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What is Management? Objectives, Functions & Characteristics

01st Jul, 2024
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    What is Management? Objectives, Functions & Characteristics

    The purpose of management is to coordinate and organize an organization's many operations so that those actions may contribute to the company achieving its goals. Using a company's resources most effectively and productively is one of the most important aspects of good business management. This helps to guarantee that the organization is both efficient and effective. Planning, organizing, directing, staffing, and managing are some of the fundamental responsibilities of management in a commercial setting.

    Through this article, we'll learn about what is management, the management meaning, its functions, and its objectives. To learn better, you can opt for an online certification like PMP training to clear the certification exams for project managers  

    What is Management? 

    To define management, we need to understand the basics. Management aims to attain a goal by coordinating and administering several responsibilities. These administrative tasks involve deciding what course of action the company will take and managing the actions of its employees to ensure that its goals are met by making optimal use of the resources at its disposal. Management may also refer to the hierarchy of staff employees inside a company, particularly in terms of seniority.

    You will need to hone various talents to become an efficient manager, including those in planning, communication, organization, and leadership. You will also need to comprehensively understand the organization's goals and the workers, sales, and other activities necessary to achieve those goals.

    Importance of Management

    Effective management isn't just for businesses; it's crucial in everyday life too.  In essence, management is organizing and directing tasks to achieve a goal. What is management, then? It is the process of planning, organizing, leading, and making smart decisions.

    Whether in companies or our personal lives, good management is key to success. Businesses often have multiple management levels to handle different areas and expertise. This allows for growth by having more supervisors and smoother approval processes. It also ensures different levels review each other's work before anything goes public.

    Objectives of Management

    1. Optimize resources 

    Management definition puts forth an effort to make efficient use of available resources in order to generate the greatest feasible amount of output. This aim makes it possible to improve profits by lowering the proportion of resource expenses to earnings in the business. Accordingly, management teams implement various logistic methods and procedures to detect and cut back on processes that result in waste and call for more resources.

    2. Improvement of Efficiencies 

    Boosting the effectiveness of operations, production, and services leads to increased output, revenue, and profits. Management systems observe the activities, length of time, and flow of the workplace to ascertain the procedures that result in the most productive outputs. It's not uncommon for managers to collaborate on developing and executing new procedures and standards with both other employees and the heads of departments.

    3. To maximize profits

    Management teams aim to balance increasing revenues as much as possible and creating a positive working environment for workers. To ensure that profits are maximized, it is necessary to collaborate with various departments and leaders, such as accountants, supervisors, and executives, to identify areas that need modifications and adjustments. Finding costs and waste that are not essential and developing innovative processes that make operations more effective are two of the most important tasks for managers who want to accomplish their maximum profit goals.

    4. Promote personal development 

    An efficient management team makes the employees' personal development and professional advancement a top priority. Employees can gain new skills and improve their careers when options like seminars, mentoring programs, training resources, and internal promotions are available. The growth and development of employees on a personal level can not only assist management in accomplishing numerous goals at once. Still, they can also contribute to the generated work's expansion, improvement, and effectiveness. 

    5. Maintain quality

    Management teams determine the rules, protocols, and criteria that govern the manufacturing and delivery of goods and services. One of management's most important responsibilities is ensuring that the organization consistently meets all required quality standards. The team collaborates with other departments, supervisors, and workers to establish, execute, and sustain quality.  

    6. To keep up the spirit in the workplace

    High employee morale is a recipe for success! It directly impacts an organization's output and revenue. When employees feel good about their work and the company, they're naturally more motivated and productive. Smart management teams prioritize building morale by fostering positive work environments, offering incentives, and valuing employee feedback. Appreciation and opportunities for growth further fuel employee motivation, creating a powerful cycle of success.

    7. Maintaining discipline and moral 

    An organization thrives on teamwork, but that requires discipline.  Think of it as an internal structure that guides employees towards collaboration and achieving shared goals. Without discipline, morale suffers and overall success becomes difficult.  In essence, organizational discipline ensures everyone works together effectively to achieve the organization's objectives.

    8. Cut down on the Risk factor

    Forecasting and predicting results and changes are common responsibilities for many management professions. One of the most important goals for managers is to minimize exposure to potential hazards and losses by careful planning and accurate forecasting. It is possible to boost earnings and eradicate losses by cutting down on risk elements, including safety concerns, squandered resources, and unnecessary expenditures.  

    9. Generate business strategies

    Management teams will frequently engage in higher-level critical thinking and abstract strategy when trying to enhance operations and revenues. Together with CEOs, other leaders, and other stakeholders, the team develops, pitches, and implements overarching company plans or frameworks. For example, it might be helpful to establish and restrict objectives for all personnel to work toward a shared goal if a corporate plan is created that is both successful and consistent. 

    10. Workflow coordination

    Productivity and efficiency are susceptible to changes brought on by an organization's workflow and its internal structure. To establish processes, internal structures, and facility designs that are logical and efficient, management teams may include or collaborate with logistics specialists, engineering professionals, and production professionals. Managers may also use tools such as organization charts, flow diagrams, and process audits to evaluate and communicate workflow operations. 

    11. Identify talent

    The management of a business strives to locate, recruit, and retain the most qualified applicants and workers possible. Therefore, it is possible for managers to collaborate with recruiters to determine recruiting criteria, assess applicants, and develop recruitment offers. As a result, the entire organization benefits from knowledge, competence, and productivity when it recruits talented and competent workers. 

    12. Ensure availability

    Managing teams' responsibilities include handling, upkeep, and accurate forecasting of the availability of resources, commodities, and services. To accomplish this goal, managers may project and predict the requirements of the business or the general public and keep an eye out for problems like shortages. In addition, the management team can prepare for and make adjustments to minimize delays in production and distribution when they can anticipate and handle difficulties as they arise. 

    13. Promotion of research and development 

    R&D is a critical weapon in today's competitive landscape.  Companies that invest in Research & Development are more likely to:

    • Develop innovative products and services that keep them relevant.
    • Increase profits and expand their customer base.
    • Strengthen their brand by understanding customer needs.

    Conversely, neglecting R&D can lead to:

    • Subpar products that struggle to compete.
    • Declining sales due to a lack of innovation.
    • Ignoring customer needs and losing market share.

    What is Management Style?

    Management styles refer to the various approaches managers use to lead and motivate their teams. Understanding these styles helps in applying the right methods to achieve organizational goals effectively. 

    Management Style 



    1. Autocratic 

    Manager makes decisions unilaterally 

    CEO making all strategic decisions 

    2. Democratic 

    Involves employees in decision-making 

    Team meetings for project planning 

    3. Laissez-Faire 

    Employees work independently 

    Creative industries with autonomous roles 

    4. Transformational 

    Motivates and inspires employees 

    Implementing a new company vision 

    5. Transactional 

    Based on rewards and penalties 

    Sales targets with bonus incentives 

    Functions of Management
    Functions of Management

    Effective management structures are crucial for any organization. It's a multi-layered pyramid with various levels of managers, from front-line supervisors to the CEO and board of directors.

    But what do managers actually do? Here's where the five core functions come in:

    1. Planning: Setting goals and creating strategies to achieve them.
    2. Organizing: Structuring the organization and assigning tasks effectively.
    3. Staffing: Recruiting, hiring, and training qualified employees.
    4. Leading: Motivating and inspiring employees to achieve goals.
    5. Controlling: Monitoring progress and making adjustments as needed to ensure goals are met.

    So, what is management in this context? It is the process of coordinating these functions to drive the organization toward its objectives. The following is a synopsis of the six core responsibilities of effective management (ICPM Management Content): 

    1. Planning

    In a managerial position, you should think of planning as selecting acceptable objectives and actions to pursue, followed by determining strategies to employ, actions to take, and resources required to attain the goals. 

    2. Organizing

    Developing worker connections paves the way for workers to collaborate to achieve the corporate goals they share. 

    3. Leading

    Successfully completing this duty requires articulating a vision, energizing personnel, and inspiring and motivating others using vision, influence, persuasion, and excellent communication skills. 

    4. Staffing

    Identifying potential candidates for employment and making final hiring decisions (within teams and departments).

    5. Directing

    Within management, direction is crucial. It's the process of guiding and motivating employees to achieve goals. Think of it as the captain steering the ship – without proper direction, even the best plans and crew won't reach their destination. Directing includes training, advising, and monitoring employee performance, ensuring everyone is on track and working efficiently.

    6. Controlling

    Conduct an assessment to determine the extent to which you succeed in attaining your objectives, enhancing performance, and acting. Install procedures that will assist you in establishing standards so that you may evaluate, assess, and reach conclusions about your situation.

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    Characteristics of Management

    Forget about keeping up with the latest management fads. Effective management, as defined by Peter Drucker, is the key to success in today's competitive world. So what is management? It's about influencing and optimizing resources (both people and materials) to achieve goals, considering not just profits but also all stakeholders. This applies to every organization, from schools to businesses, regardless of size or purpose. In short, good management is the universal key to making any organization thrive.

    1. Management is both Science & Art   

    Management may be thought of as a hybrid of art and science. It is an art in that it requires a person to be able to manage things. In a different sense, management is a science since it develops specific rules or laws relevant to a setting where a collection of activities is coordinated. This aspect of management makes it a scientific endeavor. 

    2. Management of Resource 

    Management may be defined as the process of activities related to the efficient use of existing resources for production. Within the organization, "resources" can refer to various things, including men, money, materials, and machines. 

    3. Management is a Continuous Process  

    The activities of planning, organizing, directing, and regulating the resources are the primary components of the management process. An organization must make optimal use of its available resources, including its human and financial assets, to advance its mission and realize its goals. In the absence of any of the other fundamental tasks of management, the management function of just one person cannot deliver any outcomes on its own. That being said, management is an ongoing effort. 

    4. Management is a Goal-oriented Process 

    The goals of an organization are articulated straightforwardly. Everything a manager does contributes to accomplishing goals that were decided upon long in advance. 

    5. Management is Organized Work 

    The meaning of management may be thought of as a collection of organized actions. A group can be created in various settings, including a public limited business and a regular club. Every organization strives to accomplish its own unique goals. These goals can only be accomplished by working together as a group of people. In order to accomplish what must be done, the actions of these individuals must be planned and coordinated in an organized fashion. Without participating in any organized activities, it will be impossible to fulfill the goals. 

    6. Management of Operations   

    Businesses need four things to function:

    • Land: This includes any space used for production, like farms or factories.
    • Labor: The people who work for the company at all levels.
    • Capital: This can be money, raw materials, or finished goods (working capital) or buildings and equipment (fixed capital).
    • Management: The people who coordinate all the resources to achieve the company's goals. This can be one person in a small business or a whole team in a large corporation.

    Effective management is crucial for a business's success, as it ensures all the other resources are used efficiently.

    7. Management is an Activity That Serves a Purpose 

    A company or organization's management is focused on achieving its goals successfully. The responsibilities of planning, organizing, staffing, leading, managing, and decision-making bring about accomplishing these goals. Every employee has been provided with an in-depth breakdown of the organization's goals and objectives. 

    8. There Is a Separate Entity Called Management 

    Management is separate from the operational functions of the organization. The essence of the functions is "to do," but the nature of the management is "how to get things done." To complete a job, a manager needs a certain level of both competence and knowledge. 

    9. Management's Goal is to Maximize Profit 

    To achieve the intended outcomes, the available resources are utilized effectively. Therefore, the results should be either the maximization of profits or an increase in profits due to the managerial economic function. 

    10. Decision-Making 

    Businesses rely on four key factors for production: land (resources), labor (workers), capital (money and equipment), and ownership. Management plays a crucial role in making choices that impact the organization's success. These choices depend on having options and strong decision-making skills from managers.  The complexity of management and the application of established principles solidify its status as a true profession.

    11. Application Across the Board

    The concepts and procedures of management are not limited to the operations of a single sector of the economy; rather, they are relevant to each and every sector of the economy. Moreover, the nature of an organization directly affects how management is carried out in that organization as opposed to another. 

    12. The Definition of Management is "getting things done." 

    A manager does not actually conduct the task but is responsible for delegating it to others so it may be completed. As defined by Knootz and O'Donnel, management is "the art of getting things done through and with people in officially organized organizations," as the authors put it. 

    13. Management is a Group Activity 

    It is possible to describe a class as a collection of individuals that share similar qualities and work toward achieving the same goals. For example, a society may classify individuals such as engineers and medical practitioners into the same social category. Every single physician strives to accomplish the same things in their professional career. Like engineers and physicians, management personnel have comparable goals when accomplishing organizational objectives.

    14. Management as a Career

    These days, management is increasingly seen as a professional path that can be tailored to various areas of specialization. For example, among the many subfields under the umbrella term "management," some of the more common specializations are financial management, cash management, portfolio management, marketing management, personnel management, industrial management, and business management. As a result, the most important positions in the senior management team are filled with qualified experts.

    15. Management is the Ability to Direct and Control 

    A manager can guide and instruct his subordinates in executing their task and exercise control over them when required. Without direction and control, he will fail to accomplish the company's goals if he does not effectively use the resources at his disposal. In most cases, directing and controlling activities entail dealing with things that need human effort. 

    16. Management is a Dynamic Function

    The management does not remain consistent. In the rapidly evolving world of business, new strategies are continuously being conceived and implemented by management. The management style adapts to reflect the shifting social landscape. The dynamic nature of the commercial sector has contributed to the transformation of society.

    17. Management is Needed at All Levels

    At every level of an organization, there is a need for management functions to be performed. The senior executives carry out the functions of planning, organizing, directing, controlling, and making decisions. The lower-level supervisor is responsible for carrying out the same tasks as well.

    Levels of Management
    Levels of Management

    To understand more in-depth what is management, we have to understand the different levels of management. There are three primary levels of management, each of which has a variety of managerial jobs. These levels include a closer look at the specifics of each level of management, along with their responsibilities and typical job titles, as follows: 

    1. Top-level management

    Administrative managers, often known as top-level managers, are in charge of the overall direction of a corporation. These managers validate that the organization is succeeding in achieving its long-term objectives and expanding at a consistent rate. Their key objectives are often to start a prosperous business that achieves the highest possible profit and has an outstanding reputation. 

    Although top-level managers have the most responsibility, power, and influence in a firm, they frequently consult with other employees and listen to their concerns. The key responsibilities of upper-level managers include the formulation of business strategies, the establishment of objectives, and the maintenance of relationships with other companies. 

    2. Mid-level management

    Mid-level managers, also known as executory managers, are responsible for carrying out the strategies devised by upper-level management and providing direction to first-line managers and other staff. They are the connection between the administrative level and everyone else, and these managers frequently take knowledge from top-level managers to discuss or teach it to employees. They also serve as the bridge between the administrative level and everyone else.

    It is the responsibility of midlevel managers to run the many branches of a firm and ensure that the employees working in each branch know the overarching objectives the organization is working toward. Executing top-level plans, providing advice to first-line managers, and completing group performance reviews are typical responsibilities of this position. 

    3. First-line management

    First-line managers, also known as supervisory managers, assist the company's smallest divisions, such as particular groups of employees or sections within a branch. They report to mid-level managers. These managers are responsible for interpreting instructions given to them by mid-level managers to assist them in effectively directing their teams and contributing to the organization's expansion.

    First-line managers are also responsible for listening to employee complaints and discussing them with mid-level management. Top-level management may then be informed of the issues that have been raised. In addition, first-line managers are responsible for various responsibilities, including delegating work to their staff, ensuring that production standards are met, and monitoring day-to-day operations. 

    Careers in Management 

    Understanding the roles, responsibilities, and probable earnings of various careers in management is very important. Here are five careers in management looked at closely with significant responsibilities and global average salaries. 

    Project Manager 

    1. Responsibilities: Responsible for managing projects from the initiation through the completion stage with the ability to manage budgets and timelines. 
    2. Salary: Averages around $85,000 worldwide but can go quite high depending on the sector, experience, and location. 

    Human Resources Manager 

    1. Responsibilities: Recruitment processes, employee relations, and labor law compliance. 
    2. Salary: Typically in the range of $70,000–$100,000 based on location and situation within the industry. 

    Marketing Manager 

    1. Responsibilities: Preparation of marketing strategies, execution of marketing campaigns, and analysis of market research. 
    2. Salary: Usually, pay ranges from $80,000 to $120,000, depending on the nature of the industry and experience levels worldwide. 

    IT Manager 

    1. Responsibilities: Projections of the IT environment, monitoring its technical resources, and assurance that technology is aligned with business goals. 
    2. Salary: Widely variable, but in general, from $85,000 to $120,000, with earnings in the higher categories in tech-intensive geographical regions and companies. 

    Operations Manager 

    1. Responsibilities: Supervise daily operations by examining supply chain management for efficiency. 
    2. Average Salary: Varies between $60,000 and $100,000 but depends on the details of the industry and the scope of operations. 


    There are a few tried-and-true methods to develop your management career; however, the requirements for work at different management levels may vary from industry to industry. What is management? It's essential to understand as you start. Before beginning employment as a first-line manager, you should have foundational experience in your chosen sector. You may be promoted to mid-level management and then eventually to top-level management as you acquire experience in leadership roles and learn more about the organization. 

    To demonstrate that you can contribute to the smooth operation of a business at a higher level of management, you might require extra education or specialty before you can advance in your career. KnowledgeHut's online certification might come in handy in this respect.  

    Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    1Why is management important?

    Management is important for a variety of reasons. Firstly, management ensures that the company runs smoothly and efficiently. They plan and organize the work, set targets and deadlines, and delegate tasks to employees. Secondly, management is responsible for ensuring that employees are productive and motivated. They set clear expectations, provide feedback and recognition, and offer development opportunities. Finally, management is responsible for the financial health of the company. They track income and expenditure, make investment decisions, and manage resources effectively. Without management, a company would be chaotic and unstructured and quickly bankrupt. Therefore, management is essential for the success of any organization.  

    2What is effective management?

    Management effectiveness is a term used to describe the ability of managers to make decisions that lead to desired outcomes. An effective manager is one who can plan, organize, and execute tasks in a way that achieves the goals of the organization. In order to be effective, management must be able to set clear objectives, develop achievable plans, and Motivate employees to achieve results. Additionally, management must be able to adapt to changing conditions and make decisions that minimize risk. Ultimately, management effectiveness is about achieving results through the use of available resources. An effective manager is one who understands how to get the most out of their employees and is able to create an environment that supports their success.  

    3What does good management look like?

    Good management means setting clear goals and objectives and then developing a plan to achieve them. It also means creating a positive work environment where employees feel valued and motivated. In addition, good management requires effective communication and team-building skills. By effectively leading and motivating employees, managers can help ensure that a company reaches its full potential. In short, good management is essential for any successful business.  

    4Why do you study management?

    You learn how to lead and inspire teams, make effective decisions, and create and implement strategies. You also learn how to think critically and analytically, essential skills in any business setting. Moreover, management courses can be tailored to your specific interests, whether it be human resources, marketing, or project management. By studying management, you equip yourself with the knowledge and skills that are necessary to succeed in today's ever-changing business landscape. 


    Abhresh Sugandhi


    Abhresh is specialized as a corporate trainer, He has a decade of experience in technical training blended with virtual webinars and instructor-led session created courses, tutorials, and articles for organizations. He is also the founder of Nikasio.com, which offers multiple services in technical training, project consulting, content development, etc.

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