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Why ReactJS is taking over Frontend Development

History of JavaScript Today, we see JavaScript used pretty much everywhere. For the seventh year in a row, we see it ranking as the most popular and widely used programming language, a good 67.8% of developers having used it in 2019. JavaScript is used to build 95.2% (1.52 billion) websites today, including Facebook and YouTube and some of the most popular and useful apps such as Google Maps and eBay. Let’s take a closer look at what JavaScript is, how and why it was created, and how it seems to be taking over front-end development. It all began in the late 90s when Netscape Navigator, a popular browser was launched by Netscape Communication. In the initial days of Netscape, it was just a software which was able to render static HTMLs, but people wanted it to do more. Netscape envisioned that web pages should be more dynamic in nature. If users are not able to engage with HTMLs, browsers will end up becoming boring pieces of software, they figured.That’s when Brendan Eich came into the picture. He was contracted in 1995 by Netscape Communications to develop a language which would have a low learning curve, so that anyone would be able to write functionalities with it. He developed the language in just 10 days and named it Mocha. A working prototype of Mocha was integrated in the Netscape Browser in May 1995, renaming the language to LiveScript and later in December 1995, it was renamed again, this time as JavaScript. The marketing team at Netscape chose to call it "JavaScript" as Java was extremely popular at that time. With the popularity of Netscape Navigator, Microsoft wished to capture the browser market and developed Internet Explorer with a scripting language named JScript. For a long time, there was no common standard formed for JavaScript, resulting in huge cross browser compatibility issues. Finally, in 1997, Netscape invited ECMA (European Computer Manufacturing Association) to take the responsibility of forming a specification for JavaScript.Since then, the ECMA has released updated specifications for JavaScript regularly and browsers try to follow these specifications in their implementation of JavaScript engine.Fact Check: Today, Brendan Eich is the CEO of Brave Software which builds a privacy oriented, chromium-based browser named Brave.Fact Check: Netscape Navigator later became the foundation stone for Mozilla Firefox. They retained the same name for their JavaScript engine "Spider Monkey" which was part of the Netscape navigator.Need of Framework With the ECMAScript specifications in place, developers began to use JavaScript  to make the HTML page much more dynamic using JavaScript. However, there were still a few developers who preferred to write big client-side functionality with JavaScript, owing to low performance of browser and JavaScript engines. Perhaps, the industry had a more a server-side performance focus in that era. Then, as computers became more powerful, browser performance improved and JavaScript engines evolved, developers started moving client-side logic to browser using JavaScript.Once developers started writing more and more JavaScript, the community felt the need to write logic in a more structured and scalable manner, so as to be more understandable, readable, manageable and less error prone. The need for a framework in JavaScript was clearly felt.Many frameworks like Dojo, Backbone, Ember and AngularJS eventually emerged within their own communities, which tried to solve problems in their unique way. Collectively, this has helped the whole JS community to move forward towards a more scalable and maintainable web application. ReactJS In 2011, Codebase for Facebook Ads was getting bigger. Developers began to face maintenance issues with it and it was getting harder to add new features in an efficient way. That's when Facebook engineer, Jordan Walke, built a prototype for an efficient application UI. This marked the birth of ReactJS, initially called FaxJS. Later, when Instagram was acquired by Facebook, the folks at Instagram wanted to adopt this framework. Pete Hunt and Jordan Walke then improved, decoupled the library and made it open source as ReactJS in 2013. Since then ReactJS has gone through many changes. The latest version of ReactJS in 2020 is currently 16.13. ReactJS follows component-based architecture and encourages developers to think in terms of small, composable components. Interestingly, this methodology is aligned with an efficient approach for solving any problem in life: the first step to solve a big problem is to break it down into multiple smaller sub problems. Once you have a solution for each sub-problem, you can then add it up to get the overall solution. This can be applied to all problems, big or small. ReactJS asks developer to adopt a problem-solving approach like this to build any UI. It must be noted that ReactJS does not aim to solve each and every problem of building a web application. Rather, it has a narrow focus and a limited scope to solve the one core problem of web development around how to efficiently updating the UI/views.When ReactJS was open sourced in the JSConf 2013, the ideas and changes that ReactJS was proposing were not very well received. For instance, although two-way binding was very popular, ReactJS went ahead with one way data flow. In another example, writing HTML inside JS was considered a bad practice, but ReactJS still wanted to use JSX. All these ideas initially attracted a lot of criticism from the web developer community. In time, however, developers started using it and found it easy to build components efficiently. So, ReactJS now solved the one problem around updating views. But what about all the problems in web development? An ecosystem began to emerge to address the other problems along with ReactJS. Libraries like Redux and React-Router came to life, making ReactJS a complete web framework, although this meant that there would be a dependency on multiple libraries. The ease of using ReactJS trumped all the negative points of the framework and this is what continues to make it a very popular library in web development. In 2020, ReactJS has 50K plus stars on Github and is downloaded 6 million times per week. The ReactJS ecosystem continues to grow steadily; React Native recently bought ReactJS to build cross mobile platform apps. Libraries like Gatsby and NextJS encourage developers to use ReactJS on server and provide benefits of server-side rendering without much hassle. ReactJS has also stood out in multiple developer surveys such as the State of JavaScript. Main design concepts in ReactJS Main design concepts in ReactJSDeclarative, composable, reusable componentsReactJS motivates developers to write small components and reuse the same component at multiple places. Re-usability of components greatly speeds up the overall development and results in less amount of code. Less code is always better because it is less prone to errors. ReactJS encourages developers to write composable components which can be wrapped around any other React component to provide special functionality, thus discouraging the writing of components that do too many things. ReactJS always encourages developers to break their problem into smaller problems, solve the smaller problems first and then combine them to present the overall solution. Less functionality in components always leads to less error prone components. ReactJS encourages developers to write clean, readable, and maintainable code. This is why it emphasizes writing declarative components, which make a codebase easier to read and understand by fellow developers.Declarative, composable components looks a lot like HTML in JS. Instead of standard HTML tags, we have React components as tags. This similarity to standard web semantics is what makes JS somewhat familiar to developers starting out. Reactive Updates Writing static HTML is no fun and it can be said that JavaScript was born to bring interactivity to web pages. ReactJS helps developer to add functionalities in components with which the user can interact and see the results. ReactJS allows developers to attach a state to component and whenever the state of components changes, the component efficiently re-renders itself to produce an updated view. Now, the state of the component can be changed by clicking a button, entering text into the input box or any other part of the component triggering an event. The React component listens to these events and acts accordingly. Updating the whole component UI seems like a terrible idea, but ReactJS has implemented this terrible idea wonderfully by doing it efficiently. In-memory DOM representation ReactJS is able to efficiently update views by keeping a DOM representation in memory known as virtual DOM. Upcoming updates always compare the new DOM with an older copy of the DOM and based on the difference, it figures out the actual DOM elements which need to be updated on the UI. Reducing the number of DOM manipulations makes ReactJS faster. What this means is that writing smaller React components will take up less memory to store DOM representations (Virtual DOM) and ultimately, this results in better performance. Features of ReactJS Main features of ReactJSJSX and Why is it needed When ReactJS was released, it was mentioned in documentation that it is recommended to use JSX along with ReactJS. Now, what is JSX? and do i really need another library to use the ReactJS library? So, let us see how a simple ReactJS component looks without JSX: import React from "react";  function Greeting({ name }) {    return React.createElement("h1", null, `Hello ${name}`);  }  ReactDOM.render(  React.createElement("Greeting", { name: "Gully Boy" }, null),  document.getElementById("root")  ); There is no way the above code looks like a declarative component. The truth is JavaScript does not understand HTML or XML like tags. That is why we need someone to do that conversion for us. Here enters JSX, also known as a syntax extension for JavaScript. With JSX, the above Greeting React component will look something like this: import React from "react";  function Greeting({ name }) {    return {`Hello ${name}`};  }  ReactDOM.render(<Greeting name="Gully Boy" />, document.getElementById("root")); JSX actually makes ReactJS code more readable and understandable. You can assume this as a templating library which converts HTML looking syntax into ReactJS element JS code by calling createElement(). Virtual DOM ReactJS has made the term, 'VDOM' or virtual DOM very popular in the JavaScript community. Web browsers have provided APIs to interact with DOM to make our web page dynamic. One can dynamically add or remove nodes in the web page by using these APIs. But interacting with these APIs was very slow, as changing node triggers re-layout and re-paint event for sub-tree. Although the entire subtree is re-rendered (diffing stops when an element type has been modified and subtree is freshly rendered), even in case of virtual DOM reconciliation, the advantage that React offers is that the developer is freed from figuring out which part of DOM really requires updates - the diffing and reconciliation algorithm takes care of it.  React has thus provided a way to reduce the number to change in DOM using virtual DOM. The VDOM is a JavaScript object which contains information of DOM sub tree. We can also call this an object representation of DOM. React uses this object to compare subsequent modification and figure out the minimum number of modifications needed to make in browser DOM to get the desired result. ReactJS claims that the wonderful performance of their library is because of the algorithm they use to compare the virtual DOM. React Native React native is another popular library which is used to build cross platform mobile applications using JavaScript. Before ReactJS, Cordova and ionic were some frameworks which were very popular to build mobile applications using JavaScript. However, these applications did not perform very well. React native uses popular component-based concepts of ReactJS and provides a way to build an efficient mobile application. React native converts JS code into native platform code to run in mobile devices. This approach has improved the performance of mobile applications by a great deal in comparison to other frameworks like ionic. With React Native, ReactJS has now become a very popular library to build UI on any platform. ReactJS: Here to stay Over the past decade, the JavaScript community has seen tremendous changes in language within the developer community. It has seen a lot of new ideas and terms surface in the form of libraries. Developers are building and sharing their work with rest of the world quite frequently and every other day, implementations are open sourced on Github. These new ideas and the problem solving approach continues to help the JavaScript ecosystem to evolve and become better. Prior to ReactJS, JQuery was very popular and was the default library for any web project involving DOM manipulation. With AngularJS and other MVC libraries, we were encouraged to think about a problem in terms of Modal, View and Controller. People have always sought to figure out an approach that can solve the problem. And structuring a solution in a scalable manner is not a new challenge either. We have already implemented scalable solutions at server-side, and they are performing quite well. ReactJS now brings the same pattern to the front-end, where the final output is a UI. To implement this, we break the problem into smaller sub-problems and write solutions for them. This is the basic mental model to solve all UI problems and ReactJS focuses on the same. New ideas in the JavaScript community help the community move forward and eventually, the best solutions become part of the standard JS (ECMAScript). ES modules, promises and some lodash utilities are examples of this. When a library moves in the same general direction as the web, it is bound to be used by a large community. Developers will use these solutions until new specifications are finalized and browsers adopting new specifications. Interim, people will use the feature in the form of third party library.So, is ReactJS moving in the right direction? I would say yes. ReactJS is evolving right along the evolving standards of JavaScript. The front-end community is leaning more towards concepts of functional programming rather than object-oriented methodology. In a similar direction, ReactJS continues to move towards a functional programming pattern. ReactJS has introduced hooks in version 16.8, which encourages developer to build more and more functional components instead of class-based components. Hook does not even work with class-based component. Understanding well that it sometimes becomes a hectic task to figure out which library one should choose to handle state management, ContextAPI and useReducer hooks have been introduced, which help in managing state in small applications much better. Today, with the help of ContextAPI and useReducer hooks, you can build an application without using any other library like Redux. This, however, does not mean that you should stop using Redux as it has its own benefits.Component based architecture is also aligned with the standard web components support in browsers, which allow developers to write non-standard HTML tags in code. In short, ReactJS has made the community become familiar with some of the upcoming web standards. For this reason, I feel that conceptually, ReactJS is going to stay with the community for long. Many big companies like Facebook, Microsoft and AirBnB are supporting the direction and concepts of ReactJS, thus adding credibility to the library. With many big brains backing the library, the ReactJS community looks poised for growth. With no perfect solution to all the problems in web development in sight, the best option is to move forward with whatever is available at the moment. In the JavaScript community too, there is an effort to figure out an alternate to ReactJS such as VueJS and Svelte. Perhaps, ReactJS will get replaced by some other library in the future. However, the basic idea of creating smaller, reusable components is here to stay.Whatever framework we learn, it is most important to grasp the basic idea behind the library. It is this idea or design pattern that is going to remain for good. It may appear in front of you in a different form and shape, but the idea will remain forever. 

Why ReactJS is taking over Frontend Development

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Why ReactJS is taking over Frontend Development

History of JavaScript 

Today, we see JavaScript used pretty much everywhere. For the seventh year in a row, we see it ranking as the most popular and widely used programming language, a good 67.8% of developers having used it in 2019. 

JavaScript is used to build 95.2% (1.52 billion) websites today, including Facebook and YouTube and some of the most popular and useful apps such as Google Maps and eBay. 

Let’s take a closer look at what JavaScript is, how and why it was created, and how it seems to be taking over front-end development. 

It all began in the late 90s when Netscape Navigator, a popular browser was launched by Netscape Communication. In the initial days of Netscape, it was just a software which was able to render static HTMLs, but people wanted it to do more. Netscape envisioned that web pages should be more dynamic in nature. If users are not able to engage with HTMLs, browsers will end up becoming boring pieces of software, they figured.

That’s when Brendan Eich came into the picture. He was contracted in 1995 by Netscape Communications to develop a language which would have a low learning curve, so that anyone would be able to write functionalities with it. He developed the language in just 10 days and named it Mocha. A working prototype of Mocha was integrated in the Netscape Browser in May 1995, renaming the language to LiveScript and later in December 1995, it was renamed again, this time as JavaScript

The marketing team at Netscape chose to call it "JavaScript" as Java was extremely popular at that time. With the popularity of Netscape Navigator, Microsoft wished to capture the browser market and developed Internet Explorer with a scripting language named JScript. For a long time, there was no common standard formed for JavaScript, resulting in huge cross browser compatibility issues. Finally, in 1997, Netscape invited ECMA (European Computer Manufacturing Association) to take the responsibility of forming a specification for JavaScript.

Since then, the ECMA has released updated specifications for JavaScript regularly and browsers try to follow these specifications in their implementation of JavaScript engine.

Fact Check: Today, Brendan Eich is the CEO of Brave Software which builds a privacy oriented, chromium-based browser named Brave.

Fact Check: Netscape Navigator later became the foundation stone for Mozilla Firefox. They retained the same name for their JavaScript engine "Spider Monkey" which was part of the Netscape navigator.

Need of Framework 

With the ECMAScript specifications in place, developers began to use JavaScript  to make the HTML page much more dynamic using JavaScript. However, there were still a few developers who preferred to write big client-side functionality with JavaScript, owing to low performance of browser and JavaScript engines. Perhaps, the industry had a more a server-side performance focus in that era. Then, as computers became more powerful, browser performance improved and JavaScript engines evolved, developers started moving client-side logic to browser using JavaScript.

Once developers started writing more and more JavaScript, the community felt the need to write logic in a more structured and scalable manner, so as to be more understandable, readable, manageable and less error prone. The need for a framework in JavaScript was clearly felt.

Many frameworks like Dojo, Backbone, Ember and AngularJS eventually emerged within their own communities, which tried to solve problems in their unique way. Collectively, this has helped the whole JS community to move forward towards a more scalable and maintainable web application. 

ReactJS 

In 2011, Codebase for Facebook Ads was getting bigger. Developers began to face maintenance issues with it and it was getting harder to add new features in an efficient way. That's when Facebook engineer, Jordan Walke, built a prototype for an efficient application UI. This marked the birth of ReactJS, initially called FaxJS. Later, when Instagram was acquired by Facebook, the folks at Instagram wanted to adopt this framework. Pete Hunt and Jordan Walke then improved, decoupled the library and made it open source as ReactJS in 2013. Since then ReactJS has gone through many changes. The latest version of ReactJS in 2020 is currently 16.13. 

ReactJS follows component-based architecture and encourages developers to think in terms of small, composable components. Interestingly, this methodology is aligned with an efficient approach for solving any problem in life: the first step to solve a big problem is to break it down into multiple smaller sub problems. Once you have a solution for each sub-problem, you can then add it up to get the overall solution. This can be applied to all problems, big or small. ReactJS asks developer to adopt a problem-solving approach like this to build any UI. It must be noted that ReactJS does not aim to solve each and every problem of building a web application. Rather, it has a narrow focus and a limited scope to solve the one core problem of web development around how to efficiently updating the UI/views.

When ReactJS was open sourced in the JSConf 2013, the ideas and changes that ReactJS was proposing were not very well received. For instance, although two-way binding was very popular, ReactJS went ahead with one way data flow. In another example, writing HTML inside JS was considered a bad practice, but ReactJS still wanted to use JSX. All these ideas initially attracted a lot of criticism from the web developer community. In time, however, developers started using it and found it easy to build components efficiently. 

So, ReactJS now solved the one problem around updating views. But what about all the problems in web development? An ecosystem began to emerge to address the other problems along with ReactJS. Libraries like Redux and React-Router came to life, making ReactJS a complete web framework, although this meant that there would be a dependency on multiple libraries. The ease of using ReactJS trumped all the negative points of the framework and this is what continues to make it a very popular library in web development. In 2020, ReactJS has 50K plus stars on Github and is downloaded 6 million times per week. 

The ReactJS ecosystem continues to grow steadily; React Native recently bought ReactJS to build cross mobile platform apps. Libraries like Gatsby and NextJS encourage developers to use ReactJS on server and provide benefits of server-side rendering without much hassle. ReactJS has also stood out in multiple developer surveys such as the State of JavaScript

Main design concepts in ReactJS 

Main design concepts in ReactJS Main design concepts in ReactJS

Declarative, composable, reusable components

ReactJS motivates developers to write small components and reuse the same component at multiple places. Re-usability of components greatly speeds up the overall development and results in less amount of code. Less code is always better because it is less prone to errors. 

ReactJS encourages developers to write composable components which can be wrapped around any other React component to provide special functionality, thus discouraging the writing of components that do too many things. ReactJS always encourages developers to break their problem into smaller problems, solve the smaller problems first and then combine them to present the overall solution. Less functionality in components always leads to less error prone components. 

ReactJS encourages developers to write clean, readable, and maintainable code. This is why it emphasizes writing declarative components, which make a codebase easier to read and understand by fellow developers.

Declarative, composable components looks a lot like HTML in JS. Instead of standard HTML tags, we have React components as tags. This similarity to standard web semantics is what makes JS somewhat familiar to developers starting out. 

Reactive Updates 

Writing static HTML is no fun and it can be said that JavaScript was born to bring interactivity to web pages. ReactJS helps developer to add functionalities in components with which the user can interact and see the results. ReactJS allows developers to attach a state to component and whenever the state of components changes, the component efficiently re-renders itself to produce an updated view. Now, the state of the component can be changed by clicking a button, entering text into the input box or any other part of the component triggering an event. The React component listens to these events and acts accordingly. Updating the whole component UI seems like a terrible idea, but ReactJS has implemented this terrible idea wonderfully by doing it efficiently. 

In-memory DOM representation 

ReactJS is able to efficiently update views by keeping a DOM representation in memory known as virtual DOM. Upcoming updates always compare the new DOM with an older copy of the DOM and based on the difference, it figures out the actual DOM elements which need to be updated on the UI. Reducing the number of DOM manipulations makes ReactJS faster. What this means is that writing smaller React components will take up less memory to store DOM representations (Virtual DOM) and ultimately, this results in better performance. 

Features of ReactJS 

Features of ReactJS Main features of ReactJSJSX and Why is it needed 

When ReactJS was released, it was mentioned in documentation that it is recommended to use JSX along with ReactJS. Now, what is JSX? and do i really need another library to use the ReactJS library? So, let us see how a simple ReactJS component looks without JSX: 

import React from "react"; 
function Greeting({ name }) { 
  return React.createElement("h1", null, `Hello ${name}`); 
} 
ReactDOM.render( 
React.createElement("Greeting", { name: "Gully Boy" }, null), 
document.getElementById("root") 
); 

There is no way the above code looks like a declarative component. The truth is JavaScript does not understand HTML or XML like tags. That is why we need someone to do that conversion for us. Here enters JSX, also known as a syntax extension for JavaScript. With JSX, the above Greeting React component will look something like this: 

import React from "react"; 
function Greeting({ name }) { 
  return {`Hello ${name}`}; 
} 
ReactDOM.render(<Greeting name="Gully Boy" />, 
document.getElementById("root")); 

JSX actually makes ReactJS code more readable and understandable. You can assume this as a templating library which converts HTML looking syntax into ReactJS element JS code by calling createElement(). 

Virtual DOM 

ReactJS has made the term, 'VDOM' or virtual DOM very popular in the JavaScript community. Web browsers have provided APIs to interact with DOM to make our web page dynamic. One can dynamically add or remove nodes in the web page by using these APIs. But interacting with these APIs was very slow, as changing node triggers re-layout and re-paint event for sub-tree. Although the entire subtree is re-rendered (diffing stops when an element type has been modified and subtree is freshly rendered), even in case of virtual DOM reconciliation, the advantage that React offers is that the developer is freed from figuring out which part of DOM really requires updates - the diffing and reconciliation algorithm takes care of it.  

React has thus provided a way to reduce the number to change in DOM using virtual DOM. The VDOM is a JavaScript object which contains information of DOM sub tree. We can also call this an object representation of DOM. React uses this object to compare subsequent modification and figure out the minimum number of modifications needed to make in browser DOM to get the desired result. ReactJS claims that the wonderful performance of their library is because of the algorithm they use to compare the virtual DOM. 

React Native 

React native is another popular library which is used to build cross platform mobile applications using JavaScript. Before ReactJS, Cordova and ionic were some frameworks which were very popular to build mobile applications using JavaScript. However, these applications did not perform very well. React native uses popular component-based concepts of ReactJS and provides a way to build an efficient mobile application. React native converts JS code into native platform code to run in mobile devices. This approach has improved the performance of mobile applications by a great deal in comparison to other frameworks like ionic. With React Native, ReactJS has now become a very popular library to build UI on any platform. 

ReactJS: Here to stay 

Over the past decade, the JavaScript community has seen tremendous changes in language within the developer community. It has seen a lot of new ideas and terms surface in the form of libraries. Developers are building and sharing their work with rest of the world quite frequently and every other day, implementations are open sourced on Github. 

These new ideas and the problem solving approach continues to help the JavaScript ecosystem to evolve and become better. Prior to ReactJS, JQuery was very popular and was the default library for any web project involving DOM manipulation. With AngularJS and other MVC libraries, we were encouraged to think about a problem in terms of Modal, View and Controller. 

People have always sought to figure out an approach that can solve the problem. And structuring a solution in a scalable manner is not a new challenge either. We have already implemented scalable solutions at server-side, and they are performing quite well. ReactJS now brings the same pattern to the front-end, where the final output is a UI. To implement this, we break the problem into smaller sub-problems and write solutions for them. This is the basic mental model to solve all UI problems and ReactJS focuses on the same. 

New ideas in the JavaScript community help the community move forward and eventually, the best solutions become part of the standard JS (ECMAScript). ES modules, promises and some lodash utilities are examples of this. 

When a library moves in the same general direction as the web, it is bound to be used by a large community. Developers will use these solutions until new specifications are finalized and browsers adopting new specifications. Interim, people will use the feature in the form of third party library.

So, is ReactJS moving in the right direction? 

I would say yes. ReactJS is evolving right along the evolving standards of JavaScript. The front-end community is leaning more towards concepts of functional programming rather than object-oriented methodology. In a similar direction, ReactJS continues to move towards a functional programming pattern. 

ReactJS has introduced hooks in version 16.8, which encourages developer to build more and more functional components instead of class-based components. Hook does not even work with class-based component. Understanding well that it sometimes becomes a hectic task to figure out which library one should choose to handle state management, ContextAPI and useReducer hooks have been introduced, which help in managing state in small applications much better. Today, with the help of ContextAPI and useReducer hooks, you can build an application without using any other library like Redux. This, however, does not mean that you should stop using Redux as it has its own benefits.

Component based architecture is also aligned with the standard web components support in browsers, which allow developers to write non-standard HTML tags in code. In short, ReactJS has made the community become familiar with some of the upcoming web standards. For this reason, I feel that conceptually, ReactJS is going to stay with the community for long. 

Many big companies like Facebook, Microsoft and AirBnB are supporting the direction and concepts of ReactJS, thus adding credibility to the library. With many big brains backing the library, the ReactJS community looks poised for growth. 

With no perfect solution to all the problems in web development in sight, the best option is to move forward with whatever is available at the moment. In the JavaScript community too, there is an effort to figure out an alternate to ReactJS such as VueJS and Svelte. Perhaps, ReactJS will get replaced by some other library in the future. However, the basic idea of creating smaller, reusable components is here to stay.

Whatever framework we learn, it is most important to grasp the basic idea behind the library. It is this idea or design pattern that is going to remain for good. It may appear in front of you in a different form and shape, but the idea will remain forever. 

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HTML has changed a bit over the years, with the introduction of HTML 5 and semantics tags, so make sure to update yourself. JavaScript which was released in 1995, didn’t change much during the next 20 years. But once more and more developers started using it, the ECMA committee decided to add some very nice features and enhance the language, and renamed it ES6 in 2015. After that they regularly added new features to the language and have just released ES2020 in June 2020, which has many additional features. So, learn the basic JavaScript first and then upgrade to ES6 and newer versions. CSS is what makes a website or web-app beautiful, and is often considered the hardest part by a developer. Earlier, CSS was very confusing and had a steep learning curve, because of the use of floats to create a layout. Developers usually used to work with CSS frameworks like bootstrap to design a site. But things have changed a lot with the invention of CSS Grid and Flexbox. Some of the best resources to learn the basics are - html.specdeveloper.mozilla.HTMLStyle CSSdeveloper.mozilla.CSSdeveloper.mozilla.JavaScriptGetting Deeper Now, just learning JavaScript and some basic CSS will not make you a good Front-end developer as you have to take a deep dive into JavaScript. We will discuss CSS later, after learning the essentials of JavaScript.JavaScript EssentialsThere are many things associated with JavaScript which we need to learn before moving forward.The Terminal The first thing to learn is to work in a terminal, and master some of the basic commands. If you are on a Mac, it’s already based on Linux and runs most Linux commands. If you are working on Windows then you must install git bash, which will give you a Linux environment to work with. In JavaScript frameworks, we need to run a lot of commands from the terminal, like if we want to install a third-party dependency by npm.  The basics of Linux can be learnt from their official site.Version ControlNext, learning version control is very important because we should always keep our code in some remote repository like Github. The industry works on Git, which is version control software. It is completely command-based and is used heavily everywhere. Learn the basic commands which will be useful even for an individual developer. Later on, when working with teams, more advanced knowledge of the git command is required.Through the git commands, we store our code in repositories. The most popular ones are Github and Bit Bucket, so we need to learn how to store and link them.The basics of git can be learnt from this awesome tutorial.freecodecamp.orgTask Runners Task runners are applications which are used to automate tasks required in projects. These tasks include minification of JavaScript and CSS files, CSS preprocessing like from SASS to CSS, image optimization and Unit testing. The three popular task runners are npm scripts, gulp and grunt. The npm script is nothing but the package.json file which comes with React projects or is created in a Node.js project using npm init. Gulp and Grunt are much bigger applications and also have a plugin ecosystem that is suited for large JavaScript projects. The basics for these two technologies can be learnt from here. Module Loader and Bundler Both module loaders and bundlers are required for large JavaScript applications. Knowledge of both is required, if the project you are working is a big Vanilla JavaScript project. When a large JavaScript application consists of hundreds of files, the module loader takes care of the dependency and makes sure all the modules are loaded when the application is executed. Examples are RequireJS and SystemJS.Module bundlers also do the same thing, building it at the time of application build rather than at the runtime. Popular examples are Webpack and Rollup. Testing Testing nowadays is very important in any type of project. There are two types of testing; one is known as Unit testing and other as end-to-end testing. For unit testing we write test cases and the most popular tool nowadays is Jest. End-to-end testing is automated testing, which emulates the whole app. Suppose, an app has a login screen and then it shows posts. The testing tool will run the web-app to check whether all the functionalities are done correctly. The two most popular options today are Puppeteer and Cypress. The tutorials to refer for these topics are - Libraries and FrameworkThey are the most important part of the JavaScript ecosystem nowadays. It all started with the release of AngularJS in 2010. Before that period most enterprise apps were made in Java and were desktop apps. But AngularJS changed everything, because it made it easy to manage big projects with JavaScript and helped to create complex web-apps.1. React It is the most popular JavaScript library today and is used by both enterprises and startups that have a huge ecosystem. It is not a complete framework like Angular and we have to install third party dependencies for most things. But if you want to learn a framework that will get you a job, then that framework would be ReactJS, and its demand is not going away for the next 5 years. The component approach and its easy learning curve have made React more popular than other frameworks. A good starting tutorial for React isState Management In React state management can sometimes become complex, when we need to share data between components. We generally take help of external packages in it with the most popular being Redux. But we also have other state management libraries like XState and Recoil. Server-side rendering With performance becoming important nowadays, Server-Side Rendering speeds up the React projects even faster. In SSR projects, the React code is rendered on the server and the client browser directly receives the HTML, CSS, JS bundle. The only framework to do it is NextJS. Static Site Generators Lot of sites don’t need to be updated frequently and it is the place where the only Static Site Generator for ReactJS, which is GatsbyJS shines. With the help of GatsbyJS we can create extremely fast static sites and it gets into Wordpress domain a lot with it. GatsbyJS also has a huge ecosystem of plugins, which enhances its functionalities. React Testing Unit testing is a very important part of ReactJS projects, especially the ones which are very large. Unit testing ensures that we have lower bugs in Production build. The two popular libraries are – Enzyme and Jest. 2. Angular It is a complete framework and unlike React requires very few external dependencies. Everything is built within Angular and we don’t have to go outside for more features. Since it was among the earliest frameworks, older projects are in Angular and it is still widely used in enterprises. A good tutorial to learn Angular is below. 3. Vue Vue is another very popular JavaScript library, which has the best features of both ReactJS and Angular and has become very popular in recent years. It is widely used in both enterprise and startups. A good tutorial to start with Vue is below. 4. NuxtJS It is used for Server-Side Rendering in Vue projects and is similar to the NextJS framework used in ReactJS for SSR.  5. Svelte It is the newest of all frameworks/libraries and has become quite popular, but still not used much in enterprises and startups. It is different from React, Vue and Angular and converts the app at build time rather than at run time as in the other three. Good tutorials to start with Svelte are below. CSS Deep DiveA lot has changed in CSS after it included CSS Grid and Flexbox; it has become much easier for developers to work with. CSS Essentials It is now mandatory for frontend developers to learn CSS Grid and Flexbox, because through it we can develop beautiful layouts with ease. More companies are moving away from CSS Frameworks and have started working with CSS Grid and Flexbox, which are now supported by all browsers. Good tutorials to learn Flexbox and CSS Grid are below. Preprocessors CSS preprocessors are used to add special functionalities in CSS, which it lacks. An example is Sass, which adds special features like variables and nested rules in CSS and is widely used in the industry for larger projects. The other popular one is PostCSS, in which we can use custom plugin and tools in CSS. CSS Frameworks Frameworks were very popular from the early days of CSS, when it was very complicated because of floats. Bootstrap This is the most popular and oldest CSS framework; easy to learn and also has a wide variety of elements, templates and interfaces. Bulma It is another CSS framework, which is very popular and much easier to use than bootstrap. Tailwind CSS This is a fairly new CSS framework and is quite popular nowadays. It follows a different approach than the other frameworks and contains easier classes. Styled Components (React) This is a CSS in JS library and is for React only. It is used to create components out of every style and is very popular in the React world.  CI/CDThe Continuous Integration/ Continuous deployment is mainly used by DevOps. But a frontend engineer should know its basics. It is used to build, test and deploy applications automatically.Github Actions  It is a freely available CI/CD pipeline, which directly integrates to your github based project and can be used in a variety of languages. Deployment It is again a task which mainly falls into the domain of Backend engineers and DevOps, but a frontend engineer should know some basic and simple tools. Static Deployment These products are mainly used to deploy static sites, which consists of HTML, CSS and JavaScript only. Two very popular services are Amazon S3 and Surge.sh Node Application Deployment The projects containing node code cannot be deployed using static deployment. Even if the project is a simple ReactJS project, it also uses node for processing. These applications require services which run the Node code and deploy it. The three most popular services are Vercel, Firebase and Netlify. 2. Backend Roadmap (Including Storage, Services & Deployment)Understanding the BackendBackend is the part of the website that provides the functionality, allowing people to browse their favorite site, purchase a product and log into their account, for instance. All data related to a user or a product or anything else are generally stored in databases or CMS (Content Management System) and when a user visits any website, they are retrieved from there and shown. One of the responsibilities of a backend engineer involves writing APIs, which actually interact with the database and get the data. They are also involved in writing schemas of database and creating the structure of databases. Backend EssentialsFor a backend engineer, working in a Linux environment is an essential skill. A lot of the configurations are done on the terminal. So, he or she should be very good with Linux commands.Also, they should know both commands and the use of any git powered platforms like Github or bitbucket.Languages and FrameworksAll of the popular languages have some framework, which has been used for backend development. These frameworks are generally used to create API endpoints, which are used to fetch or store data in the database. For example, when we scroll articles on Facebook, these articles are fetched from a database and we use the GET method to fetch them. Similarly, when we write an article and hit submit, it uses POST method.Now, different frameworks implement this GET, POST and other APIs also referred to as RESTful APIs in their own way.Java Java is by far the oldest and the most used language for backend development. It is also used for a variety of other tasks like Android development, but it shines in the backend because of its multithreading abilities. So, enterprise grade web-apps and web-apps with a lot of traffic prefer Java, because it handles loads better. The most popular frameworks for backend development in Java are Spring Framework and Hibernate. Some good beginner's tutorials are - JavaScript It is a very popular choice for backend development, because on the frontend side JavaScript is the only choice. So, a lot of frontend engineers can take this choice to become Full-stack developers. Node.js It allows developers to use JavaScript to write server-side code, through which they can write APIs. Actually, the API part can be done by numerous frameworks of Node.js out of which Express is widely used. The other popular framework is Fastify. Some good beginner's tutorials are - Python Python is one of the most popular languages among developers and has been used in a variety of fields. The two most popular frameworks for Python are Flask and Django. Some good beginner tutorials are - C# It is a very popular programming language which was developed by Microsoft and it has the power of C++. Its popularity increased once the .NET framework was released for backend development. As Microsoft is very popular in enterprises, the .NET framework is generally preferred in enterprises. A good tutorial to learn .NET is - Go Go language which is also referred to as Golang, has gained popularity in recent years. It is used a lot in Backend programming and the two popular frameworks are Gin and Beego. DatabaseFor a Backend engineer, after making APIs with framework based on language, it's time to learn about Databases. Databases are used to store most of the things which we see in a web-app, from user login credentials to user posts and everything else. In the earlier days we only used to have one type of Database and that was Relational databases, which use tables to store data. Now we have two other categories also, one being NoSQL databases and the other In-memory databases. 1. Relational databases Relational databases allow you to create, update and delete data stored in a table format. This type of database mostly uses SQL language to access the data, hence is also known as an SQL database. MySQL It is one of the oldest databases and was released in 1995. It is an open-source database and was very popular in the 2000s with the rise of LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) stack. It is still widely in use, but there are other popular Relational databases. A good tutorial to learn MySQL is - PostgreSQL PostgreSQL, which is also known as Postgres is also an old open-source Relational database, which was released in 1996. But it gained popularity recently, as it goes very well with modern stacks containing NodeJS and other backend technologies. A good tutorial to learn PostgreSQL is - Oracle is the most popular and oldest relational database. It was released in 1979 and still remains the number one preference for enterprise customers. All the big banks and other organizations, run on Oracle databases. So, the knowledge of Oracle is a must in many companies for an Engineer. A good tutorial to learn Oracle is - MS-SQL MS-SQL is also known as Microsoft SQL and is yet another commercial Relational database. It has got different editions, used by different audiences. It is also heavily used by enterprise users and powers a whole lot of big systems around the world. A good tutorial to learn MS-SQL is - 2. NoSQL databases NoSQL databases are also called non-SQL databases. The NoSQL databases mainly store data as key-value pairs, but some of them also use a SQL-like structure. These databases have become hugely popular in the 21st century, with the rise of large web-apps which have a lot of concurrent users. These databases can take huge loads, even millions of data connections, required by web-apps like Facebook, Amazon and others. Beside this, it is very easy to horizontally scale  a NoSQL database by adding more clusters, which is a problem in Relational Databases. MongoDB It is the most popular NoSQL database, used by almost every modern app. It is a free to use database, but the hosting is charged if we host on popular cloud services like MongoDB atlas. Its knowledge is a must for backend engineers, who work on the modern stack. MongoDB uses json like documents to store data. A good tutorial to learn MongoDB is - It is a proprietary database service provided by Amazon. It is quite similar to MongoDB and uses key-value pairs to store data. It is also a part of the popular AWS services. A good tutorial to learn DynamoDB is-Cassandra is an open-source and free to use NoSQL database . It takes a different approach when compared to other NoSQL databases, because we use commands like SQL, which are known as CQL (Cassandra Query Language). A good tutorial to learn Cassandra is - 3. In-memory databases The in-memory database is a database, which keeps all of the data in the RAM. This means it is the fastest among all databases.  The most popular and widely used in-memory database is Redis. Redis Redis (Remote Dictionary Server) is an in-memory database, which stores data in RAM in a json like key-value format. It keeps the data persistent by updating everything in the transaction log, because when systems are shut down their RAM is wiped clean. A good tutorial to learn Redis - StorageStoring the data is an important part of any application. Although this is mainly DevOps territory, every backend developer should know the basics for the same. We need to store the database data and also the backend code. Beside this the frontend code must also be stored somewhere. Nowadays everything is stored in the cloud, which is preferred by individuals, startups and enterprises. The two most popular cloud-based storages are – Amazon S3 Azure Blob Storage Good beginner's tutorials for both areServices and APIsThese are theoretical concepts and are implemented by various services, but a backend engineer should know them and how to use them. Restful APIs This is by far the most popular way to get data from a database. It was made more popular, with the rise of web-apps. We do GET, PUT, POST and DELETE operations to read, update, create or delete data from databases. We have earlier discussed different languages and frameworks, which have their own implementations for these operations. Microservices Architecture In microservice architecture, we divide a large and complex project into small, independent services. Each of these is responsible for a specific task and communicates with other services through simple APIs. Each service is built by a small team from the beginning, and separated by boundaries which make it easier to scale up the development effort if needed. GraphQL It is the hottest new kid in the block, which is an alternative to the Restful APIs. The problem with Restful APIs is that if you want some data stored in database, you need to get the whole data sent by the endpoint. On the other hand, with GraphQL, you get a query type language which can return only the part of the data which you require.  DevOps & DeploymentA backend engineer requires a fair bit of DevOps knowledge. So, we will next deep dive into the methodologies in DevOps. 1. Containerization & Orchestration Containers are a method of building, packaging and deploying software. They are similar to but not the same thing as virtual machines (VMs). One of the primary differences is that containers are isolated or abstracted away from the underlying operating system and infrastructure that they run on. In the simplest terms, a container includes both an application’s code and everything that code needs to run properly. Container orchestration is the automatic process of managing the work of individual containers for applications based on microservice architecture. The popular Containerization and Orchestration tools are – Kubernetes Docker Good beginner's tutorials for both are -2. DevOps DevOps is a set of practices that combine software development (Dev) and IT operations (Ops). It aims to shorten the systems development life cycle and provide continuous delivery with high software quality. The two most popular DevOps services are AWS and Azure. Both of them are cloud based and are market leaders. Both of these platforms contain a wide variety of similar services. AWS It consists of over 200 products and services for storage, database, analytics, deployment, serverless function and many more. AWS is the market leader as of now with 33% of market share. The AWS certifications are also one of the most in-demand certifications and a must for frontend engineers as well as Backend engineers. Azure Microsoft Azure is second in terms of market share of cloud-based platforms, with 18% of the market. It also consists of SaaS (Software as a Service), PaaS (Platform as a Service) and IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) like AWS. 3. PaaS (Platform as a Service) There are several smaller players, which provide Platform as a Service and are much easier to use than services like AWS and Azure. With these services you can directly deploy your React or other web-apps, by just hosting them on GitHub and pushing the code. These services are preferred a lot by freelancers, hobbyists and small companies as they don’t require investment in learning complicated services like AWS and Azure. The three most popular PaaS services are Digital Ocean Heroku Netlify 4. Serverless Serverless computing is an execution model where the cloud provider (AWS, Azure, or Google Cloud) is responsible for executing a piece of code by dynamically allocating resources and only charging for the number of resources used to run the code. The code is typically run inside stateless containers that can be triggered by a variety of events including http requests, database events, queuing services, monitoring alerts, file uploads, scheduled events (cron jobs), etc. The code that is sent to the cloud provider for execution is usually in the form of a function. AWS Lambda It is an event-driven, serverless platform which is part of AWS. The various languages supported by AWS Lambda are Node.js, Python, Java, Go, Ruby and .NET. AWS Lambda was designed for use cases such as updates to DynamoDB tables, responding to a website click etc. After that it will “spin down” the database service, to save resources. Azure Functions They are quite similar to AWS Lambda, but are for Microsoft Azure. Azure functions have a browser-based interface to write code to respond to events generated by http requests etc. The service accepts programming languages like C#, F#, Node.js, Python, PHP and Java. Serverless Framework It is an open-source web-framework written using Node.js. The popular services like AWS Lambda, Azure functions and Google cloud functions are based on it. CI/CD A backend developer should know the popular CI/CD (Continuous Integration/Continuous deployment) tools. These tools help to automate the whole process of building, testing and deployment of applications. Github Actions It is a freely available CI/CD pipeline, which directly integrates to your GitHub based project and can be used in variety of languages. Jenkins Jenkins is the most popular CI/CD automation tool, which helps in building, testing and deployment of applications. Jenkins was written in Java and over the years has been built to support over 1400 plugins, which extend its functionalities. Circle CI Circle CI is also a CI/CD automation tool, which is cloud based and so it is different from Jenkins. It is much easier to use than Jenkins, but has a smaller community and lower user base. SecuritySecurity is an important aspect of any application. Most applications containing user personal data, like email etc, are often targeted by hackers. OWASP The Open Web Application Security Project (or OWASP), is a non-profit organization dedicated to web application security. They have free material available on their website, making it possible for anyone to improve their web application security. Protecting Services & databases against threats Hackers target databases of popular web-apps on a regular basis to get sensitive information about their customers. This data is then sold to the highest bidder on the dark-net. When such public breaches are reported, then it's a reputation loss for the enterprise also. So, a lot of emphasis should be given to Authentication, Access, Backups, and Encryption while setting up a database. The databases should also be monitored for any suspicious activities. Besides this the API routes also need to be protected, so that the hacker cannot manipulate them. Career roles Most of the companies hire Frontend developers, Backend developers and DevOps engineers separately. This is because most of the enterprise projects are huge, in which roles and responsibilities are distributed. But there is a huge demand for Full Stack developers in the startup sector in US and India. These companies need specialists who can get the product out as soon as possible with agile and small teams. Top companies hiringAlmost every company on the planet is hiring web-developers or outsourcing the development work. Since the past decade, the demand for developers has risen exponentially. The top technology companies which hire full stack developers are Facebook, Amazon, Apple, Netflix, Google, Uber, Flipkart, Microsoft and more.  The sites of each of these companies are web-apps (excluding Apple and Microsoft), with complex frontend and backend systems. The frontend generally consists of React or Angular and the backend is a combination of various technologies. The DevOps part is also quite important in these web-apps as they handle millions of concurrent connections at once.Salaries  The salary of a beginner Frontend developer in India starts from Rs. 300,000($ 3980) per year in service-based companies to Rs. 12,00,000($ 15,971) per year in the top tech companies mentioned above. The salary of a Beginner Full-Stack developer in India starts at Rs. 4,50,000 ($ 5989) per year in service companies to Rs. 12,00,000($ 15,971) per year in top tech companies. The salary for an entry level Frontend developer in USA is $ 59,213 per year and for an entry level Full stack developer is $ 61,042 per year.Below are some sources for salaries. Top regions where there is demand There are plenty of remote and freelancing opportunities in web-development across the world. The two countries with most developers and top tech companies are USA and India. Silicon Valley, which is the San Francisco Bay Area, in Northern California, USA is the hub of technology companies.  The top city in India to start a developer job is the Silicon Valley of India – Bengaluru. The number of jobs is more than all the other cities combined and it also has a very good startup ecosystem. Almost all the big technology companies mentioned earlier and top Indian service companies are located in the city. After Bengaluru, the city where the greatest number of technology jobs are based is Hyderabad, followed by Chennai and then Pune. Entry PointsThe demand for web-developers is high and anyone with a passion for creating apps can become a web-developer. An Engineering degree is not mandatory to land a job as a web developer.  The most in-demand skill today and for the next 5 years is React and its ecosystem. So, if you know HTML, CSS, JavaScript and React, it is impossible to not get a job. Career Pathway  Most people start as an intern Front-end developer or Intern Full-Stack developer and in many cases Intern Backend developer. Many companies directly hire junior Frontend/Backend/Full-stack developers.  After that, the next step is the role of Senior Frontend/Backend/Full-stack developers. Many Frontend and Backend developers become full stack developers at this level, by learning additional technologies. Senior resources in Frontend/Backend/Full-stack can then go on to assume Team Lead roles. These people manage small teams in addition to being individual contributors.  After this a professional can become a Project manager, whose main responsibility is managing the team. Another role is that of Technical Project Manager, who manages the team and also has hands-on knowledge in Technology. The last role at this level is that of a Software Architect, who handles and designs big projects and has to look at every aspect of the technology to create the enterprise app. Generally Full-stack developers are preferred in this role, as they need to know all technologies. The highest career milestone is CTO or Chief Technology Officer, who handles all the technology teams and makes all technology decisions in a Technology company. Job SpecializationThere are some Full stack development specializations which I see nowadays in the industry. Full stack developers who work with React in the Frontend and Java in the Backend are in great demand. Similarly, developers who work with Angular in the Frontend and .NET in the backend are in great demand.How KnowledgeHut can helpAll these free resources are a great place to start your Frontend or Full-Stack journey. Beside these there are many other free resources on the internet, but they may not be organized and may not have a structured approach.  This is where KnowledgeHut can make a difference and serve as a one stop shop alternative with its comprehensive Instructor-led live classes. The courses are taught by Industry experts and are perfect for aspirants who wish to become Frontend or FullStack developers.Links for some of the popular courses by KnowledgeHut are appended below-CSS3JavaScriptReactJSNodeJSDevopsConclusion This completes our article on the Full stack developer journey by combining both the Frontend and backend roadmap. There are many people who become backend developers first by working on languages like Java and then go on to learn React to become full stack developers.  Again, many developers learn front-end development first with frameworks like React, and then become full stack developers by learning Node.JS. This path is easier for developers because both React and Node.JS use the same language which is JavaScript.We hope you have found this blog useful, and can now take the right path to become a full stack developer. Good luck on your learning journey!
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How to Create a Collection in MongoDB?

In recent years, MongoDB has retained its top spot among NoSQL databases. The term NoSQL means non-relational. Mongo is an open-source document-oriented, NoSQL Database that allows users to query data without having to know SQL. You can read more about MongoDB here.MongoDB stores data in the form of collections. In this blog we will learn how to create a collection in MongoDB.PrerequisitesTo follow this blog, you should be having the latest version of MongoDB installed in your machine. You can download MongoDB for your operating system from this link.Let’s start by understanding the term collection.What is a collection in MongoDB?We all know that MongoDB stores data in the form of documents. All the similar documents are stored in a collection. It is same as a Table in a SQL database or any of the Relational Databases.An example of a collection is shown below:Source: mongodb websiteEach object in MongoDB is called a document. All the objects put together create a collection.Creating a Collection in MongoDBHow to create a collection in MongoDB?There are a couple of methods to create a collection in MongoDB:The createCollection() MethodCreating the Collection in MongoDB on the flyLet’s have a look at each of the methods one by one.To start with we need a mongo server in our local machine. To do that, open the terminal for Mac and Linux, and PowerShell or command prompt for Windows. Run the following command.Command: mongodThis fires up the MongoDB server.  To run the MongoDB commands, we need to start a MongoDB shell. For this, open a new window in terminal or PowerShell or command prompt and run the following. We shall refer to this window as mongo shell in the rest of this article.Command: mongoThis creates a shell where we can run MongoDB commands.Let's create a database and use it so that we can test our examples. For doing the same, run the following command in the mongo shell.Command: use myDBThis creates a new database with the name myDB and switches to that database, so that we can work with it.The createCollection() Method:Using createCollection method we can create a collection which does not have any documents or an empty collection. The syntax of createCollection() command is as follows: Syntax: db.createCollection(name, options)The createCollection method takes 2 parameters, the first parameter is the name of the collection which is a string and the other is an options object which is used to configure the collection. The options object is optional.   To create the collection without passing the options using createCollection method, run the following command in the mongo shell. Command: db.createCollection("testCollection")This creates a collection with the name testCollection inside myDB database.To see the collection, run the following command inside the mongo shell.Command: show collectionsThis should show all the collections we have inside the database.We can add additional configurations to the collection. For example, we can add validation or create a capped collection using the second parameter which is the options object.Configuration options for creating a collection in MongoDBThe basic syntax for configuring an object in createCollection method is as shown below.Syntax:db.createCollection( ,    {      capped: ,      autoIndexId: ,      size: ,      max: ,      storageEngine: ,      validator: ,      validationLevel: ,      validationAction: ,      indexOptionDefaults: ,      viewOn: ,              // Added in MongoDB 3.4      pipeline: ,          // Added in MongoDB 3.4      collation: ,         // Added in MongoDB 3.4      writeConcern:    } ) Let’s look at all the options in detail.FieldTypeDescriptioncappedboolean(Optional). To create a capped collection, specify true. If you specify true, you must also set a maximum size in the size field.autoIndexIdboolean(Optional). Specify false to disable the automatic creation of an index on the _id field.sizenumberOptional. Specify a maximum size in bytes for a capped collection. Once a capped collection reaches its maximum size, MongoDB removes the older documents to make space for the new documents. The size field is required for capped collections and ignored for other collections.maxnumberOptional. The maximum number of documents allowed in the capped collection. The size limit takes precedence over this limit. If a capped collection reaches the size limit before it reaches the maximum number of documents, MongoDB removes old documents. If you prefer to use the max limit, ensure that the size limit, which is required for a capped collection, is sufficient to contain the maximum number of documents.storageEnginedocumentOptional. Available for the WiredTiger storage engine only.Allows users to specify configuration to the storage engine on a per-collection basis when creating a collection.validatordocumentOptional. Allows users to specify validation rules or expressions for the collection.validationLevelstringOptional. Determines how strictly MongoDB applies the validation rules to existing documents during an update.validationActionstringOptional. Determines whether to create an error on invalid documents or just warn about the violations and allow invalid documents to be inserted.indexOptionDefaultsdocumentOptional. Allows users to specify a default configuration for indexes when creating a collection.viewOnstringThe name of the source collection or view from which to create the view. The name is not the full namespace of the collection or view; i.e. does not include the database name and implies the same database as the view to create. You must create views in the same database as the source collection.pipelinearrayAn array that consists of the aggregation pipeline stage(s).creates the view by applying the specified pipeline to the viewOn collection or view.collationdocumentSpecifies the default collation for the collection.Collation allows users to specify language-specific rules for string comparison, such as rules for lettercase and accent marks.writeConcerndocumentOptional. A document that expresses the write concern for the operation. Omit to use the default write concern.To know more about the options go to this link.Example of Create Collection in MongoDBAn example for creating a collection with the options before inserting documents is shown below. Run the below command in the mongo shell.Command: db.createCollection("anotherCollection", { capped : true, autoIndexID : true, size : 6142800, max : 10000 } )This creates a capped collection.What is a capped collection?A fixed-sized collection that automatically overwrites its oldest entries when it reaches its maximum size. The MongoDB oplog that is used in replication is a capped collection.See more about capped collection and oplog over here.Create a Collection with Document ValidationMongoDB has the capability to perform schema validation during updates and insertions. In other words, we can validate each document before updating or inserting the new documents into the collection.To specify the validation rules for a collection we need to use db.createCollection() with the validator option.MongoDB supports JSON Schema validation. To specify JSON Schema validation, use the $jsonSchema operator in your validator expression. This is the recommended way to perform validation in MongoDB.What is $jsonSchema?The $jsonSchema operator matches documents that satisfy the specified JSON Schema. It has the following syntax.Syntax: { $jsonSchema: }The example for json Schema object is given below.  Example:  {   $jsonSchema: {      required: [ "name", "year", "skills", "address" ],      properties: {         name: {            bsonType: "string",            description: "must be a string and is required"         },         address: {            bsonType: "object",            required: [ "zipcode" ],            properties: {                "street": { bsonType: "string" },                "zipcode": { bsonType: "string" }            }         }      }   } }To create a collection with validation rules, run the below command in the mongo shell.Command:db.createCollection("employees", {    validator: {       $jsonSchema: {          bsonType: "object",          required: [ "name", "year", "skills", "address" ],          properties: {             name: {                bsonType: "string",                description: "must be a string and is required"             },             year: {                bsonType: "int",                minimum: 2017,                maximum: 2021,                description: "must be an integer in [ 2017, 2021] and is required"             },             skills: {                enum: [ "JavaScript", "React", "Mongodb", null ],                description: "can only be one of the enum values and is required"             },             salary: {                bsonType: [ "double" ],                description: "must be a double if the field exists"             },             address: {                bsonType: "object",                required: [ "city" ],                properties: {                   street: {                      bsonType: "string",                      description: "must be a string if the field exists"                   },                   city: {                      bsonType: "string",                      description: "must be a string and is required"                   }                }             }          }       }    } })This creates a collection with validation.Now if you run show collections command, employees collection should show up.Now, let’s look at the second method that is “Creating the Collection in MongoDB on the fly”Creating the Collection in MongoDB on the flyOne of the best things about MongoDB is that you need not create a collection before you insert a document in it. We can insert a document in the collection and MongoDB creates a collection on the fly. Use the below syntax to create a collection on the fly.Syntax: db.collection_name.insert({key:value, key:value…})Now let’s create a collection on the fly. To achieve that, run the following command in the mongo shell.Command:db.students.insert({ name: "Sai",   age: 18,   class: 10 })This creates a collection with the name students in the database. To confirm, you can run show collections command and check. This should show all the collections which have students collection, as shown in the following image.To check whether the document is successfully inserted, run the below command in the mongoshell to check.Syntax: db.collection_name.find()Command: db.students.find()This should show all the documents inside the collection.ConclusionIn this blog you have seen how to create a collection in MongoDB using different methods, along with examples.  MongoDB is a rapidly growing technology nowadays as it is flexible, fast and for many more reasons. Many companies are using MongoDB as their go-to database of choice. Learning MongoDB is recommended by many of the web developers as it boosts the probability of getting a job as well.
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How to Create a Collection in MongoDB?

In recent years, MongoDB has retained its top spot... Read More

How to do MongoDB Back Up, Restoration & Migration

Popular among both enterprises and startups, MongoDB is a database that is perfectly suited for web-apps that need to scale up once the user base increases. MongoDB is different from traditional relational databases because it uses json like objects to store data, instead of tables in relational databases. In this post, we will learn to backup and restore a MongoDB database. In all software products there is an import and export feature, which in database terms, deals with human-readable format. On the other hand, the backup and restore operations use MongoDB specific data, which preserve the MongoDB attributes.  So, when migrating the database, we should prefer backup and restore over import and export. But we should also keep in mind that our source and target systems need to be are compatible, which means that both should be Windows or both should be a Linux based system like Ubuntu/Mac. Prerequisites We are using Windows 10 in this tutorial. Please make sure you have downloaded the MongoDB Community Server and installed it. It is a very easy setup and you will find lot of good articles on the internet detailing this out. Please ensure that you have added it in the Environment variable in your PC. Backup Considerations In a production environment, backups act as a snapshot of the database at a certain point. Large and complex databases do fail or can be hacked. If that happens, we can use the last backup file to restore the database to the point, before it failed. These are some of the factors which should be taken into consideration when doing a recovery.  1. Recovery Point Objective We should know the objective of the recovery point, which means how much data we are willing to lose during a backup and restoration. A continuous backup is preferred for critical data like bank information and backups should be taken several times during the day. On the other hand, if the data doesn’t change frequently, then the backup can be taken every 6 months.  2. Recovery Time ObjectiveThis tells how quickly the restoration can be done. During restoration the application will be down for some time; and this downtime should be minimized, or else customers will be inconvenienced and it may result in loss of business or loss of customer trust.  3. Database and Snapshot IsolationThis refers to the distance between the primary database server and the backup server. If they are close enough i.e., in the same building, then the recovery time reduces. However, in the event of a physical event such as a fire, there is a likelihood of it having been destroyed along with the primary database. 4. Restoration Process We should always test our backups in test servers to see if they will work, in case a restoration is required.  5. Available Storage Backup of database generally takes a lot of space and in most cases, it will never be required. So, we should try to minimize the space taken on the disk, by archiving the database into a zip file.  6. Complexity of DeploymentThe backup strategy should be easy to set and should be automated, so that we don’t have to remember to take the backup after regular intervals. Understanding the Basics The first thing that we should know is that MongoDB uses json and bson(binary json) formats for storing data. So, people coming from a JavaScript background can relate to objects for json, which have a key-value pair. Also, json is the preferred format in which we receive or send data to an API endpoint. You can check the json data of a MongoDB database in any tool or online editors. Even the famous Windows application Notepad++ has a json viewer. Here’s a snapshot of what a json document would look like:As we can see from the above example, json is very convenient to work with, especially for developers.  But it doesn’t support all the data types available in bson. So, for backup and restoring, we should use binary bson. The second thing to keep in mind is that MongoDB automatically creates databases and collection names if they don’t exist during restore operations. Third, since MongoDB is a document-based database, in many use cases we store large amounts of data in one collection, such as the whole post of an article. MongoDB is also used extensively in large databases and big data. So, reading and inserting the data can consume a lot of CPU, memory and disk space. We should always run the backups during the non-peak hours like night. As already mentioned earlier, we can use import and export functions for backup and restoration of MongoDB databases, but we should use commands like mongodump and mongorestore to backup and restore respectively. MongoDB backup We will first cover backing up the MongoDB database. For this we use the mongodump command.  First open the Windows command prompt and go to the location where MongoDB is installed. If you have chosen the default setting, while installing MongoDB though the pop-up it will be installed in a location like C:\Program Files\MongoDB\Server\4.4\bin The version number may change if you are reading this blog in the future. Also, note that it’s better to run the command prompt in the Admin mode. So, once we open the command prompt, we need to change the directory to MongoDB bin folder by giving the below command. cd C:\Program Files\MongoDB\Server\4.4\binNow, enter mongod and press Enter. It will show some json text.Now, we can backup to any location. For this post I am backing up on my Desktop in a Backup folder, which I have created through the command line.Now, we have to run mongodump command, but it should be also present in our MongoDB bin folder. If it is not present, we need to download it from and install it. After this, copy the entire exe files from the download to the MongoDB bin folder. MongoDB Backup with no option Now, run the mongodump command from the bin directory. Here, we are not giving any argument so the backup of the whole database will be taken in the same bin directory.MongoDB Backup to an output directory Now, run the mongodump command from the bin directory. Here, the argument –out specifies the directory in which the data backup will be maintained. In our case we are giving the Backup folder that we had earlier created in the  Desktop.mongodump --out C:\Users\pc\Desktop\Backup Now, go to the desktop and you can find the backup that has been created in our Backup folder.  MongoDB Backup of a specific database MongoDB also allows us to backup a specific database from a collection of databases in mongodump using the –db option. I have an ‘example’ database, so to backup only that, I will use the below command.mongodump --db example --out C:\Users\pc\Desktop\Backup As you can see in the below output only the example database was backed up. MongoDB Backup a specific collection Now, if we want to only backup a specific collection, we need to use the –collection option and give the collection name. Also, note that the database name is mandatory in this case, as MongoDB needs to know which is  the database to search for in the collection. I have a products collection within the example database, so to backup only that I will use the below command. mongodump --db example --out C:\Users\pc\Desktop\Backup –collection products As, you can see in the below output only the products collection from example database was backed up. MongoDB Backup from remote MongoDB instances We can get the backup from remote MongoDB instances also. I have a lot of MongoDB databases for my personal projects on MongoDB atlas, which is the free to use Cloud database for MongoDB. To get a backup of remote databases, we have to use the connection string with –uri parameter. I used the below command. mongodump --uri "mongodb+srv://xxxx:xxxxxxxxxxx@cluster0.suvl2.mongodb.net/xxxxxDB?retryWrites=true&w=majority" --out C:\Users\pc\Desktop\Backup You can see in the below output the backup of the remote instance. MongoDB Backup procedures We should try to make the backup procedure as automated as possible. One of the best ways is to use a cron job, so that it can run every day. As, discussed earlier it is best to run the backup at night when the database has the least load.  Setting up a cron job is easier on a Linux or a Mac because its Windows equivalent is not as good. Alternatively, you can do install MongoDB in WSL2 for Windows which supports Ubuntu.Let’s suppose that for a Linux host which has a MongoDB instance running, you want to run the backup at 04:04 am daily. For this, you should open the cron editor in the terminal, by running the below command in the terminal.sudo crontab –e Now, in the cron editor, you need to add a command like below for our case. 4 4 * * * mongodump --out /var/backups/mongobackups/`date +"%m-%d-%y"`Restoring and migrating a MongoDB database When we restore the MongoDB database from a backup, we will be able to take the exact copy of the MongoDB information, including the indexes. We restore MongoDB by using the command mongorestore, which works only with the binary backup produced by mongodump. Now, we have already taken the backup of example database earlier and it is in our Backup folder. We will use the below command to restore it. In the arguments we will specify the name of the database first with –db option. After that with –drop, we make sure that the example database is first dropped. And in the final argument, we specify the path of our backupmongorestore --db example --drop C:\Users\pc\Desktop\Backup\example Now, if we check in the terminal, we have our example database restored properly.Conclusion In this article, we have learned about MongoDB backup and restore. We have learned the different options for creating the backups, and why and when backups are required. Keep learning!
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How to do MongoDB Back Up, Restoration & Migration

Popular among both enterprises and startups, Mong... Read More