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Step-by-Step: Create a React Project From Scratch

Hello learners. In this tutorial we will learn How to create a new React app. Before we begin, we need to understand few things. These tutorials are aimed for the aspiring and seasoned web developers & designer. If you are an aspiring web developer who wants to establish their career in React and other modern frontend technologies, these tutorials will provide you the basic understanding that you need to learn, rehearse and practice. And some additional links as a part of suggestive reading, which you can further dwell upon. As a lifelong learner, we need to be open to new ideas however they may challenge your beliefs at first.  Technology is a work in progress. It composes of sections of stable parts which can be applied to solve the problem of our lives. And some sections which are the part of debate and undergoing experimentation and transformation by the pioneers who forged & nurture the systems. The cutting-edge technology tends to follow approximately the following adoption curve.Source: Crossing the Chasm  (1990) -Author: Geoffrey Moore   Technology Adoption Lifecycle As you can see, the curve is divided among 5 sections as categorized by the work of: Innovators Early adopters Early majority Late majority  LaggardsArea under the curve represents number of customers  During the second phase, there is an important phase known as Chasm. Any nascent technology which becomes main stream must grow this phase with the help of Early adopters along with innovators. And every promising technology has gone through this phase before it has gained enough momentum and has gone mainstream. Before we learn React. We need to learn some concepts. And It will be good to have some basic understanding of how internet works. There are various technical jargon associated and it is a broad topic. If you are complete starter, I hope it will give you some base. We will try to understand and answer the following: What is Client & Server? What is meant by HTTP?Client & Server When a user is connected to the internet with the help of browser (Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Safari & Opera). And when we type or do the google search with the help of keywords. We are presented a list of search results. The user computer is a client and google search engine act as server. As it serves to your queries in the form of the best matched results in a reasonable short time, it is good to say that the search results are produced at the blink of an eye. HTTPWorld wide web (W3C) is a consortium which governs the internet. It has set of rules and protocols which defines how the different machines can communicate over the internet. Sir Tim burner Lee is the inventor of the W3C.HTTP is a protocol, which tells and describe the transmission of hypermedia on the internet. It is designed based on the client server concept. In which one system is a client which seeks the information and other system is a server who act and fulfil the request of the client. In HTTP, there are various status codes for server, and it describes the status of server based on the client request.  Whether the request has been Successful any error conditions on Client & Server redirected by server & so on.1.a(1) HTML HTML is a mark-up language which is used to create hypermedia document on the internet. Hypermedia based documents are used to exchange information on the internet. HTML should not be confused with programming language such as C, C++, Java & C#. Let’s write a Hello World! HTML document as below: <!DOCTYPE html> <html lang="en">  <head>  <meta charset="UTF-8">  <title>HTML 5 Document</title>  </head>  <body>Hello World!</ body>  </html>To run the above code we can write it down or copy & paste in our favorite text editor and save it as Hello World.html. Please note .html is the file extension. And once we open the file with the browser it will show us the output as below.HTML is composed of various tags which defines the document and it's semantic. Semantic add meaning to the content as expressed by enclosing tags and it is not purely for visual presentation purpose.  The HTML 5 document begins with <!DOCTYPE html> HTML has also undergone various revisions and modifications. For e.g. If We need to present the information as paragraph.  Then we need to use < p > tag. For Tabular data < table >, Order list < ol > & unordered list < ul > and so on. References:Complete list of HTML references.HTML Standard & Draft list. 1.a(2)CSS Brief history CSS refers to the cascading style sheets. In the beginning year of the HTML, when HTML was used primarily to exchange information with the help of HTML document on the internet.   There was limited functionality to style the webpages. In fact, there were some tags which allows to style a page and change its formatting. But there was no separation of concerns, for e.g. the formatting tag and its associated attributes were often mixed with semantic HTML.And one of the early innovators Håkon Wium Lie recognized that there is a need of web page styling language which can address the presentation part of the webpages including the layout. And there is a need of separation of concerns.  Håkon Wium Lie along with the co-inventor Bert Bos had written the specification of CSS. < table> & its sibling tags were heavily used to structure the layout of the webpages. For E.g. To create multi column layout < table> were frequently used. It worked well to create the initial push to the web layouts, but it has own draw backs.  More on the history of CSSTo know more about how we can use CSS, we will start with previous code. To change the text color of Hello World! from black to green, we will declare a stylesheet called text.css. Naming convention for filename plays important rule, in recalling the file name when your source code becomes huge. It is good to start building on these habits. Hello World.html <!DOCTYPE html>  <html lang="en">  <head>  <meta charset="UTF-8">  <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="text.css" />  <title>HTML 5 Document</title>  </head>  <body>Hello World!</body>  </html>  Text.css body{  font-family: 'Arial', Helvetica, Verdana;  color: red;  font-weight: bold;  font-size: large;  }As you can see from the browser, it displays the Hello World! text in red color and font appearance is bold & larger. CSS has lots of modules which helps us to create sophisticated layouts, cool animations, image processing using css filters, accessibility (a11y) & much more. The current version of CSS is CSS3. As technology gradually evolved, so did the CSS.  It is maintained by CSS working group, which consists of invited experts and working group members.  If you are interested to explore more you may check some of these links. Reference: CSS AlmanacCool tricks  Homer CSS (2008)Romancortes.com Animated your HTML 1.a(3) JavaScript JavaScript is used to bring interactivity on the web pages. JavaScript is based on the ECMA Script standard.  Every browser has JavaScript engines, which interpret the JavaScript code. As described in the previous sections that the HTML is responsible for the structure and semantic aspect for the webpage. And with the help of CSS, the look and feel, advanced layouts and interactivity can be added using animation and pseudo classes. JavaScript brings lots of interactivity to your pages. It is good to say that it adds wings to your creation. But sometimes these wings catch the fire, so we also know how to troubleshoot and prevent such instances from happening.  For e.g. If you ask your user to input their age. To validate the age, we can write the JavaScript code and validate, whether the input is correct or not. To recap and understand the HTML, CSS and JavaScript in brief. We can refer to the above presentation. 2. ECMA Script and new versions ECMAScript describes the functionality of JavaScript. ECMAScript is maintained by ECMA International. The aim of ECMA Script is to ensure that webpages can run the same JavaScript code across different browser, & it is also interoperable with other programming language. In this context the Interoperability means that other programming language can invoke JavaScript function. Programming languages such as Dart can run JavaScript code. Some framework such as Blazor in the world of . NET can invoke functions written in JavaScript. In terms of specification it tries to draws the line of standard for different browser vendors. Microsoft, Firefox, Google, Chrome, Opera & Apple each has its own browsers which runs on different operating systems whether it is on Windows, Linux and macOS. Sometimes the browser vendor takes a lead while implementing a feature. But the specifications for that feature are written later by standard body (ECMA International). The new feature may be adopted by another browsers vendor later in the evolution process.  Different browser vendor has different development life cycle in terms of feature’s implementation. And it takes time for the specification to become a standard. And the new version of browser is released by multiple vendor with the specification and takes time to become a standard on Web. In past few years since ECMAScript has undergone various revisions and changes as described by ES6, ES7, ES8 & ES9 & more we will see in future. And these changes have resulted into the major impact on the JavaScript syntax. More references: ECMA Script version historyECMA Script2. Intro to React & Virtual DOM React is a library which is publicly released by Facebook in 2013. React was created by Jordan Walke, a software engineer working at Facebook. React allows us to divide our code into components. And these components communicate with each other in a unidirectional flow. As the components follows a standard development structure in nomenclature and design patterns. This helps in reducing of the knowledge gaps when different team members work and manage a project in which they have not worked from scratch.  React is based on the Functional programming principles as the design pattern. It is also follow the DRY principle. DRY stands for Don’t repeat yourself. That means any piece of code which serves a specific task or function should not be repeated as the duplicate code. But we can declare it as a component and increase the reusability. Design pattern is a wide topic. If you are interested to know more about the design pattern you may check out these references.Addyosmanirefactoring.guru2.b Quick timeline of React release Technology goes through a lot of wear and tear before it is adopted in mainstream and it also need to prove it's worth in real life production environment. The complete timeline of React release is available on GitHub. Some of the interesting highlights from React release. VersionRelease DateDescription0.3.029th May 2013Public release0.13.010th March 2015Support for ES6 Classes15.007th April 2016New changes on how React interacts with DOM, added support for SVG attributes, Dropped support for IE816.026th September 2017MIT license. Reduced file size. Better error handling16.505th September 2018Added support for React Devtools profiler (Flame chart, Ranked chart, Component chart & more)16.816th February 2019Introduced concept of hooksReference: Github.comRisingstack.com2.c Component driven development The beauty to work with React is that you can structure and assemble your code in components. The parent component can contain various child components. The parent component passes the data values to child, to maintain the uni-directional data flow. For data driven apps, React seems to be a good choice. 2.d  Virtual DOM - The secret sauce of DOM Optimisation Before we understand Virtual DOM, let’s take a look at DOM. DOM refers to document object model.DOM is referred by the browser to render the HTML. The HTML is converted into DOM. To simply visualise the DOM you can think of a tree trunk and which has its roots spread down below.In DOM visualisation tree we can see that there are different nodes which are connected to html. In DOM, whenever the new nodes are inserted and deleted there is cost in terms of computation and memory footprint during such operations. And this is a little costly affair. Virtual DOM acts as performance optimiser in these operations.  The Virtual DOM has two copies, one is the master copy of the node and another one is the copy of the changes to be done. Virtual DOM reduces the cost in terms of memory and processing time to apply the changes. It applies the minimal changes required on the DOM. The process is also called reconciliation and is achieved by render() function in React. Reference: View Live DOM Tree.d3.DOM VisualizerReconciliation3. Getting Started3.a Picking the development IDE or the Editor To work with code, we need an editor which can provides us the following: An engaging developer experience Notify and spot errors in advance Can perform autocomplete, syntax highlighting and maintain readability of code Easy to customise and provide plugins to help in developer workflow Also provide us flexibility to create our own plugins And help in code collaboration while working with multiple team members. There are various editors available for developers in market such as Sublime, Atom, Brackets and Visual Studio Code & WebStorm IDE.  All of them have their pros & cons.  In our current project we are sticking to Visual studio code. It is available for Windows, Mac and Linux.  You may download the editor based on your operating system.3.b Environment Setup To run React we will require Node.js on our operating system. Node.js is written by Ryan Dahl and is based on Chrome V8 engine.  Download Node.js & visit the url And we will install the release with even number and LTS (Long term support) We will be installing the Node.js version 12. It also includes npm which we will use to run our first app in React.  To run Node.js we can use command prompt on Windows and use Terminal on macOS.To check the Node.js version, we need to run the following command. node --versionAs you can see from screenshot that we have installed version 12 (v12.18.2) After installation of Node & npm.we will be creating to create a React app with command line interface (CLI). mkdir CodefactoryInstallation of create-react-app I have created a directory called Codefactory.  And in that directory, I am going to run the following command npx create-react-app my-appAfter couple of minutes, the packages will be installed. 4. Quick intro to Node & NPM. In the previous sections we have mentioned the use of Node and NPM. Node.js help developers to use JavaScript as the main language to build their apps. It is open source.  Some of its salient features are: Event driven Non-blocking I/O (input/output) cross platform run time environment Based on Chrome V8 JavaScript EngineRyan Dahl is the creator of Node.js. V8 supports new features of JavaScript and those features are made available to Node.js. And which keep the Node.js in mainstream based on the recent development and upgradation happening in the ecosystem of JavaScript and ECMAScript. Since modularity is much needed and required by developers. Node.js follows the concepts of modules as characterized by NPM. NPM is a package manager for Node.js modules and various packages are available for developers to test and experiment with their code. Official site.References: Node.js Ryal Dahl (2009) 5. Your first React app Start with the boilerplate app Now let's go back to terminal & run our app. We will go to directory my-app and after running the following command cd my-appNow you are in my-app directory, where the npx has downloaded the dependencies and modules.  5.2 File structure of React app Now, we will go to Visual studio code. We will go to menu bar and Add the folder my-app to workspace. In the Visual studio, the explorer will list down the files under the directory structure.  5.3 Run your React app Now is the time to run the React app.  To open terminal go to menu bar and go to Terminal > New Terminal. This will open the terminal at the bottom. We need to type following command in terminal to start the app.  npm start The command line will instruct the app to open in a new browser So, here we can see the app running. Good job so far!And as per the instructions from screenshot we will open the App.js The App.js will show a bunch of import statements and function App()There are various methods to create React app via CLI such as yarn and npm on local system. In case you are facing problems during installation. As an alternative approach to create a React app, you can check StackBlitzAnd create a new workspace of React It will provide you an online playground to tinker and play with the source code in the browser itself. At the left there is a workspace and at the right output from the app. It will show you the index.js which show the import statement, class App component declaration and the render() function. The render function contains JSX. And this allow us to write HTML in JS. This is for a little human friendly version for readability for both experienced programmers and newbie. Reference 5.4 Debugging tool React provides the React Developer tools to check and inspect the components created. It is a very handy tool for debugging. To install React developer tools we will open the below url in google chrome and install add-on from chrome web store  Once we have clicked on Add to Chrome, the tool will be installed.  To open the tool go to your project at localhost. And right click it will show the context menu and click on inspectTo open the tool go to Components tab as shown below:6. Tinker and Play Once we have opened the file App.js in our main project created from CLI. We can tinker around and play with the code. On line number 10, We have a paragraph tag. We can choose any message we want to write and see how it appears on the React app. For E.g. I have added this message in <p> Paragraph tag and inside of the paragraph tag there is a right foot icon enclosed in <big> Bigger text tag. Once we save the file, it will auto reload on the app. So, the auto reload feature saves us from manually load the browser when new changes are saved to disk.  <p >          A Journey of a Thousand Miles Begins with a Single Step.           <big></big> </p >Now feel free to introduce your messages, add some tags and play around. I hope this will serve a good starting point for you to learn and practice. Before you acquire the skills to become a React developer, I hope the understanding of HTML, CSS and JavaScript will give you a good foundation. Happy Learning!.Become a pro at Web Development with the help of our  React training courses. Experience Immersive Learning. 

Step-by-Step: Create a React Project From Scratch

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Step-by-Step: Create a React Project From Scratch

Hello learners. In this tutorial we will learn How to create a new React app. 

Before we begin, we need to understand few things. These tutorials are aimed for the aspiring and seasoned web developers & designer. 

If you are an aspiring web developer who wants to establish their career in React and other modern frontend technologies, these tutorials will provide you the basic understanding that you need to learn, rehearse and practice. And some additional links as a part of suggestive reading, which you can further dwell upon. 

As a lifelong learner, we need to be open to new ideas however they may challenge your beliefs at first.  

Technology is a work in progress. It composes of sections of stable parts which can be applied to solve the problem of our lives. And some sections which are the part of debate and undergoing experimentation and transformation by the pioneers who forged & nurture the systems. 

The cutting-edge technology tends to follow approximately the following adoption curve.

Technology Adoption Lifecycle

Source: Crossing the Chasm  (1990) -Author: Geoffrey Moore  

 
Technology Adoption Lifecycle 

As you can see, the curve is divided among 5 sections as categorized by the work of: 

  • Innovators 
  • Early adopters 
  • Early majority 
  • Late majority  
  • Laggards

Area under the curve represents number of customers  

During the second phase, there is an important phase known as Chasm. 

Any nascent technology which becomes main stream must grow this phase with the help of Early adopters along with innovators. And every promising technology has gone through this phase before it has gained enough momentum and has gone mainstream. 

Before we learn React. We need to learn some concepts. And It will be good to have some basic understanding of how internet works. There are various technical jargon associated and it is a broad topic. If you are complete starter, I hope it will give you some base. 

We will try to understand and answer the following: 

  1. What is Client & Server? 
  2. What is meant by HTTP?

Client & Server 

When a user is connected to the internet with the help of browser (Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Internet Explorer, Safari & Opera). 

And when we type or do the google search with the help of keywords. We are presented a list of search results. The user computer is a client and google search engine act as server. As it serves to your queries in the form of the best matched results in a reasonable short time, it is good to say that the search results are produced at the blink of an eye. 

HTTP

World wide web (W3C) is a consortium which governs the internet. It has set of rules and protocols which defines how the different machines can communicate over the internet. Sir Tim burner Lee is the inventor of the W3C.

HTTP

HTTP is a protocol, which tells and describe the transmission of hypermedia on the internet. It is designed based on the client server concept. In which one system is a client which seeks the information and other system is a server who act and fulfil the request of the client. 

In HTTP, there are various status codes for server, and it describes the status of server based on the client request.  

Whether the request has been 

  • Successful 
  • any error conditions on Client & Server 
  • redirected by server & so on.

1.a(1) HTML 

HTML is a mark-up language which is used to create hypermedia document on the internet. Hypermedia based documents are used to exchange information on the internet. HTML should not be confused with programming language such as C, C++, Java & C#. 

Let’s write a Hello World! HTML document as below: 

<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en"> 
<head> 
<meta charset="UTF-8"> 
<title>HTML 5 Document</title> 
</head> 
<body>Hello World!</ body> 
</html>

To run the above code we can write it down or copy & paste in our favorite text editor and save it as Hello World.html. Please note .html is the file extension. And once we open the file with the browser it will show us the output as below.

Create a React Project from Scratch

HTML is composed of various tags which defines the document and it's semantic. Semantic add meaning to the content as expressed by enclosing tags and it is not purely for visual presentation purpose.  

The HTML 5 document begins with <!DOCTYPE html> 

HTML has also undergone various revisions and modifications. 

For e.g. If We need to present the information as paragraph.  

Then we need to use < p > tag. 

For Tabular data < table >, Order list < ol > & unordered list < ul > and so on. 

References:

 1.a(2)CSS 

Brief history

CSS refers to the cascading style sheets. In the beginning year of the HTML, when HTML was used primarily to exchange information with the help of HTML document on the internet.  

There was limited functionality to style the webpages. In fact, there were some tags which allows to style a page and change its formatting. But there was no separation of concerns, for e.g. the formatting tag and its associated attributes were often mixed with semantic HTML.
Create a React Project from Scratch

And one of the early innovators Håkon Wium Lie recognized that there is a need of web page styling language which can address the presentation part of the webpages including the layout. And there is a need of separation of concerns.  

Håkon Wium Lie along with the co-inventor Bert Bos had written the specification of CSS. 

< table> & its sibling tags were heavily used to structure the layout of the webpages. 

For E.g. To create multi column layout < table> were frequently used. It worked well to create the initial push to the web layouts, but it has own draw backs.  

More on the history of CSS

To know more about how we can use CSS, we will start with previous code. To change the text color of Hello World! from black to green, we will declare a stylesheet called text.css. 

Naming convention for filename plays important rule, in recalling the file name when your source code becomes huge. It is good to start building on these habits. 

Hello World.html 

<!DOCTYPE html> 
<html lang="en"> 
<head> 
<meta charset="UTF-8"> 
<link rel="stylesheet" type="text/csshref="text.css" /> 
<title>HTML 5 Document</title> 
</head> 
<body>Hello World!</body> 
</html> 

 Text.css 

body{ 
font-family: 'Arial', Helvetica, Verdana; 
color: red; 
font-weight: bold; 
font-size: large; 
}

Create a React Project from Scratch

As you can see from the browser, it displays the Hello World! text in red color and font appearance is bold & larger. 

CSS has lots of modules which helps us to create sophisticated layouts, cool animations, image processing using css filters, accessibility (a11y) & much more. 

The current version of CSS is CSS3. As technology gradually evolved, so did the CSS.  

It is maintained by CSS working group, which consists of invited experts and working group members.  

If you are interested to explore more you may check some of these links. 

Reference: 

CSS Almanac

Cool tricks  

Homer CSS (2008)

Romancortes.com

Animated your HTML 

1.a(3) JavaScript 

  • JavaScript is used to bring interactivity on the web pages. 
  • JavaScript is based on the ECMA Script standard.  
  • Every browser has JavaScript engines, which interpret the JavaScript code. 

As described in the previous sections that the HTML is responsible for the structure and semantic aspect for the webpage. And with the help of CSS, the look and feel, advanced layouts and interactivity can be added using animation and pseudo classes. 

JavaScript brings lots of interactivity to your pages. It is good to say that it adds wings to your creation. But sometimes these wings catch the fire, so we also know how to troubleshoot and prevent such instances from happening.  

For e.g. If you ask your user to input their age. To validate the age, we can write the JavaScript code and validate, whether the input is correct or not. Create a React Project from Scratch

To recap and understand the HTML, CSS and JavaScript in brief. We can refer to the above presentation. 

2. ECMA Script and new versions 

ECMAScript describes the functionality of JavaScript. ECMAScript is maintained by ECMA International. 

The aim of ECMA Script is to ensure that webpages can run the same JavaScript code across different browser, & it is also interoperable with other programming language. In this context the Interoperability means that other programming language can invoke JavaScript function. 

Programming languages such as Dart can run JavaScript code. Some framework such as Blazor in the world of . NET can invoke functions written in JavaScript. In terms of specification itries to draws the line of standard for different browser vendors. Microsoft, Firefox, Google, Chrome, Opera & Apple each has its own browsers which runs on different operating systems whether it is on Windows, Linux and macOS. Sometimes the browser vendor takes a lead while implementing a feature. But the specifications for that feature are written later by standard body (ECMA International). The new feature may be adopted by another browsers vendor later in the evolution process.  

Different browser vendor has different development life cycle in terms of features implementation. And it takes time for the specification to become a standard. And the new version of browser is released by multiple vendor with the specification and takes time to become a standard on Web. In past few years since ECMAScript has undergone various revisions and changes as described by ES6, ES7, ES8 & ES9 & more we will see in future. 

And these changes have resulted into the major impact on the JavaScript syntax. More references: 

ECMA Script version history

ECMA Script

2. Intro to React & Virtual DOM 

React is a library which is publicly released by Facebook in 2013. 

React was created by Jordan Walke, a software engineer working at Facebook. React allows us to divide our code into components. And these components communicate with each other in a unidirectional flow. As the components follows a standard development structure in nomenclature and design patterns. This helps in reducing of the knowledge gaps when different team members work and manage a project in which they have not worked from scratch.  

React is based on the Functional programming principles as the design pattern. It is also follow the DRY principle. DRY stands for Dont repeat yourself. That means any piece of code which serves a specific task or function should not be repeated as the duplicate code. But we can declare it as a component and increase the reusability. Design pattern is a wide topic. If you are interested to know more about the design pattern you may check out these references.

Addyosmani
refactoring.guru

2.b Quick timeline of React release 

Technology goes through a lot of wear and tear before it is adopted in mainstream and it also need to prove it's worth in real life production environment. 

The complete timeline of React release is available on GitHub. 

Some of the interesting highlights from React release. 

VersionRelease DateDescription
0.3.029th May 2013Public release
0.13.010th March 2015Support for ES6 Classes
15.007th April 2016New changes on how React interacts with DOM, added support for SVG attributes, Dropped support for IE8
16.026th September 2017MIT license. Reduced file size. Better error handling
16.505th September 2018Added support for React Devtools profiler (Flame chart, Ranked chart, Component chart & more)
16.816th February 2019Introduced concept of hooks

Reference: 

Github.com

Risingstack.com

2.c Component driven development 

The beauty to work with React is that you can structure and assemble your code in components. The parent component can contain various child components. The parent component passes the data values to child, to maintain the uni-directional data flow. 

For data driven apps, React seems to be a good choice. 

2.d  Virtual DOM - The secret sauce of DOM Optimisation 

Before we understand Virtual DOM, lettake a look at DOM. DOM refers to document object model.DOM is referred by the browser to render the HTML. Create a React Project from Scratch

The HTML is converted into DOM. To simply visualise the DOM you can think of a tree trunk and which has its roots spread down below.

Create a React Project from Scratch

In DOM visualisation tree we can see that there are different nodes which are connected to html. In DOM, whenever the new nodes are inserted and deleted there is cost in terms of computation and memory footprint during such operations. And this is a little costly affair. 

Virtual DOM acts as performance optimiser in these operations.  

The Virtual DOM has two copies, one is the master copy of the node and another one is the copy of the changes to be done. 

Virtual DOM reduces the cost in terms of memory and processing time to apply the changes. It applies the minimal changes required on the DOM. The process is also called reconciliation and is achieved by render() function in React. 

Reference: 

View Live DOM Tree.

d3.DOM Visualizer

Reconciliation

3. Getting Started

3.a Picking the development IDE or the Editor 

To work with code, we need an editor which can provides us the following: 

  • An engaging developer experience 
  • Notify and spot errors in advance 
  • Can perform autocomplete, syntax highlighting and maintain readability of code 
  • Easy to customise and provide plugins to help in developer workflow 
  • Also provide us flexibility to create our own plugins 
  • And help in code collaboration while working with multiple team members. 

There are various editors available for developers in market such as Sublime, Atom, Brackets and Visual Studio Code & WebStorm IDE.  All of them have their pros & cons.  

In our current project we are sticking to Visual studio code. It is available for Windows, Mac and Linux.  

You may download the editor based on your operating system.

3.b Environment Setup 

To run React we will require Node.js on our operating system. Node.js is written by Ryan Dahl and is based on Chrome V8 engine.  

Download Node.js & visit the url

And we will install the release with even number and LTS (Long term support) 

We will be installing the Node.js version 12. It also includes npm which we will use to run our first app in React 

To run Node.js we can use command prompt on Windows and use Terminal on macOS.To check the Node.js version, we need to run the following command. 

Create a React Project from Scratch

node --version

As you can see from screenshot that we have installed version 12 (v12.18.2) 

After installation of Node & npm.we will be creating to create a React app with command line interface (CLI). 

mkdir Codefactory

Installation of create-react-app 

I have created a directory called Codefactory 

And in that directory, I am going to run the following command 

npx create-react-app my-app

After couple of minutes, the packages will be installed. 

4. Quick intro to Node & NPM. 

In the previous sections we have mentioned the use of Node and NPM. 

Node.js help developers to use JavaScript as the main language to build their apps. It is open source.  

Some of its salient features are: 

  • Event driven 
  • Non-blocking I/O (input/output) 
  • cross platform run time environment 
  • Based on Chrome V8 JavaScript Engine

Ryan Dahl is the creator of Node.js. 

V8 supports new features of JavaScript and those features are made available to Node.js. And which keep the Node.js in mainstream based on the recent development and upgradation happening in the ecosystem of JavaScript and ECMAScript. 

Since modularity is much needed and required by developers. 

Node.js follows the concepts of modules as characterized by NPM. 

NPM is a package manager for Node.js modules and various packages are available for developers to test and experiment with their code. 

Official site.

References: 

Node.js Ryal Dahl (2009) 

5. Your first React app 

Start with the boilerplate app 

Now let's go back to terminal & run our app. 

We will go to directory my-app and after running the following command 

cd my-app

Now you are in my-app directory, where the npx has downloaded the dependencies and modules.  

5.2 File structure of React app 

Now, we will go to Visual studio code. We will go to menu bar and Add the folder my-app to workspace. 

Step-by-Step: Create a React Project From Scratch

In the Visual studio, the explorer will list down the files under the directory structure 

5.3 Run your React app 

Now is the time to run the React app.  

To open terminal go to menu bar and go to Terminal > New Terminal. This will open the terminal at the bottom. 

We need to type following command in terminal to start the app.  

npm start 

The command line will instruct the app to open in a new browser Create a React Project from Scratch

So, here we can see the app running. 

Good job so far!

And as per the instructions from screenshot we will open the App.js 

The App.js will show a bunch of import statements and 

function App()

There are various methods to create React app via CLI such as yarn and npm on local system. 

In case you are facing problems during installation. 

As an alternative approach to create a React app, you can check StackBlitz

And create a new workspace of React 

It will provide you an online playground to tinker and play with the source code in the browser itself. Create a React Project from Scratch

At the left there is a workspace and at the right output from the app. 

It will show you the index.js which show the import statement, class App component declaration and the render() function. The render function contains JSX. And this allow us to write HTML in JS. This is for a little human friendly version for readability for both experienced programmers and newbie. 

Reference 

5.4 Debugging tool 

React provides the React Developer tools to check and inspect the components created. It is a very handy tool for debugging. 

To install React developer tools we will open the below url in google chrome and install add-on from chrome web store  

Create a React Project from ScratchOnce we have clicked on Add to Chrome, the tool will be installed.  

Step-by-Step: Create a React Project From Scratch

To open the tool go to your project at localhost. And right click it will show the context menu and click on inspect

To open the tool go to Components tab as shown below:

Step-by-Step: Create a React Project From Scratch

6. Tinker and Play 

Once we have opened the file App.js in our main project created from CLI. We can tinker around and play with the code. 

On line number 10, We have a paragraph tag. We can choose any message we want to write and see how it appears on the React app. 

For E.g. I have added this message in <p> Paragraph tag and inside of the paragraph tag there is a right foot icon enclosed in <big> Bigger text tag. Once we save the file, it will auto reload on the app. So, the auto reload feature saves us from manually load the browser when new changes are saved to disk. 

 <p > 
        A Journey of a Thousand Miles Begins with a Single Step.  
        <big></big>
</p >

Create a React Project From Scratch

Now feel free to introduce your messages, add some tags and play around. I hope this will serve a good starting point for you to learn and practice. 

Before you acquire the skills to become a React developer, I hope the understanding of HTML, CSS and JavaScript will give you a good foundation. HappLearning!.

Become a pro at Web Development with the help of our  React training courses. Experience Immersive Learning. 

Gaurav

Gaurav Mishra

Author

Gaurav Mishra is an expert in user-interface development and user-experience design, with more than 13+ years of experience. Comfortable to work with any kind of technology, he has growth mindset and keep a beginner mind. He has provided workshops and training in UI development, UX design, and Drupal. He has mentored and trained various students around the world. Gaurav has played the key role in the success of many organizations and likes to build products and services from scratch which delight people.  He likes to challenge the status quo to bring out the best from team & reshape the organisation culture. He likes all genres of music, from Indian classical to club music. 

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These tools help to automate the whole process of building, testing and deployment of applications. Github Actions   It is a freely available CI/CD pipeline, which directly integrates to your GitHub based project and can be used in variety of languages. Jenkins  Jenkins is the most popular CI/CD automation tool, which helps in building, testing and deployment of applications. Jenkins was written in Java and over the years has been built to support over 1400 plugins, which extend its functionalities. Circle CI  Circle CI is also a CI/CD automation tool, which is cloud based and so it is different from Jenkins. It is much easier to use than Jenkins, but has a smaller community and lower user base. SecuritySecurity is an important aspect of any application. Most applications containing user personal data, like email etc, are often targeted by hackers. OWASP   The Open Web Application Security Project (or OWASP), is a non-profit organization dedicated to web application security. They have free material available on their website, making it possible for anyone to improve their web application security. Protecting Services & databases against threats   Hackers target databases of popular web-apps on a regular basis to get sensitive information about their customers. This data is then sold to the highest bidder on the dark-net. When such public breaches are reported, then it's a reputation loss for the enterprise also. So, a lot of emphasis should be given to Authentication, Access, Backups, and Encryption while setting up a database. The databases should also be monitored for any suspicious activities. Besides this the API routes also need to be protected, so that the hacker cannot manipulate them. Career roles Most of the companies hire Frontend developers, Backend developers and DevOps engineers separately. This is because most of the enterprise projects are huge, in which roles and responsibilities are distributed. But there is a huge demand for Full Stack developers in the startup sector in US and India. These companies need specialists who can get the product out as soon as possible with agile and small teams. Top companies hiringAlmost every company on the planet is hiring web-developers or outsourcing the development work. Since the past decade, the demand for developers has risen exponentially. The top technology companies which hire full stack developers are Facebook, Amazon, Apple, Netflix, Google, Uber, Flipkart, Microsoft and more.  The sites of each of these companies are web-apps (excluding Apple and Microsoft), with complex frontend and backend systems. The frontend generally consists of React or Angular and the backend is a combination of various technologies. The DevOps part is also quite important in these web-apps as they handle millions of concurrent connections at once.Salaries  The salary of a beginner Frontend developer in India starts from Rs. 300,000($ 3980) per year in service-based companies to Rs. 12,00,000($ 15,971) per year in the top tech companies mentioned above. The salary of a Beginner Full-Stack developer in India starts at Rs. 4,50,000 ($ 5989) per year in service companies to Rs. 12,00,000($ 15,971) per year in top tech companies. The salary for an entry level Frontend developer in USA is $ 59,213 per year and for an entry level Full stack developer is $ 61,042 per year.Below are some sources for salaries. web-developerfull-stack-developerfront-end-vs-back-endTop regions where there is demand There are plenty of remote and freelancing opportunities in web-development across the world. The two countries with most developers and top tech companies are USA and India. Silicon Valley, which is the San Francisco Bay Area, in Northern California, USA is the hub of technology companies.  The top city in India to start a developer job is the Silicon Valley of India – Bengaluru. The number of jobs is more than all the other cities combined and it also has a very good startup ecosystem. Almost all the big technology companies mentioned earlier and top Indian service companies are located in the city. After Bengaluru, the city where the greatest number of technology jobs are based is Hyderabad, followed by Chennai and then Pune. Entry PointsThe demand for web-developers is high and anyone with a passion for creating apps can become a web-developer. An Engineering degree is not mandatory to land a job as a web developer.  The most in-demand skill today and for the next 5 years is React and its ecosystem. So, if you know HTML, CSS, JavaScript and React, it is impossible to not get a job. Career Pathway  Most people start as an intern Front-end developer or Intern Full-Stack developer and in many cases Intern Backend developer. Many companies directly hire junior Frontend/Backend/Full-stack developers.  After that, the next step is the role of Senior Frontend/Backend/Full-stack developers. Many Frontend and Backend developers become full stack developers at this level, by learning additional technologies. Senior resources in Frontend/Backend/Full-stack can then go on to assume Team Lead roles. These people manage small teams in addition to being individual contributors.  After this a professional can become a Project manager, whose main responsibility is managing the team. Another role is that of Technical Project Manager, who manages the team and also has hands-on knowledge in Technology. The last role at this level is that of a Software Architect, who handles and designs big projects and has to look at every aspect of the technology to create the enterprise app. Generally Full-stack developers are preferred in this role, as they need to know all technologies. The highest career milestone is CTO or Chief Technology Officer, who handles all the technology teams and makes all technology decisions in a Technology company. Job SpecializationThere are some Full stack development specializations which I see nowadays in the industry. Full stack developers who work with React in the Frontend and Java in the Backend are in great demand. Similarly, developers who work with Angular in the Frontend and .NET in the backend are in great demand.How KnowledgeHut can helpAll these free resources are a great place to start your Frontend or Full-Stack journey. Beside these there are many other free resources on the internet, but they may not be organized and may not have a structured approach.  This is where KnowledgeHut can make a difference and serve as a one stop shop alternative with its comprehensive Instructor-led live classes. The courses are taught by Industry experts and are perfect for aspirants who wish to become Frontend or FullStack developers.Links for some of the popular courses & Bootcamps by KnowledgeHut are appended below-CSS3JavaScriptReactJSNodeJSDevopsFull-stack developer BootcampFront-end developer Bootcampback-end developer BootcampConclusion This completes our article on the Full stack developer journey by combining both the Frontend and backend roadmap. There are many people who become backend developers first by working on languages like Java and then go on to learn React to become full stack developers.  Again, many developers learn front-end development first with frameworks like React, and then become full stack developers by learning Node.JS. This path is easier for developers because both React and Node.JS use the same language which is JavaScript.We hope you have found this blog useful, and can now take the right path to become a full stack developer. Good luck on your learning journey!
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How to Become a Successful Full Stack Web Develope...

Full stack developer roles are among the hottest c... Read More

How To Install and Setup React Native on Mac

React Native Development Environment Installation:With the rapid growth of online websites, businesses, and the general ecosystem, it is crucial that website UIs load quickly on smartphones to encourage smartphone-based internet consumption. Facebook developed React Native from a need to generate UI elements efficiently, which formed the basis for creating the open-source web framework. Its native cross-platform capabilities allow usage for a wide range of platforms for application development, including Android, Web, Windows, UWP, tvOS, macOS, iOS, and AndroidTV. Microsoft also released a preview release in May 2020 that expanded the range of the React Native world, allowing desktop app development. React Native runs in the background of the destination device, and then communicates with the native platform via a batched asynchronous bridge. Its three main advantages are:It allows faster development due to its native natureThough it has a syntax styling similar to CSS or HTML, it is much quicker and efficientIt is flexible as it allows developers to write native code in various languages, including Java, Kotlin, and Swift.This article is about how to install and configure React Native CLI environment. First, we will learn how to install the framework, then check whether it works well and finally develop an app.PrerequisitesBasic computer proficiencyAn account with Administrative privileges on your computerAccess to the outlined documents and softwareA working internet connection to download the installation filesAudienceThis article guides first-time React Native users, junior developers, and developers with no experience with React Native. If curiosity nudged you to learn the framework due to the hype around React, then this is the guide you need.System requirementsSoftwareXcode version 11.3.1 or newer is required. Nodejs version 12 LTS or newer is required.HardwareMacOS requires a Mac device to operateRam - 4GBStorage - 10GBThese requirements ensure your tools run quickly and have enough storage for installation and development.System RequirementsReact Native requires macOS High Sierra (10.13) or higher to run efficiently.Installation through HomeBrew:HomeBrew is a package manager that helps you install and manage packages on Mac, and thus it will be essential to our installation process. You will install HomeBrew so that you can use it to install all the other tools necessary for React Native environment, including Nodejs, git, Watchman, and JDK.First download HomeBrew using the above link, then execute the command below in the Command Line Interface:brew—versionThe command verifies whether HomeBrew has been successfully installed and outputs the specific version installed as the following result shows:homebrew 2.1.7 homebrew/homebrew-core (git revision f487; last commit 2020-05-26)When the version is unavailable, you can install HomeBrew via this code:/usr/bin/ruby -e “$(curl –fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/HomeBrew/install/master/install)”After installation, check whether HomeBrew has installed properly using the following command:brew--versionIf the software is well installed, the result will show the version and date as shown:homebrew 2.1.7 homebrew/homebrew-core(git revision f487; last commit 2020-05-26)NodejsReact Native is a JavaScript platform; hence it needs Nodejs to provide a JavaScript runtime.  Nodejs also provides essential tools such as a local webserver with live reloading, network tools, command-line tools, and web APIs.Use the HomeBrew command below to install Nodejs:brew install nodeCheck whether the installation is successful through the following command:node—versionIf the installation has occurred successfully, the Nodejs version will show up:V12.6.0Installation of Nodejs also includes installation of npm, the Node Package Manager. It would help if you had npm to help you install packages, libraries, and vital tools for your React development environment. To verify if npm is successfully installed, execute the following command:npm—versionIf the installation is successful, you will see the version as shown below:6.9.0WatchmanWatchman monitors the files and folders utilized by the framework and triggers specific actions if the files are modified. It would be best if you had Watchman for React Native to monitor source codes and rebuild them once they are changed.To install Watchman, execute the command below:brew install watchmanVerify installation through:watchman --versionif properly installed, the result will show the version as shown below:4.9.0React Native CLIYou need React Native CLI to develop the app by react-native. React Native CLI is installed by executing the npm command below:npm install --g react-native-cliCheck if the installation is successful using the following command:react-native --versionSometimes, users may get an error when using the npm install --g react -native-cli command. To avoid this, try entering sudo before this command, then enter your system password.If the installation is successful, you will see the version as shown:react-native-cli:2.0.1 react-native:n/a - not inside a React Native ProjectXcodeYou need Xcode for iOS app development, and you can download it via the above link. After installation, configure the Command Line Tools. Execute Xcode and go toXcode > Preferences > LocationsYou should see the Command Line Tools settings showing the version of Xcode as:Xcode 10.2.1 (10E1001)If the settings do not look like that, select the last version of the Command Line Tool from the dropdown menu.Go to components and select an iOS emulator, then download it (this is for those without iOS devices to run and test their apps on. It is also easier than using an actual device.)Move account tabs, select apple id, and input your apple id.Open Xcode and create a new project, name it anything, then close it. After project creation, click the root file and select "sign in and capabilities," then select your user id. Select your emulator and keep it ready for development.CocoapodsCoacoapods manages dependencies in iOS development, and thus it is necessary to develop an app by react-native.Install Cocoapods through the following command:sudo gem install cocoapodsVerify installation through:pod --versionif installation is successful, you can see the version as shown below:1.7.5JDKThe Java Development Kit is essential for the development of Android apps with react-native. Install JDK through the command below:brew tap AdoptOpenJDK/openjdk brew cask install adoptopenjdk8Verify installation through:java -versionIf you see the Java version as shown below, then Java has been successfully installed:openjdk version "1.8.0_222" OpenJDK Runtime Environment (AdoptOpenJDK)(BUILD 1.8.0_222-b10) OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM (AdoptOpenJDK)(build 25.222-b10, mixed mode)JDK Installation also installs the Java Compiler, which can be verified by executing the following command:javac -versionIf the installation is successful, the following result shows up:javac 1.8.0_222Android StudioAndroid Studio is also an essential tool for developing an Android app using react-native.CONFIGURATIONOn the install type screen, select the custom option, choose your preferred theme, then select the performance (Intel R HAXM) option and Android Virtual Device option. Click Next, then leave the Emulator settings as they are, and click next again. Allow the standard installation to continue and click Finish to complete the process.ANDROID STUDIO SDK CONFIGURATIONClick Configure>SDK Manager and proceed to Android SDK Configuration.Select the Show Package Details option and select the following options:Android SDK Platform 28Intel  X86 Atom System ImageGoogle APIs Intel x86 Atom System ImageGoogle APIs Intel x86 Atom_64 System ImageClick ok to install the options selected.In the SDK Tools Window, select show package details >Android SDK Build Tools >Android SDK Build Tools 23.0.1.ANDROID STUDIO ENVIRONMENT VARIABLE CONFIGURATIONYou need to set environment variables to ensure the development environment fits your specifications.  Ensure that the ANDROID_HOME environment variable connects to your existing Android SDK to avoid complications.Open and include the following code to the ~/.bash_profile file or the ~/.zshrc file to add the environment variables:For .bash_profile users, use the following command:source ~/.bash_profileAfter configuration, restart the terminal, then execute the following command: adbThe correct result if all variables are successfully configured is:Android Debug Bridge Version 1.0.41 version 29.0.1-5644136 Installed as /Your Android SDK Directory Location/platform-tools/adbGit1.You can also use git, which comes with Xcode. However, if its unavailable, run the code below:brew install gitgit is a substitute for the Android Studio development environment.Gradle DaemonSometimes you may need to modify the java code, in which case, your development speed will be affected. Gradle Daemon is a tool that manages these changes to speed up your development.Other Installation MethodsExpo CLIExpo CLI is a tool built to install and manage react-native frameworks. However, its unsuitable feature is that it has numerous native features, which makes building an app tedious and also makes the app size more extensive than it needs to be. Additionally, incorporating elements in an app that are not available in Expo CLI is difficult, making the tool unsuitable for developers. Despite that, Expo CLI has many useful native tools, unlike React Native CLI, such as geolocation, camera, the microphone that can come in handy for most application needs. Expo CLI is a much easier route than the react-native CLI route.The installation process is as follows:1.Install the Expo CLI command line utility using:Npm install –g expo-cli2.Run the command below to create your first project:expo init my app3. Browse to the directory with the following command in the terminal:4. Finally, run the projectExpo start5. A development environment server will be started by these commands. Running the app requires installing the Expo client app to your device (iOS/Android) then connecting it to your computer. Android requires scanning the QR code on the terminal to authenticate the project, while iOS requires QR code scanning using the camera app. On the Android (emulator/real device), use the following command to initialize the app:npm run android6. While on the iOS emulator run:npm run iosExpo has docs that you can reference for solutions or even utilize the Expo Forums created for the Expo community to ask questions.Expo is mostly best suited for beginners as it does not include the use of native code thus cannot be used to develop complex applications with custom components.TestingProject structureReact Native project structure consists of a project directory with configuration files such as package.json, app.json, .watchman.json at the root; separate Android and iOS folders; a _tests_ folder with validation tests for the project; a nodes_module for housing smaller app modules; and an index.js file that maps the application and serves as the initialization point of the application. package.json  specifies project dependencies and versions, while app.json contains the app name.The npm (node package manager) manages the node_modules folder, which stores all the project library dependencies. You should avoid modifying the files present in the folder since alterations performed cannot be assured to be stable from updates/installs. Assets in the public folder are to be shared publicly. The src folder contains all development work by the developer, including components and source codes.Developing an app1. First, you need to lock the version you build with to ensure the app still works even after updates, using the following command:npm config set save-exact=true2. Create a native project through the command:react-native init AwesomeProject cd AwesomeProject react-native run-iosYour new app will run successfully in the emulator.3. In iOS, execute the command below:cd SampleApp #react-native run ios npm run iosThe react-native app will show up on the emulator.4. On Android, run the following command:cd SampleApp #react-native run-android npm run androidYour Android emulator will output:Welcome to ReactSecond App VerificationHello World is a simple program for most development environments. Open index.ios.js for iOS or index.android.js for Android, then proceed to delete everything between the tags .  Write Hello World and execute the emulator.The result will be Hello World on the screen.Modifying Your AppAfter successful testing, you can modify your app through the following steps:Open index.ios.js or index.android.js and edit some files.Click CommandX + R in the iOS Emulator and reload to see changes.Potential issuesYou might encounter problems while installing Cocoapods or React Native CLI - the most probable solution is entering a sudo command before the installation command, which will prompt you for your system password. Input the password, and your installation will go through just fine. You might also get this result [Broken AVD system path. Check your ANDROID_SDK_ROOT value]. Check if you installed android -sdk using homebrew; if you did, then uninstall it through the following command: brew uninstall android-sdk Another error is No ANDROID_HOME which means the bash files do not point to the ANDROID_HOME path. You can correct this through the following steps:Open and add the following code to the ~/.bash_profile file or the ~/.zshrc file to add the environment variables:#export ANDROID_HOME=$HOME/Library/Android/sdk export ANDROID_HOME=android SDK directory location/ Android/sdk export PATH=$PATH:$ANDROID_HOME/emulator export PATH=$PATH:ANDROID_HOME/tools export PATH=$PATH:$ANDROID_HOME/tools/bin export PATH=$PATH:$ANDROID_HOME/platform-toolsFor .bash_profile users, use the following command:source ~/.bash_profileThen proceed to verify the correction using the following code:echo $ANDROID_HOME // default: /Users//Library/Android/sdkAndroid Emulator won't run from Android Virtual Device Manager – Android Studio rarely shows an error that may occur in the Android Device Emulator; thus, you need to utilize the command line and run the commands below to check the name of the Android virtual device:Avdmanager list avdThen runEmulator –avd Wait for the device to boot up, then run your app in the emulatorReact-native run-androidYour app should run successfully.No Connected devices- you should run the following commandReact-native run-androidWrong Android emulator – you need to find the right emulator using the following code:find - -name emulator –type f /Users//Library/Android/sdk/emulator // this /Users//Library/Android/sdk/tools/emulator // not thisRestart the terminal and verify the error is gone.Avdmanager not found- write ~/.bash_profile, then add the following code afterwards:PATH=$PATH:$ANDROID_HOME/tool s/bin export PATHthen runsource ~/.bash_profileQuit and restart the terminal, then run the tools.Uninstallation procedureSometimes you might need to uninstall and wipe off the whole react-native environment due to issues such as a broken development environment which can be caused by misusing commands or assigning storage to variables incorrectly.  To do so efficiently, use the uninstall command together with the -g flag, then include the scope if the package is scoped.  A good example is as follows;npm uninstall -g react-native-cliornpm uninstall for scoped package usenpm uninstall As our installations have a package.json file, you might need to remove a package from the dependencies in that file. Use the following commands to effect these changes:npm uninstall --save or the following for a scoped packagenpm uninstall --save You will also need to verify if the uninstallation is successful through the following commands on macOS:ls node_modulesThis command ensures the node_modules do not contain a folder for the uninstalled files.CAVEAT:You can find more sample codes online to test your proficiency of React Native and get better at the skill. React Native is based on MIT License that grants Facebook copyright for portions of React Native for macOS extension derived from React Native. Remember to only download software from the official stated sites to avoid downloading compromised, malware-ridden software that can cripple your computer. If your computer shows any warning while executing any of the above steps, ensure to verify the software, ask an expert or ask on online community platforms. After completing and understanding all these steps successfully, you are now officially a beginner. You can proceed to the next stages of React Native app development until you become an expert. Some of the most significant areas you need to look at afterwards include animation, command-line instructions, components, shareable APKs, custom fonts, debugging, ESLint, images, layout, HTTP requests, Firebase integration, listview, native modules, and routing.The guide presented has shown how to install React Native through various methods and why the tools stated are required, then showed examples of apps and finally the uninstallation procedure. Tooling and development in React Native are simple, and the learning curve is short, making it an ideal framework for web developers.  The growth of internet consumers, cross-platform development, and the whole of the internet ecosystem is an excellent catalyst for React Native to grow in popularity among developers. It offers them faster development speed while offering internet consumers speedier loading times and more beautiful website UIs.  As you have seen, React development is simple; hence it should convince you to get started and launch your own apps within a short period. Being a new but highly applicable language, React Native holds a lot of opportunities, career wise and development wise. There are also numerous React Native platforms on the internet that can help you solve challenges you might face in development. Keep coding and have fun!
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How To Install and Setup React Native on Mac

React Native Development Environment Installation:... Read More

How to Install MongoDB on a Mac

MongoDB is one of the most popular unstructured database management systems that can store a high volume of data. It is a document-oriented database system that belongs to the family of NoSQL (non-SQL). Here the data and records are stored as documents that behave more like JSON objects. Documents are a combination of key-value pairs that form the basic unit of data in MongoDB. This database system came into action in mid-2000.What is NoSQL and why should we use NoSQL?NoSQL stands for Not Only SQL or non-SQL and is an unstructured database that helps store and retrieve data. In the year 1998, Carl Strozz introduced NoSQL. It models the data by means other than the tabular relations. It means such databases do not have a fixed schema, but are intended explicitly for the distributed data that demands humongous data storage. We use NoSQL databases for real-time web apps, mobile apps, big data, etc. Websites like Google, Twitter, Amazon, Facebook, Instagram, etc., collect terabytes of data every day.Earlier, web applications were simple and did not generate such huge amounts of data. But with the advent of big companies like Facebook, Google, Amazon, etc., huge volumes of data are generated, because of which NoSQL databases have become popular. Traditional RDBMS (like SQL) uses simple queries to store and retrieve textual data. But NoSQL database management systems embrace a wide range of file systems storing structured, unstructured, semi-structured, and polymorphic data.Features of NoSQLNoSQL databases do not follow the relational model. They are schema-free, or they do not follow any specific schema. NoSQL renders heterogeneous data structures (graph, tree, column family, key-value pair, document, etc.) on the same domain. Data is not stored flat in rows and columns (table). NoSQL does not demand data normalization and object-relational mapping. NoSQL does not demand setting up complex concepts like joins, referential integrity, ACID properties, etc. Who should use MongoDB?Developers who want to deal with structured, semi-structured, or unstructured data need to use MongoDB for their applications. Those who are into Big data analysis can also use MongoDB. Again, if an application's data needs agility, scaling, and high performance, MongoDB is the best solution.   It supports a broad spectrum of use cases, from real-time exploratory and predictive analytics to parallel data processing. MongoDB can provide high-performance data storage even when spread across multiple servers.PrerequisitesSoftware Requirement:macOS 10.13 or later MongoDB 4.4 Community Edition (we will show the download procedure later) Install Xcode Command-Line Tools: Homebrew demands to install the Xcode command-line tool from Apple's Xcode before using it. To install Xcode, you have to run the following command in your macOS Terminal:  xcode-select --install Homebrew package manager: By default, macOS does not incorporate the Homebrew package. You can install Homebrew using the documentation given on their official website (https://brew.sh/#install).  Hardware Requirement:Intel Processor / Apple M1 Processor 4 GB RAM preferred Installation StepsInstall Manually without BrewStep 1: Let us now download MongoDB. For this, open your web browser and type: google.comStep 2: From Google search, type: MongoDB and hopefully, the first link the search throws up would be the MongoDB link. From here, we have two ways of installing MongoDB. Follow these steps to install using the macOS terminal.Step 3: Go to mongodb-community Select the version, platform, and package. Make sure you choose macOS as the platform and 'tgz' as the file format and click the download button.Step 4: Once the tgz file gets downloaded, go to the macOS terminal to extract it. Step 5: Mostly, your MongoDB will get downloaded in the Downloads folder. For this, type the following command in the terminal:cd Downloads/ ls tar xzf mongodb-osx-ssl-x86_64-4.4.tgz Step 6: Now, we have to move the MongoDB folder to our local binary storage. sudo mv mongodb-osx-ssl-x86_64-4.4 /usr/local/mongodbThis will ask for your system password. Provide the password. You can change the directory to /usr/local/mongodb and see whether all the files exist or not using the ls command. Note that this step is optional. To change the directory, type the command cd /usr/local/mongodb Next, you have to create the db folder. By default, MongoDB writes or stores the data in the folder called data/db. The command for this will be sudo mkdir -p /data/db The -p flag will allow us to create the directory structure. Now, to check whether this path and directory have been created or not, we use the command: cd /data/dbTo check whether we are on the right directory or not, just type the command: pwdFor changing the permission, you need to know your username first. To know your username, type the command: whoamiNow change the permission of this directory. To do this, the command is: sudo chown /data/db Finally, you are eligible to directly run the mongo process.  Install using Brew –If you want to install MongoDB through Homebrew manually, follow these steps – Step 1: Homebrew helps in installing and managing applications on MacOS. If you haven't downloaded or installed Homebrew, then click the link (https://github.com/mongodb/homebrew-brew) to download the official Homebrew formula for MongoDB, by running the command in your macOS Terminal:  brew update  brew tap mongodb/brew Step 2: Once the Homebrew package resides in your system, you can download MongoDB using brew. Step 3: Type the following command in your macOS Terminal: brew install mongodb-community@version-numberStep 4: This installation will add the following binaries: The mongod server The mongo shell The mongos sharded cluster query router Step 5: The installation will take a few seconds. Once done, you can create a directory to store MongoDB data using the following command. sudo mkdir -p /data/db Step 6: Now, you have to note that your data directory should have the appropriate permissions. To do this, execute the command: sudo chown -R `id -un` /data/db Step 7: This will ensure that the data directory is ready and has all the proper permissions. Step 8: Apart from that, the MongoDB installation will produce the following files and directories at the locations given below – Intel Processors Apple M1  Log directory/usr/local/var/log/mongodb/opt/homebrew/var/log/mongodbConfiguration file/usr/local/etc/mongod.conf/opt/homebrew/etc/mongod.confData directory/usr/local/var/mongodb/opt/homebrew/var/mongodbStep 9: Let us now run the MongoDB community Edition. You can use the brew command to run MongoDB as a macOS. A manual procedure is needed to run MongoDB services on macOS. To execute MongoDB daemon, which resides by the name mongod (process), use the following command: brew services start mongodb-community macOS will run this process as a macOS service. Step 10: For stopping a mongod process running as a macOS service, apply the following command: brew services stop mongodb-communityStep 11: For running MongoDB in the background manually and listening for connections on a given port, use the following command - For Mac systems with Intel processors: mongod --config /usr/local/etc/mongod.conf --fork For Mac systems with Apple M1 processors: mongod --config /opt/homebrew/etc/mongod.conf –fork Step 12: Next, verify your MongoDB version. To do this, type the following command: mongo –version Step 13: The command line will display the installed version of MongoDB on your Mac system. Developers recommend using the newest version of libraries and software whenever feasible. It will keep you away from any compatibility issues with client-side applications. Step14: You can view the installation list by typing the command: mongodb Step15: Use the command mongod --config /usr/local/etc/mongod.conf to start the MongoDB Step 16: To connect to mongodb service, type the command: mongo Step17: Use the ‘show dbs’ command to see all databases. You can learn more about the working of MongoDB and become an expert NoSQL database administrator by joining the course mongodb-administrator. This course covers features of MongoDB 4.0 and future releases. Uninstall MongoDB on macOS X –Uninstalling MongoDB from your system will entirely remove MongoDB along with its associated files. Before uninstalling MongoDB, check whether any mongo service is running by using the command: launchctl list | grep mongo If any running process exists before uninstallation, you should stop or kill it. To kill all the processes related to mongod, use the command: pkill -f mongod The command to uninstall MongoDB from your system is: If installed via brew: brew uninstall mongodb-communityOr, if installed manually you can simply delete the folder: rm -rf If you have a separate folder for the database, use the command to remove that database directory: rm -rf /data/db MongoDB is the leading NoSQL, document-based, open-source database system. It is a cross-platform system - licensed under the Server-Side Public License (SSPL). Due to its broad spectrum of features and benefits, it became popular very quickly. Hopefully, this article has helped you understand the basics of installing MongoDB in your Apple system.   In this article, we have walked you through the two ways to install MongoDB in a macOS. Also, this article explicitly talked about installing MongoDB in Apple systems with Intel processors and with Apple M1 processors. So, you can navigate this article as per your system. You can learn more about MongoDB installation and join the course from mongodb-administrator.
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How to Install MongoDB on a Mac

MongoDB is one of the most popular unstructured da... Read More