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DevOps Roadmap to Become a Successful DevOps Engineer

“DevOps is a combination of best practices, culture, mindset, and software tools to deliver a high quality and reliable product faster”Benefits of DevOps (Dev+Ops(SysAdmins plus Database Admins)    DevOps agile thinking drives towards an iterated continuous development model with higher velocity, reduced variations and better global visualization of the product flow. These three “V”s are achieved with synchronizing the teams and implementing CI/CD pipelines that automate the SDLC repetitive and complex processes in terms of continuous integration of code, continuous testing, and continuous delivery of features to the production-like environment for a high-quality product with shorter release cycles and reduced cost.This ensures customer satisfaction and credibility.A streamlined process in place with the help of best practices and DevOps tools reduce the overhead, and downtime thus giving more opportunity for innovation. As a matter of fact, DevOps way of defining every phase (coding, testing, infrastructure provisioning, deployment, and monitoring) as code also makes it easier to rollback a versioned code in case of disaster recovery and make the environment easily scalable, portable and secure.“DevOps tools help you accomplish what you can already do but do not have time to do it.”1. What are the tasks of a DevOps Engineer?A Summary of day-to-day tasks carried out by a DevOps engineer -Design, build, test and deploy scalable, distributed systems from development through productionManage the code repository(such as Git, SVN, BitBucket, etc.) including code merging and integrating, branching and maintenance and remote repository managementManage, configure and maintain infrastructure systemDesign the database architecture and database objects and synchronize the various environmentsDesign implement and support DevOps Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery pipelinesResearch and implement new technologies and practicesDocument processes, systems, and workflowsCreation and enhancement of dynamic monitoring and alerting solutions using industry-leading servicesContinuously analyse tasks that are performed manually and can be replaced by codeCreation and enhancement of Continuous Deployment automation built on Docker and Kubernetes.2. Who can become a DevOps Engineer?DevOps is a vast environment that fits almost all technologies and processes into it. For instance, you could come from a coding or testing background or could be a system administrator, a database administrator, or Operations team there is a role for everyone to play in a DevOps approach.You are ready to become a DevOps Engineer if you have the below knowledge and/expertise-You have a Bachelor’s or Master’s or BSC degree (preferably in Computer Science, IT, Engineering, Mathematics, or similar)Minimum 2 years of IT experience as a Software Developer with a good understanding of SDLC lifecycle with lean agile methodology (SCRUM)Strong background in Linux/Unix & Windows AdministrationSystem development in an Object-oriented or functional programming language such as Python / Ruby / Java / Perl / Shell scripting / Groovy or GoSystem-level understanding of Linux (RedHat, CentOS, Ubuntu, SUSE Linux), Unix (Solaris, Mac OS) and Windows ServersShell scripting and automation of routines, remote execution of scriptsDatabase management experience in Mongo/Oracle or MySQL databaseStrong SQL and PL/SQL scriptingExperience working with source code version control management like Git, GitLab, GitHub or SubversionExperience with cloud architectures, particularly Amazon Web Services(AWS) or Google cloud platform or Microsoft AzureGood understanding of containerization using Dockers and/or KubernetesExperience with CI/CD pipelines using Jenkins and GitLabKnowledge of data-centre management, systems management, and monitoring, networking & securityExperience in Automation/configuration management using Ansible, and/or Puppet and/or ChefKnow how to monitor your code using Configuration Monitoring tools such as Nagios or PrometheusBackground in Infrastructure and NetworkingExtensive knowledge about RESTful APIsA solid understanding of networking and core Internet protocols (e.g. TCP/IP, DNS, SMTP, HTTP, and distributed networks)Excellent written and verbal English communication skillsSelf-learner, team layer, willingness to learn new technologies and ability to resolve issues independently and deliver results.3. Roadmap to becoming a DevOps Engineer3.1 Learn a programming languageA programming language enables a user to interact and manage the system resources such as the kernel, device drivers, memory devices, I/O devices; also to write software.A well-written piece of code will be more versatile, portable, error-proof, scalable and optimized that will enhance your DevOps cycle letting you be more productive with a high-quality product. As a DevOps Engineer, you will have to use many software and plugins for a CI/CD pipeline, and you will be at your best if you have a good grip on some of the popular programming languages:1. Java : An object-oriented, general-purpose programming language. Goal – “Write once, run anywhere”, which is synonymous with the Dockers(or containerization) philosophy     2. C: Is a general-purpose procedural programming language, it supports structured programming3. C#: A general-purpose, multi-paradigm object-oriented programming (OOP) language4. Python: Python is an easy to learn, interpreted, high-level and powerful programming language with an object-oriented approach. Ideal for infrastructure programming and web development. It has a very clear syntax5. Ruby: Is an open-source dynamic OOP programming language with an elegant and easy syntax. This implements multiple multi-paradigm approaches.As you know, DevOps majorly emphasizes on automating the repetitive and error-prone tasks. You ought to know any of the popular scripting languages:6. Perl: Perl is a highly capable scripting programming language, with its syntax very similar to C7. Bash shell script: Powerful set of instructions in a single shell script file to automate repetitive and complex commands8. JavaScript: An interpreted scripting language to build websites9. PowerShell for windows: A cross-platform automation and configuration framework or tool, that deals with structured data, REST APIs and object models. It has a command-line tool.Good-to-know language:10. Go: Go is an open-source programming language developed by Google. It is used to build simple, reliable and efficient software3.2 Understand different OS conceptsAs a Software developer, you must be able to write code that can interact with the machine resources and have a sound understanding of the underlying OS you are dealing with.Knowing the OS concepts will help you be more productive in your programming.This gives you the ability to make your code faster, manage processes, interact with the input-output devices, communicate with the other OS, optimize the processing usage, memory usage and disk usage of your program.As a DevOps engineer with infrastructure role, setting up and managing servers, controllers and switches becomes easier if you understand the resources, processes, and virtualization concepts very well.To be able to administer the users and groups, file permissions and security you must know the filesystem architecture.Essential OS concepts a DevOps engineer must know include:I. Kernel managementKernel is the core element of any OS. It connects the system hardware with the software. It is responsible for memory, storage, and process managementII. Memory ManagementMemory management is the allocation/deallocation of system memory(RAM, cache, page) to various system resources and to optimize the performance of the systemIII. Device drivers managementA device driver is a software program that controls the hardware device of the machineIV. Resource managementThe dynamic allocation/deallocation of system resources such as kernel, CPU, memory, disk and so onV. I/O managementCommunication between various input/output devices connected to the machine such as- keyboard, mouse, disk, USB, monitor, printers, etc VI. Processes and process managementEvery program that executes a certain task is called a process, each process utilizes a certain amount of computational resources. The technique of managing various processes to share the load of memory, disk and CPU(processing) usage also the inter-process communication is termed as process managementVII. Threads and concurrencyMany programming languages support multi-threading and concurrency, i.e, the ability to run multiple tasks simultaneously  VIII. Virtualization and containerizationConcept of simulating a single physical machine to multiple virtual machines/environments to optimize the use of resources and to reduce the time is taken and cost. Understand this well as you will often need to replicate the real-time environment.Linux  containers are a great concept to isolate and package an application along with its run-time environment as a single entity.Run-time environment includes all its dependencies, binaries, configuration files and libraries. Dockers is a containerized command-line tool that makes it easier to create, run and deploy applications with containers.Using both Virtual machines and dockers together can yield better results in virtualizationIX. Distributed file systemsA client machine can access data located on a Server machine. This is true in the case of a client/server-based application model.X. Filesystem architectureThe architectural layout of how and in what hierarchy the data is organized on a disk, will make your task of managing data easier.3.3 Learn about managing serversAs cloud deployments become more useful with DevOps approach, there is a need to manage a group of Servers (Application, Database, Web Server, Storage, Infrastructure, Networking Server and so on) rather than individual servers.You should be dynamically scaled up/down the servers, without rewriting the configuration files.Nginx: This is a web server that can also be used as a reverse proxy, load balancer, mail proxy, and HTTP cache.This provides robust and customizable monitoring of your cloud instances and their status. Nginx offers more flexibility and configurability for better configuration and automation using DevOps tools like Puppet and Chef.3.4 Networking and SecurityIn a highly connected network of computers, it becomes essential to understand the basic concepts of networking, how to enforce security and diagnose problems.As a DevOps engineer, you would also be required to set up an environment to test networking functions. In addition, set up continuous integration, delivery and deployment pipelines for network functions.Learn the basic networking concepts like Ip addresses, DNS, routing, firewalls and ports, basic utilities like ping, ssh, netstat, ncr and ip, load balancing and TLS encryption.Understand the basic protocols(standard rules for networking) such as-TCP/IP (Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol), HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), SSL, SSH (Secure Shell), FTP (File Transfer Protocol), DNS (Domain Name Server).Configuration management tools like Ansible and Jenkins can be used to configure and orchestrate network devices.3.5 What is and how to set-upAs a DevOps methodology we often describe CI/CD pipeline, let us understand what is it?Continuous Integration(CI) is a development practice wherein ­­developers regularly merge or integrate their code changes into a commonly shared repos­itory very frequently.If I speak from a VCS (preferably Git’s) point of view -Every minor code change done on various branches (from different contributors) is pushed and integrated with the main release branch several times a day, rather than waiting for the complete feature to be developed.Every code check-in is then verified by an automated build and automated test cases. This approach helps to detect and fix the bugs early, resolve the conflicts that may arise, improve software quality, reduce the validation and feedback loop time; hence increasing the overall product quality and speedy product releases.Continuous Delivery(CD) is a software practice where every code check-in is automatically built, tested and ready for a release(delivery) to production. Every code check-in should be release/deployment ready.CD phase delivers the code to a production-like-environment such as dev, uat, preprod, etc and runs automated tests.On successful implementation of continuous delivery in the prod-like environment, the code is ready to be deployed to the main production server.It is best to learn the DevOps lifecycle of continuous development, continuous build, continuous testing, continuous integration, continuous deployment and continuous monitoring throughout the complete product lifecycle.Based on the DevOps process setup use the right tools to facilitate the CI/CD pipeline.3.6 Learn Infrastructure as codeInfrastructure as code (IaC) is to define(or declare) and manage the infrastructure resources programmatically by writing code as configuration files instead of managing each resource individually.These infrastructure resources(hardware and software) may be set up on a physical server, a Virtual machine or cloud.An IaC defines the desired state of the machine and generates the same environment every time it is compiled.What does IaC do?Automation: Spinning up or scaling down many resources becomes easier, as just a configuration file needs to be compiled and run. This reduces the overhead and the time spent.Versioning:  IaC is a text file which can be versioned controlled which means 3 things:Infrastructure changes such as scaling up/down the resources and or changing/updating the resources (filesystem or user management) can be tracked through the versioned historyConfiguration files are easily shareable and portable and are checked-in as source codeAn IaC text file can easily be scheduled to be run in a CI/CD pipeline for Server management and orchestration.Manual errors eliminated: productivity increasedEach environment is an exact replica of production.How to do it?Use tools like  Puppet,  Ansible,  Chef,  TerraformThese tools aim at providing a stable environment for both development and operations tasks that results in smooth orchestration.A. Puppet: Puppet is a Configuration Management Tool (CMT) to build, configure and manage infrastructure on physical or virtual machinesB. Ansible: is a Configuration management, Deployment and Orchestration toolC. Chef: is a configuration management tool written in Ruby and Erlang to deploy, manage, update and repair server and application to any environmentD. Terraform: This automation tool builds, change, version and improve infrastructure and servers safely and efficiently.How will IaC be applied in DevOps?IaC configuration files are used to build CI/CD pipelines.IaC definitions enable DevOps teams to test applications/software in production-like stable environments quickly and effortlessly.These environments with IaC are repeatable and prevent runtime issues caused due to misconfiguration or missing dependencies.---3.7 Learn some Continuous Integration and Delivery (CI/CD) toolsIn order to continuously develop, integrate, build, test, apply feedback, deliver our product features to the production environment or deploy to the customer site, we have to build an automated sequence of jobs(processes) to be executed using the appropriate tools.CI/CD pipeline requires custom code and working with multiple software packages simultaneously. As a DevOps Engineer, here are some widely used tools you must know-a.  Jenkins is an open-source automation server. Using Jenkins plugins CI/CD pipelines are built to automatically build, test and deploy the source codeJenkins is a self-contained Java-based program and easy to configure, extensible and distributedb.  GitLab CI is a single tool for the complete DevOps cycle. Every code check-ins trigger builds, run tests, and deploy code in a virtual machine or docker container or any other server. Its has an excellent GUI interface. GitLab CI also has features for monitoring and securityc.  CircleCI software is used to build, test, deploy and automate the development cycle. This is a secure and scalable tool with huge multi-platform support for IOS and MAC OS using MAC virtual machines along with Android and Linux environmentsd.  Microsoft VSTS(Visual Studio Team Services) is not only a CI/CD service but also provide unlimited cloud-hosted private code repositoriese.  CodeShip tool empowers your DevOps CI/CD pipelines with easy, secure, fast and reliable builds with native docker support. It provides a GUI to easily configure the buildsf.  Bamboo by Atlassian is a Continuous integration, deployment and delivery Server. Bamboo has built-in  Jira Software and  BitBucket Software Integration, also built-in git branching and workflows.Jenkins is the most popular and widely used tool with numerous flexible plugins that integrate with almost any CI/CD toolchain. Also the ability of Jenkins to automate any project really distinguish this tool from others, thus it is highly recommended to get a good grip of this tool as a DevOps practitioner.Note: Since this is also a key for enthusiasts to choose the right tool but should be short definitions3.8 Know the tools to monitor software and infrastructureIt is crucial to continuously monitor the software and infrastructure upon setting up the continuous integration and continuous delivery pipeline (CI/CD) to understand how well your DevOps setup is performing. Also, it is vital to monitor system events and get alerts in real-time. A hiccup in the pipeline such as an application dependency failure or a linking error, or say the database has a downtime must be immediately notable and taken care of.This is where a DevOps Engineer must be familiar with monitoring tools such as -1.  Nagios: is an open-source software application that monitors systems, networks, and infrastructure(Servers) and generates logs and alerts2.  Prometheus: is an open-source real-time metrics-based event monitoring and alerting system.3.9 Learn about Cloud ProvidersAs the computational need increases so do the demand of the infrastructure resources.Cloud computing is a higher level of virtualization, wherein the computing resources are outsourced on a “cloud” and available for use on a pay-as-you-go basis over the internet.Some of the leading cloud providers such as AWS, Google Cloud, Microsoft Azure to name a few provide varied cloud services like IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS.Begin part of a DevOps practice, you will often find the need to access various cloud services say for infrastructure resources, production-like environment on the go for testing your product without having to provision it, get multiple replicas of the production environment, create a failover cluster, backup and recover your database over the cloud and various other tasks.Some of the cloud providers and what they offer are listed below-A.  AWS (Amazon Web Services): provide tooling and infrastructure resources readily available for DevOps programs customized as per your requirement. You can easily build and deliver products, automate CI/CD process without having to worry about provisioning and configuring the environmentB.  Microsoft Azure: Create a reliable CI/CD pipeline, practice Infrastructure as Code and continuous monitoring through Microsoft-managed data centresC.  Google Cloud Platform: Uses google-managed data centres to provide DevOps features like end-to-end CI/CD automation, Infrastructure as Code, configuration management, security management, and serverless computing.AWS is the most versatile and recommended provider that you may wish to start learning.4. What next after becoming a DevOps expert?“Sky is the only limit for a DevOps person !!!”Mastering the DevOps tools and practices opens up the door to new roles and challenges for you to learn and grow.4.1 DevOps EvangelistA technical Evangelist is a strong powerful and influential role that exhibits a strong thought process.A DevOps evangelist is a DevOps leader who identifies and implements the DevOps features to solve a business problem or a process, and then shares and promotes the benefits that come from DevOps practice.Also identifies the key roles and train the team in the same and is responsible for the success of entire DevOps processes and people.4.2 Code Release ManagerA Code Release Manager measures the overall progress of the project in terms of metrics, he/she is aware of the entire Agile methodology. A Release Manager is more involved in the coordination among all the phases of DevOps flow to support continuous delivery.4.3 Automation ArchitectThe key responsibility is to plan, analyze, and design a strategy to automate all manual tasks with the right tools and implement the processes for continuous deployment.4.4 Experience AssuranceAn experience Assurance person is responsible for the user experience and makes sure that the product being delivered meet the original business specifications.This role is also termed as Quality Assurance but with extended responsibilities of user experience testing. This role plays a critical role in the DevOps cycle.4.5 Software Developer/TesterUnder DevOps, the role and responsibilities of a Software Developer literally expand l, that the developers are no longer responsible for writing code, but also take ownership of unit testing, deployment and monitoring as well.A Developer/Tester has to make sure that the code meets the original business requirement.Henceforth; the role Developer/Tester or if the innovation extends further a Developer may also be referred to as DevTestOps.4.6 Security EngineerSecurity Engineer focuses on the Integrity of data by incorporating security into the product, and not at the end.He/she supports project teams in using security tools in the CI/CD pipeline, as well as provide resolution of identified security flaws. Conclusion“If you define the problem correctly, you almost have the solution.”  - Steve JobsIn a nutshell, if you aspire to  become a DevOps professional you ought to know -Programming language (C, Java, Perl, Python, Ruby, Bash shell, PowerShell)Operating System concepts (resource management)Source Control (like Git, Bitbucket, Svn, VSTS, etc)Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery (Jenkins, GitLab CI, CircleCI)Infrastructure as Code (IaC) Automation (tools like Puppet, Chef, Ansible and/or Terraform)Managing Servers (application, storage, database, infrastructure, networking, web server etc)(Application, Database, Web Server, Storage, Infrastructure, Networking Server Networking and securityContainer Concepts (Docker)Continuous monitoring (Nagios and Prometheus)Cloud (like AWS, Azure, Google Cloud).DevOps ways( The three ways of DevOps) open the door of opportunities to improve and excel in the process using the right tools and technologies.“DevOps channels the entire process right from the idea on a whiteboard until the real product in the customer’s hands through automated pipelines(CI/CD).”As a DevOps Engineer you must be a motivated team player, need to have a desire to learn and grow, optimize the process and find better solutions.Since DevOps covers a vast area under its umbrella, it is best to focus on your key skills and learn the technologies and tools as needed.Understand the problem/challenge then find a DevOps solution around the same.
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DevOps Roadmap to Become a Successful DevOps Engineer

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DevOps Roadmap to Become a Successful DevOps Engineer

“DevOps is a combination of best practices, culture, mindset, and software tools to deliver a high quality and reliable product faster

Benefits of DevOps

Benefits of DevOps (Dev+Ops(SysAdmins plus Database Admins)

 
 
 
 

DevOps agile thinking drives towards an iterated continuous development model with higher velocity, reduced variations and better global visualization of the product flow. These three “V”s are achieved with synchronizing the teams and implementing CI/CD pipelines that automate the SDLC repetitive and complex processes in terms of continuous integration of code, continuous testing, and continuous delivery of features to the production-like environment for a high-quality product with shorter release cycles and reduced cost.This ensures customer satisfaction and credibility.

A streamlined process in place with the help of best practices and DevOps tools reduce the overhead, and downtime thus giving more opportunity for innovation. As a matter of fact, DevOps way of defining every phase (coding, testing, infrastructure provisioning, deployment, and monitoring) as code also makes it easier to rollback a versioned code in case of disaster recovery and make the environment easily scalable, portable and secure.

“DevOps tools help you accomplish what you can already do but do not have time to do it.”

1. What are the tasks of a DevOps Engineer?

A Summary of day-to-day tasks carried out by a DevOps engineer -

  • Design, build, test and deploy scalable, distributed systems from development through production
  • Manage the code repository(such as Git, SVN, BitBucket, etc.) including code merging and integrating, branching and maintenance and remote repository management
  • Manage, configure and maintain infrastructure system
  • Design the database architecture and database objects and synchronize the various environments
  • Design implement and support DevOps Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery pipelines
  • Research and implement new technologies and practices
  • Document processes, systems, and workflows
  • Creation and enhancement of dynamic monitoring and alerting solutions using industry-leading services
  • Continuously analyse tasks that are performed manually and can be replaced by code
  • Creation and enhancement of Continuous Deployment automation built on Docker and Kubernetes.

2. Who can become a DevOps Engineer?Who can become a DevOps Engineer

DevOps is a vast environment that fits almost all technologies and processes into it. For instance, you could come from a coding or testing background or could be a system administrator, a database administrator, or Operations team there is a role for everyone to play in a DevOps approach.

You are ready to become a DevOps Engineer if you have the below knowledge and/expertise-

  • You have a Bachelor’s or Master’s or BSC degree (preferably in Computer Science, IT, Engineering, Mathematics, or similar)
  • Minimum 2 years of IT experience as a Software Developer with a good understanding of SDLC lifecycle with lean agile methodology (SCRUM)
  • Strong background in Linux/Unix & Windows Administration
  • System development in an Object-oriented or functional programming language such as Python / Ruby / Java / Perl / Shell scripting / Groovy or Go
  • System-level understanding of Linux (RedHat, CentOS, Ubuntu, SUSE Linux), Unix (Solaris, Mac OS) and Windows Servers
  • Shell scripting and automation of routines, remote execution of scripts
  • Database management experience in Mongo/Oracle or MySQL database
  • Strong SQL and PL/SQL scripting
  • Experience working with source code version control management like Git, GitLab, GitHub or Subversion
  • Experience with cloud architectures, particularly Amazon Web Services(AWS) or Google cloud platform or Microsoft Azure
  • Good understanding of containerization using Dockers and/or Kubernetes
  • Experience with CI/CD pipelines using Jenkins and GitLab
  • Knowledge of data-centre management, systems management, and monitoring, networking & security
  • Experience in Automation/configuration management using Ansible, and/or Puppet and/or Chef
  • Know how to monitor your code using Configuration Monitoring tools such as Nagios or Prometheus
  • Background in Infrastructure and Networking
  • Extensive knowledge about RESTful APIs
  • A solid understanding of networking and core Internet protocols (e.g. TCP/IP, DNS, SMTP, HTTP, and distributed networks)
  • Excellent written and verbal English communication skills
  • Self-learner, team layer, willingness to learn new technologies and ability to resolve issues independently and deliver results.

3. Roadmap to becoming a DevOps Engineer

3.1 Learn a programming language

Learn a programming language in DevOps Engineer

A programming language enables a user to interact and manage the system resources such as the kernel, device drivers, memory devices, I/O devices; also to write software.

A well-written piece of code will be more versatile, portable, error-proof, scalable and optimized that will enhance your DevOps cycle letting you be more productive with a high-quality product. 

As a DevOps Engineer, you will have to use many software and plugins for a CI/CD pipeline, and you will be at your best if you have a good grip on some of the popular programming languages:

1. Java : An object-oriented, general-purpose programming language. Goal – “Write once, run anywhere”, which is synonymous with the Dockers(or containerization) philosophy     

2. C: Is a general-purpose procedural programming language, it supports structured programming

3. C#: A general-purpose, multi-paradigm object-oriented programming (OOP) language

4. Python: Python is an easy to learn, interpreted, high-level and powerful programming language with an object-oriented approach. Ideal for infrastructure programming and web development. It has a very clear syntax

5. RubyIs an open-source dynamic OOP programming language with an elegant and easy syntax. This implements multiple multi-paradigm approaches.

As you know, DevOps majorly emphasizes on automating the repetitive and error-prone tasks. 

You ought to know any of the popular scripting languages:

6. PerlPerl is a highly capable scripting programming language, with its syntax very similar to C

7. Bash shell script: Powerful set of instructions in a single shell script file to automate repetitive and complex commands

8. JavaScript: An interpreted scripting language to build websites

9. PowerShell for windows: A cross-platform automation and configuration framework or tool, that deals with structured data, REST APIs and object models. It has a command-line tool.

Good-to-know language:

10. Go: Go is an open-source programming language developed by Google. It is used to build simple, reliable and efficient software

3.2 Understand different OS concepts

As a Software developer, you must be able to write code that can interact with the machine resources and have a sound understanding of the underlying OS you are dealing with.Knowing the OS concepts will help you be more productive in your programming.

This gives you the ability to make your code faster, manage processes, interact with the input-output devices, communicate with the other OS, optimize the processing usage, memory usage and disk usage of your program.

As a DevOps engineer with infrastructure role, setting up and managing servers, controllers and switches becomes easier if you understand the resources, processes, and virtualization concepts very well.

To be able to administer the users and groups, file permissions and security you must know the filesystem architecture.

Essential OS concepts a DevOps engineer must know include:

I. Kernel management

Kernel is the core element of any OS. It connects the system hardware with the software. It is responsible for memory, storage, and process management

II. Memory Management

Memory management is the allocation/deallocation of system memory(RAM, cache, page) to various system resources and to optimize the performance of the system

III. Device drivers management

A device driver is a software program that controls the hardware device of the machine

IV. Resource management

The dynamic allocation/deallocation of system resources such as kernel, CPU, memory, disk and so on

V. I/O management

Communication between various input/output devices connected to the machine such as- keyboard, mouse, disk, USB, monitor, printers, etc 

VI. Processes and process management

Every program that executes a certain task is called a process, each process utilizes a certain amount of computational resources. The technique of managing various processes to share the load of memory, disk and CPU(processing) usage also the inter-process communication is termed as process management

VII. Threads and concurrency

Many programming languages support multi-threading and concurrency, i.e, the ability to run multiple tasks simultaneously  

VIII. Virtualization and containerization

Concept of simulating a single physical machine to multiple virtual machines/environments to optimize the use of resources and to reduce the time is taken and cost. Understand this well as you will often need to replicate the real-time environment.

Linux  containers are a great concept to isolate and package an application along with its run-time environment as a single entity.

Run-time environment includes all its dependencies, binaries, configuration files and libraries. Dockers is a containerized command-line tool that makes it easier to create, run and deploy applications with containers.

Using both Virtual machines and dockers together can yield better results in virtualization

IX. Distributed file systems

A client machine can access data located on a Server machine. This is true in the case of a client/server-based application model.

X. Filesystem architecture

The architectural layout of how and in what hierarchy the data is organized on a disk, will make your task of managing data easier.

3.3 Learn about managing servers

As cloud deployments become more useful with DevOps approach, there is a need to manage a group of Servers (Application, Database, Web Server, Storage, Infrastructure, Networking Server and so on) rather than individual servers.

You should be dynamically scaled up/down the servers, without rewriting the configuration files.

Nginx: This is a web server that can also be used as a reverse proxy, load balancer, mail proxy, and HTTP cache.
This provides robust and customizable monitoring of your cloud instances and their status. Nginx offers more flexibility and configurability for better configuration and automation using DevOps tools like Puppet and Chef.

3.4 Networking and Security

In a highly connected network of computers, it becomes essential to understand the basic concepts of networking, how to enforce security and diagnose problems.

As a DevOps engineer, you would also be required to set up an environment to test networking functions. In addition, set up continuous integration, delivery and deployment pipelines for network functions.

Learn the basic networking concepts like Ip addresses, DNS, routing, firewalls and ports, basic utilities like ping, ssh, netstat, ncr and ip, load balancing and TLS encryption.

Understand the basic protocols(standard rules for networking) such as-
TCP/IP (Transfer Control Protocol/Internet Protocol), HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), SSL, SSH (Secure Shell), FTP (File Transfer Protocol), DNS (Domain Name Server).

Configuration management tools like Ansible and Jenkins can be used to configure and orchestrate network devices.

3.5 What is and how to set-up

As a DevOps methodology we often describe CI/CD pipeline, let us understand what is it?

Continuous Integration(CI) is a development practice wherein ­­developers regularly merge or integrate their code changes into a commonly shared repos­itory very frequently.

If I speak from a VCS (preferably Git’s) point of view -
Every minor code change done on various branches (from different contributors) is pushed and integrated with the main release branch several times a day, rather than waiting for the complete feature to be developed.

Every code check-in is then verified by an automated build and automated test cases. This approach helps to detect and fix the bugs early, resolve the conflicts that may arise, improve software quality, reduce the validation and feedback loop time; hence increasing the overall product quality and speedy product releases.

Continuous Delivery(CD) is a software practice where every code check-in is automatically built, tested and ready for a release(delivery) to production. Every code check-in should be release/deployment ready.

CD phase delivers the code to a production-like-environment such as dev, uat, preprod, etc and runs automated tests.

On successful implementation of continuous delivery in the prod-like environment, the code is ready to be deployed to the main production server.

It is best to learn the DevOps lifecycle of continuous development, continuous build, continuous testing, continuous integration, continuous deployment and continuous monitoring throughout the complete product lifecycle.

Based on the DevOps process setup use the right tools to facilitate the CI/CD pipeline.

3.6 Learn Infrastructure as code

Infrastructure as code (IaC) is to define(or declare) and manage the infrastructure resources programmatically by writing code as configuration files instead of managing each resource individually.

These infrastructure resources(hardware and software) may be set up on a physical server, a Virtual machine or cloud.

An IaC defines the desired state of the machine and generates the same environment every time it is compiled.

What does IaC do?

  1. Automation: Spinning up or scaling down many resources becomes easier, as just a configuration file needs to be compiled and run. This reduces the overhead and the time spent.
  2. Versioning:  IaC is a text file which can be versioned controlled which means 3 things:

    • Infrastructure changes such as scaling up/down the resources and or changing/updating the resources (filesystem or user management) can be tracked through the versioned history
    • Configuration files are easily shareable and portable and are checked-in as source code
    • An IaC text file can easily be scheduled to be run in a CI/CD pipeline for Server management and orchestration.
  3. Manual errors eliminated: productivity increased

    • Each environment is an exact replica of production.

How to do it?

Use tools like  Puppet,  Ansible,  Chef,  Terraform

These tools aim at providing a stable environment for both development and operations tasks that results in smooth orchestration.

A. Puppet: Puppet is a Configuration Management Tool (CMT) to build, configure and manage infrastructure on physical or virtual machines

B. Ansible: is a Configuration management, Deployment and Orchestration tool

C. Chef: is a configuration management tool written in Ruby and Erlang to deploy, manage, update and repair server and application to any environment

D. Terraform: This automation tool builds, change, version and improve infrastructure and servers safely and efficiently.

How will IaC be applied in DevOps?

IaC configuration files are used to build CI/CD pipelines.

IaC definitions enable DevOps teams to test applications/software in production-like stable environments quickly and effortlessly.

These environments with IaC are repeatable and prevent runtime issues caused due to misconfiguration or missing dependencies.
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3.7 Learn some Continuous Integration and Delivery (CI/CD) tools

In order to continuously develop, integrate, build, test, apply feedback, deliver our product features to the production environment or deploy to the customer site, we have to build an automated sequence of jobs(processes) to be executed using the appropriate tools.

CI/CD pipeline requires custom code and working with multiple software packages simultaneously. 

As a DevOps Engineer, here are some widely used tools you must know-

a.  Jenkins is an open-source automation server. Using Jenkins plugins CI/CD pipelines are built to automatically build, test and deploy the source code

Jenkins is a self-contained Java-based program and easy to configure, extensible and distributed

b.  GitLab CI is a single tool for the complete DevOps cycle. Every code check-ins trigger builds, run tests, and deploy code in a virtual machine or docker container or any other server. Its has an excellent GUI interface. GitLab CI also has features for monitoring and security

c.  CircleCI software is used to build, test, deploy and automate the development cycle. This is a secure and scalable tool with huge multi-platform support for IOS and MAC OS using MAC virtual machines along with Android and Linux environments

d.  Microsoft VSTS(Visual Studio Team Services) is not only a CI/CD service but also provide unlimited cloud-hosted private code repositories

e.  CodeShip tool empowers your DevOps CI/CD pipelines with easy, secure, fast and reliable builds with native docker support. It provides a GUI to easily configure the builds

f.  Bamboo by Atlassian is a Continuous integration, deployment and delivery Server. Bamboo has built-in  Jira Software and  BitBucket Software Integration, also built-in git branching and workflows.

Jenkins is the most popular and widely used tool with numerous flexible plugins that integrate with almost any CI/CD toolchain. Also the ability of Jenkins to automate any project really distinguish this tool from others, thus it is highly recommended to get a good grip of this tool as a DevOps practitioner.

Note: Since this is also a key for enthusiasts to choose the right tool but should be short definitions

3.8 Know the tools to monitor software and infrastructure

Know the tools to monitor software and infrastructure

It is crucial to continuously monitor the software and infrastructure upon setting up the continuous integration and continuous delivery pipeline (CI/CD) to understand how well your DevOps setup is performing. Also, it is vital to monitor system events and get alerts in real-time. 

A hiccup in the pipeline such as an application dependency failure or a linking error, or say the database has a downtime must be immediately notable and taken care of.

This is where a DevOps Engineer must be familiar with monitoring tools such as -

1.  Nagios: is an open-source software application that monitors systems, networks, and infrastructure(Servers) and generates logs and alerts

2.  Prometheus: is an open-source real-time metrics-based event monitoring and alerting system.

3.9 Learn about Cloud Providers

As the computational need increases so do the demand of the infrastructure resources.Cloud computing is a higher level of virtualization, wherein the computing resources are outsourced on a “cloud” and available for use on a pay-as-you-go basis over the internet.Some of the leading cloud providers such as AWS, Google Cloud, Microsoft Azure to name a few provide varied cloud services like IaaS, PaaS, and SaaS.

Begin part of a DevOps practice, you will often find the need to access various cloud services say for infrastructure resources, production-like environment on the go for testing your product without having to provision it, get multiple replicas of the production environment, create a failover cluster, backup and recover your database over the cloud and various other tasks.

Some of the cloud providers and what they offer are listed below-

A.  AWS (Amazon Web Services): provide tooling and infrastructure resources readily available for DevOps programs customized as per your requirement. You can easily build and deliver products, automate CI/CD process without having to worry about provisioning and configuring the environment

B.  Microsoft Azure: Create a reliable CI/CD pipeline, practice Infrastructure as Code and continuous monitoring through Microsoft-managed data centres

C.  Google Cloud Platform: Uses google-managed data centres to provide DevOps features like end-to-end CI/CD automation, Infrastructure as Code, configuration management, security management, and serverless computing.

AWS is the most versatile and recommended provider that you may wish to start learning.

4. What next after becoming a DevOps expert?

“Sky is the only limit for a DevOps person !!!”

Mastering the DevOps tools and practices opens up the door to new roles and challenges for you to learn and grow.

4.1 DevOps Evangelist

A technical Evangelist is a strong powerful and influential role that exhibits a strong thought process.

A DevOps evangelist is a DevOps leader who identifies and implements the DevOps features to solve a business problem or a process, and then shares and promotes the benefits that come from DevOps practice.

Also identifies the key roles and train the team in the same and is responsible for the success of entire DevOps processes and people.

4.2 Code Release Manager

A Code Release Manager measures the overall progress of the project in terms of metrics, he/she is aware of the entire Agile methodology. A Release Manager is more involved in the coordination among all the phases of DevOps flow to support continuous delivery.

4.3 Automation Architect

The key responsibility is to plan, analyze, and design a strategy to automate all manual tasks with the right tools and implement the processes for continuous deployment.

4.4 Experience Assurance

An experience Assurance person is responsible for the user experience and makes sure that the product being delivered meet the original business specifications.

This role is also termed as Quality Assurance but with extended responsibilities of user experience testing. This role plays a critical role in the DevOps cycle.

4.5 Software Developer/Tester

Under DevOps, the role and responsibilities of a Software Developer literally expand l, that the developers are no longer responsible for writing code, but also take ownership of unit testing, deployment and monitoring as well.

A Developer/Tester has to make sure that the code meets the original business requirement.
Henceforth; the role Developer/Tester or if the innovation extends further a Developer may also be referred to as DevTestOps.

4.6 Security Engineer

Security Engineer focuses on the Integrity of data by incorporating security into the product, and not at the end.

He/she supports project teams in using security tools in the CI/CD pipeline, as well as provide resolution of identified security flaws. 

Conclusion

“If you define the problem correctly, you almost have the solution.”  - Steve Jobs

In a nutshell, if you aspire to  become a DevOps professional you ought to know -

  • Programming language (C, Java, Perl, Python, Ruby, Bash shell, PowerShell)
  • Operating System concepts (resource management)
  • Source Control (like Git, Bitbucket, Svn, VSTS, etc)
  • Continuous Integration and Continuous Delivery (Jenkins, GitLab CI, CircleCI)
  • Infrastructure as Code (IaC) Automation (tools like Puppet, Chef, Ansible and/or Terraform)
  • Managing Servers (application, storage, database, infrastructure, networking, web server etc)
  • (Application, Database, Web Server, Storage, Infrastructure, Networking Server 
  • Networking and security
  • Container Concepts (Docker)
  • Continuous monitoring (Nagios and Prometheus)
  • Cloud (like AWS, Azure, Google Cloud).

DevOps ways( The three ways of DevOps) open the door of opportunities to improve and excel in the process using the right tools and technologies.

“DevOps channels the entire process right from the idea on a whiteboard until the real product in the customer’s hands through automated pipelines(CI/CD).”

As a DevOps Engineer you must be a motivated team player, need to have a desire to learn and grow, optimize the process and find better solutions.

Since DevOps covers a vast area under its umbrella, it is best to focus on your key skills and learn the technologies and tools as needed.

Understand the problem/challenge then find a DevOps solution around the same.

Divya

Divya Bhushan

Content developer/Corporate Trainer

  • Content Developer and Corporate Trainer with a 10-year background in Database administration, Linux/Unix scripting, SQL/PL-SQL coding, Git VCS. New skills acquired-DevOps and Dockers.
  • A skilled and dedicated trainer with comprehensive abilities in the areas of assessment, 
requirement understanding, design, development, and deployment of courseware via blended environments for the workplace. 

  • Excellent communication, demonstration, and interpersonal skills.

Website : https://www.knowledgehut.com/tutorials/git-tutorial

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How to Become a DevOps Engineer

Who is DevOps engineer?        DevOps engineers are a group of influential individuals who encapsulates depth of knowledge and years of hands-on experience around a wide variety of open source technologies and tools. They come with core attributes which involve an ability to code and script, data management skills as well as a strong focus on business outcomes. They are rightly called “Special Forces” who hold core attributes around collaboration, open communication and reaching across functional borders.DevOps engineer always shows interest and comfort working with frequent, incremental code testing and deployment. With a strong grasp of automation tools, these individuals are expected to move the business quicker and forward, at the same time giving a stronger technology advantage. In nutshell, a DevOps engineer must have a solid interest in scripting and coding,  skill in taking care of deployment automation, framework computerization and capacity to deal with the version control system.Qualities of a DevOps Engineer Collated below are the characteristics/attributes of the DevOps Engineer.Experience in a wide range of open source tools and techniquesA Broad knowledge on Sysadmin and Ops rolesExpertise in software coding, testing, and deploymentExperiences on DevOps Automation tools like Ansible, Puppet, and ChefExperience in Continuous Integration, Delivery & DeploymentIndustry-wide experience in implementation of  DevOps solutions for team collaborationsA firm knowledge of the various computer programming languagesGood awareness in Agile Methodology of Project ManagementA Forward-thinker with an ability to connect the technical and business goals     Demand for people with DevOps skills is growing rapidly because businesses get great results from DevOps. Organizations using DevOps practices are overwhelmingly high-functioning: They deploy code up to 30 times more frequently than their competitors, and 50 percent fewer of their deployments fail.What exactly DevOps Engineer do?DevOps is not a way to get developers doing operational tasks so that you can get rid of the operations team and vice versa.  Rather it is a way of working that encourages the Development and Operations teams to work together in a highly collaborative way towards the same goal. 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These engineers spend more time researching new technologies that will improve efficiency and effectiveness.They Implement highly scalable applications and integrate infrastructure builds with application deployment processes. Let us spend some time in understanding the list of most important DevOps Engineers’ roles and responsibilities.1) The first and foremost critical role of a DevOps Engineer is to be an effective communicator i.e Soft Skills. A DevOps Engineer is required to be a bridge between the silos and bring different teams together to work towards a common goal. Hence, you can think of DevOps Engineers as “IT Project Managers”. They typically work on a DevOps team with other professionals in a similar role, each managing their own piece of the infrastructure puzzle.2) The second critical role of DevOps Engineer is to be Expert Collaborators. 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This includes QC personnel, software and application developers, project managers and project stakeholders usually from within the same organization. Even though they rarely work with external customers or end-users, but they keep close eye on  a “customer first” mindset to satisfy the needs of their internal clients.Not to miss out, DevOps engineer holds broad knowledge and experience with Infrastructure automation tools. A key element of DevOps is automation.  A lot of the manual tasks performed by the more traditional system administrator and engineering roles can be automated by using scripting languages like Python, Ruby, Bash, Shell, Node.js. This ensures a consistent performance of manual tasks by removing the human component and allowing teams to spend the saved time on more of the broader goals of the team and company.Hence, a DevOps engineer must possess the ability to implement automation technologies and tools at any level, from requirements to development to testing and operations.Few of other responsibilities of DevOps Engineer include -Manage and maintain infrastructure systemMaintaining and developing highly automated services landscape and open source servicesTake over the ownership for integral components of technology and make sure it grows aligned with company successScale systems and ensure the availability of services with developers on changes to the infrastructure required by new features and products.How to become a devops engineer?DevOps is less about doing things a particular way, and more about moving the business forward and giving it a stronger technological advantage. 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Get Hands-on with various Linux Distros & Tools    9. Arm Yourself with CI-CD, Automation & Monitoring Tools(Github, Jenkins, Puppet, Ansible etc)    10.Start with Process Re-Engineering and Cross-collaboration within your teams.Skills that DevOps engineer need to have If you’re aiming to land a job as a DevOps engineer in 2018, it’s not only about having a deep specialized skill but understanding how a variety of technologies and skills come together.One of the things that makes DevOps both challenging to break into is that you need to be able to write code, and also to work across and integrate different systems and applications. Based on my experience, I have finalized on the list of top 5 skill sets  which you might require to be a successful DevOps engineer:#1 - SysAdmin with Virtualization ExperienceDeployment is a major requirement in devops role and ops engineer are good at that , All is needed is a deployments automation engine(chef ,puppet ,ansible) knowledge  and its use-cases implementations . Nowadays , most of public clouds are running multiple flavors of virtualization so a must have 3 – 5 years of virtualization experience with VMware, KVM, Xen, Hyper-V is required along .#2 - Solution Architect RoleAlong with deployments or virtualization experience, understanding and implementation of all the hardware technologies in breadth is a must like storage and networking. Nowadays  there is a very high-demand for people who can design a solution that scales and performs with high availability and uptime with minimal amount of resources to feed on (Max utilization) .#3 - A Passionate Programmer/API ExpertiseBash, Powershell, Perl, Ruby, JavaScript, Go, Python etc are few of popular scripting languages one need to have expertise on  to become an effective DevOps Engineer. A DevOps engineer must be able to write code to automated repeatable processes. One need to be familiar with RESTFUL APIs.#4 - Integration Skillset around CI-CD toolA DevOps engineer should be able to use all his expertise to integrate all the open source tools and technique to create an environment that is fully automated and integrated. The goal should be for zero manual intervention from source code management to deployment state, i.e. Continuous Integration, Continuous Delivery and Continuous Deployment.#5 - Bigger Picture & Customer FocusWhile the strong focus on coding chops makes software engineering a natural path to a career in DevOps, the challenge for candidates who are coming from this world is that they need to be able to prove that they can look outside their immediate team and project. DevOps engineers are responsible for facilitating collaboration and communication between the Development and IT teams within an organization, so to succeed in an interview, you’ll need to be able to demonstrate your understanding of how disparate parts of the technical organization fit and work together.In nutshell, all you need are the list of tools and technologies listed below -Source Control (like Git, Bitbucket, Svn, VSTS etc)Continuous Integration (like Jenkins, Bamboo, VSTS )Infrastructure Automation (like Puppet, Chef, Ansible)Deployment Automation & Orchestration (like Jenkins, VSTS, Octopus Deploy)Container Concepts (LXD, Docker)Orchestration (Kubernetes, Mesos, Swarm)Cloud (like AWS, Azure, Google Cloud, Openstack)What are DevOps certifications available in the market? Are they really useful?In 2018, DevOps professionals are in huge demand. The demand for DevOps professionals in the current IT marketplace has increased exponentially over the years. A certification in DevOps is a complete win-win scenario, with both the individual professional and the organization as a whole standing to gain from its implementation. Completing a certification in the same will not only provide added value to one’s profile as an IT specialist but also advance career prospects faster than would usually be possible.The certifications related to DevOps are categorized into         1)  Foundation,         2) Certified Agile Process Owner &         3) Certified Agile Service ManagerThe introductory DevOps Certification is Foundation and certified individuals are able to execute the concepts and best practices of DevOps and enhance workflow and communication in the enterprise.Yes, these DevOps  certifications hold numerous benefits in the following ways:1. Better Job OpportunitiesDevOps is a relatively new idea in the IT domain with more businesses looking at employing DevOps processes and practices. There is a major gap between the demand for DevOps Certified professionals and the availability of the required DevOps professionals. IT professionals can take advantage of this huge deficit in highly skilled professionals by taking up a certification in DevOps for validation of DevOps skill set. This will ensure and guarantee much better job options.2. Improved Skills & KnowledgeThe core concept of DevOps revolves around brand new decision-making methods and thought processes. DevOps comes with a host of technical and business benefits which upon learning can be implemented in an enterprise. The fundamentals of DevOps consist of professionals working in teams of a cross-functional nature. Such teams consist of multi-disciplinary professionals ranging from business analysts, QA professionals, Operation Engineers, and Developers.3. Handsome SalaryRapid penetration of DevOps best practices in organizations and their implementation in the mentioned organizations is seeing massive hikes in the pay of DevOps professionals.This trend is seen to be consistent and sustainable according to industry experts the world over. DevOps professionals are the highest paid in the IT industry.4. Increased Productivity & EffectivenessConventional IT workplaces see employees and staff being affected by downtime which can be attributed to waiting for other employees or staff and other software and software related issues. The main objective of an IT professional at the workplace would be to be productive for a larger part of the time he/she will spend at the workplace. This can be achieved by minimizing the time spent waiting for other employees or software products and eliminating the unproductive and unsatisfying part of the work process. This will boost the effectiveness of the work done and will add greatly to the value of the enterprise and the staff as well.If you are looking out for the “official” certification programs for DevOps, below are some of the useful links:1) AWS Certified DevOps Engineer - Professional2) Azure certifications | Microsoft3) Google Cloud Certifications4) Chef Certification5) Red Hat Certificate of Expertise in Ansible Automation6) Certification - SaltStack7) Puppet certification8) Jenkins Certification9) NGINX University10) Docker - Certification11) Kubernetes Certified Administrator12) Kubernetes Certified Application Developer13) Splunk | Education Programs14) Certifications | AppDynamics15) New Relic University Certification Center16) Elasticsearch Certification Programme17)SAFe DevOps courseDevOps engineer examBelow are the list of popular DevOps Engineer exams and certifications details -DevOps Exam Syllabus Training Duration Minimal Attempts Exam Re-Take InformationAWS Certified DevOps EngineeAWS_certified_devops_engineer_professional_blueprint.pdf3 MonthsNo Minimal RequirementWaiting Period: 14 days before they are eligible to retake the exam.No limit on exam attempts until the test taker has passedRHCA certification with a DevOpsRED HAT CERTIFIED3 Days for each training• Red Hat Certificate ofWaiting Period: 1 weekconcentrationARCHITECT: DEVOPScourseExpertise in Platform-as-a-Service • Red Hat Certificate of Expertise in Atomic Host Container Administration • Red Hat Certificate of Expertise in Containerized Application Development• Red Hat Certificate of Expertise in Ansible Automation • Red Hat Certificate of Expertise in Configuration ManagementDocker Certification Associate ExamDCA ExamNo Minimal AttemptsWait 14 days from the day you fail to take the exam againCertified Kubernetes Associate ExamCKA Exam4-5 WeeksNo Minimal AttemptsWait 14 days from the day you fail to take the exam againChef Certification ExamChef Cert Exam8 HoursLinkMinimal 1 week time
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How to Become a DevOps Engineer

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Facts and Facets of Agility and Devops Assessment in Organizations

The fast and developing organizations are now mostly on Agile wheels! Even some of the biggest corporate giants have realized that “Agile begets Agile” and have kept no stone unturned to achieve complete agility. The first and possibly the biggest milestone was integrating DevOps into the Agile fabric to fully utilize the values of both the technologies. Yet, for the longest time, there existed innumerable constraints that were weighing down these Agile teams.  They finally understood that the first big step to attain speed, performance and synergy in Agile projects was a proper Agility Assessment. This was the foundation and the very basic formula that kept an Agile team up and running.    Gauge Your Continuous Deployment Maturity and Assessment now available https://t.co/GlTB870y4m via @forrester #DevOps #ContinuousDeployment #Agile — Robert Stroud CGEIT CRISC (@RobertEStroud) 11 December 2017 What is the purpose of assessment? The primary aim of assessment is to understand the current state of agility in delivering working software in the organization at all levels. Agile Coach will work with you to develop a shared understanding of conditions, strengths, and weaknesses in relevant technology and business areas, including organizational arrangements and processes, leadership and management, teams, Agile implementation readiness, infrastructure, and other areas. Assessment is based on interviews with key stakeholders, survey tools, review of documentation and records, published guidelines, wiki sites, and so on. Agile Coach will observe teams in action and inspect code assets and artifacts as appropriate. The primary objective of assessment is to develop an understanding of where the organization stands with Agile implementation strategy and recommendations which could help them in getting better. Assessment readout is a collaborative activity facilitated by Agile Coach in which your leadership and key stakeholders develop a shared understanding and ownership of the transformation program.   What shall be done as part of assessing the Organization Agility and DevOps?     The outcomes of Agility and DevOps assessment are as follows: Initial findings, observations, major risks or impediments, and recommendations for an Agile transformation backlog, including the following topics: Team design Tool use (e.g., Jira) Workflow recommendations for Kanban, Lean Startup, or Scrum Backlog items for improving the organization Agility and DevOps practices Recommended metrics and key performance indicators appropriate to inspect, adapt and monitor ongoing improvements. Areas and Process of Assessment Leadership Schedule a meeting with the IT leadership team to introduce the team, discuss the outcomes, and initiate a process of Assessment. Discuss the various aspects of Agile transformation such as- What are the business drivers for Agile transformation? What are the priorities? What is the level of support? How involved will each leader be in the transformation? Who will lead and who will support? What risks does leadership foresee and how might those risks be mitigated? How is the alignment between IT and business? How does IT communicate with other business units? What are the leadership styles being exhibited in the organization and its impact? Organization Design and Policies Schedule a meeting with those responsible for managing people to visually depict roles and responsibilities, reporting structures, assignments, and team organization (composition, location, and number). Here are a few points to consider- How are teams created, modified, and directed? What is the organizational or management culture? An organization chart for IT and its business stakeholders, with names, managers, and roles Some of the organization policies Product Management Schedule a meeting with product management or product ownership to discuss the value delivered to Client: Product visions, roadmaps, and release goals and plans in the next year Budgeting Requirements gathering Who are the business stakeholders? What are the products, services, or user experiences delivered by IT? What are their product visions, roadmaps, and release goals and plans? Visually depict how requirements flow into IT. Delivery Schedule a meeting with program and project management and have clarity on the following points- How do requests or ideas turn into projects? How are projects prioritized, funded, and assigned to teams? What governance or lifecycle requirements do projects have? Is any work capitalized? How is software quality maintained? How is process governed? What compliance is required? How are deliverables, schedules, and milestones managed? What does IT deliver iteratively? How long are the iterations? What does IT deliver on demand? How long is the required lead time? High-level service description—the big picture view of the results of IT’s work Effectiveness of different roles being performed in the teams Product Engineering Schedule a meeting with system and application architects to visually depict APIs, integration points, platforms, source control systems, and technologies used by IT. Below is a rundown of the essentials to take care of- A list of technologies (programming languages, software stacks, databases, major 3rd-party components, etc.) Major code bases and tools Delivery pipeline and release frequency Release-level manual testing timeframes, participants, and strategies Automated testing frameworks, environments, and data Automated build practices and frequency Branch and merge practices An additional agenda item for this meeting will be determining the feasibility of collecting the following data: The number of unit, integration, acceptance, UI, and performance tests and what percentage of each type is automated Code coverage and any other static or dynamic codebase metrics The number of open defects categorized by severity and whether they are post-release (i.e., end user impacts) The time it takes to create and deploy a full build in a separate test environment The percentage of release time spent on integration, regression, stabilization, performance, load, and security testing, etc. A list of tools for automation, build, coding, defect tracking, design, requirements, source control, testing, etc. Arrange one or more sessions with representative teams. Include developers, testers, technical writers, usability engineers, architects, analysts, business people—whoever is involved in delivery. The outcome will be a visually depicted interview providing context for the team’s areas of pain, pleasure, and desired change. Assessment Readout Schedule a discussion with leadership after collecting the data to provide the details on what was done as part of the assessment and a set of recommendations which would help in improving the organization Agility and DevOps practices.  Takeaway  That fairly brings us to the end of Agility assessment, combined with DevOps assessment in Agile teams. Together, Agile and DevOps can work wonders in organizations, only if supported by proper assessment techniques. The role of the Agile leaders in such evaluative processes is crucial. They should familiarize themselves with all the key processes in Agile and DevOps assessment and spearhead their teams efficiently. 
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Facts and Facets of Agility and Devops Assessment ...

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Top Devops Tools You Must Know

In the last decade for most of the enterprises, the term DevOps has transformed from just a buzzword to a way of working. The concept of DevOps originated in 2008 following a discussion on agile infrastructure by Patrick Debois and Andrew Clay Shafer. The idea started to gain momentum in 2009 after the first DevOpsDays in Belgium. What initially began as a practice to bring more efficiency in software infrastructure management, is now evolved into a continuous feedback model which has redefined every aspect of software development from requirement engineering to deployment. With this change, evolved new frameworks, practices and tools rooted in the core values of lean and agile. This paper discusses in detail the various tools that evolved during the DevOps movement. Readers would get a comprehensive understanding of what and where to apply these tools in their day to day DevOps journey.1. What is DevOps?DevOps is a culture where active collaboration between development, operations, and business teams are achieved. It’s not all about tools and DevOps in an organisation is to create value to end customer respecting human all team members. Tools are only aids to build this culture. DevOps increases organizations capability to deliver high-quality products or services at a swift pace. It automates all processes starting from build to deployment phase of an application. There are many tools available in the market to help us achieve this.2. What are the DevOps tools?DevOps tools are categorized into following categories:a. Collaboration Tools :DevOps teams rely on regular feedback and constant communication. Hence traditional email communication mechanism becomes less effective. Thus DevOps teams rely on more integrated collaboration suites that help in continuous communication and feedback loops. Some of these new generation collaboration tools include Slack, Teams, CA Flowdock etc.1. SlackSlack is a messaging tool for the teams providing a common place for all communications. We can set different channels for different kinds of work. Voice and video call options are also available with Slack. Atlassian and Slack have created a partnership and will be discontinuing other collaboration tools like Hipchat and Stride and will provide migration to Slack.Availability: Free version with limited features are available for users.For more details click here  2. CA FlowdockCA Flowdock is yet another collaboration tool from CA Technologies. It brings all conversations, chats, work items, etc to one place making it easier to prioritize work and solve problems.Availability: CA Flowdock is free for up to 5 member teams and free for non-profit organizations and student projects.Learn more about CA Flowdock here.     3. TeamsTeams is a unified communication platform by Microsoft. Teams combine workplace chats, video meetings, file storage, and application integration. The service also integrates with the company's existing Office 365 productivity suite and features extensions to integrate with non-Microsoft products and features.Availability: Teams is free for a small number of users.Learn more about Teams here.SL NoTool NameProsConsAvailability1.SlackIntuitiveSaaS productGood integration with other toolsThe video conferencing feature is not as great as its competitorsFreemium2.CA FlowdockEasy to configureIntegration with tools beyond CA tools is to be improvedFreemium for small users3.TeamOne stop shop -  Integrates file sharing, messaging, meetings, and other tools.Still early and could be a little buggyFreemium for small usersb. Top Application Life Management and Issue Tracking ToolsALM and planning tools help team members to plan their iterations by constantly getting feedback from the customers and prioritizing them. This helps to achieve visualisation of the works in hand, share plans, and track the progress. These tools make sure that all the team members are heard and addressed. Customer feedback is taken seriously and increases the responsiveness within the team. The tools enable teams to identify and track dependencies. It helps teams to plan their releases and sprints in a systematic way. Issue tracking tools enable features like auto triaging and assignment. Some of the tools are:1. JIRAJIRA is an issue tracking and project management tool from Atlassian. It could be used by small or large companies. Kanban and scrum boards which are simple and flexible are available with JIRA. It’s not free software.Availability: The pricing varies with the number of users.Learn more about JIRA here.  2. Mantis Bug TrackerMantis BT is an open source web-based issue tracker. It’s simple to use dashboard, helps to assign issues to developers and keep track of the issue progress. It is empowered with a built-in time tracking mechanism that helps the user to analyse the time spent by a developer on an issue.Availability: Paid version is available.For more details click here.3. TrelloTrello is a free project collaboration tool. It helps to manage projects with it’s simple and easy to work for boards. All tasks are defined as individual cards. These cards can be moved around helping the teams to visualise the work in progress.Click here for more information.4. CollabNet VersionOneCollabNet VersionOne is agile management  It helps in collaboration between teams at all levels to have a unified vision for software delivery.For more details about CollabNet VersionOne click here.  5. RallyRally is formerly known as CA Agile Central. It provides a platform to plan, track, prioritize work collaboratively. Thus improving visibility.Click here for more details.  6. OpsGenieOpsGenie is an incident management tool that helps to determine who should respond to events. It’s from Atlassian. It also helps in defining collaboration methods like video conferences etc. It’s free for small teams up to 5 users.Availability: Paid version is available which varies with the number of users and add on features.Learn more about OpsGenie here.7. Pivotal TrackerPivotal Tracker is an agile project management tool. Pivotal tracker helps to create public and private projects. Private projects are accessible only to the collaborators and it's the default setting. Public projects are available via URL in read-only mode. Edit permissions are given only to an invitee to the project. Open source software development process makes use of public projects.Availability: Pivotal Tracker for two projects,2GB of file storage, and a total of three collaborators. An upgrade from this could be only in the paid version.For more details click here.8. Azure BoardAzure Board is a tracking tool from Microsoft Azure. It helps to track and plan your projects via kanban boards, team dashboards etc. It supports all agile methodologies. Built-in analytics provide information about project progress and status.Availability: Azure Board is free for up to 5 users and unlimited stakeholders.Click here to know more about Azure Board.  9. TasktopTasktop is a stream management tool to integrate and synchronize development and operations tools together. It helps in tracking tasks across different task tracking systems.Availability: Tasktop is not a free tool but paid.Learn more about Tasktop here.10. KanboardKanboard is an open-source project used for project management. It is known for its super easy installations, great visualisation of the project tasks and drag and drops feature for project management.Availability: Free version of Kanboard is available.Click here for more details about Kanboard.SL NoTool NameProsConsAvailability1JIRAWidely  usedEnterprise-gradeLearning curveComplex to configurePaid2Mantis Bug TrackerFree and good communityPaid Hosting option availableNeed experts to configureGood for defects and simple projectsFree & open source3.TrelloEasy to useEasy to configureNot ideal for large teams /programsFreemium4CollabNet VersionOneWidely  usedEnterprise-gradeRich featuresLearning curveLess intuitivePai5RallyEnterprise-gradeEasy to set upLess intuitive and complex to learnPaid6OpsGenieRich features for issue tracking and on-call managementFeatures are limited to issue trackingFreemium7Pivotal TrackerRich feature set for trackingIntuitive and easy to use  Integrability with other toolsFreemium8Azure BoardIntegrates well with Microsoft toolchainLacks richness in feature set  in comparison with other enterprise-grade tools in the same segmentPaid9TasktopGood for Value Stream ManagementIntegrability with other toolsPaid10KanboardSimple to useLimited feature setNot ideal for large teams/programsFree & open sourcec. Cloud /iaas/paas/serverless toolsCloud along with Infrastructure as service and platform as service produces a platform for developing, testing and deployment of applications. Using such features DevOps reduces the much latency overload in acquiring and accessing assets. All private and public clouds provide support to DevOps tooling and thus reducing the cost spent for on-premises systems.Some of the platforms are1. AWSAmazon Web Services (AWS) is a cloud services platform, offering to compute power, database storage, content delivery, and other cloud-related functionalities.Availability: AWS is an on-demand cloud computing platform where we are charged on as you go basis.Learn more about AWS here.2. AWS LambdaLambda is a serverless computing platform from Amazon Web Services (AWS). It is a service that manages the computing resources and runs code in response to events.Availability: We are charged only on the computing time.Learn more about AWS Lambda here.3. AzureMicrosoft Azure is an enterprise-grade cloud computing service that helps in managing applications through Microsoft-managed data centers. It provides software as a service (SaaS), platform as a service (PaaS) and infrastructure as a service (IaaS).Click here to learn more about Azure.4. Google Cloud PlatformGoogle Cloud Platform, offered by Google, is a suite of cloud computing services. Platform as service, Infrastructure as a service, and serverless computing are provided by GCP.Click here to learn more about Google Cloud Platform.5. IBM cloudIBM Cloud is a suite of cloud computing services from IBM. It also provides infrastructure as a service (IaaS) and platform as a service (PaaS).Availability: Lite version of IBM Cloud is free and allows one instance per plan.Click here to learn more about IBM Cloud.6. OpenStackOpenStack is a free and open-source software platform for cloud computing, mostly deployed as infrastructure-as-a-service, whereby all virtual servers and other resources are made available to customers. It’s written in python.Learn more about OpenStack here.7. Cloud FoundryCloud Foundry is an open source cloud platform that helps to develop cloud applications. It’s from Pivotal.Learn more about Cloud Foundry here.8. HerokuHeroku is a  platform as a service cloud environment. Thus help developers to work entirely on cloud.Availability: Free version is available with limited features.Learn more about Heroku here.9. OpenWhiskApache OpenWhisk is an open source, distributed Serverless platform. OpenWhisk manages the infrastructure, servers and scaling using Docker containers.Click here for more details about OpenWhisk.SL NoTool NameProsConsAvailability1.AWSEnterprise-ready providerComplex cost structurePay as you go2.AWS LambdaServerless computingReduced operational costsLimit on concurrent executions after which causing Denial Of ServiceCharged for computing time3.AzureIntegrates better with many Microsoft toolsServices provided still needs to be improvedPay for resources used4.Google Cloud PlatformScalableBetter load balancingServerless computingCurrently, GCP has fewer services and features compared to AWS or AzurePay as you go5.IBM CloudEasy setupConsistent performanceDifficulty in scalingFree Lite version6.OpenStackMassive scalabilityEasy implementationComplex configurationsFreemium7.Cloud FoundrySupports on-premises and multi-cloud deploymentGreat privacy and securityLess feature set compared to AWS or AzurePaid8.HerokuAdvanced Continuous Integration PlatformHighly scalableLess reconfigurabilityFreemium9.OpenWhiskOpen event provider systemServerless computingNot efficient for long running applicationsPaid as per computing timed. Top Source control managementSource control management as practice stores and tracks the application and infrastructure code. Even delivery pipelines for an application is nowadays stored in source code repositories. Some of the tools are GitHub, Bit Bucket, Subversion, Mercurial, Rational ClearCase.1. GitHubGitHub is a popular repository hosting service using Git. Git is a  free and open source system. It’s of the ease with which it performs branching and merge operations. It’s a distributed version control system that adds to its preferences.Click here for more details.  2. MercurialMercurial is a free distributed version control system. It is very easy to learn compared to Git but the branching feature of Git is more widely loved. Big and small projects could be handled in Mercurial.Click here for more details.3. BitbucketBitbucket is a repository hosting service from Atlassian. It could be used to store source code using  Mercurial or Git revision control systems. It’s free for teams with a maximum of 5 users. The paid version is available for bigger teams.Learn more about Bit Bucket here.4. Rational ClearCaseRational ClearCase is a source control management tool from IBM. It helps in the parallel development of software. Software artefacts whether it be source code or design documents etc could be managed by ClearCase. Enterprise version is available for ClearCase.Learn more about ClearCase here.5. SubversionSubversion is a version control system from Apache. It’s a free tool and open source.It helps to track down all the changes done to files and directories.Click here to learn more about Subversion.  6. JFrog ArtifactoryArtifactory is an artefact repository management tool from JFrog. It’s a paid tool. It primarily stores binary files which are typically the product of our build process.Click here to learn more about Artifactory.SL NoTool NameProsConsAvailability1.GitHubEasy to navigate user interfaceDifficult to learnFree2.MercurialCannot rewrite commit historySlower network operationsFree3.BitbucketSupports Git and MercurialDifficult integration with other toolsFreemium4Rational ClearCaseIntegrates with Microsoft Visual StudioNot suitable for projects with a big code baseDifficult to work withPaid5.SubversionEasy to learn even for non-technical usersSlower because of centralised version control systemFree6.ArtifactorySupports many languages and toolsEasy to useExpensivePaide. Top Package managersPackage managers build or package code with all metadatas like software’s name, purpose, version and all dependencies needed by the software to function correctly. It lessens the burden of manual installs especially in big enterprises where we need to install big software. Some of the tools available are1. MavenMaven is an open-source build automation tool from Apache used mainly for Java applications. Main features are it provides easy and uniform builds. It also keeps aside a parallel space for test code.Learn more details about Maven here.  2. GradleGradle is also an open source build tool from Apache. It is built on Groovy domain-specific language. It is more like a combination of Ant and Maven.Learn more about Gradle here . 3. MSBuildMicrosoft Build automation tool is a free and open source mainly for  C++ and .NET applications. Visual Studio makes use of MSBuild to build its applications.Learn more about MSBuild here.  SL NoTool NameProsConsAvailability1.MavenAll dependencies are downloaded automaticallyBetter suited for java projectsComplex to work withLarge learning curveFree2.GradleCan write build script ourselvesPoor integration with eclipseFree3.MSBuildGreat community supportMainly for .NET applications onlyFreef. Continuous IntegrationIn continuous integration, a code is checked into the source code repository whenever a developer finishes a requirement or user story. Continuous Integration tools enable teams to build software application automatically in a decided time. Thus reducing the time elapsed in a manual build. Some of the popular tools available are   1. GitLab CIGitLab CI is an integrated part of GitLab, GitLab offers a continuous integration service.Availability: A free version is available with limited features.Learn more about GitLab CI here.  2. SemaphoreSemaphore is the fastest hosted continuous integration and delivery solution as claimed by its developers.Availability: Open source projects can use Semaphore for free in its full capacity, free use for private projects is limited to 100 builds per month.Learn more about Semaphore here.3. Circle CICircle CI's continuous integration and delivery platform make it easy for teams of all sizes to rapidly build and release quality software at scale. It is built for Linux servers and automates build, test and deployment processes.Availability: Circle CI has a free version available for a single container.Click here for more details about Circle CI.4. JenkinsJenkins is an open-source continuous integration tool written in Java. Jenkins is a fork by the core developers of Hudson after a dispute with Oracle. Jenkins is the most widely used CI tool. Availability: Both free and enterprise versions are available.Click here for more details about Jenkins.5. HudsonHudson is a continuous integration tool written in Java that runs in a servlet container such as Apache Tomcat or GlassFish.Click here for more details about Hudson.   6. CruiseControlCruiseControl is an open source continuous integration tool and extensible framework for facilitating a continuous build process. Distributed under a BSD-style license.Learn more about CruiseControl here.  7. BambooBamboo is a continuous integration (CI) server produced by Atlassian. Bamboo ties automated builds, tests, and releases together in a single workflow.Availability: Licensed version is available at a starting price of $10.Learn more about Bamboo here.8. Team Foundation BuildTeam Foundation Build (TFB) is part of the Team Foundation system and provides the functionality of a public build lab. With TFB, build managers can synchronize sources and compile.Click here to know more about Team Foundation Build9. GumpApache Gump is an open-source continuous integration tool, designed with the overarching aim of ensuring that projects are compatible at both the API level and regarding.Learn more about Gump here.10. Travis CITravis CI is an open-source distributed continuous integration (CI) service used to build and test projects hosted on GitHub. Open source projects can freely avail Travis CI.Availability: Travis CI is free for first 100 builds but after which it is priced.Learn more about Travis CI here.11. TeamCityTeamCity is an open-source CI platform from Jet Brains. It’s known for easy user interface and support for Microsoft stack.Availability: Free version of TeamCity is available with the limited feature set.Click here to know more about TeamCity.  12. Puppet PipelinesPuppet Pipelines makes software delivery easy and unites silos of automation across Dev and Ops teams. It automates your application builds and deployments.The community edition of Puppet Pipelines is available free of cost for up to three users.Click here for more details about Puppet Pipelines.  SL NoTool NameProsConsAvailability1.GitLab CIEasy to configureSource control and continuous integration in one placeNeed GitLab integrationFreemium2.Semaphore CISimple and to the pointLess user base and community supportFreemium3.CircleCIEasy to useLess known in the community4.JenkinsUses plugin model to integrate with several DevOps toolsGreater community supportCumbersome groovy syntaxesFreemium5.HudsonJenkins forked from Hudson so has all basic features of JenkinsNo much development of new features taking placeLess community supportOpen source6.CruiseControlGoes well with .NET applicationsDifficult setupOpen source7.BambooA lot of tasks available as a built-in option and not as pluginsGoes well with Atlassian products like Bitbucket and JIRAOnly paid option availablePaid8.Team Foundation BuildWorks smoothly with .NET applicationsIntuitive easy to installInteroperability with other stacks is a challengePaid9.GumpIntegrates well with Apache tools like MavenLess plugin supportOpen source10.Travis CIEasy to set up and configureSupports most technological stacks using Node, Ruby, etcDoesn’t  support BitbucketFreemium11.TeamCityGreat user interfaceEasy to learnCommunity support is good but not greatFreemium12.Puppet PipelinesEasy setup and installationPlugin availabilityFreemiumg. Top Continuous Delivery and Deployment toolsContinuous deployment tools automate the delivery pipeline of application development, thus reducing the wastage of time caused by transfer between different teams like development and release teams. Few of the most popular deployment tools used by DevOps teams are1. ChefChef is a tool used to manage and develop infrastructure. It could be used for application deployment also. It is an open-source tool but with an enterprise version available. Chef uses a  domain-specific language based on ruby to define and configure infrastructure. Chef allows high flexibility and typically preferred by developers. It has a higher learning curve compared to other tools in this space. Chef is known to be the most preferred tool for large scale, complex enterprise systems.Availability: Chef is free for up to a limited number of nodes which is five nodes now after which it’s priced.Learn more about Chef here.2. PuppetPuppet is another configuration management tool to define infrastructure as code. Puppet is an enterprise-grade tool. Puppet uses a more declarative language and hence makes it easier to work with. It’s preferred by operations teams as it doesn’t require programming skills.Learn more about Puppet here.3. Octopus DeployOctopus Deploy is a release management server from XebiaLabs. It’s used mainly for .NET applications and windows services. It’s a paid deployment as a service.Click here for more about Octopus Deploy.4. SpinnakerSpinnaker is an open source free release platform that increases the number of good-quality releases. This platform helps in deployment across multi-cloud providers like AWS EC2, Google Kubernetes Engine etc.Learn more about Spinnaker here.  5. GoCDGoCD is a free and open source server that helps in continuous delivery. It helps in creating a continuous delivery pipeline in cloud environments like Docker, AWS etc.Learn more about GoCD here.  6. UrbanCode DeployUrbanCode Deploy or uDeploy is a tool used to automate application deployment from IBM. It’s a licensed version and available as hosted services also.Click here to know more about UrbanCode Deploy.  7. XebiaLabs XL DeployXL Deploy is a release automation tool for any environment. It is a licensed version by XebiaLabs.Click here to know more about XL Deploy.8. AnsibleAnsible is an open source configuration management tool and application deployment tool. In comparison with Chef, Ansible works with a decentralised agentless architecture and hence it’s easy to get started with Ansible.Availability: CLI based Ansible is free for no limit on nodes.Learn more about Ansible here.  9. SaltStackSaltStack is an open-source configuration management software written in Python. It enables teams to craft  "Infrastructure as Code".SaltStack in comparison with Ansible is quickly scalable but enforces teams to learn python.Learn more about SaltStack here.  SL NoTool NameProsConsAvailability1.ChefGreat documentation availableHard to learnNeed programming skillsFreemium2.PuppetProgramming skills are not a mustNot much suitable for applications where updates are frequentPaid3.Octopus DeployEasy configurationIntegrates smoothly with TeamCityA quick and flexible deployment pipelineLess community support especially for non-Microsoft applicationsPaid4.SpinnakerGreatly preferred for cloud-based deploymentsLess community supportOpen source5.GoCDBetter suitable for end-to-end Continuous delivery pipeline where great visualisation needed.Less cost efficientA Steep learning curve with a confusing user interfaceOpen source6.UrbanCode DeploySimple and easy to useSlower deploymentsPaid7.XL DeployA large number of plugins availableLesser visibility for the deployment processPaid8.AnsibleSimpler installationEasy to useGUI is not that greatNo support for windowsOpen source9.SaltStackQuickly scalableUnderdeveloped GUIOpen sourceh. Testing automationTesting automation tools are used in close proximity to continuous integration and deployment tools. It helps in performing repetitive tasks unable to perform by manual tests. The automated test gives a more clear picture of the health of the software product without any bias.1. Unit testingUnit testing tools help to test a single unit or component of the software. Thus detecting the errors earlier and fixing. And, Unit testing also helps in smooth integration.2. Integration testingIntegration testing tools help validate every integration that happens in the integration phase. Only successful build of the code move to the next stage.3. End-to-end testingIn end-to-end testing, the entire system or application is checked from start to finish. The tools generate the reports which can be used to verify whether the new change is causing  any unexpected behavior from the entire system4. Performance testingPerformance testing tools analyse the system in an expected workload. The tools measure the responsiveness of the system, scalability, and stability. Tools also provide details on where the system is failing and where the system needs improvement.5. Infrastructure testing and auditingInfrastructure testing plays a very important part as an error in the infrastructure code can even alter the production environment creating unseen repercussions. Ensuring the compliance of an organisation is an integral part of such tools keeping security in mind.i. Other Popular DevOps toolsSome of the popular tools used are1. SeleniumSelenium is a free and open source testing framework for web applications. It’s a suite of four tools Selenium WebDriver, Selenium RC or Remote   Selenium IDE And Selenium-Grid.Learn more about Selenium here.2. CucumberCucumber is an open source testing tool. It’s the best choice for behavior driven development popularly known as BDD as it tests business readable requirements. Free and enterprise version of Cucumber is available.Click here for more details about Cucumber.3. InSpecInSpec is a free and open source testing framework from Chef. InSpec tests infrastructure. It’s also a compliance framework.Click here to know more about InSpec.  4. KarmaKarma is a free test runner created for testing, applications made with Angular CLI. It’s from the AngularJS team.Learn more about Karma here.5. Jasmine  Jasmine is an open source testing framework. It is used mainly for JavaScript applications. It’s used for behavior driven development also.Click here to learn more about Jasmine.6. UFTUFT or Unified Functional Testing is a test automation tool for web, desktop, mobile   Micro Focus. There is a 60-day free trial version available but after which it’s not a free tool.Learn more about UFT here.  7. SoapUISoapUI is an open-source testing tool for web applications. It’s the market leader in API testing. It’s a licensed tool.Click here to know more about Soap UI.  8. JMeterJMeter is an open source load testing tool from Apache. It helps in analyzing the performance of services mainly for web applications. It’s a free test suite.Learn more about JMeter here. SL NoTool NameProsConsAvailability1.SeleniumWide range of languages supportedEasy integration with Jenkins, MavenDifficult to useNo support officiallyOpen source2.CucumberGreat documentationSupports Behavior-driven developmentSlow compared to other testing toolsOpen source3.InSpecHighly flexible and can be used cross any Infra As code framework.Need to know the scripting languageOpen source4.KarmaEasy debuggingLesser user baseOpen source5.JasmineDifficult to debugEasy to set up and useOpen source6.UFTEasily integrated with continuous integration DevOps toolsLess compatibility with different operating systems ExpensivePaid7.SoapUIUser-friendlyPlugin availability is lessOpen source8.JMeterEasy installation Great user-friendly interfaceHigher learning curve Doesn’t support javascriptOpen source9. DockerDocker is a platform for working with containers, from Docker, Inc.Docker is an open source and available as free and enterprise version. Containers help to develop applications and package it with its dependencies and libraries, thus ensuring the application runs in any environment. Docker containers are like virtual machines but share the same OS resources like file system etc.It has less overhead unlike VM 's. The building block of a container is an image which is the executable package including libraries, dependencies, environment variables etc needed to run the application. Running instance of an image is a container.Learn more about Docker here.10. KubernetesKubernetes is an open source production grade container orchestration tool. It helps in managing multiple containers in an application. Kubernetes is the market leader in this category. It is often compared with Docker Swarm which is the native clustering method for docker.  Click here to know more about Kubernetes.  11. OpenShiftOpenShift from Red Hat is a group of containerization software. OpenShift Container Platform is the major software in the group that provides a platform as a service built around Docker containers. These docker containers are managed for experimenting by an individual a free version is available for one project.Learn more about OpenShift here.  SL NoTool NameProsConsAvailability1.DockerContainers are lightweight compared to virtual machinesSecurity is a concernOpen source2.KubernetesHighly scalableWork better with CI/CD pipelinesLess user-friendlyOpen source3.OpenShiftGreat community supportOnly supports Red Hat Enterprise LinuxFreemiumj. Release orchestrationRelease orchestration tools are used to achieve automation of the application release process. Some of the popular tools are Xebialabs XL release, Plutora Release, AWS Codepipeline, CACD Director, OpenMake, Spinnaker, HashiCorp Vault, SonarQube, BlackDuck, Signal Sciences, Checkmarx SAST.k. ContainerologyContainerology tools help to run an application on the virtual environment as a package with all dependencies. It avoids the situation “it doesn’t work in my system”.Some of the tools are:l. Monitoring ToolsMonitoring tools help to pinpoint and track issues and verify the health of the system. This enables fast recovery of the system with minimum or no human interventions.Popular tools are:1. PrometheusPrometheus is an open source monitoring tool from SoundCloud.Its mainly used with systems using microservices as it has a multi-dimensional data collection feature. It uses a flexible query language PromQL.All Prometheus server is standalone and doesn’t depend on network storage helping us to understand the defect especially during outages. Collected data through the multi-dimensional collection feature may not be too detailed and having complete information. So it is not suitable for systems where 100% accuracy is required.Click here for more details about Prometheus.2. SplunkSplunk as a monitoring tool is used across application management, security, compliance, web analytics etc. Splunk tools listen and store data, index the same and correlate the captured real-time data in a searchable repository from which it can generate useful graphs, reports, alerts, and various other visualizations. One can create and configure relevant dashboards based on various visualizations/ graphs.  Learn more about Splunk here.3. NagiosNagios is an open source and free tool to monitor services, applications and infrastructure. It’s known for its auto-discovery feature. Its user interface is a bit difficult for beginnersLearn more about Nagios here.  4. ZabbixSimilar to Nagios, Zabbix is an enterprise open source monitoring solution. Compared to Nagios, Zabbix is user-friendly and is comparatively easy to configure. The main disadvantage is that it doesn’t support plugins.Learn more about Zabbix here.5. ZenossZenoss is a free, open-source tool used for services and network monitoring. It is written in Python language.Click here to know more about Zenoss.6. ELK Stack"ELK" is the acronym for three free open source projects: Elasticsearch, Logstash, and Kibana. Elasticsearch is a search and analytics engine based on Java. Logstash is a server‑side data processing platform with the ability to clean, transform data and send it to Elasticsearch.Kibana is a virtualization tool that helps to visualize data with charts and graphs in Elasticsearch.The Elastic Stack is the next evolution of the ELK Stack.Learn more about ELK Stack here.SL NoTool NameProsConsAvailability1.PrometheusEasy to useEasy integration with other DevOps toolsBad user interfaceOpen source2.NagiosNumber of plugins available in the marketDifficult configurations needed to make the system stableOpen source3.ZabbixEasy configuration based on a web-based user interfaceNon-availability of pluginsOpen source4.ZenossGreat community supportLimitation on the number of devices monitoredOpen source5.ELK StackEasy to installHighly customisableDifficult to configureOpen source6SplunkEasy to installUser-friendlyEasy to configure  simple graphsFor complex configurations, the learning curve is a bit steepPaidm. AnalyticsAnalytics tools give a clear picture of what is happening in the team, be it code development or team interaction, code coverage and efficiency etc. Some tools used are XebiaLabs XL Impact,New Relic,Dynatrace,Datadog,AppDynamics, ElasticSearch .Bonus Information3. Why is DevOps needed?DevOps helps to remove silos in organisations and enable the creation of cross-functional teams, thus reducing reliance on any one person or team during the delivery process. Frequent communication between teams improves the confidence and efficiency of the team members. Through automation, DevOps team increase their productivity making satisfied customers. According to State of DevOps report 2016 “Teams that practice DevOps deploy 30x more frequently, have 60x fewer failures, and recover 160x faster“. It also provides better work environments with increased trust, better management of issues reducing unplanned works.4. How to implement DevOps?The “DevOps Handbook” defines the “Three Ways: The principles of underpinning DevOps” as a way to implement DevOps in large enterprises. In this session, we will detail these three ways and three core pillars.The First Way: Systems ThinkingThe First Way emphasizes the need for global optimisation as opposed to local optimisation, hence the focus is on optimising all business value streams enabled by IT.The Second Way: Amplify feedback loopsThe Second Way is about discovering and injecting right feedback loops so that necessary corrections can be made before it’s too late.The Third Way: Culture of Experimentation and learningThe third way is all about creating the right culture that fosters two things, continual experimentation and learning from failures. It emphasises the understanding that repetition and practice make teams perfect.While the three ways focus on the key principles, we also have three pillars which are keys to any successful DevOps adoption.The three pillars of any DevOps adoption are,Culture and PeopleTools and TechnologyProcesses and practices4.1 Important DevOps practicesa. Continuous IntegrationContinuous integration is a software engineering practice where software development team members frequently merge and build their code changes. The key benefit is to detect and fix code merge conflicts and integration bugs in the early stages of software development. Hence reducing the cost to detect and fix the issues.b. Continuous DeliveryContinuous delivery is a software engineering practice in which changes are automatically built, tested, and made release ready to production. In order to get into a continuous delivery state, it is very crucial to define a test strategy. The main goal is to identify functional and non-functional defects at a much earlier stage thus reducing the cost to fix defects. It also enables teams to come up with working software as defined in the agile manifesto. Continuous delivery as a practice depends on continuous integration and test automation. Hence it is crucial that teams need to ensure that they practice continuous integration along with test automation religiously, to effectively practice continuous delivery.c. Continuous DeploymentContinuous deployment is a software engineering practice in which codes committed by the developers are automatically built, tested and deployed to production. Continuous deployment as a practice, require that teams have already adopted continuous integration and continuous delivery approach. The primary advantage of this practice is reducing time-to-market and early feedback from users.d. Continuous TestingContinuous Testing can be defined as a software testing practice that involves a process of testing early, testing often and test automation. The primary goal of Continuous Testing is to shift left the test phase as much as possible to identify defects and reduce the cost of fixing.e. MicroservicesMicroservices architecture helps to create an application as a set of small services independent of each other. Any language could be used to create microservices and typically an HTTP based API is used to interact between services. Microservices as a design approach helps to achieve fewer risk deployments and enables continuous delivery.f. Infrastructure as codeInfrastructure as a code is an engineering practice in which infrastructure is developed and managed through code. Thus creating a consistent, reproducible and versioned infrastructure. Since the infrastructure is implemented as the code it’s easy for the team members to update and change it. Infrastructure as a code no more considers scaling as a major problem.g. Policy as codePolicy as a code is a software engineering practice where compliance rules or policies of the organisation could be monitored and verified. Policy as code enables organizations to enforce the compliance rules more strictly and helps to bring the non-compliant resource into compliance mode. This practice gained importance during the DevSecOps movement.h. Continuous Monitoring and LoggingMonitoring and logging as a best practice to help organizations to analyse the products’ end user experience. This helps the software teams to get to know about the root cause of the defects and latencies in the software development process. More transparency into the actions performed by the team members causes increased responsibility among the teams causing increased performance.i. Communication and collaborationEffective communication and collaboration are one of the key values emphasised by DevOps.Devops tools in the field of communication and collaborations bring together collective responsibility for the products delivered.   5. How to choose the right DevOps tools?Today the DevOps market is overcrowded with tools across different stages of software development life cycle. As enterprises, it's extremely crucial to select the right tools in order to get maximum benefit. Saying so choosing the right tool is an extremely difficult and time-consuming process given the spectrum of tools available today. Hence enterprises should have a five-point strategy towards deciding the right tools. Five point strategy would include dimensions likeAbility to integrateScalabilitySecurityTechnical know howReliability5.1. Ability to integrateThe ability to integrate is extremely crucial and is one of the fundamental requirements while checking out tools. Certain tools integrate smoothly with a particular technology stack in comparison with others. Hence it is vital for the DevOps architect to compare different tools on the basis of integration ability and ensure that tool that is been selected seamlessly integrates with the team’s technology stack. Another aspect that needs to be considered is how a particular tool integrates with other tools that are selected in the ecosystem. For eg., you would want your continuous integration system to constantly talk to the reporting system and alert prediction system in a smooth way. Hence integration between tools also becomes a very important factor while choosing tools.5.2. ScalabilityScalability is the second most important factor in choosing the right tools. Based on the need for scalability an enterprise might choose an enterprise version over a community version. Scalability also is a key factor why certain companies go for SaaS-based products. SaaS-based products are easily scalable and hence without any overhead, it can be adopted across large enterprises.5.3. SecurityThese days a lot of enterprises are emphasising on the need for security in the DevOps tooling space. Hence enterprise versions by various tooling companies have taken special care towards addressing these security-related issues. Thus enterprise versions are comparatively more preferred in comparison with that of open source solutions. Saying so this doesn't mean that all open source DevOps tools have security vulnerabilities. Certain open source DevOps tools fair much better than available enterprise versions5.4. Technical know howThis people dimension is one of the factors that is typically overlooked by enterprises. Knowing the skill levels and capability of team members is a key towards choosing the right tool. Often the tools available in the market wouldn't work out of the box and would need a substantial level of customisation to smoothly integrate with existing systems and workflows. Also, certain tools require a certain specific skill set towards configuration and customisation. Typical eg. is Chef, which is chosen by developers who are comfortable in ruby language whereas Puppet is preferred by system admins as it does not require much of programming skills.5.5. ReliabilityLast but not the least, reliability is extremely crucial for any successful tool adoption. Most of the tools available in the market, both enterprise and open source needs to be checked using this quality wheel. Tools should be reliable even during large scale and complex operational conditions. ConclusionIn this paper, we discussed the what, why, and how of DevOps.We also deep dived into various tool categories and tools available across the spectrum in today's DevOps market. Tools are definitely the key ingredients in successful DevOps adoption but saying so a lot of companies only invest in tool part without focusing on cultural and people dimensions. In order for tools to bear fruit its vital that the people operating and analysing the tools/data understand and realise the true spirit of DevOps. To conclude, would like to resonate with the wise words “yes, we need all the tools that can help us, but just tools will not help us get there!”.
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