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DevOps Roadmap to Become a Successful DevOps Engineer

“DevOps is a combination of best practices, culture, mindset, and software tools to deliver a high quality and reliable product faster”Benefits of DevOps (Dev+Ops(SysAdmins plus Database Admins)    DevOps agile thinking drives towards an iterated continuous development model with higher velocity, reduced variations and better global visualization of the product flow. These three “V”s are achieved with synchronizing the teams and implementing CI/CD pipelines that automate the SDLC repetitive and complex processes in terms of continuous integration of code, continuous testing, and continuous delivery of features to the production-like environment for a high-quality product with shorter release cycles and reduced cost.This ensures customer satisfaction and credibility.A streamlined process in place with the help of best practices and DevOps tools reduce the overhead, and downtime thus giving more opportunity for innovation. As a matter of fact, DevOps way of defining every phase (coding, testing, infrastructure provisioning, deployment, and monitoring) as code also makes it easier to rollback a versioned code in case of disaster recovery and make the environment easily scalable, portable and secure.“DevOps tools help you accomplish what you can already do but do not have time to do it.”1. What are the tasks of a DevOps Engineer?A Summary of day-to-day tasks carried out by a DevOps engineer -Design, build, test and deploy scalable, distributed systems from development through productionManage the code repository(such as Git, SVN, BitBucket, etc.) including code merging and integrating, branching and maintenance and remote repository managementManage, configure and maintain infrastructure systemDesign the database architecture and database objects and synchronize the various environmentsDesign implement and support DevOps Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery pipelinesResearch and implement new technologies and practicesDocument processes, systems, and workflowsCreation and enhancement of dynamic monitoring and alerting solutions using industry-leading servicesContinuously analyse tasks that are performed manually and can be replaced by codeCreation and enhancement of Continuous Deployment automation built on Docker and Kubernetes.2. Who can become a DevOps Engineer?DevOps is a vast environment that fits almost all technologies and processes into it. For instance, you could come from a coding or testing background or could be a system administrator, a database administrator, or Operations team there is a role for everyone to play in a DevOps approach.You are ready to become a DevOps Engineer if you have the below knowledge and/expertise-You have a Bachelor’s or Master’s or BSC degree (preferably in Computer Science, IT, Engineering, Mathematics, or similar)Minimum 2 years of IT experience as a Software Developer with a good understanding of SDLC lifecycle with lean agile methodology (SCRUM)Strong background in Linux/Unix & Windows AdministrationSystem development in an Object-oriented or functional programming language such as Python / Ruby / Java / Perl / Shell scripting / Groovy or GoSystem-level understanding of Linux (RedHat, CentOS, Ubuntu, SUSE Linux), Unix (Solaris, Mac OS) and Windows ServersShell scripting and automation of routines, remote execution of scriptsDatabase management experience in Mongo/Oracle or MySQL databaseStrong SQL and PL/SQL scriptingExperience working with source code version control management like Git, GitLab, GitHub or SubversionExperience with cloud architectures, particularly Amazon Web Services(AWS) or Google cloud platform or Microsoft AzureGood understanding of containerization using Dockers and/or KubernetesExperience with CI/CD pipelines using Jenkins and GitLabKnowledge of data-centre management, systems management, and monitoring, networking & securityExperience in Automation/configuration management using Ansible, and/or Puppet and/or ChefKnow how to monitor your code using Configuration Monitoring tools such as Nagios or PrometheusBackground in Infrastructure and NetworkingExtensive knowledge about RESTful APIsA solid understanding of networking and core Internet protocols (e.g. TCP/IP, DNS, SMTP, HTTP, and distributed networks)Excellent written and verbal English communication skillsSelf-learner, team layer, willingness to learn new technologies and ability to resolve issues independently and deliver results.3. Roadmap to becoming a DevOps Engineer3.1 Learn a programming languageA programming language enables a user to interact and manage the system resources such as the kernel, device drivers, memory devices, I/O devices; also to write software.A well-written piece of code will be more versatile, portable, error-proof, scalable and optimized that will enhance your DevOps cycle letting you be more productive with a high-quality product. As a DevOps Engineer, you will have to use many software and plugins for a CI/CD pipeline, and you will be at your best if you have a good grip on some of the popular programming languages:1. Java : An object-oriented, general-purpose programming language. Goal – “Write once, run anywhere”, which is synonymous with the Dockers(or containerization) philosophy     2. C: Is a general-purpose procedural programming language, it supports structured programming3. C#: A general-purpose, multi-paradigm object-oriented programming (OOP) language4. Python: Python is an easy to learn, interpreted, high-level and powerful programming language with an object-oriented approach. Ideal for infrastructure programming and web development. It has a very clear syntax5. Ruby: Is an open-source dynamic OOP programming language with an elegant and easy syntax. This implements multiple multi-paradigm approaches.As you know, DevOps majorly emphasizes on automating the repetitive and error-prone tasks. You ought to know any of the popular scripting languages:6. Perl: Perl is a highly capable scripting programming language, with its syntax very similar to C7. Bash shell script: Powerful set of instructions in a single shell script file to automate repetitive and complex commands8. JavaScript: An interpreted scripting language to build websites9. PowerShell for windows: A cross-platform automation and configuration framework or tool, that deals with structured data, REST APIs and object models. It has a command-line tool.Good-to-know language:10. Go: Go is an open-source programming language developed by Google. It is used to build simple, reliable and efficient software3.2 Understand different OS conceptsAs a Software developer, you must be able to write code that can interact with the machine resources and have a sound understanding of the underlying OS you are dealing with.Knowing the OS concepts will help you be more productive in your programming.This gives you the ability to make your code faster, manage processes, interact with the input-output devices, communicate with the other OS, optimize the processing usage, memory usage and disk usage of your program.As a DevOps engineer with infrastructure role, setting up and managing servers, controllers and switches becomes easier if you understand the resources, processes, and virtualization concepts very well.To be able to administer the users and groups, file permissions and security you must know the filesystem architecture.Essential OS concepts a DevOps engineer must know include:I. Kernel managementKernel is the core element of any OS. It connects the system hardware with the software. It is responsible for memory, storage, and process managementII. Memory ManagementMemory management is the allocation/deallocation of system memory(RAM, cache, page) to various system resources and to optimize the performance of the systemIII. Device drivers managementA device driver is a software program that controls the hardware device of the machineIV. Resource managementThe dynamic allocation/deallocation of system resources such as kernel, CPU, memory, disk and so onV. I/O managementCommunication between various input/output devices connected to the machine such as- keyboard, mouse, disk, USB, monitor, printers, etc VI. Processes and process managementEvery program that executes a certain task is called a process, each process utilizes a certain amount of computational resources. The technique of managing various processes to share the load of memory, disk and CPU(processing) usage also the inter-process communication is termed as process managementVII. Threads and concurrencyMany programming languages support multi-threading and concurrency, i.e, the ability to run multiple tasks simultaneously  VIII. Virtualization and containerizationConcept of simulating a single physical machine to multiple virtual machines/environments to optimize the use of resources and to reduce the time is taken and cost. Understand this well as you will often need to replicate the real-time environment.Linux  containers are a great concept to isolate and package an application along with its run-time environment as a single entity.Run-time environment includes all its dependencies, binaries, configuration files and libraries. Dockers is a containerized command-line tool that makes it easier to create, run and deploy applications with containers.Using both Virtual machines and dockers together can yield better results in virtualizationIX. Distributed file systemsA client machine can access data located on a Server machine. This is true in the case of a client/server-based application model.X. Filesystem architectureThe architectural layout of how and in what hierarchy the data is organized on a disk, will make your task of managing data easier.3.3 Learn about managing serversAs cloud deployments become more useful with DevOps approach, there is a need to manage a group of Servers (Application, Database, Web Server, Storage, Infrastructure, Networking Server and so on) rather than individual servers.You should be dynamically scaled up/down the servers, without rewriting the configuration files.Nginx: This is a web server that can also be used as a reverse proxy, load balancer, mail proxy, and HTTP cache.This provides robust and customizable monitoring of your cloud instances and their status. Nginx offers more flexibility and configurability for better configuration and automation using DevOps tools like Puppet and Chef.3.4 Networking and SecurityIn a highly connected network of computers, it becomes essential to understand the basic concepts of networking, how to enforce security and diagnose problems.As a DevOps engineer, you would also be required to set up an environment to test networking functions. In addition, set up continuous integration, delivery and deployment pipelines for network functions.Learn the basic networking concepts like Ip addresses, DNS, routing, firewalls and ports, basic utilities like ping, ssh, netstat, ncr and ip, load balancing and TLS encryption.Understand the basic protocols(standard rules for networking) such as-TCP/IP (Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol), HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), SSL, SSH (Secure Shell), FTP (File Transfer Protocol), DNS (Domain Name Server).Configuration management tools like Ansible and Jenkins can be used to configure and orchestrate network devices.3.5 What is and how to set-upAs a DevOps methodology we often describe CI/CD pipeline, let us understand what is it?Continuous Integration(CI) is a development practice wherein ­­developers regularly merge or integrate their code changes into a commonly shared repos­itory very frequently.If I speak from a VCS (preferably Git’s) point of view -Every minor code change done on various branches (from different contributors) is pushed and integrated with the main release branch several times a day, rather than waiting for the complete feature to be developed.Every code check-in is then verified by an automated build and automated test cases. This approach helps to detect and fix the bugs early, resolve the conflicts that may arise, improve software quality, reduce the validation and feedback loop time; hence increasing the overall product quality and speedy product releases.Continuous Delivery(CD) is a software practice where every code check-in is automatically built, tested and ready for a release(delivery) to production. Every code check-in should be release/deployment ready.CD phase delivers the code to a production-like-environment such as dev, uat, preprod, etc and runs automated tests.On successful implementation of continuous delivery in the prod-like environment, the code is ready to be deployed to the main production server.It is best to learn the DevOps lifecycle of continuous development, continuous build, continuous testing, continuous integration, continuous deployment and continuous monitoring throughout the complete product lifecycle.Based on the DevOps process setup use the right tools to facilitate the CI/CD pipeline.3.6 Learn Infrastructure as codeInfrastructure as code (IaC) is to define(or declare) and manage the infrastructure resources programmatically by writing code as configuration files instead of managing each resource individually.These infrastructure resources(hardware and software) may be set up on a physical server, a Virtual machine or cloud.An IaC defines the desired state of the machine and generates the same environment every time it is compiled.What does IaC do?Automation: Spinning up or scaling down many resources becomes easier, as just a configuration file needs to be compiled and run. This reduces the overhead and the time spent.Versioning:  IaC is a text file which can be versioned controlled which means 3 things:Infrastructure changes such as scaling up/down the resources and or changing/updating the resources (filesystem or user management) can be tracked through the versioned historyConfiguration files are easily shareable and portable and are checked-in as source codeAn IaC text file can easily be scheduled to be run in a CI/CD pipeline for Server management and orchestration.Manual errors eliminated: productivity increasedEach environment is an exact replica of production.How to do it?Use tools like  Puppet,  Ansible,  Chef,  TerraformThese tools aim at providing a stable environment for both development and operations tasks that results in smooth orchestration.A. Puppet: Puppet is a Configuration Management Tool (CMT) to build, configure and manage infrastructure on physical or virtual machinesB. Ansible: is a Configuration management, Deployment and Orchestration toolC. Chef: is a configuration management tool written in Ruby and Erlang to deploy, manage, update and repair server and application to any environmentD. Terraform: This automation tool builds, change, version and improve infrastructure and servers safely and efficiently.How will IaC be applied in DevOps?IaC configuration files are used to build CI/CD pipelines.IaC definitions enable DevOps teams to test applications/software in production-like stable environments quickly and effortlessly.These environments with IaC are repeatable and prevent runtime issues caused due to misconfiguration or missing dependencies.---3.7 Learn some Continuous Integration and Delivery (CI/CD) toolsIn order to continuously develop, integrate, build, test, apply feedback, deliver our product features to the production environment or deploy to the customer site, we have to build an automated sequence of jobs(processes) to be executed using the appropriate tools.CI/CD pipeline requires custom code and working with multiple software packages simultaneously. As a DevOps Engineer, here are some widely used tools you must know-a.  Jenkins is an open-source automation server. Using Jenkins plugins CI/CD pipelines are built to automatically build, test and deploy the source codeJenkins is a self-contained Java-based program and easy to configure, extensible and distributedb.  GitLab CI is a single tool for the complete DevOps cycle. Every code check-ins trigger builds, run tests, and deploy code in a virtual machine or docker container or any other server. Its has an excellent GUI interface. GitLab CI also has features for monitoring and securityc.  CircleCI software is used to build, test, deploy and automate the development cycle. This is a secure and scalable tool with huge multi-platform support for IOS and MAC OS using MAC virtual machines along with Android and Linux environmentsd.  Microsoft VSTS(Visual Studio Team Services) is not only a CI/CD service but also provide unlimited cloud-hosted private code repositoriese.  CodeShip tool empowers your DevOps CI/CD pipelines with easy, secure, fast and reliable builds with native docker support. It provides a GUI to easily configure the buildsf.  Bamboo by Atlassian is a Continuous integration, deployment and delivery Server. Bamboo has built-in  Jira Software and  BitBucket Software Integration, also built-in git branching and workflows.Jenkins is the most popular and widely used tool with numerous flexible plugins that integrate with almost any CI/CD toolchain. Also the ability of Jenkins to automate any project really distinguish this tool from others, thus it is highly recommended to get a good grip of this tool as a DevOps practitioner.Note: Since this is also a key for enthusiasts to choose the right tool but should be short definitions3.8 Know the tools to monitor software and infrastructureIt is crucial to continuously monitor the software and infrastructure upon setting up the continuous integration and continuous delivery pipeline (CI/CD) to understand how well your DevOps setup is performing. Also, it is vital to monitor system events and get alerts in real-time. A hiccup in the pipeline such as an application dependency failure or a linking error, or say the database has a downtime must be immediately notable and taken care of.This is where a DevOps Engineer must be familiar with monitoring tools such as -1.  Nagios: is an open-source software application that monitors systems, networks, and infrastructure(Servers) and generates logs and alerts2.  Prometheus: is an open-source real-time metrics-based event monitoring and alerting system.3.9 Learn about Cloud ProvidersAs the computational need increases so do the demand of the infrastructure resources.Cloud computing is a higher level of virtualization, wherein the computing resources are outsourced on a “cloud” and available for use on a pay-as-you-go basis over the internet.Some of the leading cloud providers such as AWS, Google Cloud, Microsoft Azure to name a few provide varied cloud services like IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS.Begin part of a DevOps practice, you will often find the need to access various cloud services say for infrastructure resources, production-like environment on the go for testing your product without having to provision it, get multiple replicas of the production environment, create a failover cluster, backup and recover your database over the cloud and various other tasks.Some of the cloud providers and what they offer are listed below-A.  AWS (Amazon Web Services): provide tooling and infrastructure resources readily available for DevOps programs customized as per your requirement. You can easily build and deliver products, automate CI/CD process without having to worry about provisioning and configuring the environmentB.  Microsoft Azure: Create a reliable CI/CD pipeline, practice Infrastructure as Code and continuous monitoring through Microsoft-managed data centresC.  Google Cloud Platform: Uses google-managed data centres to provide DevOps features like end-to-end CI/CD automation, Infrastructure as Code, configuration management, security management, and serverless computing.AWS is the most versatile and recommended provider that you may wish to start learning.4. What next after becoming a DevOps expert?“Sky is the only limit for a DevOps person !!!”Mastering the DevOps tools and practices opens up the door to new roles and challenges for you to learn and grow.4.1 DevOps EvangelistA technical Evangelist is a strong powerful and influential role that exhibits a strong thought process.A DevOps evangelist is a DevOps leader who identifies and implements the DevOps features to solve a business problem or a process, and then shares and promotes the benefits that come from DevOps practice.Also identifies the key roles and train the team in the same and is responsible for the success of entire DevOps processes and people.4.2 Code Release ManagerA Code Release Manager measures the overall progress of the project in terms of metrics, he/she is aware of the entire Agile methodology. A Release Manager is more involved in the coordination among all the phases of DevOps flow to support continuous delivery.4.3 Automation ArchitectThe key responsibility is to plan, analyze, and design a strategy to automate all manual tasks with the right tools and implement the processes for continuous deployment.4.4 Experience AssuranceAn experience Assurance person is responsible for the user experience and makes sure that the product being delivered meet the original business specifications.This role is also termed as Quality Assurance but with extended responsibilities of user experience testing. This role plays a critical role in the DevOps cycle.4.5 Software Developer/TesterUnder DevOps, the role and responsibilities of a Software Developer literally expand l, that the developers are no longer responsible for writing code, but also take ownership of unit testing, deployment and monitoring as well.A Developer/Tester has to make sure that the code meets the original business requirement.Henceforth; the role Developer/Tester or if the innovation extends further a Developer may also be referred to as DevTestOps.4.6 Security EngineerSecurity Engineer focuses on the Integrity of data by incorporating security into the product, and not at the end.He/she supports project teams in using security tools in the CI/CD pipeline, as well as provide resolution of identified security flaws. Conclusion“If you define the problem correctly, you almost have the solution.”  - Steve JobsIn a nutshell, if you aspire to  become a DevOps professional you ought to know -Programming language (C, Java, Perl, Python, Ruby, Bash shell, PowerShell)Operating System concepts (resource management)Source Control (like Git, Bitbucket, Svn, VSTS, etc)Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery (Jenkins, GitLab CI, CircleCI)Infrastructure as Code (IaC) Automation (tools like Puppet, Chef, Ansible and/or Terraform)Managing Servers (application, storage, database, infrastructure, networking, web server etc)(Application, Database, Web Server, Storage, Infrastructure, Networking Server Networking and securityContainer Concepts (Docker)Continuous monitoring (Nagios and Prometheus)Cloud (like AWS, Azure, Google Cloud).DevOps ways( The three ways of DevOps) open the door of opportunities to improve and excel in the process using the right tools and technologies.“DevOps channels the entire process right from the idea on a whiteboard until the real product in the customer’s hands through automated pipelines(CI/CD).”As a DevOps Engineer you must be a motivated team player, need to have a desire to learn and grow, optimize the process and find better solutions.Since DevOps covers a vast area under its umbrella, it is best to focus on your key skills and learn the technologies and tools as needed.Understand the problem/challenge then find a DevOps solution around the same.
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DevOps Roadmap to Become a Successful DevOps Engineer

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DevOps Roadmap to Become a Successful DevOps Engineer

“DevOps is a combination of best practices, culture, mindset, and software tools to deliver a high quality and reliable product faster

Benefits of DevOps

Benefits of DevOps (Dev+Ops(SysAdmins plus Database Admins)

 
 
 
 

DevOps agile thinking drives towards an iterated continuous development model with higher velocity, reduced variations and better global visualization of the product flow. These three “V”s are achieved with synchronizing the teams and implementing CI/CD pipelines that automate the SDLC repetitive and complex processes in terms of continuous integration of code, continuous testing, and continuous delivery of features to the production-like environment for a high-quality product with shorter release cycles and reduced cost.This ensures customer satisfaction and credibility.

A streamlined process in place with the help of best practices and DevOps tools reduce the overhead, and downtime thus giving more opportunity for innovation. As a matter of fact, DevOps way of defining every phase (coding, testing, infrastructure provisioning, deployment, and monitoring) as code also makes it easier to rollback a versioned code in case of disaster recovery and make the environment easily scalable, portable and secure.

“DevOps tools help you accomplish what you can already do but do not have time to do it.”

1. What are the tasks of a DevOps Engineer?

A Summary of day-to-day tasks carried out by a DevOps engineer -

  • Design, build, test and deploy scalable, distributed systems from development through production
  • Manage the code repository(such as Git, SVN, BitBucket, etc.) including code merging and integrating, branching and maintenance and remote repository management
  • Manage, configure and maintain infrastructure system
  • Design the database architecture and database objects and synchronize the various environments
  • Design implement and support DevOps Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery pipelines
  • Research and implement new technologies and practices
  • Document processes, systems, and workflows
  • Creation and enhancement of dynamic monitoring and alerting solutions using industry-leading services
  • Continuously analyse tasks that are performed manually and can be replaced by code
  • Creation and enhancement of Continuous Deployment automation built on Docker and Kubernetes.

2. Who can become a DevOps Engineer?Who can become a DevOps Engineer

DevOps is a vast environment that fits almost all technologies and processes into it. For instance, you could come from a coding or testing background or could be a system administrator, a database administrator, or Operations team there is a role for everyone to play in a DevOps approach.

You are ready to become a DevOps Engineer if you have the below knowledge and/expertise-

  • You have a Bachelor’s or Master’s or BSC degree (preferably in Computer Science, IT, Engineering, Mathematics, or similar)
  • Minimum 2 years of IT experience as a Software Developer with a good understanding of SDLC lifecycle with lean agile methodology (SCRUM)
  • Strong background in Linux/Unix & Windows Administration
  • System development in an Object-oriented or functional programming language such as Python / Ruby / Java / Perl / Shell scripting / Groovy or Go
  • System-level understanding of Linux (RedHat, CentOS, Ubuntu, SUSE Linux), Unix (Solaris, Mac OS) and Windows Servers
  • Shell scripting and automation of routines, remote execution of scripts
  • Database management experience in Mongo/Oracle or MySQL database
  • Strong SQL and PL/SQL scripting
  • Experience working with source code version control management like Git, GitLab, GitHub or Subversion
  • Experience with cloud architectures, particularly Amazon Web Services(AWS) or Google cloud platform or Microsoft Azure
  • Good understanding of containerization using Dockers and/or Kubernetes
  • Experience with CI/CD pipelines using Jenkins and GitLab
  • Knowledge of data-centre management, systems management, and monitoring, networking & security
  • Experience in Automation/configuration management using Ansible, and/or Puppet and/or Chef
  • Know how to monitor your code using Configuration Monitoring tools such as Nagios or Prometheus
  • Background in Infrastructure and Networking
  • Extensive knowledge about RESTful APIs
  • A solid understanding of networking and core Internet protocols (e.g. TCP/IP, DNS, SMTP, HTTP, and distributed networks)
  • Excellent written and verbal English communication skills
  • Self-learner, team layer, willingness to learn new technologies and ability to resolve issues independently and deliver results.

3. Roadmap to becoming a DevOps Engineer

3.1 Learn a programming language

Learn a programming language in DevOps Engineer

A programming language enables a user to interact and manage the system resources such as the kernel, device drivers, memory devices, I/O devices; also to write software.

A well-written piece of code will be more versatile, portable, error-proof, scalable and optimized that will enhance your DevOps cycle letting you be more productive with a high-quality product. 

As a DevOps Engineer, you will have to use many software and plugins for a CI/CD pipeline, and you will be at your best if you have a good grip on some of the popular programming languages:

1. Java : An object-oriented, general-purpose programming language. Goal – “Write once, run anywhere”, which is synonymous with the Dockers(or containerization) philosophy     

2. C: Is a general-purpose procedural programming language, it supports structured programming

3. C#: A general-purpose, multi-paradigm object-oriented programming (OOP) language

4. Python: Python is an easy to learn, interpreted, high-level and powerful programming language with an object-oriented approach. Ideal for infrastructure programming and web development. It has a very clear syntax

5. RubyIs an open-source dynamic OOP programming language with an elegant and easy syntax. This implements multiple multi-paradigm approaches.

As you know, DevOps majorly emphasizes on automating the repetitive and error-prone tasks. 

You ought to know any of the popular scripting languages:

6. PerlPerl is a highly capable scripting programming language, with its syntax very similar to C

7. Bash shell script: Powerful set of instructions in a single shell script file to automate repetitive and complex commands

8. JavaScript: An interpreted scripting language to build websites

9. PowerShell for windows: A cross-platform automation and configuration framework or tool, that deals with structured data, REST APIs and object models. It has a command-line tool.

Good-to-know language:

10. Go: Go is an open-source programming language developed by Google. It is used to build simple, reliable and efficient software

3.2 Understand different OS concepts

As a Software developer, you must be able to write code that can interact with the machine resources and have a sound understanding of the underlying OS you are dealing with.Knowing the OS concepts will help you be more productive in your programming.

This gives you the ability to make your code faster, manage processes, interact with the input-output devices, communicate with the other OS, optimize the processing usage, memory usage and disk usage of your program.

As a DevOps engineer with infrastructure role, setting up and managing servers, controllers and switches becomes easier if you understand the resources, processes, and virtualization concepts very well.

To be able to administer the users and groups, file permissions and security you must know the filesystem architecture.

Essential OS concepts a DevOps engineer must know include:

I. Kernel management

Kernel is the core element of any OS. It connects the system hardware with the software. It is responsible for memory, storage, and process management

II. Memory Management

Memory management is the allocation/deallocation of system memory(RAM, cache, page) to various system resources and to optimize the performance of the system

III. Device drivers management

A device driver is a software program that controls the hardware device of the machine

IV. Resource management

The dynamic allocation/deallocation of system resources such as kernel, CPU, memory, disk and so on

V. I/O management

Communication between various input/output devices connected to the machine such as- keyboard, mouse, disk, USB, monitor, printers, etc 

VI. Processes and process management

Every program that executes a certain task is called a process, each process utilizes a certain amount of computational resources. The technique of managing various processes to share the load of memory, disk and CPU(processing) usage also the inter-process communication is termed as process management

VII. Threads and concurrency

Many programming languages support multi-threading and concurrency, i.e, the ability to run multiple tasks simultaneously  

VIII. Virtualization and containerization

Concept of simulating a single physical machine to multiple virtual machines/environments to optimize the use of resources and to reduce the time is taken and cost. Understand this well as you will often need to replicate the real-time environment.

Linux  containers are a great concept to isolate and package an application along with its run-time environment as a single entity.

Run-time environment includes all its dependencies, binaries, configuration files and libraries. Dockers is a containerized command-line tool that makes it easier to create, run and deploy applications with containers.

Using both Virtual machines and dockers together can yield better results in virtualization

IX. Distributed file systems

A client machine can access data located on a Server machine. This is true in the case of a client/server-based application model.

X. Filesystem architecture

The architectural layout of how and in what hierarchy the data is organized on a disk, will make your task of managing data easier.

3.3 Learn about managing servers

As cloud deployments become more useful with DevOps approach, there is a need to manage a group of Servers (Application, Database, Web Server, Storage, Infrastructure, Networking Server and so on) rather than individual servers.

You should be dynamically scaled up/down the servers, without rewriting the configuration files.

Nginx: This is a web server that can also be used as a reverse proxy, load balancer, mail proxy, and HTTP cache.
This provides robust and customizable monitoring of your cloud instances and their status. Nginx offers more flexibility and configurability for better configuration and automation using DevOps tools like Puppet and Chef.

3.4 Networking and Security

In a highly connected network of computers, it becomes essential to understand the basic concepts of networking, how to enforce security and diagnose problems.

As a DevOps engineer, you would also be required to set up an environment to test networking functions. In addition, set up continuous integration, delivery and deployment pipelines for network functions.

Learn the basic networking concepts like Ip addresses, DNS, routing, firewalls and ports, basic utilities like ping, ssh, netstat, ncr and ip, load balancing and TLS encryption.

Understand the basic protocols(standard rules for networking) such as-
TCP/IP (Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol), HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), SSL, SSH (Secure Shell), FTP (File Transfer Protocol), DNS (Domain Name Server).

Configuration management tools like Ansible and Jenkins can be used to configure and orchestrate network devices.

3.5 What is and how to set-up

As a DevOps methodology we often describe CI/CD pipeline, let us understand what is it?

Continuous Integration(CI) is a development practice wherein ­­developers regularly merge or integrate their code changes into a commonly shared repos­itory very frequently.

If I speak from a VCS (preferably Git’s) point of view -
Every minor code change done on various branches (from different contributors) is pushed and integrated with the main release branch several times a day, rather than waiting for the complete feature to be developed.

Every code check-in is then verified by an automated build and automated test cases. This approach helps to detect and fix the bugs early, resolve the conflicts that may arise, improve software quality, reduce the validation and feedback loop time; hence increasing the overall product quality and speedy product releases.

Continuous Delivery(CD) is a software practice where every code check-in is automatically built, tested and ready for a release(delivery) to production. Every code check-in should be release/deployment ready.

CD phase delivers the code to a production-like-environment such as dev, uat, preprod, etc and runs automated tests.

On successful implementation of continuous delivery in the prod-like environment, the code is ready to be deployed to the main production server.

It is best to learn the DevOps lifecycle of continuous development, continuous build, continuous testing, continuous integration, continuous deployment and continuous monitoring throughout the complete product lifecycle.

Based on the DevOps process setup use the right tools to facilitate the CI/CD pipeline.

3.6 Learn Infrastructure as code

Infrastructure as code (IaC) is to define(or declare) and manage the infrastructure resources programmatically by writing code as configuration files instead of managing each resource individually.

These infrastructure resources(hardware and software) may be set up on a physical server, a Virtual machine or cloud.

An IaC defines the desired state of the machine and generates the same environment every time it is compiled.

What does IaC do?

  1. Automation: Spinning up or scaling down many resources becomes easier, as just a configuration file needs to be compiled and run. This reduces the overhead and the time spent.
  2. Versioning:  IaC is a text file which can be versioned controlled which means 3 things:

    • Infrastructure changes such as scaling up/down the resources and or changing/updating the resources (filesystem or user management) can be tracked through the versioned history
    • Configuration files are easily shareable and portable and are checked-in as source code
    • An IaC text file can easily be scheduled to be run in a CI/CD pipeline for Server management and orchestration.
  3. Manual errors eliminated: productivity increased

    • Each environment is an exact replica of production.

How to do it?

Use tools like  Puppet,  Ansible,  Chef,  Terraform

These tools aim at providing a stable environment for both development and operations tasks that results in smooth orchestration.

A. Puppet: Puppet is a Configuration Management Tool (CMT) to build, configure and manage infrastructure on physical or virtual machines

B. Ansible: is a Configuration management, Deployment and Orchestration tool

C. Chef: is a configuration management tool written in Ruby and Erlang to deploy, manage, update and repair server and application to any environment

D. Terraform: This automation tool builds, change, version and improve infrastructure and servers safely and efficiently.

How will IaC be applied in DevOps?

IaC configuration files are used to build CI/CD pipelines.

IaC definitions enable DevOps teams to test applications/software in production-like stable environments quickly and effortlessly.

These environments with IaC are repeatable and prevent runtime issues caused due to misconfiguration or missing dependencies.
---

3.7 Learn some Continuous Integration and Delivery (CI/CD) tools

In order to continuously develop, integrate, build, test, apply feedback, deliver our product features to the production environment or deploy to the customer site, we have to build an automated sequence of jobs(processes) to be executed using the appropriate tools.

CI/CD pipeline requires custom code and working with multiple software packages simultaneously. 

As a DevOps Engineer, here are some widely used tools you must know-

a.  Jenkins is an open-source automation server. Using Jenkins plugins CI/CD pipelines are built to automatically build, test and deploy the source code

Jenkins is a self-contained Java-based program and easy to configure, extensible and distributed

b.  GitLab CI is a single tool for the complete DevOps cycle. Every code check-ins trigger builds, run tests, and deploy code in a virtual machine or docker container or any other server. Its has an excellent GUI interface. GitLab CI also has features for monitoring and security

c.  CircleCI software is used to build, test, deploy and automate the development cycle. This is a secure and scalable tool with huge multi-platform support for IOS and MAC OS using MAC virtual machines along with Android and Linux environments

d.  Microsoft VSTS(Visual Studio Team Services) is not only a CI/CD service but also provide unlimited cloud-hosted private code repositories

e.  CodeShip tool empowers your DevOps CI/CD pipelines with easy, secure, fast and reliable builds with native docker support. It provides a GUI to easily configure the builds

f.  Bamboo by Atlassian is a Continuous integration, deployment and delivery Server. Bamboo has built-in  Jira Software and  BitBucket Software Integration, also built-in git branching and workflows.

Jenkins is the most popular and widely used tool with numerous flexible plugins that integrate with almost any CI/CD toolchain. Also the ability of Jenkins to automate any project really distinguish this tool from others, thus it is highly recommended to get a good grip of this tool as a DevOps practitioner.

Note: Since this is also a key for enthusiasts to choose the right tool but should be short definitions

3.8 Know the tools to monitor software and infrastructure

Know the tools to monitor software and infrastructure

It is crucial to continuously monitor the software and infrastructure upon setting up the continuous integration and continuous delivery pipeline (CI/CD) to understand how well your DevOps setup is performing. Also, it is vital to monitor system events and get alerts in real-time. 

A hiccup in the pipeline such as an application dependency failure or a linking error, or say the database has a downtime must be immediately notable and taken care of.

This is where a DevOps Engineer must be familiar with monitoring tools such as -

1.  Nagios: is an open-source software application that monitors systems, networks, and infrastructure(Servers) and generates logs and alerts

2.  Prometheus: is an open-source real-time metrics-based event monitoring and alerting system.

3.9 Learn about Cloud Providers

As the computational need increases so do the demand of the infrastructure resources.Cloud computing is a higher level of virtualization, wherein the computing resources are outsourced on a “cloud” and available for use on a pay-as-you-go basis over the internet.Some of the leading cloud providers such as AWS, Google Cloud, Microsoft Azure to name a few provide varied cloud services like IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS.

Begin part of a DevOps practice, you will often find the need to access various cloud services say for infrastructure resources, production-like environment on the go for testing your product without having to provision it, get multiple replicas of the production environment, create a failover cluster, backup and recover your database over the cloud and various other tasks.

Some of the cloud providers and what they offer are listed below-

A.  AWS (Amazon Web Services): provide tooling and infrastructure resources readily available for DevOps programs customized as per your requirement. You can easily build and deliver products, automate CI/CD process without having to worry about provisioning and configuring the environment

B.  Microsoft Azure: Create a reliable CI/CD pipeline, practice Infrastructure as Code and continuous monitoring through Microsoft-managed data centres

C.  Google Cloud Platform: Uses google-managed data centres to provide DevOps features like end-to-end CI/CD automation, Infrastructure as Code, configuration management, security management, and serverless computing.

AWS is the most versatile and recommended provider that you may wish to start learning.

4. What next after becoming a DevOps expert?

“Sky is the only limit for a DevOps person !!!”

Mastering the DevOps tools and practices opens up the door to new roles and challenges for you to learn and grow.

4.1 DevOps Evangelist

A technical Evangelist is a strong powerful and influential role that exhibits a strong thought process.

A DevOps evangelist is a DevOps leader who identifies and implements the DevOps features to solve a business problem or a process, and then shares and promotes the benefits that come from DevOps practice.

Also identifies the key roles and train the team in the same and is responsible for the success of entire DevOps processes and people.

4.2 Code Release Manager

A Code Release Manager measures the overall progress of the project in terms of metrics, he/she is aware of the entire Agile methodology. A Release Manager is more involved in the coordination among all the phases of DevOps flow to support continuous delivery.

4.3 Automation Architect

The key responsibility is to plan, analyze, and design a strategy to automate all manual tasks with the right tools and implement the processes for continuous deployment.

4.4 Experience Assurance

An experience Assurance person is responsible for the user experience and makes sure that the product being delivered meet the original business specifications.

This role is also termed as Quality Assurance but with extended responsibilities of user experience testing. This role plays a critical role in the DevOps cycle.

4.5 Software Developer/Tester

Under DevOps, the role and responsibilities of a Software Developer literally expand l, that the developers are no longer responsible for writing code, but also take ownership of unit testing, deployment and monitoring as well.

A Developer/Tester has to make sure that the code meets the original business requirement.
Henceforth; the role Developer/Tester or if the innovation extends further a Developer may also be referred to as DevTestOps.

4.6 Security Engineer

Security Engineer focuses on the Integrity of data by incorporating security into the product, and not at the end.

He/she supports project teams in using security tools in the CI/CD pipeline, as well as provide resolution of identified security flaws. 

Conclusion

“If you define the problem correctly, you almost have the solution.”  - Steve Jobs

In a nutshell, if you aspire to  become a DevOps professional you ought to know -

  • Programming language (C, Java, Perl, Python, Ruby, Bash shell, PowerShell)
  • Operating System concepts (resource management)
  • Source Control (like Git, Bitbucket, Svn, VSTS, etc)
  • Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery (Jenkins, GitLab CI, CircleCI)
  • Infrastructure as Code (IaC) Automation (tools like Puppet, Chef, Ansible and/or Terraform)
  • Managing Servers (application, storage, database, infrastructure, networking, web server etc)
  • (Application, Database, Web Server, Storage, Infrastructure, Networking Server 
  • Networking and security
  • Container Concepts (Docker)
  • Continuous monitoring (Nagios and Prometheus)
  • Cloud (like AWS, Azure, Google Cloud).

DevOps ways( The three ways of DevOps) open the door of opportunities to improve and excel in the process using the right tools and technologies.

“DevOps channels the entire process right from the idea on a whiteboard until the real product in the customer’s hands through automated pipelines(CI/CD).”

As a DevOps Engineer you must be a motivated team player, need to have a desire to learn and grow, optimize the process and find better solutions.

Since DevOps covers a vast area under its umbrella, it is best to focus on your key skills and learn the technologies and tools as needed.

Understand the problem/challenge then find a DevOps solution around the same.

Divya

Divya Bhushan

Content developer/Corporate Trainer

  • Content Developer and Corporate Trainer with a 10-year background in Database administration, Linux/Unix scripting, SQL/PL-SQL coding, Git VCS. New skills acquired-DevOps and Dockers.
  • A skilled and dedicated trainer with comprehensive abilities in the areas of assessment, 
requirement understanding, design, development, and deployment of courseware via blended environments for the workplace. 

  • Excellent communication, demonstration, and interpersonal skills.

Website : https://www.knowledgehut.com/tutorials/git-tutorial

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What is DevOps

You landed up here which means that you are willing to know more about DevOps and hey, you can admit it! And of course, the business community has been taking this trend to the next level not because it looks fancy but of course, this process has proven the commitment. The growth and adoption of this disruptive model are increasing the productivity of the company.  So here, we will get an idea of how this model works and how we can enable this across the organization. According to DevOps.com, during the period of the year 2015 to 2016, the adoption rate of DevOps increased significantly, with a rise of 9 per cent in its usage rate. You may have a look at DevOps Foundation training course to know more about the benefits of learning DevOps.1. What is DevOpsDevOps is a practice culture having a union of people, process, and tools which enables faster delivery. This culture helps to automate the process and narrow down the gaps between development and IT. DevOps is a kind of abstract impression that focuses on key principles like Speed, Rapid Delivery, Scalability, Security, Collaboration & Monitoring etc.A definition mentioned in Gartner says:“DevOps represents a change in IT culture, focusing on rapid IT service delivery through the adoption of agile, lean practices in the context of a system-oriented approach. DevOps emphasizes people (and culture) and seeks to improve collaboration between operations and development teams. DevOps implementations utilize technology— especially automation tools that can leverage an increasingly programmable and dynamic infrastructure from a life cycle perspective.”2. History of DevOpsLet's talk about a bit of history in cloud computing. The word “cloud compute” got coined in early 1996 by Compaq computer, but it took a while to make this platform easily accessible even though they claimed its a $2 billion market per year.  In August 2006 Amazon had introduced cloud infra which was easily accessible, and then it became a trend, and post this, in April 2008 Google, early 2010 Microsoft and then April 2011 IBM has placed his foot in this vertical. This showed a trend that all Giants are highly believed in this revolution and found potential in this technology.And in the same era DevOps process got pitched in Toronto Conference in 2008 by Patrick Debois and Andrew Shafer. He proposed that there is a better approach can be adopted to resolve the conflicts we have with dev and operation time so far. This again took a boom when 2 Flickr employee delivered a  seminar that how they are able to place 10+ deployment in a day. They came up with a proven model which can resolve the conflicts of Dev and operation having component build, test and deploy this should be an integrated development and operations process.3. Why market has adopted so aggressivelyLouis Columbus has mentioned in  Forbes that by the end of 2020 the 83% of the workload will be on the cloud where major market contributor will be AWS & Google. The new era is working more on AI, ML, Crypto, Big Data, etc. which is playing a key role in cloud computing adoption today but at the same time, IT professionals say that the security is their biggest concern in adopting a cloud computing. Moreover, Cloud helped so many startups to grow at initial stages and later they converted as a leader in there market place, which has given confidence to the fresh ideas.This entire cloud enablement has given more confidence to the team to adopt DevOps culture as cloud expansion is helping to experiment more with less risk.4. Why is Devop used?To reduce day to day manual work done by IT team To avoid manual error while designing infra Enables a smooth platform for technology or cloud migration Gives an amazing version control capabilities A better way to handle resources whether it’s cloud infra or manpower Gives an opportunity to pitch customer a realistic feature rollout commitment To adopt better infra scaling process even though you receive 4X traffic Enables opportunity to build a stable infrastructure5. Business need and value of DevOpsLet's understand this by sharing a story of, a leading  Online video streaming platform 'Netflix' which was to disclose the acquisition or we can say a company called Blockbuster LLC got an opportunity in 2000 to buy Netflix in $50 million. Netflix previously was working only on  DVD-by-mail service, but in 2016 Netflix made a business of $8.83 billion which was tremendous growth in this vertical. Any idea of how this happened? This started with an incident at Netflix office where due to a database mismatch a DVD shipping got disrupted for 3 days which Forced Management to move on the cloud from relational systems in their data centers because this incident made a massive impact on core values. The shift happened from vertical to horizontal, and AWS later provided with Cloud service even I have read that in an early stage they gathered with AWS team and worked to scale the infrastructure. And, today Netflix is serving across 180 countries with the amount of 15,00,00,000 hours of video content to less or more 8,60,00,000 members.6. Goal Of DevOpsControl of quality and increase the frequency of deploymentsAllows to enable a risk-free experimentEnables to improve mean time to recovery and backupHelps to handle release failure without losing live dataHelps to avoid unplanned work and technical failureTo achieve compliance process and control on the audit trailAlert and monitoring in an early stage on system failureHelps to maintain SLA in a uniform fashionEnabling control for the business team7. How Does DevOps workSo DevOp model usually keeps Development and operation team tightly coupled or sometimes they get merged and they roll out the entire release cycle. Sometime we may see that development, operation and security & Network team is also involved and slowly this got coined as DevSecOps. So the integration of this team makes sure that they are able to crack development, testing, deployment, provisioning infra, monitoring, network firewalling, infrastructure accessibility and accountability. This helps them to build a clean application development lifecycle to deliver a quality product.8. DevOps workflow/LifecycleDevOps Workflow (Process)DevOps workflow ensures that we are spending time on the right thing that means the right time is involved in building product/infrastructure. And how it enables we can analyze in below diagram. When we look into the below diagram, it seems DevOps process in an extended version of agile methodologies but it doesn’t mean that it can fit in other SDLC methodologies.  There is enough scope in other SDLC process as well. Once we merge process and Tools workflow diagram, it showcases a general DevOps environment. So the team puts an effort to keep pushing the releases and at the same time by enabling automation and tools we try maintaining the quality and speed.DevOps Workflow (Process)DevOps Workflow (Tool)9. DevOps valuesI would like to split DevOps values into  two groups: Business Values Organization Values Business values are moreover customer centricHow fast we recover if there is any failure?How we can pitch the exact MRR to a customer and acquire more customers?How fast we can deliver the product to customersHow to roll out beta access asap if there any on-demand requirement?Organizational ValuesBuilding CultureEnabling communication and collaborationOptimize and automate the whole systemEnabling Feedbacks loopsDecreasing silosMetrics and Measurement10. Principle of DevOpsAutomated: Automate as much as you can in a linear and agile manner so you can build an end to end automated pipeline for software development life cycle in an effective manner which includes quality, rework, manual work and cost. And it’s not only about the cycle it is also about the migration from one technology to another technology, one cloud to another cloud etc.Collaborative: The goal of this culture is to keep a hold on both development and operations. Keep an eye and fix the gaps to keep moving thing in an agile way, which needs a good amount of communication and coordination. By encouraging collaborative environment an organization gets ample of ideas which help to resolve issue way faster. The beauty of the collaboration is it really handles all unplanned and manual work at an early stage which ends up given a quality build and process.Customer Centric approach: DevOps team always reacts as a startup and must keep a finger on the pulse to measure customer demands. The metrics they generate give an insight to the business team to see the trend of usage and burn rate. But of course, to find a signal in the noise, you should be focused and collect only those metrics which really matters.Performance Orientation: Performance is a principle and a discipline which gives an insight to the team to understand the implication of bad performance. Before moving to production if we get metrics and reports handy it gives confidence to technology and business both. This gives an opportunity to plan how to scale infrastructure, how to handle if there is a huge spike or the high usage, and the utilization of the infrastructure.Quality Indicators per application: Another set which is a predefined principle is to set measurable quality Assigning a quality gate to indicators with predefined targets, covering fit for purpose and security gives an opportunity to deliver a complete quality application.11. DevOps Key practices:i) CI/CD When we say “continuous” it doesn’t translate that “always running” but of course “always ready to run”.Continuous integration is nothing but the development philosophy and practices that drive teams to check-in code to version control system as often as possible. So keeping your build clean and QA ready developer's changes need to be validated by running automated tests against the build that could be a Junit, iTest. The goal of CI is to place a consistent and automated way to build and test applications which results in better collaboration between teams, and eventually a better-quality product.Continuous Delivery is an adjunct of CI which enables a facility to make sure that we can release new changes to your customers quickly in a sustainable way.Typical CD involves the below steps:Pull code from version control system like bitbucket and execute build.Execute any required infrastructure steps command line/script to stand up or tear down cloud infrastructure.Move build to right compute environmentAble to handle all the configuration generation process.Pushing application components to their appropriate services, such as web servers, API services, and database services.Executing any steps required to restarts services or call service endpoints that are needed for new code pushes.Executing continuous tests and rollback environments if tests fail.Providing log data and alerts on the state of the delivery.Below there is a table which will help us better understand what we need to put as an effort and what we will gain if we enable CI/CD in place:Practice TypeEffort RequiredGainContinuous integrationa) Need to prepare automated your team will need to write automated tests for each new feature,improvement or bug fix.b) You need a continuous integration server that can monitor the main repository and run the tests automatically for every new commits pushed.c) Developers need to merge their changes as often as possible, at least once a day.a Will give control on regressions which can be captured in early stage of automated testing.b) Less context switching as developers are alerted as soon as they break the build and can work on fixing it before they move to another task.c) Building the release is easy as all integration issues have been solved early.d) Testing costs are reduced drastically -your Cl server can run hundreds of tests in the matter of seconds.e) Your QA team spend less time testing and can focus on significant improvements to the quality culture.Continuous Delivery a) You need a strong foundation in continuous integration and your test suite needs to cover enough of your codebase.b) Deployments need to be automated. The trigger is still manual but once a deployment is started  there shouldn't be a need for human intervention.c) Your team will most likely need to embrace feature flags so that incomplete features do not affect customers in productiona) The complexity of deploying software has been taken away. Your team doesnt't have to spend days preparing for a release anymore.b) You can release more often,thus accelerating the feedback loop with your  customers.c) There is much less pressure on decisions for small changes,hence encoraging iterating faster.ii) Maintaining infra in a secure and compliant wayKeeping infrastructure secure and compliant is also a responsibility of DevOps or some organization are nowadays pitching as SecOps. A general and traditional way of security methodologies or rules get fails when you have multi-layer or multi-cloud system running for your product organization and sometimes it really fail when you moving with the continuous delivery process. So the job is to ensure that the team is putting clear and neat visibility on risk and vulnerabilities which may cause a big problem. Below adding a basic rule to avoid small loophole (Specific to GCP) :Level 1:- Define your resource hierarchy.- Create an Organization node and define the project structure.- Automation of project creation which helps to achieve uniformity and testability.Level 2:- Manage your Google identities.- Synchronize your existing identity platform.- Have single-sign-on (SSO).- Don’t add multiple users instead of that select resource level permission.- Be specific while providing resource access also with action type (Read, Write & Admin).- Always use service accounts to access meta-data because to authenticate this it uses keys instead of password and GCP rotates the service account keys for code running on GCP.Level 3:- Add VPC for network definition and create firewall rules to manage traffic.- Define a specific rule to control external access and avoid having unwanted port opens.- Create a centralized network control template which can be applied across the project.Level 4:- Enable centralized logging and monitoring (Preferred Stackdriver).- Enable audit log which helps you to collect the activity of Admin, System Event and Data Access in a phrase of who did what, where and when?Level 5:- Enable cold line data storage if there is a need to keeping a copy for disaster management.- Further reference for placing security standard in AWS there is an article I have posted a few months back. 12. DevOps Myths or What DevOps is not?Before I mention the myths I would clarify the biggest myth which every early stage learner carries that “DevOps practice can be rolled out in a day and output will be available from the 1st day”. This is too early to reach this conclusion, as the definition of DevOps always says that it's a culture and process which can be built in a day. But of course, you will get an opportunity to overcome your mistakes at an early stage. Let's discuss a few more myths:It’s now only about the tool, (It’s a component of the whole DevOps practice)Dev and Ops team should have used the same set of tools (How to overcome- push them to integrate both)Only startups can follow this practice (Azure has published an article on best practices of DevOps which says it can be applied anywhere)Joining DevOps/ DevOps tool conf with fancy sticker (Good you join but don’t pretend that now you are carrying DevOps tag)Pushing build in production in every 5 mins (This is not what Continuous delivery)DevOps doesn’t fit the existing system (Overcome: You may need to find the right approach to make an attempt)13. Benefits of DevOpsBusiness Benefitsa) Horizontal and vertical growth: When I’m using “Horizontal and Vertical Growth” I’m keeping customer satisfaction on X, Business on Y2 and time on the Y-axis. Now the question is how it helps to populate growth in 2 axis, and my answer will be the quick turnaround time for minor and major issues. Once we adopt DevOps we scale and built in such a fashion that in less time the graph shows a rapid jump.b) Improving ROI of Data: Having DevOps in an organization ensures that we can design a decent ROI from data at an early stage more quickly. If we will do a raw survey now Software industry is playing with data and have control over there a team should have an end to end control on data. And if we define DevOps it will help the team to crunch data in various ways by automating small jobs. By automation, we can segregate and justify data and this helps to populate either in Dashboard or can present offline to the customer.Technical Benefitsc) Scalability & Quality: If a business starts reaching to more user we start looking to increase infrastructure and bandwidth. But on the other hand, it starts popping up a question whether we are scaling our infra in the right way and also if a lot of people are pushing changes (Your code commits/builds) are having the same or greater quality we have earlier. Both the questions are somehow now reserved by the DevOps team. If your business pitch that we might be going to hit 2000+ client and they will be having billion of traffic and we are ready to handle, DevOps take these responsibilities and says yes can scale infra at any point of time. And if the same time internal release team says I want to deliver 10 feature in next 10 days independently, DevOps says quality can be maintained.Culture  Benefitsd) Agility & Velocity: They key param of adopting DevOps is to improve the velocity of product development. DevOps enables Agility and if both are in sync we can easily observe the velocity. The expectation of end users are always high and at the same time, the deliverable time span is short. To achieve this we have to ensure that we are able to our rollout new features to customers at much higher frequencies otherwise your competitors may win the market.e) Enabling Transparency:  A Practice to enable total transparency is a key impact on the DevOps culture. Sharing knowledge across the team gives you an opportunity to work faster and get aligned with the goal. Transparency will encourage an increasingly well-rounded team with heightened understandings.14. How to adopt a DevOps modelThe ideal way is to pick up a small part of the project or product but sometimes we start adopting when we are touching the bottleneck. So whatever you start few things need to be taken care like Goal should be clean and the team is are in sync to chase the same, loop whole which turns to a downtime, how can testing (Stress, performance, load ) to avoid production glitches and at the same time enable automated deployment process. All this could have some basic plan and move forward it can be elaborated in detailed format. While adopting a DevOps model, need to make sure that the team is always looking into metrics so they can justify no’s and make assumption towards the goal. If you want to have a roadmap of DevOps adoption then you really need to find the gaps up front and the typical problem you face every day which really holds your release process or spoils your team time.15. DevOps automation toolJenkins: Jenkins is an open source automation server which is used to automate the software build, and deliver or deploy the build.  It can be installed through native system packages, Docker, or even run standalone by any machine with a Java Runtime Environment (JRE) installed. In short, Jenkins enables continuous integration which helps to accelerate the development. There are ample of plugins available which enable the integration for Various DevOps stages. For example Git, Maven 2 project, Amazon EC2, HTML publisher etc. More in-depth information about the same can be found here in our training material on Jenkins and if you are inquisitive about what sort of questions related to Jenkins are asked in job interviews, then feel free to view our set of 22 Jenkins interview questions.Ansible: An open-source platform which helps to automate the IT engine which actually pushes off the slavery work from DevOps day to day life. Usually, Ansible helps in 3 day to day task, Provisioning, configuration management and application deployment. Beauty is it can automate traditional servers, virtualization platforms, or the cloud one. It is built on playbooks which can be applied to an extensive variety of systems for deploying your app. To know more, you may have a look at our Ansible training material here or go through our set of 20 interview questions on Ansible.Chef: It’s an open source config management system and works as a master-client model. It is having a transparent design and works based on instruction which needs to be defined properly. Before you plan using this tool you need to make sure that you have a proper Git practice going on and you have an idea about Ruby as this is completely built on Ruby. The industry says that this is good to have for development-focused environments and enterprise mature architecture. Our comprehensively detailed training course on Chef will give you more insight into this tool.Puppet:  So Puppet works as a master-client setup and utilized as model driven. This is built on Ruby but you can customize this as scripting language somewhere close to JSON. Puppet helps you to get control of full-fledged configuration management. This tool somewhere helps Admin (Part of DevOps) to add stability and maturity towards config management. A more detailed explanation of Puppet and its functionality can be found in our training material.Docker:  A tool designed to help developers and administrators to provide flexibility to reduce the count of the system as docker don’t create a complete virtual operating system, instead they allow applications to use the same Linux kernel as the system. So somewhere we can say we use Docker to create, deploy, and run applications by using containers. Just a stats submitted by docket that over 3.5 million applications placed in containers using docker and 37 billion containerized applications have been downloaded. Specifically, Docker CI /CD provided an opportunity to have exactly like a live server and run multiple dev infra form the same host with different config and OS. You may visit our training course on Docker to get more information.Kubernetes: Platform developed to manage containerized applications which provide high availability and scalability. According to the usage we can downgrade and upgrade the system, we can perform rolling updates, rollback feasibility, switch traffic between to different versions of the application.  So we can have multiple instances having Kubernetes installed and can be operated as Kubernetes cluster. Post this you get an API endpoint of Kube cluster, configure Kubel and you are ready to serve. Read our all-inclusive course on Kubernetes to gather more information on the same.Docker and Kubernetes, although being widely tools as DevOps automation tools, have notable differences between their setup, installation and their attributes, clearly mentioned in our blog stressing the differences between Docker and Kubernetes.Alert:Pingdom: Pingdom is a platform which enables monitoring to check the availability,  performance, transaction monitoring (website hyperlink) and incident collection of your websites, servers or web applications. Beauty is if you are using a collaboration tool like slack or flock you can just integrate by using the webhook (Pretty much simpler no code required )you can easily get notified at any time. Pingdom also provides an API so you can have your customized dashboard (Recently started) and the documentation is having enough details and self-explanatory.Nagios: It’s an Open Source Monitoring Tool to monitor the computer network. We can monitor server, applications, incident manager etc and you can certainly configure email, SMS, Slack notifications and phone calls even. Nagios is licensed under GNU GPLv2. Listing some major components which can be monitored with Nagios:Once we install Nagios we get a dashboard to monitor network services like SMTP, HTTP, SNMP, FTP, SSH, POP, etc and can view current network status, problem history, log files, notifications that have been triggered by the system, etc.We can monitor Servers resources like disk drives, memory, processor, server load usage, system logs, etc.Image copyright stackdriver- D-4Stackdriver: Stackdriver is again a Monitoring tool to get the visibility of performance, uptime, and overall health for cloud-powered applications. Stackdriver monitoring collects events and metadata from Google Cloud Platform, Amazon Web Services (AWS). Stackdriver consumes data and generates insights via dashboards, charts, and alerts. And for alerting we can integrate to collaboration tools like Slack, PagerDuty, HipChat, Campfire, and more.Image copyright stackdriver- D-2Adding one sample log where we can see what all parameter it collects and also i have just separated them in fashion which will help us to understand what all it logs it actually collects:Log InformationUser Details and Authorization InfoRequest Type and Caller IPResource and Operation DetailsTimeStamp and Status Details{  insertId:    logName:  operation: {   first:     id:   producer:  } protoPayload: {   @type:   authenticationInfo: {   principalEmail:       }   authorizationInfo: [   0: {   granted:     permission:       }   ]methodName:     request: {    @type:     } requestMetadata:  { callerIp: callerSuppliedUserAgent:   } resourceName: response: { @type:    Id:  insertTime:    name:  operationType:    progress:    selfLink:    status:      targetId:     targetLink:    user:    zone:     }   serviceName:    }receiveTimestamp:  resource: {  labels: {  instance_id:  project_id:      zone:      }  type:    }  severity:  timestamp:   }Monitoring:Grafana: It is an open source visualization tool and can be used on top of different data stores like InfluxDB,Elasticsearch and Logz.io.We can create comprehensive charts with smart axis formats (such as lines and points) as a result of Grafana’s fast, client-side rendering — even over long ranges of time — that uses Flot as a default option. We can get the 3 different levels of access, watcher, Editor and Admin, even we can enable G-Auth for having good access control. A detail information guide can be found hereImage copyright stackdriver- D-5Elasticsearch:It's an open source realtime distributed, RESTful search and analytics engine. It collects unstructured data and stores in a cultivated format which is optimized and available for language based search. The beauty of Elastic is scalability, speed, document-oriented, schema-free. It scales horizontally to handle kajillions of events per second, while automatically managing how indices and queries are distributed across the cluster for smooth operations.Cost OptimizationreOptimize.io : Once we run ample of servers we usually end up with burning good amount not intentionally but of course because of not have a clear visualization. At reOptimze helps thereby providing a detailed insight about the cloud expense the integration can be done with 3-4 simple steps but before that you might need to look into the prerequest which can be accessed here. Just a heads up that they only need read access for all these and permission docs can be found here . Image copyright reOptimizeD-616. DevOps vs AgileDevOpsAgileDevOps culture can be enabled in the software industry to deliver reliable build.Agile is a generic culture which can be deployed in any department.The key focus area is to have involvement at an end to end process.Agile helps the management team to push a frequent release.Enables quality build with rapid delivery.Keep team aware of frequent changes for any release and feature.Agile sprints work within the immediate future, A sprint life cycle varies between 7-30 days.DevOps don’t have such scheduled metrix, they work to avoid such unscheduled disruptions.Team size also differs, in Agile wee can minimal resource can be one as well.DevOps works on collaboration and bridge a big set of the team. 17. Future of DevOpsThe industry is moving more on cloud which enables a few more responsibilities to DevOps. And immediate hot topic could be DevSecOps because more automation tends to more connectivity means more exposure. AI or ML is more data-centric and learning based which gives an opportunity to DevOps to share hand to train ML modules, unique analysis correlating, code, test results, user behavior, and production quality & performance. There is also an opportunity to break the stereotype that DevOps can be only adopted by startup and surely the next 2-3 years this will become a general practice in Enterprise.18. Importance of DevOps training certificationCertifications work like an add-on, and add-on always gives some crisp and cumulative results. Certification works similar to that if someone adds any professional certificates to resume it gives an add-on value. In the process of certification, professionals help you to understand in detail and the deep dive of DevOps culture help individual to get a clear picture. While certification you may have to look into the vendor reputation, an academic who is giving approval, the transparency, session hour and many more components.19. Conclusion: I have been working closely and observing the DevOps team from a year & so and found every day we learn something new. The more we dive we see a lot can be done and can be achieved in a couple of different ways. As the industry is growing the responsibility of DevOps seems to increase which creates a possible chance for professional but always set a new bar of quality. Now, since you have come to know everything about DevOps, feel free to read our blog on how you can become a DevOps Engineer.
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What is DevOps

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How to Become a DevOps Engineer

Who is DevOps engineer?        DevOps engineers are a group of influential individuals who encapsulates depth of knowledge and years of hands-on experience around a wide variety of open source technologies and tools. They come with core attributes which involve an ability to code and script, data management skills as well as a strong focus on business outcomes. They are rightly called “Special Forces” who hold core attributes around collaboration, open communication and reaching across functional borders.DevOps engineer always shows interest and comfort working with frequent, incremental code testing and deployment. With a strong grasp of automation tools, these individuals are expected to move the business quicker and forward, at the same time giving a stronger technology advantage. In nutshell, a DevOps engineer must have a solid interest in scripting and coding,  skill in taking care of deployment automation, framework computerization and capacity to deal with the version control system.Qualities of a DevOps Engineer Collated below are the characteristics/attributes of the DevOps Engineer.Experience in a wide range of open source tools and techniquesA Broad knowledge on Sysadmin and Ops rolesExpertise in software coding, testing, and deploymentExperiences on DevOps Automation tools like Ansible, Puppet, and ChefExperience in Continuous Integration, Delivery & DeploymentIndustry-wide experience in implementation of  DevOps solutions for team collaborationsA firm knowledge of the various computer programming languagesGood awareness in Agile Methodology of Project ManagementA Forward-thinker with an ability to connect the technical and business goals     Demand for people with DevOps skills is growing rapidly because businesses get great results from DevOps. Organizations using DevOps practices are overwhelmingly high-functioning: They deploy code up to 30 times more frequently than their competitors, and 50 percent fewer of their deployments fail.What exactly DevOps Engineer do?DevOps is not a way to get developers doing operational tasks so that you can get rid of the operations team and vice versa.  Rather it is a way of working that encourages the Development and Operations teams to work together in a highly collaborative way towards the same goal. In nutshell, DevOps integrates developers and operations team to improve collaboration and productivity.The main goal of DevOps is not only to increase the product’s quality to a greater extent but also to increase the collaboration of Dev and Ops team as well so that the workflow within the organization becomes smoother & efficient at the same time.DevOps Engineer has an end-to-end responsibility of the Application (Software) right from gathering the requirement to development, to testing, to infrastructure deployment, to application deployment and finally monitoring & gathering feedback from the end users, then again implementing the changes. These engineers spend more time researching new technologies that will improve efficiency and effectiveness.They Implement highly scalable applications and integrate infrastructure builds with application deployment processes. Let us spend some time in understanding the list of most important DevOps Engineers’ roles and responsibilities.1) The first and foremost critical role of a DevOps Engineer is to be an effective communicator i.e Soft Skills. A DevOps Engineer is required to be a bridge between the silos and bring different teams together to work towards a common goal. Hence, you can think of DevOps Engineers as “IT Project Managers”. They typically work on a DevOps team with other professionals in a similar role, each managing their own piece of the infrastructure puzzle.2) The second critical role of DevOps Engineer is to be Expert Collaborators. This is because their role requires them to build upon the work of their counterparts on the development and IT teams to scale cloud programs, create workflow processes, assign tenants and more.3) Thirdly, they can be rightly called “Mentors” as they spend most of the time in mentoring and educating software developers and architecture teams within an organization on how to create software that is easily scalable. They also collaborate with IT and security teams to ensure quality releases.Next, they need to be a “customer-service oriented” individuals. The DevOps Engineer is a customer-service oriented, team player who can emerge from a number of different work and educational backgrounds, but through their experience has developed the right skillset to move into DevOps.The DevOps Engineer is an important IT team member because they work with an internal customer. This includes QC personnel, software and application developers, project managers and project stakeholders usually from within the same organization. Even though they rarely work with external customers or end-users, but they keep close eye on  a “customer first” mindset to satisfy the needs of their internal clients.Not to miss out, DevOps engineer holds broad knowledge and experience with Infrastructure automation tools. A key element of DevOps is automation.  A lot of the manual tasks performed by the more traditional system administrator and engineering roles can be automated by using scripting languages like Python, Ruby, Bash, Shell, Node.js. This ensures a consistent performance of manual tasks by removing the human component and allowing teams to spend the saved time on more of the broader goals of the team and company.Hence, a DevOps engineer must possess the ability to implement automation technologies and tools at any level, from requirements to development to testing and operations.Few of other responsibilities of DevOps Engineer include -Manage and maintain infrastructure systemMaintaining and developing highly automated services landscape and open source servicesTake over the ownership for integral components of technology and make sure it grows aligned with company successScale systems and ensure the availability of services with developers on changes to the infrastructure required by new features and products.How to become a devops engineer?DevOps is less about doing things a particular way, and more about moving the business forward and giving it a stronger technological advantage. There is not a single cookbook or path to become a devops professional . It's a continuous learning and consulting process . Every DevOps tasks have been originated from various development , testing , ops team  consulting through consultants and running pilots, therefore it’s hard to give a generic playbook for how to get it implemented. Everyone should start with learning about the values, principles, methods, and practices of DevOps and trying to share it via any channel  and keep learning.Here’s my 10 golden tips to become a DevOps Engineer:    1.  Develop Your Personal Brand with Community Involvement    2. Get familiar with IaC(Infrastructure-as-Code) - CM    3. Understand DevOps Principles & Frameworks    4. Demonstrate Curiosity & Empathy    5. Get certified on Container Technologies - Docker | Kubernetes| Cloud    6. Get Expert in Public | Private | Hybrid Cloud offering    7. Become an Operations Expert before you even THINK DevOps    8. Get Hands-on with various Linux Distros & Tools    9. Arm Yourself with CI-CD, Automation & Monitoring Tools(Github, Jenkins, Puppet, Ansible etc)    10.Start with Process Re-Engineering and Cross-collaboration within your teams.Skills that DevOps engineer need to have If you’re aiming to land a job as a DevOps engineer in 2018, it’s not only about having a deep specialized skill but understanding how a variety of technologies and skills come together.One of the things that makes DevOps both challenging to break into is that you need to be able to write code, and also to work across and integrate different systems and applications. Based on my experience, I have finalized on the list of top 5 skill sets  which you might require to be a successful DevOps engineer:#1 - SysAdmin with Virtualization ExperienceDeployment is a major requirement in devops role and ops engineer are good at that , All is needed is a deployments automation engine(chef ,puppet ,ansible) knowledge  and its use-cases implementations . Nowadays , most of public clouds are running multiple flavors of virtualization so a must have 3 – 5 years of virtualization experience with VMware, KVM, Xen, Hyper-V is required along .#2 - Solution Architect RoleAlong with deployments or virtualization experience, understanding and implementation of all the hardware technologies in breadth is a must like storage and networking. Nowadays  there is a very high-demand for people who can design a solution that scales and performs with high availability and uptime with minimal amount of resources to feed on (Max utilization) .#3 - A Passionate Programmer/API ExpertiseBash, Powershell, Perl, Ruby, JavaScript, Go, Python etc are few of popular scripting languages one need to have expertise on  to become an effective DevOps Engineer. A DevOps engineer must be able to write code to automated repeatable processes. One need to be familiar with RESTFUL APIs.#4 - Integration Skillset around CI-CD toolA DevOps engineer should be able to use all his expertise to integrate all the open source tools and technique to create an environment that is fully automated and integrated. The goal should be for zero manual intervention from source code management to deployment state, i.e. Continuous Integration, Continuous Delivery and Continuous Deployment.#5 - Bigger Picture & Customer FocusWhile the strong focus on coding chops makes software engineering a natural path to a career in DevOps, the challenge for candidates who are coming from this world is that they need to be able to prove that they can look outside their immediate team and project. DevOps engineers are responsible for facilitating collaboration and communication between the Development and IT teams within an organization, so to succeed in an interview, you’ll need to be able to demonstrate your understanding of how disparate parts of the technical organization fit and work together.In nutshell, all you need are the list of tools and technologies listed below -Source Control (like Git, Bitbucket, Svn, VSTS etc)Continuous Integration (like Jenkins, Bamboo, VSTS )Infrastructure Automation (like Puppet, Chef, Ansible)Deployment Automation & Orchestration (like Jenkins, VSTS, Octopus Deploy)Container Concepts (LXD, Docker)Orchestration (Kubernetes, Mesos, Swarm)Cloud (like AWS, Azure, Google Cloud, Openstack)What are DevOps certifications available in the market? Are they really useful?In 2018, DevOps professionals are in huge demand. The demand for DevOps professionals in the current IT marketplace has increased exponentially over the years. A certification in DevOps is a complete win-win scenario, with both the individual professional and the organization as a whole standing to gain from its implementation. Completing a certification in the same will not only provide added value to one’s profile as an IT specialist but also advance career prospects faster than would usually be possible.The certifications related to DevOps are categorized into         1)  Foundation,         2) Certified Agile Process Owner &         3) Certified Agile Service ManagerThe introductory DevOps Certification is Foundation and certified individuals are able to execute the concepts and best practices of DevOps and enhance workflow and communication in the enterprise.Yes, these DevOps  certifications hold numerous benefits in the following ways:1. Better Job OpportunitiesDevOps is a relatively new idea in the IT domain with more businesses looking at employing DevOps processes and practices. There is a major gap between the demand for DevOps Certified professionals and the availability of the required DevOps professionals. IT professionals can take advantage of this huge deficit in highly skilled professionals by taking up a certification in DevOps for validation of DevOps skill set. This will ensure and guarantee much better job options.2. Improved Skills & KnowledgeThe core concept of DevOps revolves around brand new decision-making methods and thought processes. DevOps comes with a host of technical and business benefits which upon learning can be implemented in an enterprise. The fundamentals of DevOps consist of professionals working in teams of a cross-functional nature. Such teams consist of multi-disciplinary professionals ranging from business analysts, QA professionals, Operation Engineers, and Developers.3. Handsome SalaryRapid penetration of DevOps best practices in organizations and their implementation in the mentioned organizations is seeing massive hikes in the pay of DevOps professionals.This trend is seen to be consistent and sustainable according to industry experts the world over. DevOps professionals are the highest paid in the IT industry.4. Increased Productivity & EffectivenessConventional IT workplaces see employees and staff being affected by downtime which can be attributed to waiting for other employees or staff and other software and software related issues. The main objective of an IT professional at the workplace would be to be productive for a larger part of the time he/she will spend at the workplace. This can be achieved by minimizing the time spent waiting for other employees or software products and eliminating the unproductive and unsatisfying part of the work process. This will boost the effectiveness of the work done and will add greatly to the value of the enterprise and the staff as well.If you are looking out for the “official” certification programs for DevOps, below are some of the useful links:1) AWS Certified DevOps Engineer - Professional2) Azure certifications | Microsoft3) Google Cloud Certifications4) Chef Certification5) Red Hat Certificate of Expertise in Ansible Automation6) Certification - SaltStack7) Puppet certification8) Jenkins Certification9) NGINX University10) Docker - Certification11) Kubernetes Certified Administrator12) Kubernetes Certified Application Developer13) Splunk | Education Programs14) Certifications | AppDynamics15) New Relic University Certification Center16) Elasticsearch Certification Programme17)SAFe DevOps courseDevOps engineer examBelow are the list of popular DevOps Engineer exams and certifications details -DevOps Exam Syllabus Training Duration Minimal Attempts Exam Re-Take InformationAWS Certified DevOps EngineeAWS_certified_devops_engineer_professional_blueprint.pdf3 MonthsNo Minimal RequirementWaiting Period: 14 days before they are eligible to retake the exam.No limit on exam attempts until the test taker has passedRHCA certification with a DevOpsRED HAT CERTIFIED3 Days for each training• Red Hat Certificate ofWaiting Period: 1 weekconcentrationARCHITECT: DEVOPScourseExpertise in Platform-as-a-Service • Red Hat Certificate of Expertise in Atomic Host Container Administration • Red Hat Certificate of Expertise in Containerized Application Development• Red Hat Certificate of Expertise in Ansible Automation • Red Hat Certificate of Expertise in Configuration ManagementDocker Certification Associate ExamDCA ExamNo Minimal AttemptsWait 14 days from the day you fail to take the exam againCertified Kubernetes Associate ExamCKA Exam4-5 WeeksNo Minimal AttemptsWait 14 days from the day you fail to take the exam againChef Certification ExamChef Cert Exam8 HoursLinkMinimal 1 week time
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How to Become a DevOps Engineer

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DevOps Institute recognizes KnowledgeHut as their Premier Partner

KnowledgeHut, a global leader in the workforce development industry was accredited with Premier Partner status by the DevOps Institute. The accreditation reinforces KnowledgeHut’s global outreach, scale and positions the organization for larger engagements.The DevOps Institute is a worldwide association that helps DevOps professionals to advance in their careers. The institute has 200 partners around the world. As part of their Global Education Partner Program, the DevOps Institute has announced three tiers in partnerships: registered, premier and elite. 'Premier partners' are those organizations that have embraced the curriculum and certification portfolio and have provided insights and feedback into the direction of service offerings, further raising the awareness of DevOps in their respective regions.KnowledgeHut endeavors to educate the market in India and other geographies around the holistic framework of Skills, Knowledge, Ideas, Learning (SKIL) to advance DevOps and improve organizational efficiency.Find out more about our aligned DevOps courses here.
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DevOps Institute recognizes KnowledgeHut as their ...

KnowledgeHut, a global leader in the workforce dev... Read More