Database selection plays a significant role in overall product development. How seamlessly you can edit, update, retrieve or delete depends on the database you choose. Of the two database types – non-relational and relational databases, you must choose the best fit based on your individual needs. You would have probably heard about the most in-demand database MongoDB, which is a NoSQL and a very popular document database. In this article, we attempt to touch upon the reasons for the increased popularity of MongoDB.
MongoDB, a document-based NoSQL database, is a schema-less database with compelling characteristics and salient features that allows users to query data in the most straightforward and tech-savvy way. The database supported with JSON-style storage enables users to manipulate and access data with no hassles.
With more than 15 million downloads, MongoDB has become the most preferred database and is used by programmers globally. Keep on reading to know more about MongoDB, its advantages, why to use it, and where it can be used.
Advantages of MongoDB over RDBMS
MongoDB NoSQL databases and relational databases differ in many ways. Not only is MongoDB easy-to-use, but it also supports excellent scaling options. Moreover, the performance capabilities of MongoDB are unbeatable compared to other databases.
Sounds awe-inspiring? There are other unique and unparalleled features and built-in functionalities that make MongoDB the most preferred choice among developers. Let us take a look at some of the advantages of using MongoDB over RDBMS.
MongoDB is schema-less: In relational databases, we must create tables, schemas, and relations to identify and organize the data. On the other hand, MongoDB is a schema-less database that does not require the creation of tables and other rigid, pre-defined schema. As a document database, MongoDB stores all the records in a single collection.
MongoDB has no joins: In RDBMS, connecting two or more tables is challenging as it requires using joins. MongoDB has no complex joins, and changing the document structure in MongoDB is easy, allowing us to connect other documents with no difficulty.
No primary key set-up: When using RDBMS, setting up a primary key is necessary. In MongoDB, there is no need to explicitly create a primary key. The NoSQL database offers an _id field, created by default, with every document. This created field acts as a primary key. The reserved _id field serves as the primary key in MongoDB, and it must be a unique value. It is important to note that if there is no set up to the _id field, MongoDB fills it with "MongoDB Id Object" automatically.
MongoDB Uses CAP Theorem: RDBMS focuses on ACID properties via Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability. On the other hand, MongoDB uses CAP theorem Consistency, Availability, and Partition tolerance for database distributions.
What makes MongoDB so much in-demand?
Do you know why MongoDB is becoming a favourite choice among developers? Its excellent capabilities are listed below:
Flexible document schemas
Using Structured Query Language databases, every time there is an attempt to insert information, declaration and confirmation of a table schema are necessary. MongoDB, being a document database, holds different documents in a single collection. Simply put, MongoDB allows the storage of multiple objects in a unified way, with a different set of fields. Flexible document schemas offer great advantages when working on complex data or handling real-time data.
Code-native data access
Many programmers have the habit of bringing down the site or application for customizing data. With MongoDB, there is no need to bring the site down because the changes or customizations offered using MongoDB are impressive. Any time you need to change the schema, you will not have to lose valuable downtime. MongoDB allows users to add new data anytime, anywhere – without any disturbance in its operational processes.
Powerful querying and analytics
The fact that there are no complex joins in MongoDB also adds up to a great advantage. That means MongoDB allows data accessibility seamlessly without the need to make joins. MongoDB knows how to reach into documents when performing queries. The MongoDB Query Language (MQL) supports powerful dynamic query on documents facilitating deep queries. Above all, the document database allows accessing complex data simply using one-line of JSON-like code.
Easy horizontal scale-out
MongoDB facilitates horizontal scaling with the help of database sharding. Since the data is structured horizontally, it becomes easy to spread it across different servers and access it in a simplified way. You can create clusters using real-time replications and shard high-volume data to sustain performance.
Harness the potential of database sharding to distribute the database into several clusters. With database sharding, you will get an increased storage capacity and also quicken the query response rate.
Warning Bell: When sharding a database, keep in mind that once you have completed the sharding, you cannot unshard it at any cost.
Why Use MongoDB?
Now that you have spotted the main differences between MongoDB and NoSQL databases, you might have understood the perks of using MongoDB. Here are a few compelling reasons to use MongoDB over other databases.
Highly versatile – Being a Non-Structured Query Language, there is no need to create tables when working with MongoDB. As a result, there is an appreciable degree of versatility in storing, managing, and accessing data. Versatility adds a great advantage when storing big and uncategorized data.
Impressive Speed – One of the reasons for the high demand for MongoDB is its speed. As there is no need to create a table or schema, the database speed is impressive. Using MongoDB, the CRUD (Creating, Reading, Updating, Deleting) speed is faster than other databases. A MongoDB query is 100 times quicker, allowing users to index their search in the speediest time.
Easily Accessible – Another reason for using MongoDB is that it supports almost all the major programming languages C, C++, C#, Java, Node.js, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby, Scala, and many more. Also, MongoDB has excellent community-supported drivers for low popular programming languages too. You can also host MongoDB on its cloud service, MongoDB Atlas, which offers both a community-driven open source and a premium Enterprise Edition.
Where to Use MongoDB?
MongoDB is an excellent choice for web applications where there is little to no user interaction. Unlike a relational database, where there is a need to store information across several tables or even create joins, MongoDB saves the extra tasks and does it implicitly. Using MongoDB, you can store user information in the most unified way. As a result, there will be a single query to a single collection, and the front-end can deal with editing the data.
Integrating Big-Data – If your business involves a pool of incoming data from different sources, MongoDB will prove to be very helpful. When other databases have failed, MongoDB comes up with unique capabilities to store and integrate big data seamlessly. The one-document database provides robust capabilities to store a large amount of diverse data in the most simplified way.
Defining Complex-Data – MongoDB allows embedded documents (also called Nested Documents) to define nested structures. Nested documents are documents where a document is present inside a document. It is helpful when a one-to-many relationship exists between documents. Best of all, MongoDB supports specialized data formats like geospatial format, that result in a resilient repository that remains unbroken even after edits.
In a nutshell, you can use MongoDB for the following:
- Blogs and content management
- E-commerce product catalog
- User data management
- For real-time analytics and high-speed logging, and high scalability
- Configuration management
- To maintain Geospatial data
- Mobile and social networking sites
Attention: It is important to note that MongoDB is not the right choice for a robust transactional system or places where the data model is upfront. Also, it is a poor decision to leverage MongoDB for tightly coupled systems. Perhaps, Structured Query Language will be the right fit!
MongoDB is a robust database with excellent capabilities and stands out in-built functions. Today, IT sectors, e-commerce, banking, logistics, and many others are managing their data flow using MongoDB. Multi-national companies like Bosch, Uber, Accenture, Barclays, to name a few, use MongoDB for storing the uncategorized data in the most sophisticated way.
If you are looking for the most efficient database to store and access data seamlessly, there is no better option than MongoDB. Although the performance analysis of MongoDB is exceptionally superb, perhaps there is no transaction support, and indeed the database uses very high memory for storage. However, the striking features you get for using MongoDB should not be sacrificed for the high-memory cost.