to Bagging and Boosting. 

  • Bagging: Used mainly to provide stability and accuracy, it reduces variance and avoids overfitting. 
  • Boosting: Used mainly to convert a weak learning algorithm to a strong learning algorithm and reduce bias and variance. 
  • Scikit-Learn API: This is among the most popular libraries and contains tools for machine learning and statistical modeling.

Introduction to the Machine Learning Stack

The basic technique of Stacking in Machine Learning; 

  • Divide the training data into 2 disjoint sets. 
  • The level to which you train data depends on the base learner. 
  • Test base learner and make a prediction. 
  • Collect correct responses from the output. 

Machine Learning Stack

Dive deeper into the Machine Learning engineering stack to have a proper understanding of how it is used and where it is used. Find out the below list of resources: 

  1. CometML: Comet.ML is the machine learning platform dedicated to data scientists and researchers to help them seamlessly track the performance, modify code, and manage history, models, and databases.   
  2. It is somewhat similar to GitHub, which allows training models, tracks code changes, and graphs the dataset. Comet.ml can be easily integrated with other machine learning libraries to maintain the workflow and develop insights for your data. Comet.ml can work with GitHub and other git services, and a developer can merge the pull request easily with your GitHub repository. You can get help from the comet.ml official website regarding the documentation, download, installing, and cheat sheet. 
  3. GitHub: GitHub is an internet hosting and version control system for software developers. Using Git business and open-source communities, both can host and manage their project, review their code and deploy their software. There are more than 31 million who actively deploy their software and projects on GitHub. The GitHub platform was created in 2007, and in 2020 GitHub made all the core features free to use for everyone. You can add your private repository and perform unlimited collaborations. You can get help from the GitHub official website, or you can learn the basics of GitHub from many websites like FreeCodeCamp or the GitHub documentation. 
  4. Hadoop: Hadoop provides you with a facility to store data and run an application on a commodity hardware cluster. Hadoop is powered by Apache that can be described as a software library or a framework that enables you to process data or large datasets. Hadoop environment can be scaled from one to a thousand commodities providing computing power and local storage capacity. 

The benefit of the Hadoop System

  • High computing power. 
  • High fault tolerance. 
  • More flexibility 
  • Low delivery cost 
  • Easily grown system (More scalability). 
  • More storage. 

Challenges faced in using Hadoop System

  • Most of the problems require a unique solution. 
  • Processing speed is very slow. 
  • Need for high data security and safety. 
  • High data management and governance requirements.  

Where Hadoop is used

  • Data lake. 
  • Data Warehouse 
  • Low-cost storage and management 
  • Building the IoT system 

Hadoop framework can be classified into

  • Hadoop yarn 
  • Hadoop Distributed File System 
  • Hadoop MapReduce 
  • Hadoop common 
  1. Keras: Keras is an open-source library, which provides you with the open interface for Artificial Intelligence and Artificial Neural Network using Python. It helps in designing API for human convenience and follows best practices to reduce cost and move toward cognitive load maintenance. 

It acts as an interface between the TensorFlow library and dataset. Keras was released in 2015. It has a vast ecosystem which you can deploy anywhere. There are many facilities provided by Keras which you can easily access with your requirements. 

CERN uses Keras, NASA, NIH, LHC, and other scientific organisations to implement their research ideas, offer the best services to their client, and develop a high-quality environment with maximum speed and convenience. 

Keras has always focused on user experience offering a simple APIs environment. Keras has abundant documentation and developer guides which are also open-source, which anyone in need can refer to. 

  1. Luigi: This is a Python module that supports building batch jobs with the background of complex pipelining. Luigi is internally used by Spotify, and helps to run thousands of tasks daily, that are organised in the form of the complex dependency graph. Luigi uses the Hadoop task as a prelim job for the system. Luigi being open-source has no restrictions on its usage by users. 

The concept of Luigi is based on a unique contribution where there are thousands of open-source contributions or enterprises. 

Companies using Luigi

  • Spotify. 
  • Weebly 
  • Deloitte 
  • Okko 
  • Movio 
  • Hopper 
  • Mekar 
  • M3 
  • Assist Digital 

Luigi supports cascading Hive and Pig tools to manage the low level of data processing and bind them together in the big chain together. It takes care of workflow management and task dependency.

  1. Pandas: If you want to become a Data Scientist, then you must be aware of Pandas--a favourite tool with Data Scientists, and the backbone of many high-profile big data projects. Pandas are needed to clean, analyse, and transform the data according to the project's need. 

Pandas is a fast and open-source environment for data analysis and managing tools. Pandas is created at the top of the Python language. The latest version of Pandas is Pandas 1.2.3. 

When you are working with Pandas in your project, you must be aware of these scenarios

  • Want to open the local file? It uses CSV, Excel, or delimited file. 
  • Want to open a remote store databaseConvert list, dictionary, or NumPy using Pandas. 

Pandas provide an open-source environment and documentation where you can raise your concern, and they will identify the solution to your problem. 

  1. PyTorch: PyTorch is developed in Python, which is the successor of the python torch library. PyTorch is also an open-source Machine learning Library; the main use of PyTorch is found in computer vision, NLP, and ML-related fields. It is released under the BSD license. 

Facebook and Convolutional Architecture operate PyTorch for Fast Feature Embedding (CAFFE2). Other major players are working with it like Twitter, Salesforce, and oxford. 

PyTorch has emerged as a replacement for NumPy, as it is faster than NumPy in performing the mathematical operations, array operations and provides the most suitable platform. 

PyTorch provides a more pythonic framework in comparison to TensorFlow. PyTorch follows a straightforward procedure and provides a pre-prepared model to perform a user-defined function. There is a lot of documentation you can refer to at their official site. 

Modules of PyTorch

  • Autograd Module 
  • Optim module 
  • In module 

Key Features

  • Make your project production-ready. 
  • Optimised performance. 
  • Robust Ecosystem. 
  • Cloud support. 
  1. Spark: Spark or Apache Spark is a project from Apache. It is an open-source, distributed, and general-purpose processing engine. It provides large-scale data processing for big data or large datasets. Spark provides you support for many backgrounds like Java, Python, R, or SQL, and many other technologies. 

The benefits of Spark include

  • High Speed. 
  • High performance. 
  • Easy to use UI. 
  • Large and complex libraries. 

Leverage data to a variety of sources

  • Amazon S3. 
  • Cassandra. 
  • Hadoop Distributed File System. 
  • OpenStack. 

APIs Spark contains

  • Java 
  • Python 
  • Scala 
  • Spark SQL 
  • R 
  1. Scikit- learn: Scikit-Learn also known as sklearn, is a free and open-source software Machine Learning Library for Python. Scikit-Learn is the result of a Google summer Code project by David Cournapeau. Scikit-Learn makes use of NumPy for an operation like array operation, algebra, and high performance. 

The latest version of Scikit-Learn was deployed in Jan 2021, Version of Scikit-Learn 0.24. 

The benefits of Scikit-Learn include

  • It provides simple and efficient tools. 
  • Easily assignable and reusable tool. 
  • Built on the top of NumPy, scipy, and matplotlib. 

Scikit-Learn is used in

  • Dimensionality reduction. 
  • Clustering 
  • Regression 
  • Classification 
  • Pre-processing 
  • Model selection and extraction. 
  1. TensorFlow: TensorFlow is an open-source end-to-end software library used for numerical computation. It does graph-based computations quickly and efficiently leveraging the GPU (Graphics Processing Unit), making it seamless to distribute the work across multiple GPUs and computers. TensorFlow can be used across a range of projects with a particular concentration on the training dataset and Neural network. 

The benefits of TensorFlow

  • Robust ML model. 
  • Easy model building. 
  • Provide powerful experiments for research and development. 
  • Provide an easy mathematical model. 

Why Stacking

Stacking provides many benefits over other technologies. 

  • It is simple. 
  • More scalable. 
  • More flexible. 
  • More Space 
  • Less cost 
  • Most machine learning stacks are open source. 
  • Provides virtual chassis capability. 
  • Aggregation switching. 

How does stacking work? 

If you are working in Python, you must be aware of the K-folds clustering or k-mean clustering, and we perform stacking using the k fold method. 

  • Divide the dataset into k-folds very similar to the k-cross-validation method. 
  • If the model fits in k-1 parts, then the prediction is made for the kth part. 
  • Perform the same function for each part of the training data. 
  • The base model is fitted into the dataset, and then complete performance is calculated. 
  • Prediction from the training set used for the second level prediction. 
  • The next level makes predictions for the test dataset. 

Blending is a subtype of stacking. 

Installation of libraries on the system

Installing libraries in Python is an easy task; you just require some pre-requisites. 

  • Ensure you can run your Python command using the Command-line interface. 
    • Use - python –version on your command line to check if Python is installed in your system. 
  • Try to run the pip command in your command-line interface. 
    • Python -m pip - - version 
  • Check for your pip, setup tools, and wheels recent update. 
    • Python -m pip install - - upgrade pip setuptools wheel 
  • Create a virtual environment. 

Use pip for installing libraries and packages into your system. 

Conclusion

To understand the basics of data science, machine learning, data analytics, and artificial intelligence, you must be aware of machine learning stacking, which helps store and manage the data and large datasets. 

There is a list of open-source models and platforms where you can find the complete documentation about the machine learning stacking and required tools. This machine learning toolbox is robust and reliable. Stacking uses the meta-learning model to develop the data and store them in the required model. 

Stacking has the capabilities to harness and perform classification, regression, and prediction on the provided dataset. It helps to constitute regression and classification predictive modelling. The model has been classified into two models, level 0, known as the base model, and the other model-level 1, known as a meta-model.

Abhresh

Abhresh S

Author

An Online Technical Trainer by profession! And Content writer by hobby! Interested in sharing quality knowledge to make the Industry grow better towards better success and better tomorrow! With a Guru Mantra of - "Keep Learning & Keep Practicing".

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The prominent use of this data is in unstructured data analytics. Let us now understand what are some examples of unstructured data and their sources – Healthcare industries generate a massive volume of human as well as machine-generated unstructured data. Human-generated unstructured data could be in the form of patient-doctor or patient-nurse conversations, which are usually recorded in audio or text formats. Unstructured data generated by machines includes emergency video camera footage, surgical robots, data accumulated from medical imaging devices like endoscopes, laparoscopes and more.  Social Media is an intrinsic entity of our daily life. Billions of people come together to join channels, share different thoughts, and exchange information with their loved ones. They create and share such data over social media platforms in the form of images, video clips, audio messages, tagging people (this helps companies to map relations between two or more people), entertainment data, educational data, geolocations, texts, etc. Other spectra of data generated from social media platforms are behavior patterns, perceptions, influencers, trends, news, and events. Business and corporate documents generate a multitude of unstructured data such as emails, presentations, reports containing texts, images, presentation reports, video contents, feedback and much more. These documents help to create knowledge repositories within an organization to make better implicit operations. Live chat, video conferencing, web meeting, chatbot-customer messages, surveillance data are other prominent examples of unstructured data that companies can cultivate to get more insights into the details of a person. Some prominent examples of unstructured data used in enterprises and organizations are: Reports and documents, like Word files or PDF files Multimedia files, such as audio, images, designed texts, themes, and videos System logs Medical images Flat files Scanned documents (which are images that hold numbers and text – for example, OCR) Biometric data Unstructured Data Analytics Tools  You might be wondering what tools can come into use to gather and analyze information that does not have a predefined structure or model. Various tools and programming languages use structured and unstructured data for machine learning and data analysis. These are: Tableau MonkeyLearn Apache Spark SAS Python MS. Excel RapidMiner KNIME QlikView Python programming R programming Many cloud services (like Amazon AWS, Microsoft Azure, IBM Cloud, Google Cloud) also offer unstructured data analysis solutions bundled with their services. How to analyze unstructured data? In the past, the process of storage and analysis of unstructured data was not well defined. Enterprises used to carry out this kind of analysis manually. But with the advent of modern tools and programming languages, most of the unstructured data analysis methods became highly advanced. AI-powered tools use algorithms designed precisely to help to break down unstructured data for analysis. Unstructured data analytics tools, along with Natural language processing (NLP) and machine learning algorithms, help advanced software tools analyze and extract analytical data from the unstructured datasets. Before using these tools for analyzing unstructured data, you must properly go through a few steps and keep these points in mind. Set a clear goal for analyzing the data: It is essential to clear your intention about what insights you want to extract from your unstructured data. Knowing this will help you distinguish what type of data you are planning to accumulate. Collect relevant data: Unstructured data is available everywhere, whether it's a social media platform, online feedback or reviews, or a survey form. Depending on the previous point, that is your goal - you have to be precise about what data you want to collect in real-time. Also, keep in mind whether your collected details are relevant or not. Clean your data: Data cleaning or data cleansing is a significant process to detect corrupt or irrelevant data from the dataset, followed by modifying or deleting the coarse and sloppy data. This phase is also known as the data-preprocessing phase, where you have to reduce the noise, carry out data slicing for meaningful representation, and remove unnecessary data. Use Technology and tools: Once you perform the data cleaning, it is time to utilize unstructured data analysis tools to prepare and cultivate the insights from your data. Technologies used for unstructured data storage (NoSQL) can help in managing your flow of data. Other tools and programming libraries like Tableau, Matplotlib, Pandas, and Google Data Studio allows us to extract and visualize unstructured data. Data can be visualized and presented in the form of compelling graphs, plots, and charts. How to Extract information from Unstructured Data? With the growth in digitization during the information era, repetitious transactions in data cause data flooding. The exponential accretion in the speed of digital data creation has brought a whole new domain of understanding user interaction with the online world. According to Gartner, 80% of the data created by an organization or its application is unstructured. While extracting exact information through appropriate analysis of organized data is not yet possible, even obtaining a decent sense of this unstructured data is quite tough. Until now, there are no perfect tools to analyze unstructured data. But algorithms and tools designed using machine learning, Natural language processing, Deep learning, and Graph Analysis (a mathematical method for estimating graph structures) help us to get the upper hand in extracting information from unstructured data. Other neural network models like modern linguistic models follow unsupervised learning techniques to gain a good 'knowledge' about the unstructured dataset before going into a specific supervised learning step. AI-based algorithms and technologies are capable enough to extract keywords, locations, phone numbers, analyze image meaning (through digital image processing). We can then understand what to evaluate and identify information that is essential to your business. ConclusionUnstructured data is found abundantly from sources like documents, records, emails, social media posts, feedbacks, call-records, log-in session data, video, audio, and images. Manually analyzing unstructured data is very time-consuming and can be very boring at the same time. With the growth of data science and machine learning algorithms and models, it has become easy to gather and analyze insights from unstructured information.  According to some research, data analytics tools like MonkeyLearn Studio, Tableau, RapidMiner help analyze unstructured data 1200x faster than the manual approach. Analyzing such data will help you learn more about your customers as well as competitors. Text analysis software, along with machine learning models, will help you dig deep into such datasets and make you gain an in-depth understanding of the overall scenario with fine-grained analyses.
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Role of Unstructured Data in Data Science

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What Is Statistical Analysis and Its Business Applications?

Statistics is a science concerned with collection, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. In Statistics, we generally want to study a population. You may consider a population as a collection of things, persons, or objects under experiment or study. It is usually not possible to gain access to all of the information from the entire population due to logistical reasons. So, when we want to study a population, we generally select a sample. In sampling, we select a portion (or subset) of the larger population and then study the portion (or the sample) to learn about the population. Data is the result of sampling from a population.Major ClassificationThere are two basic branches of Statistics – Descriptive and Inferential statistics. Let us understand the two branches in brief. Descriptive statistics Descriptive statistics involves organizing and summarizing the data for better and easier understanding. Unlike Inferential statistics, Descriptive statistics seeks to describe the data, however, it does not attempt to draw inferences from the sample to the whole population. We simply describe the data in a sample. It is not developed on the basis of probability unlike Inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics is further broken into two categories – Measure of Central Tendency and Measures of Variability. Inferential statisticsInferential statistics is the method of estimating the population parameter based on the sample information. It applies dimensions from sample groups in an experiment to contrast the conduct group and make overviews on the large population sample. Please note that the inferential statistics are effective and valuable only when examining each member of the group is difficult. Let us understand Descriptive and Inferential statistics with the help of an example. Task – Suppose, you need to calculate the score of the players who scored a century in a cricket tournament.  Solution: Using Descriptive statistics you can get the desired results.   Task – Now, you need the overall score of the players who scored a century in the cricket tournament.  Solution: Applying the knowledge of Inferential statistics will help you in getting your desired results.  Top Five Considerations for Statistical Data AnalysisData can be messy. Even a small blunder may cost you a fortune. Therefore, special care when working with statistical data is of utmost importance. Here are a few key takeaways you must consider to minimize errors and improve accuracy. Define the purpose and determine the location where the publication will take place.  Understand the assets to undertake the investigation. Understand the individual capability of appropriately managing and understanding the analysis.  Determine whether there is a need to repeat the process.  Know the expectation of the individuals evaluating reviewing, committee, and supervision. Statistics and ParametersDetermining the sample size requires understanding statistics and parameters. The two being very closely related are often confused and sometimes hard to distinguish.  StatisticsA statistic is merely a portion of a target sample. It refers to the measure of the values calculated from the population.  A parameter is a fixed and unknown numerical value used for describing the entire population. The most commonly used parameters are: Mean Median Mode Mean :  The mean is the average or the most common value in a data sample or a population. It is also referred to as the expected value. Formula: Sum of the total number of observations/the number of observations. Experimental data set: 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20  Calculating mean:   (2 + 4 + 6 + 8 + 10 + 12 + 14 + 16 + 18 + 20)/10  = 110/10   = 11 Median:  In statistics, the median is the value separating the higher half from the lower half of a data sample, a population, or a probability distribution. It’s the mid-value obtained by arranging the data in increasing order or descending order. Formula:  Let n be the data set (increasing order) When data set is odd: Median = n+1/2th term Case-I: (n is odd)  Experimental data set = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5  Median (n = 5) = [(5 +1)/2]th term      = 6/2 term       = 3rd term   Therefore, the median is 3 When data set is even: Median = [n/2th + (n/2 + 1)th] /2 Case-II: (n is even)  Experimental data set = 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6   Median (n = 6) = [n/2th + (n/2 + 1)th]/2     = ( 6/2th + (6/2 +1)th]/2     = (3rd + 4th)/2      = (3 + 4)/2      = 7/2      = 3.5  Therefore, the median is 3.5 Mode: The mode is the value that appears most often in a set of data or a population. Experimental data set= 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 4, 4,4,5, 6  Mode = 3 (Since 3 is the most repeated element in the sequence.) Terms Used to Describe DataWhen working with data, you will need to search, inspect, and characterize them. To understand the data in a tech-savvy and straightforward way, we use a few statistical terms to denote them individually or in groups.  The most frequently used terms used to describe data include data point, quantitative variables, indicator, statistic, time-series data, variable, data aggregation, time series, dataset, and database. Let us define each one of them in brief: Data points: These are the numerical files formed and organized for interpretations. Quantitative variables: These variables present the information in digit form.  Indicator: An indicator explains the action of a community's social-economic surroundings.  Time-series data: The time-series defines the sequential data.  Data aggregation: A group of data points and data set. Database: A group of arranged information for examination and recovery.  Time-series: A set of measures of a variable documented over a specified time. Step-by-Step Statistical Analysis ProcessThe statistical analysis process involves five steps followed one after another. Step 1: Design the study and find the population of the study. Step 2: Collect data as samples. Step 3: Describe the data in the sample. Step 4: Make inferences with the help of samples and calculations Step 5: Take action Data distributionData distribution is an entry that displays entire imaginable readings of data. It shows how frequently a value occurs. Distributed data is always in ascending order, charts, and graphs enabling visibility of measurements and frequencies. The distribution function displaying the density of values of reading is known as the probability density function. Percentiles in data distributionA percentile is the reading in a distribution with a specified percentage of clarifications under it.  Let us understand percentiles with the help of an example.  Suppose you have scored 90th percentile on a math test. A basic interpretation is that merely 4-5% of the scores were higher than your scores. Right? The median is 50th percentile because the assumed 50% of the values are higher than the median. Dispersion Dispersion explains the magnitude of distribution readings anticipated for a specific variable and multiple unique statistics like range, variance, and standard deviation. For instance, high values of a data set are widely scattered while small values of data are firmly clustered. Histogram The histogram is a pictorial display that arranges a group of data facts into user detailed ranges. A histogram summarizes a data series into a simple interpreted graphic by obtaining many data facts and combining them into reasonable ranges. It contains a variety of results into columns on the x-axis. The y axis displays percentages of data for each column and is applied to picture data distributions. Bell Curve distribution Bell curve distribution is a pictorial representation of a probability distribution whose fundamental standard deviation obtained from the mean makes the bell, shaped curving. The peak point on the curve symbolizes the maximum likely occasion in a pattern of data. The other possible outcomes are symmetrically dispersed around the mean, making a descending sloping curve on both sides of the peak. The curve breadth is therefore known as the standard deviation. Hypothesis testingHypothesis testing is a process where experts experiment with a theory of a population parameter. It aims to evaluate the credibility of a hypothesis using sample data. The five steps involved in hypothesis testing are:  Identify the no outcome hypothesis.  (A worthless or a no-output hypothesis has no outcome, connection, or dissimilarities amongst many factors.) Identify the alternative hypothesis.  Establish the importance level of the hypothesis.  Estimate the experiment statistic and equivalent P-value. P-value explains the possibility of getting a sample statistic.  Sketch a conclusion to interpret into a report about the alternate hypothesis. Types of variablesA variable is any digit, amount, or feature that is countable or measurable. Simply put, it is a variable characteristic that varies. The six types of variables include the following: Dependent variableA dependent variable has values that vary according to the value of another variable known as the independent variable.  Independent variableAn independent variable on the other side is controllable by experts. Its reports are recorded and equated.  Intervening variableAn intervening variable explicates fundamental relations between variables. Moderator variableA moderator variable upsets the power of the connection between dependent and independent variables.  Control variableA control variable is anything restricted to a research study. The values are constant throughout the experiment. Extraneous variableExtraneous variable refers to the entire variables that are dependent but can upset experimental outcomes. Chi-square testChi-square test records the contrast of a model to actual experimental data. Data is unsystematic, underdone, equally limited, obtained from independent variables, and a sufficient sample. It relates the size of any inconsistencies among the expected outcomes and the actual outcomes, provided with the sample size and the number of variables in the connection. Types of FrequenciesFrequency refers to the number of repetitions of reading in an experiment in a given time. Three types of frequency distribution include the following: Grouped, ungrouped Cumulative, relative Relative cumulative frequency distribution. Features of FrequenciesThe calculation of central tendency and position (median, mean, and mode). The measure of dispersion (range, variance, and standard deviation). Degree of symmetry (skewness). Peakedness (kurtosis). Correlation MatrixThe correlation matrix is a table that shows the correlation coefficients of unique variables. It is a powerful tool that summarises datasets points and picture sequences in the provided data. A correlation matrix includes rows and columns that display variables. Additionally, the correlation matrix exploits in aggregation with other varieties of statistical analysis. Inferential StatisticsInferential statistics use random data samples for demonstration and to create inferences. They are measured when analysis of each individual of a whole group is not likely to happen. Applications of Inferential StatisticsInferential statistics in educational research is not likely to sample the entire population that has summaries. For instance, the aim of an investigation study may be to obtain whether a new method of learning mathematics develops mathematical accomplishment for all students in a class. Marketing organizations: Marketing organizations use inferential statistics to dispute a survey and request inquiries. It is because carrying out surveys for all the individuals about merchandise is not likely. Finance departments: Financial departments apply inferential statistics for expected financial plan and resources expenses, especially when there are several indefinite aspects. However, economists cannot estimate all that use possibility. Economic planning: In economic planning, there are potent methods like index figures, time series investigation, and estimation. Inferential statistics measures national income and its components. It gathers info about revenue, investment, saving, and spending to establish links among them. Key TakeawaysStatistical analysis is the gathering and explanation of data to expose sequences and tendencies.   Two divisions of statistical analysis are statistical and non-statistical analyses.  Descriptive and Inferential statistics are the two main categories of statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics describe data, whereas Inferential statistics equate dissimilarities between the sample groups.  Statistics aims to teach individuals how to use restricted samples to generate intellectual and precise results for a large group.   Mean, median, and mode are the statistical analysis parameters used to measure central tendency.   Conclusion Statistical analysis is the procedure of gathering and examining data to recognize sequences and trends. It uses random samples of data obtained from a population to demonstrate and create inferences on a group. Inferential statistics applies economic planning with potent methods like index figures, time series investigation, and estimation.  Statistical analysis finds its applications in all the major sectors – marketing, finance, economic, operations, and data mining. Statistical analysis aids marketing organizations in disputing a survey and requesting inquiries concerning their merchandise. 
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What Is Statistical Analysis and Its Business Appl...

Statistics is a science concerned with collection,... Read More

Measures of Dispersion: All You Need to Know

What is Dispersion in StatisticsDispersion in statistics is a way of describing how spread out a set of data is. Dispersion is the state of data getting dispersed, stretched, or spread out in different categories. It involves finding the size of distribution values that are expected from the set of data for the specific variable. The statistical meaning of dispersion is “numeric data that is likely to vary at any instance of average value assumption”.Dispersion of data in Statistics helps one to easily understand the dataset by classifying them into their own specific dispersion criteria like variance, standard deviation, and ranging.Dispersion is a set of measures that helps one to determine the quality of data in an objectively quantifiable manner.The measure of dispersion contains almost the same unit as the quantity being measured. There are many Measures of Dispersion found which help us to get more insights into the data: Range Variance Standard Deviation Skewness IQR  Image SourceTypes of Measure of DispersionThe Measure of Dispersion is divided into two main categories and offer ways of measuring the diverse nature of data. It is mainly used in biological statistics. We can easily classify them by checking whether they contain units or not. So as per the above, we can divide the data into two categories which are: Absolute Measure of Dispersion Relative Measure of DispersionAbsolute Measure of DispersionAbsolute Measure of Dispersion is one with units; it has the same unit as the initial dataset. Absolute Measure of Dispersion is expressed in terms of the average of the dispersion quantities like Standard or Mean deviation. The Absolute Measure of Dispersion can be expressed  in units such as Rupees, Centimetre, Marks, kilograms, and other quantities that are measured depending on the situation. Types of Absolute Measure of Dispersion: Range: Range is the measure of the difference between the largest and smallest value of the data variability. The range is the simplest form of Measure of Dispersion. Example: 1,2,3,4,5,6,7 Range = Highest value – Lowest value   = ( 7 – 1 ) = 6 Mean (μ): Mean is calculated as the average of the numbers. To calculate the Mean, add all the outcomes and then divide it with the total number of terms. Example: 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8 Mean = (sum of all the terms / total number of terms)                = (1 + 2 + 3 + 4 + 5 + 6 + 7 + 8) / 8                = 36 / 8                = 4.5 Variance (σ2): In simple terms, the variance can be calculated by obtaining the sum of the squared distance of each term in the distribution from the Mean, and then dividing this by the total number of the terms in the distribution.  It basically shows how far a number, for example, a student’s mark in an exam, is from the Mean of the entire class. Formula: (σ2) = ∑ ( X − μ)2 / N Standard Deviation: Standard Deviation can be represented as the square root of Variance. To find the standard deviation of any data, you need to find the variance first. Formula: Standard Deviation = √σ Quartile: Quartiles divide the list of numbers or data into quarters. Quartile Deviation: Quartile Deviation is the measure of the difference between the upper and lower quartile. This measure of deviation is also known as interquartile range. Formula: Interquartile Range: Q3 – Q1. Mean deviation: Mean Deviation is also known as an average deviation; it can be computed using the Mean or Median of the data. Mean deviation is represented as the arithmetic deviation of a different item that follows the central tendency. Formula: As mentioned, the Mean Deviation can be calculated using Mean and Median. Mean Deviation using Mean: ∑ | X – M | / N Mean Deviation using Median: ∑ | X – X1 | / N Relative Measure of DispersionRelative Measures of dispersion are the values without units. A relative measure of dispersion is used to compare the distribution of two or more datasets.  The definition of the Relative Measure of Dispersion is the same as the Absolute Measure of Dispersion; the only difference is the measuring quantity.  Types of Relative Measure of Dispersion: Relative Measure of Dispersion is the calculation of the co-efficient of Dispersion, where 2 series are compared, which differ widely in their average.  The main use of the co-efficient of Dispersion is when 2 series with different measurement units are compared.  1. Co-efficient of Range: it is calculated as the ratio of the difference between the largest and smallest terms of the distribution, to the sum of the largest and smallest terms of the distribution.  Formula: L – S / L + S  where L = largest value S= smallest value 2. Co-efficient of Variation: The coefficient of variation is used to compare the 2 data with respect to homogeneity or consistency.  Formula: C.V = (σ / X) 100 X = standard deviation  σ = mean 3. Co-efficient of Standard Deviation: The co-efficient of Standard Deviation is the ratio of standard deviation with the mean of the distribution of terms.  Formula: σ = ( √( X – X1)) / (N - 1) Deviation = ( X – X1)  σ = standard deviation  N= total number  4. Co-efficient of Quartile Deviation: The co-efficient of Quartile Deviation is the ratio of the difference between the upper quartile and the lower quartile to the sum of the upper quartile and lower quartile.  Formula: ( Q3 – Q3) / ( Q3 + Q1) Q3 = Upper Quartile  Q1 = Lower Quartile 5. Co-efficient of Mean Deviation: The co-efficient of Mean Deviation can be computed using the mean or median of the data. Mean Deviation using Mean: ∑ | X – M | / N Mean Deviation using Mean: ∑ | X – X1 | / N Why dispersion is important in a statisticThe knowledge of dispersion is vital in the understanding of statistics. It helps to understand concepts like the diversification of the data, how the data is spread, how it is maintained, and maintaining the data over the central value or central tendency. Moreover, dispersion in statistics provides us with a way to get better insights into data distribution. For example,  3 distinct samples can have the same Mean, Median, or Range but completely different levels of variability. How to Calculate DispersionDispersion can be easily calculated using various dispersion measures, which are already mentioned in the types of Measure of Dispersion described above. Before measuring the data, it is important to understand the diversion of the terms and variation. One can use the following method to calculate the dispersion: Mean Standard deviation Variance Quartile deviation For example, let us consider two datasets: Data A:97,98,99,100,101,102,103  Data B: 70,80,90,100,110,120,130 On calculating the mean and median of the two datasets, both have the same value, which is 100. However, the rest of the dispersion measures are totally different as measured by the above methods.  The range of B is 10 times higher, for instance. How to represent Dispersion in Statistics Dispersion in Statistics can be represented in the form of graphs and pie-charts. Some of the different ways used include: Dot Plots Box Plots Stems Leaf Plots Example: What is the variance of the values 3,8,6,10,12,9,11,10,12,7?  Variation of the values can be calculated using the following formula: (σ2) = ∑ ( X − μ)2 / N (σ2) = 7.36 What is an example of dispersion? One of the examples of dispersion outside the world of statistics is the rainbow- where white light is split into 7 different colours separated via wavelengths.  Some statistical ways of measuring it are- Standard deviation Range Mean absolute difference Median absolute deviation Interquartile change Average deviation Conclusion: Dispersion in statistics refers to the measure of variability of data or terms. Such variability may give random measurement errors where some of the instrumental measurements are found to be imprecise. It is a statistical way of describing how the terms are spread out in different data sets. The more sets of values, the more scattered data is found, and it is always directly proportional. This range of values can vary from 5 - 10 values to 1000 - 10,000 values. This spread of data is described by the range of descriptive range of statistics. The dispersion in statistics can be represented using a Dot Plot, Box Plot, and other different ways. 
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Measures of Dispersion: All You Need to Know

What is Dispersion in StatisticsDispersion in stat... Read More