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11 Top Features of Docker That You Must Know

Docker is an open platform to develop, ship and run applications containers on a common operating system. It enables you to separate applications from infrastructures so that software is delivered quickly. Infrastructure can be managed by Docker in the same way as one managed their applications. The delay between writing code and running it for production can be significantly reduced with the help of Docker’s methodologies for quick shipping, testing, and deployment of codes. Features of Docker:Docker provides various features, some of which are listed and discussed below.Faster and easier configurationApplication isolationIncrease in productivitySwarm Services Routing Mesh Security Management Rapid scaling of Systems Better Software Delivery Software-defined networkingHas the Ability to Reduce the Size1. Faster and Easier configuration: It is one of the key features of Docker that helps you in configuring the system in a faster and easier manner. Due to this feature, codes can be deployed in less time and with fewer efforts. The infrastructure is not linked with the environment of the application as Docker is used with a wide variety of environments. 2. Application isolation:Docker provides containers that are used to run applications in an isolated environment. Since each container is independent, Docker can execute any kind of application. 3. Increase in productivity:It helps in increasing productivity by easing up the technical configuration and rapidly deploying applications. Moreover, it not only provides an isolated environment to execute applications, but it reduces the resources as well.4. Swarm: Swarm is a clustering and scheduling tool for Docker containers. At the front end, it uses the Docker API, which helps us to use various tools to control it.  It is a self-organizing group of engines that enables pluggable backends.5. Services: Services is a list of tasks that specifies the state of a container inside a cluster. Each task in the Services lists one instance of a container that should be running, while Swarm schedules them across the nodes. 7. Security Management: It saves secrets into the swarm and chooses to give services access to certain secrets, including a few important commands to the engine such as secret inspect, secret create, etc.8. Rapid scaling of Systems: Containers require less computing hardware and get more work done. They allow data centre operators to cram more workload into less hardware, meaning sharing of hardware, resulting in lower costs. 9. Better Software Delivery: Software Delivery with the help of containers is said to be more efficient. Containers are portable, self-contained and include an isolated disk volume. This isolated volume goes along with the container as it develops and is deployed to various environments. 10. Software-defined networking:Docker supports Software-defined networking. Without having touched a single router, the Docker CLI and Engine enables operators to define isolated networks for containers. Operators and Developers design systems with complex network topologies, as well as define the networks in configuration files. Since the application’s containers can run in an isolated virtual network, with controlled ingress and egress path, it acts as a security benefit as well.11. Has the Ability to Reduce the Size:Since it provides a smaller footprint of the OS via containers, Docker holds the capability to reduce the size of the development. Who is Docker for?Docker as a tool benefits both developers and system administrators, and hence is a part of various toolchains of DevOps (Developers+Operations). It helps developers to focus on writing the code and not worry about the system that it will run on. Moreover, they can make use of one of the thousands of programs that are already designed to run in a Docker container as a part of their applications and get a head start. As for Operations, Docker provides flexibility as well as reduces the number of systems needed due to its lower overhead and small footprint. To Sum Up…We have discussed the top 11 Docker Features that help it stand out from the crowd and gives it huge popularity. It is popular due to its revolutionized development in the software industry, creating vast economies of scale. Hence, containers and Dockers hold the potential to open up new opportunities for your enterprise. 

11 Top Features of Docker That You Must Know

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11 Top Features of Docker That You Must Know

Docker is an open platform to develop, ship and run applications containers on a common operating system. It enables you to separate applications from infrastructures so that software is delivered quickly. Infrastructure can be managed by Docker in the same way as one managed their applications. The delay between writing code and running it for production can be significantly reduced with the help of Docker’s methodologies for quick shipping, testing, and deployment of codes. 

Features of Docker:

Docker provides various features, some of which are listed and discussed below.

  1. Faster and easier configuration
  2. Application isolation
  3. Increase in productivity
  4. Swarm 
  5. Services 
  6. Routing Mesh 
  7. Security Management 
  8. Rapid scaling of Systems 
  9. Better Software Delivery 
  10. Software-defined networking
  11. Has the Ability to Reduce the Size

Features of Docker

1. Faster and Easier configuration: 

It is one of the key features of Docker that helps you in configuring the system in a faster and easier manner. Due to this feature, codes can be deployed in less time and with fewer efforts. The infrastructure is not linked with the environment of the application as Docker is used with a wide variety of environments. 

2. Application isolation:

Docker provides containers that are used to run applications in an isolated environment. Since each container is independent, Docker can execute any kind of application. 

3. Increase in productivity:

It helps in increasing productivity by easing up the technical configuration and rapidly deploying applications. Moreover, it not only provides an isolated environment to execute applications, but it reduces the resources as well.

4. Swarm: 

Swarm is a clustering and scheduling tool for Docker containers. At the front end, it uses the Docker API, which helps us to use various tools to control it.  It is a self-organizing group of engines that enables pluggable backends.

5. Services: 

Services is a list of tasks that specifies the state of a container inside a cluster. Each task in the Services lists one instance of a container that should be running, while Swarm schedules them across the nodes. 

7. Security Management: 

It saves secrets into the swarm and chooses to give services access to certain secrets, including a few important commands to the engine such as secret inspect, secret create, etc.

8. Rapid scaling of Systems: 

Containers require less computing hardware and get more work done. They allow data centre operators to cram more workload into less hardware, meaning sharing of hardware, resulting in lower costs. 

9. Better Software Delivery: 

Software Delivery with the help of containers is said to be more efficient. Containers are portable, self-contained and include an isolated disk volume. This isolated volume goes along with the container as it develops and is deployed to various environments. 

10. Software-defined networking:

Docker supports Software-defined networking. Without having touched a single router, the Docker CLI and Engine enables operators to define isolated networks for containers. Operators and Developers design systems with complex network topologies, as well as define the networks in configuration files. Since the application’s containers can run in an isolated virtual network, with controlled ingress and egress path, it acts as a security benefit as well.

11. Has the Ability to Reduce the Size:

Since it provides a smaller footprint of the OS via containers, Docker holds the capability to reduce the size of the development. 

Who is Docker for?

Docker as a tool benefits both developers and system administrators, and hence is a part of various toolchains of DevOps (Developers+Operations). It helps developers to focus on writing the code and not worry about the system that it will run on. Moreover, they can make use of one of the thousands of programs that are already designed to run in a Docker container as a part of their applications and get a head start. 

As for Operations, Docker provides flexibility as well as reduces the number of systems needed due to its lower overhead and small footprint. 

To Sum Up…

We have discussed the top 11 Docker Features that help it stand out from the crowd and gives it huge popularity. It is popular due to its revolutionized development in the software industry, creating vast economies of scale. 

Hence, containers and Dockers hold the potential to open up new opportunities for your enterprise. 

KnowledgeHut

KnowledgeHut

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KnowledgeHut is an outcome-focused global ed-tech company. We help organizations and professionals unlock excellence through skills development. We offer training solutions under the people and process, data science, full-stack development, cybersecurity, future technologies and digital transformation verticals.
Website : https://www.knowledgehut.com

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What is DevOps

You landed up here which means that you are willing to know more about DevOps and hey, you can admit it! And of course, the business community has been taking this trend to the next level not because it looks fancy but of course, this process has proven the commitment. The growth and adoption of this disruptive model are increasing the productivity of the company.  So here, we will get an idea of how this model works and how we can enable this across the organization. According to DevOps.com, during the period of the year 2015 to 2016, the adoption rate of DevOps increased significantly, with a rise of 9 per cent in its usage rate. You may have a look at DevOps Foundation training course to know more about the benefits of learning DevOps.1. What is DevOpsDevOps is a practice culture having a union of people, process, and tools which enables faster delivery. This culture helps to automate the process and narrow down the gaps between development and IT. DevOps is a kind of abstract impression that focuses on key principles like Speed, Rapid Delivery, Scalability, Security, Collaboration & Monitoring etc.A definition mentioned in Gartner says:“DevOps represents a change in IT culture, focusing on rapid IT service delivery through the adoption of agile, lean practices in the context of a system-oriented approach. DevOps emphasizes people (and culture) and seeks to improve collaboration between operations and development teams. DevOps implementations utilize technology— especially automation tools that can leverage an increasingly programmable and dynamic infrastructure from a life cycle perspective.”2. History of DevOpsLet's talk about a bit of history in cloud computing. The word “cloud compute” got coined in early 1996 by Compaq computer, but it took a while to make this platform easily accessible even though they claimed its a $2 billion market per year.  In August 2006 Amazon had introduced cloud infra which was easily accessible, and then it became a trend, and post this, in April 2008 Google, early 2010 Microsoft and then April 2011 IBM has placed his foot in this vertical. This showed a trend that all Giants are highly believed in this revolution and found potential in this technology.And in the same era DevOps process got pitched in Toronto Conference in 2008 by Patrick Debois and Andrew Shafer. He proposed that there is a better approach can be adopted to resolve the conflicts we have with dev and operation time so far. This again took a boom when 2 Flickr employee delivered a  seminar that how they are able to place 10+ deployment in a day. They came up with a proven model which can resolve the conflicts of Dev and operation having component build, test and deploy this should be an integrated development and operations process.3. Why market has adopted so aggressivelyLouis Columbus has mentioned in  Forbes that by the end of 2020 the 83% of the workload will be on the cloud where major market contributor will be AWS & Google. The new era is working more on AI, ML, Crypto, Big Data, etc. which is playing a key role in cloud computing adoption today but at the same time, IT professionals say that the security is their biggest concern in adopting a cloud computing. Moreover, Cloud helped so many startups to grow at initial stages and later they converted as a leader in there market place, which has given confidence to the fresh ideas.This entire cloud enablement has given more confidence to the team to adopt DevOps culture as cloud expansion is helping to experiment more with less risk.4. Why is Devop used?To reduce day to day manual work done by IT team To avoid manual error while designing infra Enables a smooth platform for technology or cloud migration Gives an amazing version control capabilities A better way to handle resources whether it’s cloud infra or manpower Gives an opportunity to pitch customer a realistic feature rollout commitment To adopt better infra scaling process even though you receive 4X traffic Enables opportunity to build a stable infrastructure5. Business need and value of DevOpsLet's understand this by sharing a story of, a leading  Online video streaming platform 'Netflix' which was to disclose the acquisition or we can say a company called Blockbuster LLC got an opportunity in 2000 to buy Netflix in $50 million. Netflix previously was working only on  DVD-by-mail service, but in 2016 Netflix made a business of $8.83 billion which was tremendous growth in this vertical. Any idea of how this happened? This started with an incident at Netflix office where due to a database mismatch a DVD shipping got disrupted for 3 days which Forced Management to move on the cloud from relational systems in their data centers because this incident made a massive impact on core values. The shift happened from vertical to horizontal, and AWS later provided with Cloud service even I have read that in an early stage they gathered with AWS team and worked to scale the infrastructure. And, today Netflix is serving across 180 countries with the amount of 15,00,00,000 hours of video content to less or more 8,60,00,000 members.6. Goal Of DevOpsControl of quality and increase the frequency of deploymentsAllows to enable a risk-free experimentEnables to improve mean time to recovery and backupHelps to handle release failure without losing live dataHelps to avoid unplanned work and technical failureTo achieve compliance process and control on the audit trailAlert and monitoring in an early stage on system failureHelps to maintain SLA in a uniform fashionEnabling control for the business team7. How Does DevOps workSo DevOp model usually keeps Development and operation team tightly coupled or sometimes they get merged and they roll out the entire release cycle. Sometime we may see that development, operation and security & Network team is also involved and slowly this got coined as DevSecOps. So the integration of this team makes sure that they are able to crack development, testing, deployment, provisioning infra, monitoring, network firewalling, infrastructure accessibility and accountability. This helps them to build a clean application development lifecycle to deliver a quality product.8. DevOps workflow/LifecycleDevOps Workflow (Process)DevOps workflow ensures that we are spending time on the right thing that means the right time is involved in building product/infrastructure. And how it enables we can analyze in below diagram. When we look into the below diagram, it seems DevOps process in an extended version of agile methodologies but it doesn’t mean that it can fit in other SDLC methodologies.  There is enough scope in other SDLC process as well. Once we merge process and Tools workflow diagram, it showcases a general DevOps environment. So the team puts an effort to keep pushing the releases and at the same time by enabling automation and tools we try maintaining the quality and speed.DevOps Workflow (Process)DevOps Workflow (Tool)9. DevOps valuesI would like to split DevOps values into  two groups: Business Values Organization Values Business values are moreover customer centricHow fast we recover if there is any failure?How we can pitch the exact MRR to a customer and acquire more customers?How fast we can deliver the product to customersHow to roll out beta access asap if there any on-demand requirement?Organizational ValuesBuilding CultureEnabling communication and collaborationOptimize and automate the whole systemEnabling Feedbacks loopsDecreasing silosMetrics and Measurement10. Principle of DevOpsAutomated: Automate as much as you can in a linear and agile manner so you can build an end to end automated pipeline for software development life cycle in an effective manner which includes quality, rework, manual work and cost. And it’s not only about the cycle it is also about the migration from one technology to another technology, one cloud to another cloud etc.Collaborative: The goal of this culture is to keep a hold on both development and operations. Keep an eye and fix the gaps to keep moving thing in an agile way, which needs a good amount of communication and coordination. By encouraging collaborative environment an organization gets ample of ideas which help to resolve issue way faster. The beauty of the collaboration is it really handles all unplanned and manual work at an early stage which ends up given a quality build and process.Customer Centric approach: DevOps team always reacts as a startup and must keep a finger on the pulse to measure customer demands. The metrics they generate give an insight to the business team to see the trend of usage and burn rate. But of course, to find a signal in the noise, you should be focused and collect only those metrics which really matters.Performance Orientation: Performance is a principle and a discipline which gives an insight to the team to understand the implication of bad performance. Before moving to production if we get metrics and reports handy it gives confidence to technology and business both. This gives an opportunity to plan how to scale infrastructure, how to handle if there is a huge spike or the high usage, and the utilization of the infrastructure.Quality Indicators per application: Another set which is a predefined principle is to set measurable quality Assigning a quality gate to indicators with predefined targets, covering fit for purpose and security gives an opportunity to deliver a complete quality application.11. DevOps Key practices:i) CI/CD When we say “continuous” it doesn’t translate that “always running” but of course “always ready to run”.Continuous integration is nothing but the development philosophy and practices that drive teams to check-in code to version control system as often as possible. So keeping your build clean and QA ready developer's changes need to be validated by running automated tests against the build that could be a Junit, iTest. The goal of CI is to place a consistent and automated way to build and test applications which results in better collaboration between teams, and eventually a better-quality product.Continuous Delivery is an adjunct of CI which enables a facility to make sure that we can release new changes to your customers quickly in a sustainable way.Typical CD involves the below steps:Pull code from version control system like bitbucket and execute build.Execute any required infrastructure steps command line/script to stand up or tear down cloud infrastructure.Move build to right compute environmentAble to handle all the configuration generation process.Pushing application components to their appropriate services, such as web servers, API services, and database services.Executing any steps required to restarts services or call service endpoints that are needed for new code pushes.Executing continuous tests and rollback environments if tests fail.Providing log data and alerts on the state of the delivery.Below there is a table which will help us better understand what we need to put as an effort and what we will gain if we enable CI/CD in place:Practice TypeEffort RequiredGainContinuous integrationa) Need to prepare automated your team will need to write automated tests for each new feature,improvement or bug fix.b) You need a continuous integration server that can monitor the main repository and run the tests automatically for every new commits pushed.c) Developers need to merge their changes as often as possible, at least once a day.a Will give control on regressions which can be captured in early stage of automated testing.b) Less context switching as developers are alerted as soon as they break the build and can work on fixing it before they move to another task.c) Building the release is easy as all integration issues have been solved early.d) Testing costs are reduced drastically -your Cl server can run hundreds of tests in the matter of seconds.e) Your QA team spend less time testing and can focus on significant improvements to the quality culture.Continuous Delivery a) You need a strong foundation in continuous integration and your test suite needs to cover enough of your codebase.b) Deployments need to be automated. The trigger is still manual but once a deployment is started  there shouldn't be a need for human intervention.c) Your team will most likely need to embrace feature flags so that incomplete features do not affect customers in productiona) The complexity of deploying software has been taken away. Your team doesnt't have to spend days preparing for a release anymore.b) You can release more often,thus accelerating the feedback loop with your  customers.c) There is much less pressure on decisions for small changes,hence encoraging iterating faster.ii) Maintaining infra in a secure and compliant wayKeeping infrastructure secure and compliant is also a responsibility of DevOps or some organization are nowadays pitching as SecOps. A general and traditional way of security methodologies or rules get fails when you have multi-layer or multi-cloud system running for your product organization and sometimes it really fail when you moving with the continuous delivery process. So the job is to ensure that the team is putting clear and neat visibility on risk and vulnerabilities which may cause a big problem. Below adding a basic rule to avoid small loophole (Specific to GCP) :Level 1:- Define your resource hierarchy.- Create an Organization node and define the project structure.- Automation of project creation which helps to achieve uniformity and testability.Level 2:- Manage your Google identities.- Synchronize your existing identity platform.- Have single-sign-on (SSO).- Don’t add multiple users instead of that select resource level permission.- Be specific while providing resource access also with action type (Read, Write & Admin).- Always use service accounts to access meta-data because to authenticate this it uses keys instead of password and GCP rotates the service account keys for code running on GCP.Level 3:- Add VPC for network definition and create firewall rules to manage traffic.- Define a specific rule to control external access and avoid having unwanted port opens.- Create a centralized network control template which can be applied across the project.Level 4:- Enable centralized logging and monitoring (Preferred Stackdriver).- Enable audit log which helps you to collect the activity of Admin, System Event and Data Access in a phrase of who did what, where and when?Level 5:- Enable cold line data storage if there is a need to keeping a copy for disaster management.- Further reference for placing security standard in AWS there is an article I have posted a few months back. 12. DevOps Myths or What DevOps is not?Before I mention the myths I would clarify the biggest myth which every early stage learner carries that “DevOps practice can be rolled out in a day and output will be available from the 1st day”. This is too early to reach this conclusion, as the definition of DevOps always says that it's a culture and process which can be built in a day. But of course, you will get an opportunity to overcome your mistakes at an early stage. Let's discuss a few more myths:It’s now only about the tool, (It’s a component of the whole DevOps practice)Dev and Ops team should have used the same set of tools (How to overcome- push them to integrate both)Only startups can follow this practice (Azure has published an article on best practices of DevOps which says it can be applied anywhere)Joining DevOps/ DevOps tool conf with fancy sticker (Good you join but don’t pretend that now you are carrying DevOps tag)Pushing build in production in every 5 mins (This is not what Continuous delivery)DevOps doesn’t fit the existing system (Overcome: You may need to find the right approach to make an attempt)13. Benefits of DevOpsBusiness Benefitsa) Horizontal and vertical growth: When I’m using “Horizontal and Vertical Growth” I’m keeping customer satisfaction on X, Business on Y2 and time on the Y-axis. Now the question is how it helps to populate growth in 2 axis, and my answer will be the quick turnaround time for minor and major issues. Once we adopt DevOps we scale and built in such a fashion that in less time the graph shows a rapid jump.b) Improving ROI of Data: Having DevOps in an organization ensures that we can design a decent ROI from data at an early stage more quickly. If we will do a raw survey now Software industry is playing with data and have control over there a team should have an end to end control on data. And if we define DevOps it will help the team to crunch data in various ways by automating small jobs. By automation, we can segregate and justify data and this helps to populate either in Dashboard or can present offline to the customer.Technical Benefitsc) Scalability & Quality: If a business starts reaching to more user we start looking to increase infrastructure and bandwidth. But on the other hand, it starts popping up a question whether we are scaling our infra in the right way and also if a lot of people are pushing changes (Your code commits/builds) are having the same or greater quality we have earlier. Both the questions are somehow now reserved by the DevOps team. If your business pitch that we might be going to hit 2000+ client and they will be having billion of traffic and we are ready to handle, DevOps take these responsibilities and says yes can scale infra at any point of time. And if the same time internal release team says I want to deliver 10 feature in next 10 days independently, DevOps says quality can be maintained.Culture  Benefitsd) Agility & Velocity: They key param of adopting DevOps is to improve the velocity of product development. DevOps enables Agility and if both are in sync we can easily observe the velocity. The expectation of end users are always high and at the same time, the deliverable time span is short. To achieve this we have to ensure that we are able to our rollout new features to customers at much higher frequencies otherwise your competitors may win the market.e) Enabling Transparency:  A Practice to enable total transparency is a key impact on the DevOps culture. Sharing knowledge across the team gives you an opportunity to work faster and get aligned with the goal. Transparency will encourage an increasingly well-rounded team with heightened understandings.14. How to adopt a DevOps modelThe ideal way is to pick up a small part of the project or product but sometimes we start adopting when we are touching the bottleneck. So whatever you start few things need to be taken care like Goal should be clean and the team is are in sync to chase the same, loop whole which turns to a downtime, how can testing (Stress, performance, load ) to avoid production glitches and at the same time enable automated deployment process. All this could have some basic plan and move forward it can be elaborated in detailed format. While adopting a DevOps model, need to make sure that the team is always looking into metrics so they can justify no’s and make assumption towards the goal. If you want to have a roadmap of DevOps adoption then you really need to find the gaps up front and the typical problem you face every day which really holds your release process or spoils your team time.15. DevOps automation toolJenkins: Jenkins is an open source automation server which is used to automate the software build, and deliver or deploy the build.  It can be installed through native system packages, Docker, or even run standalone by any machine with a Java Runtime Environment (JRE) installed. In short, Jenkins enables continuous integration which helps to accelerate the development. There are ample of plugins available which enable the integration for Various DevOps stages. For example Git, Maven 2 project, Amazon EC2, HTML publisher etc. More in-depth information about the same can be found here in our training material on Jenkins and if you are inquisitive about what sort of questions related to Jenkins are asked in job interviews, then feel free to view our set of 22 Jenkins interview questions.Ansible: An open-source platform which helps to automate the IT engine which actually pushes off the slavery work from DevOps day to day life. Usually, Ansible helps in 3 day to day task, Provisioning, configuration management and application deployment. Beauty is it can automate traditional servers, virtualization platforms, or the cloud one. It is built on playbooks which can be applied to an extensive variety of systems for deploying your app. To know more, you may have a look at our Ansible training material here or go through our set of 20 interview questions on Ansible.Chef: It’s an open source config management system and works as a master-client model. It is having a transparent design and works based on instruction which needs to be defined properly. Before you plan using this tool you need to make sure that you have a proper Git practice going on and you have an idea about Ruby as this is completely built on Ruby. The industry says that this is good to have for development-focused environments and enterprise mature architecture. Our comprehensively detailed training course on Chef will give you more insight into this tool.Puppet:  So Puppet works as a master-client setup and utilized as model driven. This is built on Ruby but you can customize this as scripting language somewhere close to JSON. Puppet helps you to get control of full-fledged configuration management. This tool somewhere helps Admin (Part of DevOps) to add stability and maturity towards config management. A more detailed explanation of Puppet and its functionality can be found in our training material.Docker:  A tool designed to help developers and administrators to provide flexibility to reduce the count of the system as docker don’t create a complete virtual operating system, instead they allow applications to use the same Linux kernel as the system. So somewhere we can say we use Docker to create, deploy, and run applications by using containers. Just a stats submitted by docket that over 3.5 million applications placed in containers using docker and 37 billion containerized applications have been downloaded. Specifically, Docker CI /CD provided an opportunity to have exactly like a live server and run multiple dev infra form the same host with different config and OS. You may visit our training course on Docker to get more information.Kubernetes: Platform developed to manage containerized applications which provide high availability and scalability. According to the usage we can downgrade and upgrade the system, we can perform rolling updates, rollback feasibility, switch traffic between to different versions of the application.  So we can have multiple instances having Kubernetes installed and can be operated as Kubernetes cluster. Post this you get an API endpoint of Kube cluster, configure Kubel and you are ready to serve. Read our all-inclusive course on Kubernetes to gather more information on the same.Docker and Kubernetes, although being widely tools as DevOps automation tools, have notable differences between their setup, installation and their attributes, clearly mentioned in our blog stressing the differences between Docker and Kubernetes.Alert:Pingdom: Pingdom is a platform which enables monitoring to check the availability,  performance, transaction monitoring (website hyperlink) and incident collection of your websites, servers or web applications. Beauty is if you are using a collaboration tool like slack or flock you can just integrate by using the webhook (Pretty much simpler no code required )you can easily get notified at any time. Pingdom also provides an API so you can have your customized dashboard (Recently started) and the documentation is having enough details and self-explanatory.Nagios: It’s an Open Source Monitoring Tool to monitor the computer network. We can monitor server, applications, incident manager etc and you can certainly configure email, SMS, Slack notifications and phone calls even. Nagios is licensed under GNU GPLv2. Listing some major components which can be monitored with Nagios:Once we install Nagios we get a dashboard to monitor network services like SMTP, HTTP, SNMP, FTP, SSH, POP, etc and can view current network status, problem history, log files, notifications that have been triggered by the system, etc.We can monitor Servers resources like disk drives, memory, processor, server load usage, system logs, etc.Image copyright stackdriver- D-4Stackdriver: Stackdriver is again a Monitoring tool to get the visibility of performance, uptime, and overall health for cloud-powered applications. Stackdriver monitoring collects events and metadata from Google Cloud Platform, Amazon Web Services (AWS). Stackdriver consumes data and generates insights via dashboards, charts, and alerts. And for alerting we can integrate to collaboration tools like Slack, PagerDuty, HipChat, Campfire, and more.Image copyright stackdriver- D-2Adding one sample log where we can see what all parameter it collects and also i have just separated them in fashion which will help us to understand what all it logs it actually collects:Log InformationUser Details and Authorization InfoRequest Type and Caller IPResource and Operation DetailsTimeStamp and Status Details{  insertId:    logName:  operation: {   first:     id:   producer:  } protoPayload: {   @type:   authenticationInfo: {   principalEmail:       }   authorizationInfo: [   0: {   granted:     permission:       }   ]methodName:     request: {    @type:     } requestMetadata:  { callerIp: callerSuppliedUserAgent:   } resourceName: response: { @type:    Id:  insertTime:    name:  operationType:    progress:    selfLink:    status:      targetId:     targetLink:    user:    zone:     }   serviceName:    }receiveTimestamp:  resource: {  labels: {  instance_id:  project_id:      zone:      }  type:    }  severity:  timestamp:   }Monitoring:Grafana: It is an open source visualization tool and can be used on top of different data stores like InfluxDB,Elasticsearch and Logz.io.We can create comprehensive charts with smart axis formats (such as lines and points) as a result of Grafana’s fast, client-side rendering — even over long ranges of time — that uses Flot as a default option. We can get the 3 different levels of access, watcher, Editor and Admin, even we can enable G-Auth for having good access control. A detail information guide can be found hereImage copyright stackdriver- D-5Elasticsearch:It's an open source realtime distributed, RESTful search and analytics engine. It collects unstructured data and stores in a cultivated format which is optimized and available for language based search. The beauty of Elastic is scalability, speed, document-oriented, schema-free. It scales horizontally to handle kajillions of events per second, while automatically managing how indices and queries are distributed across the cluster for smooth operations.Cost OptimizationreOptimize.io : Once we run ample of servers we usually end up with burning good amount not intentionally but of course because of not have a clear visualization. At reOptimze helps thereby providing a detailed insight about the cloud expense the integration can be done with 3-4 simple steps but before that you might need to look into the prerequest which can be accessed here. Just a heads up that they only need read access for all these and permission docs can be found here . Image copyright reOptimizeD-616. DevOps vs AgileDevOpsAgileDevOps culture can be enabled in the software industry to deliver reliable build.Agile is a generic culture which can be deployed in any department.The key focus area is to have involvement at an end to end process.Agile helps the management team to push a frequent release.Enables quality build with rapid delivery.Keep team aware of frequent changes for any release and feature.Agile sprints work within the immediate future, A sprint life cycle varies between 7-30 days.DevOps don’t have such scheduled metrix, they work to avoid such unscheduled disruptions.Team size also differs, in Agile wee can minimal resource can be one as well.DevOps works on collaboration and bridge a big set of the team. 17. Future of DevOpsThe industry is moving more on cloud which enables a few more responsibilities to DevOps. And immediate hot topic could be DevSecOps because more automation tends to more connectivity means more exposure. AI or ML is more data-centric and learning based which gives an opportunity to DevOps to share hand to train ML modules, unique analysis correlating, code, test results, user behavior, and production quality & performance. There is also an opportunity to break the stereotype that DevOps can be only adopted by startup and surely the next 2-3 years this will become a general practice in Enterprise.18. Importance of DevOps training certificationCertifications work like an add-on, and add-on always gives some crisp and cumulative results. Certification works similar to that if someone adds any professional certificates to resume it gives an add-on value. In the process of certification, professionals help you to understand in detail and the deep dive of DevOps culture help individual to get a clear picture. While certification you may have to look into the vendor reputation, an academic who is giving approval, the transparency, session hour and many more components.19. Conclusion: I have been working closely and observing the DevOps team from a year & so and found every day we learn something new. The more we dive we see a lot can be done and can be achieved in a couple of different ways. As the industry is growing the responsibility of DevOps seems to increase which creates a possible chance for professional but always set a new bar of quality. Now, since you have come to know everything about DevOps, feel free to read our blog on how you can become a DevOps Engineer.
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What is DevOps

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Introduction to Docker, Docker Containers & Docker Hub

Docker is a tool that makes creating, deploying, and running applications easier with the use of containers. Now, what are containers? These can be described as something that makes it possible for developers to spruce up an application with all the parts needed for it. These could include libraries, for instance, along with other dependencies. Docker assembles all these and presents them as one package. The container gives the developer the assurance that the application will run on just about any Linux machine, no matter to what extent any of its customized settings in a particular machine could be at variance from those on the machine on which the code is written and tested.Who is Docker for:Docker is aimed to benefit both developers and system administrators. This makes it a part of many DevOps (developers + operations) toolchains. The main benefit that Docker carries for developers is that they can concentrate on their core job of writing the code without having to bog themselves down with which system it will run on.How Docker is useful in the IT industry:The most vital use of the Docker Enterprise container platform is that it offers value to a business by drastically bringing down its cost on infrastructure and maintenance. It can also do the same when it comes to migrating current. Best of all, all these can be done immediately upon installation. In this way, it saves time, as well. The following infographic illustrates how Docker brings down costs and increases productivity in an enterprise:Image sourceDocker container:Next, let us understand what a container in a Docker is. We can think of it as being a standard unit of software that has the purpose of packaging the code and all its dependencies together.It comes with all that an application needs to run, namely settings, code, system tools, runtime, and system libraries.The point of making a Docker container in this fashion is to help the application run in a fast and dependable manner between one computing environment and another. A Docker container image has these characteristics:LightweightStandaloneExecutableIn this sense, the container lies at the heart of a Docker.Docker containers that run on Docker Engine:Let us get down to understanding the Docker containers that power the Docker Engine.Standardization: Docker containers were created according to the industry standard for containers. The aim of doing this is that the containers could be made portable.Lightweight: Since containers share the machine’s OS system kernel; there is no need for an OS per application. What does this do? It increases server efficiencies and brings down the costs of the server as well as those associated with licensing.Security: Security is assured for applications in containers. It is a fact that  Docker comes with the industry-best default isolation capabilities.Let us explain a few Docker commands from the architecture shown above:docker run – Used for running a command in a new containerdocker start – For starting one or more stopped containersdocker stop – For stopping one or more running containersdocker build – Used for building an image form in a Docker filedocker pull – For pulling an image or a repository from a registrydocker push – Given for pushing an image or a repository to a registrydocker export – For exporting a container’s filesystem as a tar archivedocker exec – To run a command in a run-time containerdocker search – For searching the Docker Hub for imagesdocker volume- To create and attach to containers to store data.docker network- allows you to attach a container to as many networks as you like. You can also attach an already running container.docker attach – To attach to a running containerdocker commit – For creating a new image from a container’s changesdocker daemon – Having listened for Docker API requests, the Docker daemon (dockerd) manages Docker objects. These include networks, volumes, containers, and images. It also communicates with other daemons when managing Docker services.docker Images – A read-only template, an image has instructions that are used to create a Docker container. Many times, images are based on other images and carry some degree of customization. An image-based on ubuntu can install the Apache web server, your application, and the configuration details that the application needs to run.Understanding Docker Hub RegistryA registry service that is cloud-based; the Docker Hub Registry allows the user to do the following:Link to code repositoriesBuild images and test themStores images that are manually pushedLinks to Docker Cloud to help deploy images to a host.In summary, we can understand the Docker Hub Registry as a tool that offers a centralized resource for discovering a container image, managing distribution and change, facilitating collaboration between the user and team, and automating workflow throughout the development pipeline.Ref URL.Create a docker hub account.Pull a docker imagedocker pull ubuntupull a docker image with old versiondocker pull ubuntu:16.04create a custom tag to docker imagedocker tag ubuntu: latest admin/ubuntu: demologin to your docker hub registry “sh docker logindocker push admin/ubuntu: demotestingRemove all images in docker serverdocker image rm -f Pull your custom image from your docker accountdocker pull admin/ubuntu:demoInstallation Docker on Amazon Web Services (AWS) cloud:Why Amazon Web Services:AWS is a highly preferred cloud service. It enjoys a position of primacy in the global cloud services market due to the following reasons:Market pioneersUnshakeable customer faithCost-effectivenessEase and affordability of building a storage system with no worry of estimating usageSuitability for small businesses, since it is ideal for building a business from bottom to top.Advantages of AWS:Easy of usabilityAgilitySecurityReliabilityServices without capacity limitsCost-effectivenessFlexibility24×7 support.Steps to Install docker on Amazon Linux:We need Amazon web services account.Create AWS account and login to console. Choose Ec2 service from console.Click on Launch instance and choose Amazon Linux Ami Ec2 server free tier Eligible.Choose free tier Eligible Ec2 t2. Micro.Here we need configure instance details like region, subnets, vpc.Add storage. By default it will give us 8GB, and we can modify it after launching Ec2.Create security groups and check port 22 is open to allow SSH connection and we can add incoming ports in security groups.Review details of Ec2 instance and click on Launch.Create New key pair or if we have existing key pair, we can use the same; and download and click on Launch instance.Convert Keypair from .PEM file to. PPK using puttygen.  We can Download puttygen and putty from here.Login ec2 instance using putty and Ec2 Public Ip address.Click on SSH in Right panel and click Auth and add PPK key pair for ec2 to login.When we login to ec2 with New key pair we will get security alert. Click on YES and login as “Ec2-user”. If we need to login as root “sudo su – “.Update packages for security purpose using command “sudo yum update -y”.Now we need to install docker on Amazon Linux. Use command “ sudo yum install docker -y”.To check Docker version, we can see output below:Start docker with “sudo service docker start” command.Check Docker status.Now we can download any docker images by using “docker pull command”.Check if the docker container is running with “docker ps” command.To Login into docker container use “docker exec -it –user root container id bash.Check current docker containers and stopped container with “docker ps -a” command.To check downloaded docker images with “docker images” command.Conclusion:A tool with which creating, deploying and running applications is made much easier, a Docker is a set of packages that uses containers. It is of high value to both developers and system administrators, who can look at their core work without having to worry about writing the code, which runs on any system.Docker Enterprise is of immense value to the IT industry, as it brings down the maintenance and infrastructure costs. It can be deployed immediately and can be migrated easily.
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Introduction to Docker, Docker Containers & Do...

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Chaos Engineering

The 4th industrial revolution has swept the world. In just under a decade, our lives have become completely dependent on technology. The world has become a smaller place due to the internet and day by day we see an increase in the number of industries that are switching to the online platform. But this is still a new technology and emerging and developed economies are still trying to perfect the infrastructure and ecosystem which is needed to run these businesses online. This uncertainty makes failure more prevalent.  We generally came across headlines "Customers report difficulty in accessing bank mobile and online", "Bank Website down, not working" , "Service Unavailable" and such unpredictability is occurring on a regular frequency.  These outages/failures are often in complex and distributed systems, where often, several things fail at the same time, thereby compounding the problem. Finding the bugs and fixing them takes a couple of minutes to hours depending on system architecture, causing not only loss of revenue to the company but also loss of customer trust. The system is built to handle individual failures, but in big chaotic systems, failure of systems or processes may lead to severe outages. The term Microservice Death Star, refers to an architecture that is poorly designed, has highly interdependent complex systems that are slow, inflexible and can blow up and lead to failure. Image SourceStructure of microservices at AmazonImage SourceIn the old world, our system was more simplistic due to monolithic architecture. It was easy to debug errors and consequently fix them. Code changes were shipped once a quarter, or half-yearly. But today, architecture has changed a lot with migration to the cloud where innovation and speed of execution have become part for our system. The system is changing not in order of weeks and days but in order of minutes and hours. Usage of cloud-based and microservice architecture has provided us with a lot of advantages but come with complexity and chaos which can cause failure. It is an engineer’s responsibility to make the system as reliable as it can be.  Netflix's Way of Dealing with the system has taught us a better approach and has given birth to a new discipline "Chaos Engineering". Let's discuss more about it below.  Chaos Engineering and its Need:As Defined by a Netflix Engineer: "Chaos engineering is the discipline of experimenting on a software system in production to build confidence in the system's capability to withstand turbulent and unexpected conditions" Reference Link.Chaos engineering is the process of exposing a software system by introducing disruptive events, such as server outages or API throttling. In this process, we introduce  failure scenarios, faults, to test  the system’s capability of surviving against unstable and unexpected conditions. It also helps teams to simulate real-world conditions needed to uncover the hidden issues, monitoring blind spots, and performance bottlenecks that are difficult to find in distributed systems. This method is quite effective in preventing downtime or production outages before their occurrence. The Need for Chaos Engineering: How does it benefit? Implementing Chaos Engineering improves the resilience of a system.  By designing and executing Chaos Engineering experiments, we  get to know about weaknesses in the system that could lead to outages, which in turn can lose us customers. This helps improve incident response. It helps us to improve the understanding of the risk of the system by exposing threats to the system.  Principles of Chaos Engineering: The term Chaos Engineering was designed  by Engineers at Netflix. Chaos Engineering Experiments are designed based on the following four principles: Define system’s normal behaviour: First, the steady state of the system is defined, thereby defining some measurable outputs which can indicate the system’s normal behaviour. Creating Hypothesis:  During an experiment, we need a hypothesis for comparing to a stable control group, and the same applies here too. If there is a reasonable expectation for a particular action according to which we will change the steady state of a system, then the first thing to do is to fix the system so that we accommodate for the action that will potentially have that effect on the system.  Apply real-world events: Design and create experiments by introducing real-world events like terminating servers, network failures, latency, dependency failure, memory malfunction, etc. Observe Results: In this, we will be comparing steady-state metrics with the system after introducing disturbance. For monitoring we can use cloudwatch, Kibana, splunk etc or any other tool which is already part of the system architecture. If there will be a difference in results, it can be used to identify future incidents, and improvements can be made. Otherwise, if there is no difference, it can improve a higher degree of trust and confidence about application among team members. Difference Between Chaos Engineering And Testing : When we develop an application, we pass it through various tests that include Unit Tests, Integration Tests, and System Tests. With Unit testing, we write a unit test case and check the expected behaviour of a component that is independent of all external components whereas Integration testing checks the interaction of individual and inter-dependant components. But even extensive testing does not provide us with a guaranteed error-free system because this testing examines only pre-defined and single scenarios. The results don't cover new information about the application, system behaviour, performance, and properties. This uncertainty increases with the use of microservice architectures, where the system grows with passing time. Whereas in chaos, it generates a wide range and unpredictable outcome for experimenting on a distributed architecture to build confidence in the system’s capability and withstand turbulent conditions in production. Chaos Testing is a deliberate introduction of failure and faulty scenarios into our system to understand how the system will react and what could be its side effects. This type of testing is an effective method to prevent/minimize outages before they impact the system and ultimately the business.  Chaos Engineering Examples There are many chaos experiments that we can inject and test our system with, which mainly depend on our goals and system architecture.  Below is a list of the most common chaos tests: Simulating the failure of a micro-component and dependency. Simulating a high CPU load and sudden increase in traffic. Simulating failure of entire AZ(Availability Zone) or region. Injecting latency and byzantine failures in services. Exhausting memory on instances(cloud services) and allowing fault injection. Causing Host Failure. List of Tools Developed by Netflix: The Netflix Team has created a suite of tools that support chaos engineering principles and named it the Simian Army. The tools constantly test the reliability, security, or resiliency of its Amazon Web Services infrastructure. Chaos Monkey: It is a tool that is used to test the resilience of the system. It works by disabling one system of production and testing how other remaining systems respond to the outage. It is designed to test system stability by enforcing failures and later on checking the response of the system.The name "Chaos Monkey" is explained in the book Chaos Monkeys by Antonio Garcia Martinez "Imagine a monkey entering a 'data centre', these 'farms' of servers that host all the critical functions of our online activities. The monkey randomly rips cables, destroys devices, and returns everything that passes by the hand [i.e. flings excrement]. The challenge for IT managers is to design the information system they are responsible for so that it can work despite these monkeys, which no one ever knows when they arrive and what they will destroy." Reference link.Latency Monkey: This is useful in testing fault tolerance of service by creating communication delays to provoke outages in the network. Doctor Monkey: It checks the health status as well as other components related to health of the system i.e. CPU load to detect unhealthy instances and eventually fixing the instance. Conformity Monkey: It finds the instance that doesn't adhere to best practices against a set of rules and sends an email notification to the owner of the instance. Janitor Monkey: Ensures cloud service is working free of unused resources and clutter. Disposes of any waste. Security Monkey: It is an extension of Conformity Monkey. It finds security violations or vulnerabilities, such as improperly configured AWS security groups, and terminates the offending instances. Chaos Gorilla: It is similar to Chaos Monkey, but drops full Availability Zone while testing. Chaos Engineering and DevOps: When it comes to DevOps and running SDLC, implementing chaos principles in the system helps in understanding system ability against failure, which later on helps in reducing incidents in production. There are scenarios, where we quickly need to deploy the software in an environment, for all those cases we can perform chaos engineering in distributed, continuous-changing, and complex development methodologies to find unexpected failures. Advantages: Insights received after running chaos testing can lead to a reduction in production incidents for the future. Through Chaos Engineering, the team can verify the system's behaviour on failure so that accordingly it takes action. Chaos Engineering helps in the testing response of the team to the incident. Also, helps in testing if the raised alert has been notified to the correct team. On a high level, Chaos Engineering provides us an advantage by overall system availability. Chaos Experiments make the system more resilient to failures. Production outages can lead to huge losses to companies depending on the usage of the system, therefore chaos engineering helps in the prevention of large losses in revenue. It helps in improving the confidence and engagement of team members for carrying out disaster recovery methods and makes applications highly reliable. Disadvantages: Implementing Chaos Monkey for a large-scale system and experimenting can lead to an increase in cost. Carelessness or Incorrect steps in formation and implementation can impact the application, thereby hampering the customer. While implementing the project, it doesn't provide any Interface to track and monitor. It runs through scripts and configuration files. It doesn't support all kinds of deployment.  Conclusion:In the present world of Software Development Lifecycle, chaos engineering has become a magnificent tool which can help organizations to not only improve resiliency, flexibility, and velocity of the system, but also helps in operating distributed system. Along with these benefits, it has also provided us with remediation of the issue before it impacts the system. Implementation of Chaos Engineering is important and should be adopted for better outcomes. In the above article, we have shared a brief about chaos engineering and demonstrated how it can provide new insights to the system. Hope this article has provided you with valuable insights about chaos engineering. This is an extensive field and there is a lot more to learn about it.   
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Chaos Engineering

The 4th industrial revolution has swept the world... Read More