Search

Project Quality Management: The Key Indicator of Project Success

The PMBOK® defines quality as the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements.  A project is said to be meeting its quality expectations when all the project requirements agreed at the inception of the project are met, and thus the resulting product or service is usable for the relevant stakeholders.  Quality is Subjective  Quality for one individual will not be adequate for another. For example, the youth will consider a mobile phone as being of high quality based on its look and feel, brand name and its specification such as camera quality, memory capacity, screen resolution, ability to connect with other devices etc. and based on the support to run applications on the phone. However, for someone in the age group of 60 and above, the ability to take a phone call or send an SMS and whether this can be done without much hassle alone may define the quality of the mobile phone.  To understand the quality requirements tailored to projects, it is necessary to have an exhaustive Quality Management training such as the Certified Manager of Quality Training. Quality has many faces The definition of quality depends on the context and the business domain. For a service-oriented organization such as a bank, a restaurant, an airline etc. quality of service is identified through the level of customer satisfaction. For a product such as a mobile phone, a vehicle, a computer etc. quality means conformance to product specifications and its fitness for use.  In the context of healthcare sector, mission-critical military activities etc. quality is measured through precision and accuracy. Precision refers to the granularity of measurement and how fine the outcome can be measured. Accuracy simply put is the correctness of the output or being close to the desired value.   Here are the four things #CIOs need to know about quality https://t.co/gRfqoTEUB7 #Qualitymanagement pic.twitter.com/KHMz5iC6RN — CIOReview (@cioreview) January 7, 2018 Quality is everybody’s responsibility  Quality in project management is two-fold. Project Quality and Product Quality. Project quality is to ensure that the project is executed in line with the triple constraints of time, cost, and scope. If the project is within the defined tolerance levels of these three dimensions, then we can say that the project is of high quality. Projects are carried out to develop a solution; i.e. product, service or a result. If this solution meets its specification or meets the needs of the stakeholders then it is said that the solution is of high quality.   Meeting the quality expectations is not merely the responsibility of the project manager, but of everyone involved in the project. Achieving quality involves cost where it is the responsibility of everyone involved in the project to manage the same. Increased efforts and costs can increase the quality of output but a ceiling on this investment has to be fixed. Yes, it is the responsibility of the project manager to manage this ceiling value and to ensure optimal levels of quality within the project but he or she can only do this with the support of his team members. The optimal level of quality can be achieved when the incremental cost of achieving quality is equal to the incremental revenue from such quality improvements.    What digital transformation means for the future of #qualitymanagement: https://t.co/0gyCaHsKtb — Sparta Systems (@SpartaSystems) January 17, 2018 Cost of Quality In order to achieve this, the project will have to incur some cost and this is known as Cost of Quality. This includes all costs incurred over the life of the product by investment in preventing non-conformance to requirements, appraising the product or service for conformance to requirements and failing to meet requirements or in other words rework. Thus, the cost of quality is of two main types- Cost of Conformance – This is the money spent during the project to avoid failures through prevention or appraisal. Prevention costs are costs incurred to prevent errors by the way of training, documentation, maintenance of equipment, quality control etc. Appraisal costs are incurred to assess the quality by the way of testing (quality assurance), inspections, etc. Cost of Non-Conformance – This involves the money spent during and after the project because of failures. Two main types of such costs are cost of internal failure and cost of external failures. Internal failure costs involve rework, scrap costs that are incurred before the solution is released. External failure costs are more critical where these are incurred to rectify damages of products failing once released to the customer. Such costs include liabilities, warranty, loss of business, damage to image etc.   Quality Management is an important aspect of Project Management. PMI® thus has given a central position to the same when defining the knowledge areas in the PMBOK™. It is thus important for project managers and team members alike to understand the importance of quality and to better manage projects to achieve all expectations pertaining to quality.  

Project Quality Management: The Key Indicator of Project Success

1K
Project Quality Management: The Key Indicator of Project Success

The PMBOK® defines quality as the degree to which a set of inherent characteristics fulfills requirements.  A project is said to be meeting its quality expectations when all the project requirements agreed at the inception of the project are met, and thus the resulting product or service is usable for the relevant stakeholders. 

Quality is Subjective 

Quality for one individual will not be adequate for another. For example, the youth will consider a mobile phone as being of high quality based on its look and feel, brand name and its specification such as camera quality, memory capacity, screen resolution, ability to connect with other devices etc. and based on the support to run applications on the phone. However, for someone in the age group of 60 and above, the ability to take a phone call or send an SMS and whether this can be done without much hassle alone may define the quality of the mobile phone. 

To understand the quality requirements tailored to projects, it is necessary to have an exhaustive Quality Management training such as the Certified Manager of Quality Training.

Quality has many faces

The definition of quality depends on the context and the business domain. For a service-oriented organization such as a bank, a restaurant, an airline etc. quality of service is identified through the level of customer satisfaction. For a product such as a mobile phone, a vehicle, a computer etc. quality means conformance to product specifications and its fitness for use. 

In the context of healthcare sector, mission-critical military activities etc. quality is measured through precision and accuracy. Precision refers to the granularity of measurement and how fine the outcome can be measured. Accuracy simply put is the correctness of the output or being close to the desired value.
 


Quality is everybody’s responsibility 

Quality in project management is two-fold. Project Quality and Product Quality. Project quality is to ensure that the project is executed in line with the triple constraints of time, cost, and scope. If the project is within the defined tolerance levels of these three dimensions, then we can say that the project is of high quality. Projects are carried out to develop a solution; i.e. product, service or a result. If this solution meets its specification or meets the needs of the stakeholders then it is said that the solution is of high quality.
 


Meeting the quality expectations is not merely the responsibility of the project manager, but of everyone involved in the project. Achieving quality involves cost where it is the responsibility of everyone involved in the project to manage the same. Increased efforts and costs can increase the quality of output but a ceiling on this investment has to be fixed. Yes, it is the responsibility of the project manager to manage this ceiling value and to ensure optimal levels of quality within the project but he or she can only do this with the support of his team members. The optimal level of quality can be achieved when the incremental cost of achieving quality is equal to the incremental revenue from such quality improvements. 
 


Cost of Quality

In order to achieve this, the project will have to incur some cost and this is known as Cost of Quality. This includes all costs incurred over the life of the product by investment in preventing non-conformance to requirements, appraising the product or service for conformance to requirements and failing to meet requirements or in other words rework. Thus, the cost of quality is of two main types-

  1. Cost of Conformance – This is the money spent during the project to avoid failures through prevention or appraisal. Prevention costs are costs incurred to prevent errors by the way of training, documentation, maintenance of equipment, quality control etc. Appraisal costs are incurred to assess the quality by the way of testing (quality assurance), inspections, etc.
  2. Cost of Non-Conformance – This involves the money spent during and after the project because of failures. Two main types of such costs are cost of internal failure and cost of external failures. Internal failure costs involve rework, scrap costs that are incurred before the solution is released. External failure costs are more critical where these are incurred to rectify damages of products failing once released to the customer. Such costs include liabilities, warranty, loss of business, damage to image etc.
     

Quality Management is an important aspect of Project Management. PMI® thus has given a central position to the same when defining the knowledge areas in the PMBOK™. It is thus important for project managers and team members alike to understand the importance of quality and to better manage projects to achieve all expectations pertaining to quality.


 

Rumesh

Rumesh Wijetunge

Chief Innovation Officer - Zaizi Limited, Chief Operating Officer - LearntIn (Pvt) Ltd., Director /

Rumesh is an IT business leader with over 12 years of industry experience as a business analyst and project manager. He is currently the CIO of Zaizi Limited, a UK based data management company heading the operations in Sri Lanka, the COO of LearntIn, a global training institute based in Sri Lanka and is also a lecturer / trainer at multiple private universities on management, IT, business analysis and project management subjects. He is the current president of the IIBA Sri Lanka chapter and is one of the most qualified and sought after trainers in Sri Lanka. Refer his LinkedIn profile for more details and to see more articles he has written on linkedin

Join the Discussion

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Suggested Blogs

Supply Chain Certifications For A Better Career Option

The Supply Chain Management (SCM), a process used in many organizations, is an assortment of steps for transforming raw components into a meaningful final product. The stages of SCM include: • Plan: involves developing strategy to meet the needs of the customer. • Develop: Involves identifying reliable suppliers for raw materials, building strong relationship with them and formulating methods for shipping, delivery and payment. • Build: involves manufacturing, testing, packaging and scheduling the product. • Deliver: Involves delivery of products/goods as planned. • Return: involves creating a flexible and responsive network for receiving defective products from customers and registering their feedback and complaints. Initially, Supply Chain Management was a process adopted by organizations to achieve substantial operational efficiencies and reduce costs. Considering todays’ competitive market, Supply Chain Management entails the strategic positioning of end-to-end business processes in order to achieve economic value. Following are the benefits of SCM: • Improves the Supply Chain network of the organization • Enhances collaboration in the organization • Minimizes delays • Reduces costs Certifications have become prerequisites in all the corporate world. Certified professionals in Supply Chain Management will definitely have an edge over their peers. It is not only the most preferred career option but it also provides better future prospects. Following are the top 5 Supply Chain Certifications: 1. Certified Supply Chain Professional (CSCP) This certified supply chain professional training demonstrates your knowledge and organizational skills by enhancing your expertise in the Supply Chain Management practices. This certification gives you an in depth understanding of how supply chain is integrated in areas of planning, manufacturing and delivering the product. Eligibility requirements: • A Bachelor’s degree or international equivalent • 3 years of relative business experience along with other ISM or APICS certification • CLTD or CSCP, CPIM, CSM or CPSM designations Benefits: • Improves hiring potential • Provides a hike in salary • Gives you the attributes required to enhance your professional value • Maximizes the ERP investments of your organization • Enables you to increase and retain customer satisfaction • Manage effectively end-to-end supply activities 2. Certified in Production and Inventory Management (CPIM) The CPIM certified professionals have the proven knowledge and skills to critically streamline operations. This certification is for those who have a keen interest in the field of inventory management and want to have detailed understanding of production planning and scheduling. The CPIM does not require any Bachelor’s degree, only 2-3 years of relevant experience in the field is needed. To obtain a CPIM certification, an individual must pass 5 CPIM exams. The CPIM program consists of 5 different modules, each representing a critical area in inventory management and production, as follows: Module 1: Basics of Supply Chain Management Module 2: Master Planning of Resources Module 3: Detailed Scheduling and Planning Module 4: Execution and Control of Operations Module 5: Strategic Management of Resources Benefits: • Provides a hike in salary by at least 12% • Highlights your attributes and increases your chances of employability • Gives you an edge over others • Increases and retains customer satisfaction • Adds an increased value to your organization • Reduces costs • Maximizes ROI 3. Certified Professional in Supply Management (CPSM) This certification proves that you are an expert in Supply Chain Management and validates that you have the attributes required to deal with finance, risk management and supplier relationship management. Individuals enrolling themselves to the program are required to take 3 exams, in any order, to become a certified CPSM. They are: Exam 1: Foundation of Supply Management Exam 2: Effective Supply Management Exam 3: Leadership in Supply Management Eligibility Requirements: • A Bachelor’s degree or international equivalent with 3 years of full-time supply management experience Or • A qualified Bachelor’s degree with 5 years of full-time supply management experience • Successfully pass the exams based on all the 3 modules Benefits: • The certification proves your expertise in supply chain management and demonstrates your knowledge, skills and passion for your profession. • There is an increasing demand of CPSM certified professionals in the most resilient and competitive companies. • CPSM certified professionals are likely to earn an average of 23% more annually compared to the non-certified individuals. • CPSM certified professionals demonstrate proper supply chain management strategies. 4. SCPro SCPro certification, offered by Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP), is a three-tiered program which performs assessment of dynamic knowledge and skills over supply chain activities. This certification certifies an individuals’ ability to evaluate business challenges, implement supply chain improvements, and develop a thorough project plan for achieving positive results. SCPro consists of 3 levels of certification as follows: SCPro Level One: Cornerstones of Supply Chain Management SCPro Level Two: Analysis and Application of Supply Chain Challenges SCPro Level Three: Initiation of Supply Chain Transformation Benefits: • Increases your hiring potential and gives you an advantage over your peers. • Expands your professional knowledge and skills in supply chain management. • Highlights your expertise in the operational skills of supply chain management. • Demonstrates your capability to analyse, design and implement change across the global supply chain activities. • Introduces you to a group of professionals with SCPro certification. These certification courses are just a few of the courses on offer. It is essential for individuals in the field of Supply Chain Management to at least have one of these certifications’ to grow in their receptive organizations. So what are you waiting for? Go get certified
3760
Supply Chain Certifications For A Better Career Op...

The Supply Chain Management (SCM), a process used ... Read More

Six Sigma Green Belts vs. Black Belts : What's the Difference?

Successful firms lay great emphasis on quality and strive to achieve the highest standards in their products and services. The Six Sigma methodology has helped to give many companies the leading edge against their competitors, by implementing process improvements across the enterprise that help them realise their maximum potential. Those who are not familiar with the Six Sigma jargon may have heard of Green Belts and Black Belts, but may not know what the key differences are between the two. Both Six Sigma Green Belts and Black Belts are trained professionals who are responsible for streamlining process quality and improving the key metrics of a business. Green Belts generally carry out process improvement or project management tasks in addition to other work responsibilities- that is to say; quality improvement is not their entire or sole responsibility. Green Belts are considered as the future leaders of the company. As they work with stakeholders at all levels of the organisation, they are considered as valuable assets. Green Belts work under the supervision and mentorship of Black Belts. Green Belts who find they want to lead quality change initiatives on a larger scale across the organisation can take the next step and undertake the Black Belt Certification. Black Belts are leaders and change agents, who assume the entire responsibility of turning around quality standards and process improvements in the organisation. Their specialised training and experience enables them to work on cross functional projects across the enterprise, not just projects within one business unit or department. Black Belt training goes beyond that of the Green Belt level to include highly advanced statistical analysis tools and techniques. Their proven managerial acumen and abilities to withstand pressure and deliver projects on time without compromising on quality standards will stand the organisation in good stead. Skilled Black Belts who have significant experience and a positive never-say-die attitude can go very far in their career and assume top leadership positions within the organisation.
Six Sigma Green Belts vs. Black Belts : What'...

Successful firms lay great emphasis on quality and... Read More

What is the Capability Maturity Model? (CMM)

Capability Maturity Model (CMM) broadly refers to a process improvement approach that is based on a process model. CMM also refers specifically to the first such model, developed by the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) in the mid-1980s, as well as the family of process models that followed. A process model is a structured collection of practices that describe the characteristics of effective processes; the practices included are those proven by experience to be effective. CMM can be used to assess an organization against a scale of five process maturity levels. Each level ranks the organization according to its standardization of processes in the subject area being assessed. The subject areas can be as diverse as software engineering, systems engineering, project management, risk management, system acquisition, information technology (IT) services and personnel management. CMM was developed by the SEI at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh. It has been used extensively for avionics software and government projects, in North America, Europe, Asia, Australia, South America, and Africa.Currently, some government departments require software development contract organization to achieve and operate at a level 3 standard. History The Capability Maturity Model was initially funded by military research. The United States Air Force funded a study at the Carnegie-Mellon Software Engineering Institute to create a model (abstract) for the military to use as an objective evaluation of software subcontractors. The result was the Capability Maturity Model, published as Managing the Software Process in 1989. The CMM is no longer supported by the SEI and has been superseded by the more comprehensive Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). Maturity Model The Capability Maturity Model (CMM) is a way to develop and refine an organization’s processes. The first CMM was for the purpose of developing and refining software development processes. A maturity model is a structured collection of elements that describe characteristics of effective processes. A maturity model provides: a place to start the benefit of a community’s prior experiences a common language and a shared vision a framework for prioritizing actions a way to define what improvement means for your organization A maturity model can be used as a benchmark for assessing different organizations for equivalent comparison. It describes the maturity of the company based upon the project the company is dealing with and the clients. Context In the 1970s, technological improvements made computers more widespread, flexible, and inexpensive. Organizations began to adopt more and more computerized information systems and the field of software development grew significantly. This led to an increased demand for developers—and managers—which was satisfied with less experienced professionals. Unfortunately, the influx of growth caused growing pains; project failure became more commonplace not only because the field of computer science was still in its infancy, but also because projects became more ambitious in scale and complexity. In response, individuals such as Edward Yourdon, Larry Constantine, Gerald Weinberg, Tom DeMarco, and David Parnas published articles and books with research results in an attempt to professionalize the software development process. Watts Humphrey’s Capability Maturity Model (CMM) was described in the book Managing the Software Process (1989). The CMM as conceived by Watts Humphrey was based on the earlier work of Phil Crosby. Active development of the model by the SEI began in 1986. The CMM was originally intended as a tool to evaluate the ability of government contractors to perform a contracted software project. Though it comes from the area of software development, it can be, has been, and continues to be widely applied as a general model of the maturity of processes in IS/IT (and other) organizations. The model identifies five levels of process maturity for an organisation. Within each of these maturity levels are KPAs (Key Process Areas) which characterise that level, and for each KPA there are five definitions identified: 1. Goals 2. Commitment 3. Ability 4. Measurement 5. Verification
What is the Capability Maturity Model? (CMM)

Capability Maturity Model (CMM) broadly refers to ... Read More

Useful links