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What Is React-js State?

You must have already learned about the basic building block of any React application which is a Component.  A component represents a feature that may be made up of several smaller components. Components can be broadly classified into functional or class components.  Components may take in some values as properties (prop) to render a page. These props decide how to render a page. function Welcome(props) {   return < h1 >Hello, {props.name}</h1>; }In addition to props, a component can also have a state that holds a value that can keep a track of all the information within a component. In this article, we will focus mainly on what is State, how we can define and utilize State and how components can use it in data management.  Defining React StateSo what exactly is state? What is it used for?    State represents a component’s underlying data model and is rendered by the component. But more importantly, whenever data in the state changes, it causes the component to re-render to reflect the change. This facilitates declarative programming where you can simply manipulate state; while React takes care of implementing updates to ensure your component reflects the data in the State accurately.  In Class component we can use State as follows:  class Welcome extends React.Component {     constructor() {         super();         // Space To define the state         this.state = {            isDisabled: false,            totalCost: 0,            products: []         }     }     // To Define render method  } We can also use state in Functional components using the useState Hook. Hooks are a new addition in React 16.8 which let us use State and other React features in functional components.  When should I use a Hook?If you are writing a functional component and realize that you need to add a State to it, the only option previously was to convert it to a class. Now you can use a Hook inside the existing function component.  For this, you can directly read the React documentation of Hooks here. In this article, we will mainly focus on “what is a State” and how is it different from Props. Difference of Props and State Most of the developers who are new to React often think about when to use State and when to use a Prop. Let’s understand this dilemma with an example.   A React component is akin to a JavaScript function.  A State can only be utilized in class components natively and is quite similar to a Prop, with the only exception that it is fully private, which means it can only be fully controlled and accessed by a component. In functional components, you have to opt-in to the useState hook to include stateful features.  Props, on the other hand, allow you to reuse the component by giving it an ability to receive data as input from the parent component.   We will learn more about the State and its usage later in this article, but here is the practical difference between the two:  A fictional example of Using a State: class MyComponent extends React.Component {     state = {         name: 'Tom'  //defining the name property inside component state     }     render() {         return <div>Hello {this.state.name}</div>;     }  }  Here, we can use the state ‘name’ anywhere in the component named “MyComponent” with the value ‘Tom’, or we can assign a new state also in the same component. And, Using a Prop:A Prop is a short name for properties. React is nothing without a Prop. Earlier we saw an example where we used the same data over and over again, but what if we have a scenario where we need the same component but not the same data? For example, I might want the theme component, but instead of a dark theme, I would like to use a light theme! What I mean here is that basically, I want to re-use “MyComponent” again, but not the data defined in it. This is where Props will come in useful; in cases when we want to change the content inside the reusable component.     class ThemeProvider extends React.Component {     render() {         return <div>Current theme is {this.props.theme}</div>;     }    }  // when re-using the component with differnt data  <ThemeProvider name="Light" />  <ThemeProvider name="Dark" />            It’s absolutely fine if you are not familiar with this code snippet. The idea is to understand when to use state or prop, and not the code as of now!  For now, just know that Prop is just a state, which is passed from parent to child. And because props can’t change their value in the child component, they take the help of an event listener or callback function in the parent component.    Now let’s quickly jump into the basics of a State.    Creating the State Object  React component has a built-in state object. Before you think that state is a very simple concept, let me stop you right there!  It’s not!  You should not forget the data flow in React! In React there is a uni-direction flow of data, which is from parent to child. This can be a bit confusing, in that different components will never know what is changing in their component and when. Besides, they might be unaware of whether a component is stateless or stateful.   This is why the state is usually said to be encapsulated or having a local scope.This is why the state is usually said to be encapsulated or having a local scope. And therefore, you initialize the state in the class component by simply using a constructor.    Inside the Constructor  To declare a local state in the component, we can use a constructor as follows:   class Welcome extends React.Component {     constructor() {         super();         this.state = {             name: 'Michael Jackson',             currentTimer: 0,             hasPicked: false,             themeRed: false,             todoList: []         }     }     render() {         return <p>My name is {this.state.name}</p>;     }  }    And the output or the result of the above < p> tag will be rendered as:     Hello, my name is Michael Jackson However, this was the older convention of declaring a state. We can also declare a state without the ‘constructor’ and ‘super’ keywords with the help of Property Initializer which came in 2017.    Wait, what is Property Initializer?     If you have a lot of code, it becomes harder to understand what is what. And if there are any arguments in the constructor, then it becomes an extra overhead to keep track of all of them.      Therefore, the idea behind using an Initializer is to use a cleaner ES6 component, by assigning an arrow function to a property that will act like a normal method. In other words, it can also be termed as class field syntax.         Without the Constructor       Take a look at the representation below:         class Welcome extends React.Component {  state = {       name: 'Michael Jackson'     }  }  render() {    …  }  }  In the following example, we have added a state to the “Welcome” component.         Let’s see how we can consume the data from the object — not outside the component, but within it!           Rendering data from state                 A state is either initialized in the constructor or by using the class fields syntax to directly initialize it in a class component. Now let’s see how we can consume the state from the component in the render.           A point to note here while using state is we use “this.state” to get the value of the name property and it can be accessed in the render() method as follows:             ~~~Wrong Approach~~~  class Welcome extends React.Component {     constructor() {         super();         this.state = {             name: 'Michael Jackson'         }     }     render() {         const { name } = this.state         return < h1 >My name is {name}</h1>;     }  } or an alternative to the above is:  ~~~Right Approach~~~ class Welcome extends React.Component {  constructor() {     super();     this.state = {       name: 'Michael Jackson'     }  }  render() {    return < h1 >My name is { this.state.name }</h1>;  }  } The only difference in both is that in the first snippet I used State as:  const { name } = this.state  But we have already initialized the state in the constructor, why should we do it again?  We should not reassign it, and hence we should never update the component state directly.  A state should always be accessed using this.state.propertyName.  Updating the State So far, we have seen how to create state and use state in the component.      Now let’s understand why and how to update state and what happens after updating a state.           A state can’t be changed directly and the only permissible way of updating it is by using setState as follows:             this.state.site = "Welcome"; // wrong implementation    this.setState({ // correct implementation     site: "Welcome"  });    // Or  this.setState((prevState, props) => ({ site: "Welcome" })))  The setState( ) method makes the component re-render; and hence when a state changes the component re-renders and updates the changes.   Each time setState is called, it sends a request to React to update and re-render and give it back a newly updated state.   Let’s understand this with an example:  Let’s suppose we have a component and want to change the name in the component with a method called handleNameChange(). It should look as follows:          handleNameChange(name) {     this.setState({ name })  }   The above method receives an argument and it uses that argument to update the state.              Component Demo to update a state should look as follows:             class App extends React.Component {     constructor() {         super()         this.state = { name: 'Michael Jackson' }     }     handleNameChange(name) {         this.setState({ name })     }     render() {         const { name } = this.state         return (             <div>                 < div>                     < input                         type="text"                         value={this.state.name}                         onChange={event => this.handleNameChange(event.target.value)}                     />                 </ div>                 <p>My name is, {name}</p>             </ div>         )     }  }  When is setState asynchronous?React doesn’t have just one job to do, or only one component to observe for. It is possible that different components will be asking for different updates and DOM manipulations at the same time, hence the state updates are merged!      When setState() is called, React merges the object provided into the current state object.            For example, if we have different variables in our state like this:           constructor(props) {     super(props);     this.state = {         likes: [],         names: []     };  }  And both states can be independently updated by using setState() calls as follow:componentDidMount() {     fetchLikes().then(response => {         this.setState({             likes: response.likes         });     });       fetchNames().then(response => {         this.setState({             names: response.names         });     });  }  Here we are calling multiple setState during one update cycle, so this.setState({names}) will leave this.state.likes unmarked but will completely replace this.state.names.  Hence you will not get the recently updated data in {names} and previous changes will be lost.  A quick fix to the above problem is as follows: Instead of giving a new state directly we can provide a function that can automatically provide the current state into a new state. There are two approaches to this:  // Method #1  this.setState({ foo: this.state.counter + 1 }, this.anyCallback);  Or              // Method #2  this.setState((prevState) => { return { counter: prevState.counterfoo + 1 } }, this.anyCallback);  The main difference is that in example #1, the counter gets incremented by 1 based on the state at the time when you have called the setState() method, whereas In the example-2, the counter will be incremented by 1 only depending on the value that the previous state had while the arrow function was called.  So if we have multiple setState() which happen at the same time before the actual state update, it is possible that they may conflict or have outdated state data, but if we go with approach #2 they are guaranteed to have the most recent updated state because they update synchronously! To learn more about setState() and its powers, head over to this official link.Bonus Section:  Changing Title on Click Example Using StateSo far you have understood how to use State in React and what are the basic principles that define when to use State and when to use Prop. Here is a simple Demo for using State in a component and using Props to reuse the component.    Try this code to understand the power of State and reusable components.         let imgLogo = 'https://apod.nasa.gov/apod/image/2009/CrabNebula_Hubble_960.jpg';    class BonusExample extends React.Component {      constructor() {          super();          this.state = {              newTitle: false          };          this.changeTitle = this.changeTitle.bind(this);      }      changeTitle() {          this.setState({              newTitle: !this.state.newTitle          });      }      render() {          let title = this.state.newTitle ? 'Here is my New Title - Google Page' : 'Here is my Old Title - Facebook Page';          let link;          if (this.state.newTitle) {              link = <NewPageLink />;          } else {              link = <OldPageLink />;          }          return (              < div>                  <Header ><LogoComponent /></Header>                  <Main title={title}>                      {link}                      <div className=" wrapper">                          < button style={{ margin: '20px' }} type="button" className="btn btn-primary" onClick={this.changeTitle}>Change Name</button>                      </div>                  </Main>                  <Footer>< HelperComponent /></Footer>              </div>          );      }  }    class OldPageLink extends React.Component {      render() {          return (              <div style={{margin:'20px'}} className="wrapper">                  <a target="_blank" href= "http://www.facebook.com" > http: //www.facebook.com</a>              </div>          );      }  }    class NewPageLink extends React.Component {      render() {          return (              <div style={{ margin: '20px' }} className="wrapper">                  <a target="_blank" href= "http://www.google.com" > http: //www.google.com</a>              </div>          );      }  }    class Header extends React.Component {      render() {          return (              <header>                  {this.props.children}              </header>          );      }  }    class Main extends React.Component {      render() {          return (              <div>                  <h 1>{this.props.title}</h1>                  {this.props.children}              </div>          );      }  }    class Footer extends React.Component {      render() {          return (              <footer>                  {this.props.children}              </footer>          );      }  }    class LogoComponent extends React.Component {      render() {          return (              <img width="150px" src={imgLogo} />          );      }  }    class HelperComponent extends React.Component {      render() {          return (              <p>Changing the title from one to Another</p>          );      }  }    ReactDOM.render(<BonusExample />, document.getElementById('example'));  ConclusionI hope you have understood the concept of State and its usage. We have learned the basic difference between State and Props and when each should be used. We have also understood the data flow in a React component and how to consume and update a State object in React.  Now that you have understood all the fundamentals of State, there are some high-level pointers that you should always keep in mind while using a State. State is private to a component State Updates have shallow merging You should never modify a State Directly Updates in a State may Be asynchronous State is only used when you want to change component dataWe hope you have found this article useful. Happy Learning!   

What Is React-js State?

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What Is React-js State?

You must have already learned about the basic building block of any React application which is a Component 

A component represents a feature that may be made up of several smaller components. Components can be broadly classified into functional or class components.  

Components may take in some values as properties (prop) to render a page. These props decide how to render a page. 

function Welcome(props) { 
  return < h1 >Hello, {props.name}</h1>; 
}

In addition to props, a component can also have a state that holds a value that can keep a track of all the information within a component. 

In this article, we will focus mainly on what is State, how we can define and utilize State and how components can use it in data management.  

Defining React State

So what exactly is state? What is it used for?    

State represents a component’s underlying data model and is rendered by the component. But more importantly, whenever data in the state changes, it causes the component to re-render to reflect the change. This facilitates declarative programming where you can simply manipulate state; while React takes care of implementing updates to ensure your component reflects the data in the State accurately.  

In Class component we can use State as follows:  

class Welcome extends React.Component { 
   constructor() { 
       super(); 
       // Space To define the state 
       this.state = { 
          isDisabled: false, 
          totalCost: 0, 
          products: [] 
       } 
   } 
   // To Define render method 
} 

We can also use state in Functional components using the useState Hook. Hooks are a new addition in React 16.8 which let us use State and other React features in functional components.  

When should I use a Hook?

If you are writing a functional component and realize that you need to add State to it, the only option previously was to convert it to a class. Now you can use a Hook inside the existing function component.  

For this, you can directly read the React documentation of Hooks here. 

In this article, we will mainly focus on “what is a State” and how is it different from Props. 

Difference of Props and State 

Most of the developers who are new to React often think about when to use State and when to use a Prop. Let’s understand this dilemma with an example.   

A React component is akin to a JavaScript function.  A State can only be utilized in class components natively and is quite similar to a Prop, with the only exception that it is fully private, which means it can only be fully controlled and accessed by a component. In functional components, you have to opt-in to the useState hook to include stateful features.  

Props, on the other hand, allow you to reuse the component by giving it an ability to receive data as input from the parent component.   

We will learn more about the State and its usage later in this article, but here is the practical difference between the two:  

A fictional example of Using a State: 

class MyComponent extends React.Component { 
   state = { 
       name: 'Tom'  //defining the name property inside component state 
   } 
   render() { 
       return <div>Hello {this.state.name}</div>; 
   } 
}  

Here, we can use the state ‘name’ anywhere in the component named “MyComponent” with the value ‘Tom’, or we can assign a new state also in the same component. 

And, Using Prop:

Prop is a short name for properties. React is nothing without a Prop. Earlier we saw an example where we used the same data over and over again, but what if we have a scenario where we need the same component but not the same data? For example, I might want the theme component, but instead of a dark theme, I would like to use a light theme! 

What I mean here is that basically, I want to re-use “MyComponent” again, but not the data defined in it. This is where Props will come in useful; in cases when we want to change the content inside the reusable component.     

class ThemeProvider extends React.Component { 
   render() { 
       return <div>Current theme is {this.props.theme}</div>; 
   } 
 
} 
// when re-using the component with differnt data 
<ThemeProvider name="Light" /> 
<ThemeProvider name="Dark" />         

  What Is React-js State? It’s absolutely fine if you are not familiar with this code snippet. The idea is to understand when to use state or prop, and not the code as of now!  

For now, just know that Prop is just a state, which is passed from parent to child. And because props can’t change their value in the child component, they take the help of an event listener or callback function in the parent component.    

Now let’s quickly jump into the basics of a State.    

Creating the State Object  

React component has a built-in state object. 

Before you think that state is a very simple concept, let me stop you right there!  

It’s not!  

You should not forget the data flow in React! In React there is a uni-direction flow of data, which is from parent to child. This can be a bit confusing, in that different components will never know what is changing in their component and when. Besides, they might be unaware of whether a component is stateless or stateful.   

This is why the state is usually said to be encapsulated or having a local scope.

This is why the state is usually said to be encapsulated or having a local scope. 

And therefore, you initialize the state in the class component by simply using a constructor.    

Inside the Constructor  

To declare a local state in the component, we can use a constructor as follows:   

class Welcome extends React.Component { 
   constructor() { 
       super(); 
       this.state = { 
           name: 'Michael Jackson', 
           currentTimer0, 
           hasPickedfalse, 
           themeRedfalse, 
           todoList: [] 
       } 
   } 
   render() { 
       return <p>My name is {this.state.name}</p>; 
   } 
}    

And the output or the result of the above < p> tag will be rendered as:     

Hello, my name is Michael Jackson 

However, this was the older convention of declaring a state. We can also declare a state without the ‘constructor’ and ‘super’ keywords with the help of Property Initializer which came in 2017.    

Wait, what is Property Initializer?     

If you have a lot of code, it becomes harder to understand what is what. And if there are any arguments in the constructor, then it becomes an extra overhead to keep track of all of them.      

Therefore, the idea behind using an Initializer is to use a cleaner ES6 component, by assigning an arrow function to a property that will act like a normal method. In other words, it can also be termed as class field syntax.         

Without the Constructor       

Take a look at the representation below:         

class Welcome extends React.Component { 
state = { 
     name: 'Michael Jackson' 
   } 
} 
render() { 
  … 
} 
}  

In the following example, we have added a state to the “Welcome” component.         

Let’s see how we can consume the data from the object  not outside the component, but within it!           

Rendering data from state                 

A state is either initialized in the constructor or by using the class fields syntax to directly initialize it in a class component. Now let’s see how we can consume the state from the component in the render.           

A point to note here while using state is we use “this.state” to get the value of the name property and it can be accessed in the render() method as follows:             

~~~Wrong Approach~~~ 
class Welcome extends React.Component { 
   constructor() { 
       super(); 
       this.state = { 
           name: 'Michael Jackson' 
       } 
   } 
   render() { 
       const { name } = this.state 
       return < h1 >My name is {name}</h1>; 
   } 
} 

or an alternative to the above is:  

~~~Right Approach~~~
class Welcome extends React.Component { 
constructor() { 
   super(); 
   this.state = { 
     name: 'Michael Jackson' 
   } 
} 
render() { 
  return < h1 >My name is { this.state.name }</h1>; 
} 
} 

The only difference in both is that in the first snippet I used State as:  

const { name } = this.state 

 But we have already initialized the state in the constructor, why should we do it again?  

We should not reassign it, and hence we should never update the component state directly.  

A state should always be accessed using this.state.propertyName.  

Updating the State 

So far, we have seen how to create state and use state in the component.      

Now let’s understand why and how to update state and what happens after updating a state.           

A state can’t be changed directly and the only permissible way of updating it is by using setState as follows:             

this.state.site = "Welcome"// wrong implementation 
 
this.setState({ // correct implementation 
   site: "Welcome" 
}); 
 
// Or 
this.setState((prevState, props) => ({ site: "Welcome" })))  

The setState( ) method makes the component re-render; and hence when a state changes the component re-renders and updates the changes.   

Each time setState is called, it sends a request to React to update and re-render and give it back a newly updated state.   

Let’s understand this with an example:  

Let’s suppose we have a component and want to change the name in the component with a method called handleNameChange(). It should look as follows:          

handleNameChange(name) { 
   this.setState({ name }) 
}  

 The above method receives an argument and it uses that argument to update the state.              

Component Demo to update a state should look as follows:             

class App extends React.Component { 
   constructor() { 
       super() 
       this.state = { name: 'Michael Jackson' } 
   } 
   handleNameChange(name) { 
       this.setState({ name }) 
   } 
   render() { 
       const { name } = this.state 
       return ( 
           <div> 
               < div> 
                   < input 
                       type="text" 
                       value={this.state.name} 
                       onChange={event => this.handleNameChange(event.target.value)} 
                   /> 
               </ div> 
               <p>My name is, {name}</p> 
           </ div> 
       ) 
   } 
}  

When is setState asynchronous?

React doesn’t have just one job to do, or only one component to observe for. It is possible that different components will be asking for different updates and DOM manipulations at the same time, hence the state updates are merged!     

When setState() is called, React merges the object provided into the current state object.            

For example, if we have different variables in our state like this:           

constructor(props) { 
   super(props); 
   this.state = { 
       likes: [], 
       names: [] 
   }; 
}  

And both states can be independently updated by using setState() calls as follow:

componentDidMount() { 
   fetchLikes().then(response => { 
       this.setState({ 
           likes: response.likes 
       }); 
   }); 
 
   fetchNames().then(response => { 
       this.setState({ 
           names: response.names 
       }); 
   }); 
}  

Here we are calling multiple setState during one update cycle, so this.setState({names}) will leave this.state.likes unmarked but will completely replace this.state.names.  

Hence you will not get the recently updated data in {names} and previous changes will be lost.  

A quick fix to the above problem is as follows: Instead of giving a new state directly we can provide a function that can automatically provide the current state into a new state. There are two approaches to this:  

// Method #1 
this.setState({ foothis.state.counter + 1 }, this.anyCallback);  

Or              

// Method #2 
this.setState((prevState) => return { counter: prevState.counterfoo + 1 } }, this.anyCallback);  

The main difference is that in example #1, the counter gets incremented by 1 based on the state at the time when you have called the setState() method, whereas 

In the example-2, the counter will be incremented by 1 only depending on the value that the previous state had while the arrow function was called.  

So if we have multiple setState() which happen at the same time before the actual state update, it is possible that they may conflict or have outdated state data, but if we go with approach #2 they are guaranteed to have the most recent updated state because they update synchronously! 

To learn more about setState() and its powers, head over to this official link.

Bonus Section:  

Changing Title on Click Example Using State

So far you have understood how to use State in React and what are the basic principles that define when to use State and when to use Prop. Here is a simple Demo for using State in a component and using Props to reuse the component.   

 Try this code to understand the power of State and reusable components.         

let imgLogo = 'https://apod.nasa.gov/apod/image/2009/CrabNebula_Hubble_960.jpg'; 
 
class BonusExample extends React.Component { 
    constructor() { 
        super(); 
        this.state = { 
            newTitlefalse 
        }; 
        this.changeTitle = this.changeTitle.bind(this); 
    } 
    changeTitle() { 
        this.setState({ 
            newTitle: !this.state.newTitle 
        }); 
    } 
    render() { 
        let title = this.state.newTitle ? 'Here is my New Title - Google Page' : 'Here is my Old Title - Facebook Page'; 
        let link; 
        if (this.state.newTitle) { 
            link = <NewPageLink />; 
        } else { 
            link = <OldPageLink />; 
        } 
        return ( 
            < div> 
                <Header ><LogoComponent /></Header> 
                <Main title={title}> 
                    {link} 
                    <div className=" wrapper"> 
                        < button style={{ margin: '20px' }} type="button" className="btn btn-primary" onClick={this.changeTitle}>Change Name</button> 
                    </div> 
                </Main> 
                <Footer>< HelperComponent /></Footer> 
            </div> 
        ); 
    } 
} 
 
class OldPageLink extends React.Component { 
    render() { 
        return ( 
            <div style={{margin:'20px'}} className="wrapper"> 
                <a target="_blank" href"http://www.facebook.com" > http: //www.facebook.com</a> 
            </div> 
        ); 
    } 
} 
 
class NewPageLink extends React.Component { 
    render() { 
        return ( 
            <div style={{ margin: '20px' }} className="wrapper"> 
                <a target="_blank" href= "http://www.google.com" > http: //www.google.com</a> 
            </div> 
        ); 
    } 
} 
 
class Header extends React.Component { 
    render() { 
        return ( 
            <header> 
                {this.props.children} 
            </header> 
        ); 
    } 
} 
 
class Main extends React.Component { 
    render() { 
        return ( 
            <div> 
                <h 1>{this.props.title}</h1> 
                {this.props.children} 
            </div> 
        ); 
    } 
} 
 
class Footer extends React.Component { 
    render() { 
        return ( 
            <footer> 
                {this.props.children} 
            </footer> 
        ); 
    } 
} 
 
class LogoComponent extends React.Component { 
    render() { 
        return ( 
            <img width="150px" src={imgLogo} /> 
        ); 
    } 
} 
 
class HelperComponent extends React.Component { 
    render() { 
        return ( 
            <p>Changing the title from one to Another</p> 
        ); 
    } 
} 
 
ReactDOM.render(<BonusExample />, document.getElementById('example'));  

Conclusion

I hope you have understood the concept of State and its usage. We have learned the basic difference between State and Props and when each should be used. We have also understood the data flow in a React component and how to consume and update a State object in React.  

Now that you have understood all the fundamentals of State, there are some high-level pointers that you should always keep in mind while using a State. 

  • State is private to a component 
  • State Updates have shallow merging 
  • You should never modify a State Directly 
  • Updates in a State may Be asynchronous 
  • State is only used when you want to change component data

We hope you have found this article useful. Happy Learning!   

KnowledgeHut

KnowledgeHut

Author

KnowledgeHut is an outcome-focused global ed-tech company. We help organizations and professionals unlock excellence through skills development. We offer training solutions under the people and process, data science, full-stack development, cybersecurity, future technologies and digital transformation verticals.
Website : https://www.knowledgehut.com

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It aims to shorten the systems development life cycle and provide continuous delivery with high software quality. The two most popular DevOps services are AWS and Azure. Both of them are cloud based and are market leaders. Both of these platforms contain a wide variety of similar services. AWS  It consists of over 200 products and services for storage, database, analytics, deployment, serverless function and many more. AWS is the market leader as of now with 33% of market share. The AWS certifications are also one of the most in-demand certifications and a must for frontend engineers as well as Backend engineers. Azure  Microsoft Azure is second in terms of market share of cloud-based platforms, with 18% of the market. It also consists of SaaS (Software as a Service), PaaS (Platform as a Service) and IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) like AWS. 3. PaaS (Platform as a Service)   There are several smaller players, which provide Platform as a Service and are much easier to use than services like AWS and Azure. With these services you can directly deploy your React or other web-apps, by just hosting them on GitHub and pushing the code. These services are preferred a lot by freelancers, hobbyists and small companies as they don’t require investment in learning complicated services like AWS and Azure. The three most popular PaaS services are Digital Ocean Heroku Netlify 4. Serverless  Serverless computing is an execution model where the cloud provider (AWS, Azure, or Google Cloud) is responsible for executing a piece of code by dynamically allocating resources and only charging for the number of resources used to run the code. The code is typically run inside stateless containers that can be triggered by a variety of events including http requests, database events, queuing services, monitoring alerts, file uploads, scheduled events (cron jobs), etc. The code that is sent to the cloud provider for execution is usually in the form of a function. AWS Lambda  It is an event-driven, serverless platform which is part of AWS. The various languages supported by AWS Lambda are Node.js, Python, Java, Go, Ruby and .NET. AWS Lambda was designed for use cases such as updates to DynamoDB tables, responding to a website click etc. After that it will “spin down” the database service, to save resources. Azure Functions  They are quite similar to AWS Lambda, but are for Microsoft Azure. Azure functions have a browser-based interface to write code to respond to events generated by http requests etc. The service accepts programming languages like C#, F#, Node.js, Python, PHP and Java. Serverless Framework  It is an open-source web-framework written using Node.js. The popular services like AWS Lambda, Azure functions and Google cloud functions are based on it. CI/CD A backend developer should know the popular CI/CD (Continuous Integration/Continuous deployment) tools. These tools help to automate the whole process of building, testing and deployment of applications. Github Actions   It is a freely available CI/CD pipeline, which directly integrates to your GitHub based project and can be used in variety of languages. Jenkins  Jenkins is the most popular CI/CD automation tool, which helps in building, testing and deployment of applications. Jenkins was written in Java and over the years has been built to support over 1400 plugins, which extend its functionalities. Circle CI  Circle CI is also a CI/CD automation tool, which is cloud based and so it is different from Jenkins. It is much easier to use than Jenkins, but has a smaller community and lower user base. SecuritySecurity is an important aspect of any application. Most applications containing user personal data, like email etc, are often targeted by hackers. OWASP   The Open Web Application Security Project (or OWASP), is a non-profit organization dedicated to web application security. They have free material available on their website, making it possible for anyone to improve their web application security. Protecting Services & databases against threats   Hackers target databases of popular web-apps on a regular basis to get sensitive information about their customers. This data is then sold to the highest bidder on the dark-net. When such public breaches are reported, then it's a reputation loss for the enterprise also. So, a lot of emphasis should be given to Authentication, Access, Backups, and Encryption while setting up a database. The databases should also be monitored for any suspicious activities. Besides this the API routes also need to be protected, so that the hacker cannot manipulate them. Career roles Most of the companies hire Frontend developers, Backend developers and DevOps engineers separately. This is because most of the enterprise projects are huge, in which roles and responsibilities are distributed. But there is a huge demand for Full Stack developers in the startup sector in US and India. These companies need specialists who can get the product out as soon as possible with agile and small teams. Top companies hiringAlmost every company on the planet is hiring web-developers or outsourcing the development work. Since the past decade, the demand for developers has risen exponentially. The top technology companies which hire full stack developers are Facebook, Amazon, Apple, Netflix, Google, Uber, Flipkart, Microsoft and more.  The sites of each of these companies are web-apps (excluding Apple and Microsoft), with complex frontend and backend systems. The frontend generally consists of React or Angular and the backend is a combination of various technologies. The DevOps part is also quite important in these web-apps as they handle millions of concurrent connections at once.Salaries  The salary of a beginner Frontend developer in India starts from Rs. 300,000($ 3980) per year in service-based companies to Rs. 12,00,000($ 15,971) per year in the top tech companies mentioned above. The salary of a Beginner Full-Stack developer in India starts at Rs. 4,50,000 ($ 5989) per year in service companies to Rs. 12,00,000($ 15,971) per year in top tech companies. The salary for an entry level Frontend developer in USA is $ 59,213 per year and for an entry level Full stack developer is $ 61,042 per year.Below are some sources for salaries. web-developerfull-stack-developerfront-end-vs-back-endTop regions where there is demand There are plenty of remote and freelancing opportunities in web-development across the world. The two countries with most developers and top tech companies are USA and India. Silicon Valley, which is the San Francisco Bay Area, in Northern California, USA is the hub of technology companies.  The top city in India to start a developer job is the Silicon Valley of India – Bengaluru. The number of jobs is more than all the other cities combined and it also has a very good startup ecosystem. Almost all the big technology companies mentioned earlier and top Indian service companies are located in the city. After Bengaluru, the city where the greatest number of technology jobs are based is Hyderabad, followed by Chennai and then Pune. Entry PointsThe demand for web-developers is high and anyone with a passion for creating apps can become a web-developer. An Engineering degree is not mandatory to land a job as a web developer.  The most in-demand skill today and for the next 5 years is React and its ecosystem. So, if you know HTML, CSS, JavaScript and React, it is impossible to not get a job. Career Pathway  Most people start as an intern Front-end developer or Intern Full-Stack developer and in many cases Intern Backend developer. Many companies directly hire junior Frontend/Backend/Full-stack developers.  After that, the next step is the role of Senior Frontend/Backend/Full-stack developers. Many Frontend and Backend developers become full stack developers at this level, by learning additional technologies. Senior resources in Frontend/Backend/Full-stack can then go on to assume Team Lead roles. These people manage small teams in addition to being individual contributors.  After this a professional can become a Project manager, whose main responsibility is managing the team. Another role is that of Technical Project Manager, who manages the team and also has hands-on knowledge in Technology. The last role at this level is that of a Software Architect, who handles and designs big projects and has to look at every aspect of the technology to create the enterprise app. Generally Full-stack developers are preferred in this role, as they need to know all technologies. The highest career milestone is CTO or Chief Technology Officer, who handles all the technology teams and makes all technology decisions in a Technology company. Job SpecializationThere are some Full stack development specializations which I see nowadays in the industry. Full stack developers who work with React in the Frontend and Java in the Backend are in great demand. Similarly, developers who work with Angular in the Frontend and .NET in the backend are in great demand.How KnowledgeHut can helpAll these free resources are a great place to start your Frontend or Full-Stack journey. Beside these there are many other free resources on the internet, but they may not be organized and may not have a structured approach.  This is where KnowledgeHut can make a difference and serve as a one stop shop alternative with its comprehensive Instructor-led live classes. The courses are taught by Industry experts and are perfect for aspirants who wish to become Frontend or FullStack developers.Links for some of the popular courses & Bootcamps by KnowledgeHut are appended below-CSS3JavaScriptReactJSNodeJSDevopsFull-stack developer BootcampFront-end developer Bootcampback-end developer BootcampConclusion This completes our article on the Full stack developer journey by combining both the Frontend and backend roadmap. There are many people who become backend developers first by working on languages like Java and then go on to learn React to become full stack developers.  Again, many developers learn front-end development first with frameworks like React, and then become full stack developers by learning Node.JS. This path is easier for developers because both React and Node.JS use the same language which is JavaScript.We hope you have found this blog useful, and can now take the right path to become a full stack developer. Good luck on your learning journey!
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How to Become a Successful Full Stack Web Develope...

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Top Five Reasons to Become a Full Stack Developer

Do you have an inclination for dabbling with technology? Are you interested in figuring out how websites work? Eager to learn more about the world of Full-Stack Development? Dig in!While some prefer the artistic and creative side of web development, others are drawn to the technical one. There’s a third group of people who are masters of both these aspects. The first group is that of front-end developers, the second is of back-end developers, and the third that of full-stack developers.Most modern web applications today require over 20 different job functions and developers who can navigate across these various functions across the stack are highly valuable. Full-stack developers are always in vogue and much sought after both in startups as well as leading enterprises owing to their versatility, ability to step in and troubleshoot areas across the technology ecosystem that goes into building a winning product, and their contribution to speed and cost-effectiveness.From mobile-first strategies, product testing through MVP (minimum viable product) cycles, app development, and creating exceptional UI/UX, a full-stack developer enables it all. Before we dive into everything you’ll have going for you once you become a skilled full-stack developer, let’s understand what a full-stack is and what a full-stack developer actually does.What is Full-Stack Development?Full-stack development refers to the development of both the front-end and back-end of a web application or website. But first, what’s ‘full stack’?A full stack is made up of the front-end that deals with the user interface, the back-end that deals with data validation, and the database that acts as storage—a repository of information from the front-end through the logic layer.‘Full stack’ refers to the collection of multiple components in a software application that work together to ensure its smooth running—this includes software products, patches, coding frameworks, servers, operating systems, database tools, and more.Each of these components come together to facilitate user interaction, to run calculations, and to power back-end functions: a full stack.Each full stack uses different tools, frameworks, and technologies. To become a Full-Stack developer, you need to acquire the skills to use the associated front and back-end languages, tools, and frameworks so you can create your own application from start to finish.What Does a Full-Stack Developer Do?A FULL-STACK DEVELOPER designs and builds dynamic data-driven websites and applications using a rich ensemble of technologies, techniques and workflows that serve both the end user and the back-end infrastructure.The word ‘stack’ simply refers to an amalgamation of technologies and products that form the technical ecosystem and backbone needed to build and operate the product.A stack is typically made up of a database such as MongoDB, MySQL, and others, an application framework such as Express, Rails or Laravel, a platform or runtime such as Node.js, PHP or Ruby and a client-side web application framework such as React, Angular or Vue. Depending on the project requirement, different kinds of stacks like MEAN, MERN, LAMP stack, Ruby on Rails, and many other stacks are required and used.Full-Stack Developers are Jacks of multiple trades, handling both the front-end and the back-end, including servers, databases, and even clients. A Full-Stack Developer must be able to work with all the components of a stack to ensure they work together efficiently.Why Should You Consider a Full-Stack Development Career?Full-stack development is not only about learning various front-end and back-end technologies. It's also about understanding the two areas in sufficient detail and making communication between them easy and smooth.As technologies and industries evolve, Full-Stack developers will need to learn new technologies to stay abreast of the latest trends. This broad range of skills across the stack is a superpower for software developers.If you’re a fresher looking to break into your tech career or a mid-career professional looking to enter the world of tech from a non-tech profession, you should consider the following advantages of becoming a full-stack developer:1. Full-Stack Development opens multi-faceted scope for growthCompanies are no longer in pursuit of specialists in software development. The preference is towards full-stack developers who are multi-faceted and cultivate a mindset to constantly upskill themselves.There is huge scope for accelerated growth as companies resort to this broad skillset that brings in speed and cost-effectiveness for their businesses. Full-stack developers boast of a fast-tracked, multi-dimensional career growth across companies ranging across globally valued end-to-end enterprise solutions and startups.Full-stack engineers typically begin their careers as front-end or back-end developers at the entry-level, quickly moving up ranks as they perfect their technical skills. Practice-oriented bootcamps that provide you work-like experience can help you master every aspect of development and get you industry ready in a relatively short time and are a great alternative to this.2. Full-Stack Development is one of the highest paid jobsFull-stack development is one of the highest-paid jobs across the globe due to its impact on business and marketing. This versatile approach to development helps organizations distinguish themselves and catalyses revenue growth.According to ZipRecruiter, the average salary of an entry-level full-stack developer is $58,040 annually in the US. For mid-level developers, it is $97,500 a year, and $116,504 for experienced ones. Even Indeed points out that the average annual salary figure sits at $113,462 a year in the US, and between £40,000 - £70,000 in the UK.While full-stack programming is one of the most rewarding tech jobs, the remuneration of a full-stack developer depends on factors such as core skills, additional skills (databases, UI/UX basics, etc.), and the location of the organization, demographics, and experience.3. Full-Stack Development enables rapid project deliveryTasks related to integration, updates, front-end, and back-end coordination, and meeting client expectations—all fall within the scope of a full-stack developer role. Not only does this help in lowering the dependencies on other teams—which often delays execution—it speeds up the development cycle and brings in cost efficiencies.If you’re a full-stack developer, you also need to be well versed with the Agile Project Management (APM) framework, Scrum, and its building blocks. The job profile also mandates effective communication with team members to streamline development processes.A full-stack developer learns to deliver results quickly with a toolkit that constitutes the most efficient tools in the industry, enabling smart and fast work.4. Full-Stack development is all about building versatilityA full-stack developer is a one-stop-solution of sorts for companies. The onus of handling different stages of the project right from initiating the project, basic level of development, key project contributions both on front-end and back-end, as well as managing the UI/UX as per client feedback falls on the full-stack developer. This gives them great responsibility, dependability, and credit for successful project execution.Full stack developers, with their multi-dimensional skillset are equipped to step in anywhere across the development spectrum to provide an end-to-end solution. Tech companies appreciate and value them for their versatility across the stack, which translates to speed to market.Learning full-stack development will help you master a wide set of skills ranging from HTML, CSS, JavaScript, back-end languages (Python, PHP, Ruby), database storage, HTTP, REST, and NPM, along with a good set of Agile project management and soft skills.5. With greater productivity comes greater responsibilityFull-stack developers get to work with the client-side as well as the server-side of the application. This gives the developer more control over the product and makes way for far more creative flexibility. The ability to see the big picture empowers full-stack developers to make decisions faster, giving them an edge over other developers.The broad range of skills across the stack and the creative liberty coupled with good judgment skills is what increases the overall productivity of full-stack developers, empowering them to be self-reliant and move the needle on the development better and faster.How to Get Future-Ready with Full-Stack DevelopmentWhether you have a tech background or are starting from a blank slate, with a passion to learn and a well-structured program coupled with hands-on practice, you can go from zero to an advanced level where you’ll be able to contribute right away to projects.Figuring out what projects to build is half the battle won and that’s where a Full-Stack Dev Bootcamp like KnowledgeHut’s adds immense value. At the end of the bootcamp, you will have a portfolio of real-world projects deployed on GitHub, working through an immersive project-based curriculum focused on practical developer skills.The program equips you with world-class mentorship and real work-like experiences, enabling you to build internship-grade projects in an actual developer environment. You will deploy project portfolios on GitHub that you can impress recruiters with during your interviews.The demand for full-stack developers will steadily increase in the market as new technologies enter. While the opportunity comes with its bells and whistles, the developers who will get ahead are the ones who will constantly keep abreast of the latest and continually hone their full-stack development skills.If you’re interested to learn more about the full-stack and gain more insights on how KnowledgeHut can help you position yourself to crack a full-stack or front-end role in top tech companies, be sure to look up our Full-Stack Development Bootcamp. Designed to get you hired, the program offers live instructor-led sessions, hands-on practice with Cloud Labs, on-demand self-paced learning, one-on-one mentorship, capstone projects, assignments, assessments, quizzes and more.Ready to become a Full-Stack Developer? Join the Full-Stack Career Track Bootcamp!
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Top Five Reasons to Become a Full Stack Developer

Do you have an inclination for dabbling with techn... Read More

What is React Redux?

React is a JavaScript library for building user interfaces. One of the most popular UI libraries in use today, React is opensource and is maintained by Facebook. React has the best community support, with millions of developers who take part in discussions on best practices, React architecture, and the way forward with React.You can read more about React here.In this blog you are going to learn about React Redux. We can use it along with React for state management within the application.Prerequisites:This blog expects you to have good knowledge of JavaScript.You should have basic understanding of React, React Hooks and Components in React.Please ensure that the latest versions of npm and node are installed in your machine.To get started with React Redux, let’s first see what Redux is:What is Redux?Redux is a predictable state container for JavaScript apps, which means that Redux is predictable and it stores the state of your application. Redux will store and manage the application state.Redux itself is a standalone library that can be used with any UI layer or framework. Along with React, Redux can be used with many other JavaScript libraries and frameworks such as Angular, Vue and even with Vanilla JavaScript.You can read more about Redux here.When we are building a large-scale application, there is a need for a state management tool to avoid prop drilling all through the component. Redux is the most popular and widely used state management tool today.Note: Redux does what context api does in React. However, Redux was introduced before context api was introduced, and it continues to be the most popular state management library.In the next part of this article, you will learn to use Redux and in later parts you can learn how to integrate it with your React application.Learn Redux:Here you will understand the essential core concepts of Redux before learning how to use it with React.Start with creating an empty folder with the name Redux-Learnings in your desired location and open the folder in your favourite editor. VScode is preferred.Initially your project folder looks like this when it is opened in VScode:It should be empty. Let’s setup our project first.Now, let’s initialize a package.json file to store all our dependencies to learn Redux.Open integrated terminal for vscode and navigate to the project location.Next, run the below command in our terminal to initialize package.json in our project.Command: npm init –yesThere should be a package.json file inside the project as shown below.The next step is to install redux as a dependency for our project. Run the below command in the terminal to add redux as a dependency.Command: npm install reduxIf you check package.json file, you can see redux listed under the dependencies as shown below:Now create a file with the name index.js at the root level of the project and add a simple console statement to see the output on the terminal as shown below.Now, run the below command to run the index.js file.Command: node indexIt has to print the console statement to the terminal as shown below.Let’s start learning some theory behind Redux.Redux has 3 main components:StoreAction  ReducerWe will explain these components with the help of a real-world scenario.Imagine there is a restaurant, and you want to buy a meal. You will go to the restaurant and tell the retailer that you want to BUY a meal. The retailer takes out the meal from the bunch of meals with him, and gives it to you. You will then pay the money for the meal and get the receipt for the purchase. The receipt for the purchase is the proof that the number of meals has been decreased by one.Let’s see the 3 components in relation to the above scenario:Store: The store holds all the states of the application. This is similar to the restaurant holding all the meals.  Action: The Action here is to BUY_A_MEAL which describes what has happened. In this case you have bought a meal. The action describes changes in the state of the application.  Reducer: Reducers are similar to the retailer. They connect the store to the actions. In this case the retailer is decreasing the number of meals the restaurant (store) has. Reducers update the store according to the action.To put the 3 components of Redux into code, it’s important to learn the 3 main principles of Redux:The state of the whole application is stored in a single main object in the store. This means state is a single JavaScript object and lies inside the store. In our example, all the meals of the restaurant are to be represented in a single object. For example: { numberOfMeals: 10}The only way to change the state is to emit an Action. Emitting an action is the way of letting the Redux know what has happened. It’s an object describing what has happened. In our example BUY_A_MEAL is the action which is describing the action of buying a meal. You are NOT ALLOWED to update the state directly, but you always need an action to update the state.  Actions have types. For example: {type: “BUY_A_MEAL”}To specify how state changes based on actions, we use Reducers. A Reducer is a function that take initial state and action as inputs, and returns new state based on the type the action has. An example of a reducer for the above example is shown below. It decreases the number of meals in the restaurant (store).const reducer = (state, action) => { switch(action.type) { case BUY_A_MEAL: return { numberOfMeals: state.numberOfMeals-1 } } }Now let’s start coding our Redux app.As you have seen already, the 3 main components of redux are to be implemented in code. Let’s start with Actions.Creating Action:As you know that Actions are plain JavaScript objects and have ‘type’ property, which indicates the type of the actions being performed. You are not restricted to just having a type property;  instead, you can have additional properties as well.Also, in Redux we have action creator. As the name suggests, an action creator is a function which simply creates an action.Let’s go back to the project we have setup earlier and start coding Actions.  The Action Type and the Action Creator for our restaurant example can be written as shown below.Here BUY_A_MEAL is an action type and function buyMeal is an action creator, which returns an action which has type and the description in it.Creating Reducer:As we already know, a reducer is a function which takes in initial State and action, and returns a new state based on the type of action.The reducer can be created as shown below:Here the reducer is taking in the initial state and the action and returns the new state in the switch statement, where we compare the type in the case block and return the new state object.…state means that we are creating a copy of the state object and we are changing only the required properties.However, it's important to keep in mind that in redux we cannot change the state. Instead a new state is created with the changed properties and that is stored inside the Store.Creating Store:Before creating a store, its required to know the characteristics of Store:  Store holds the state of the application. Store provides a method called dispatch which allows updates to the application state. Dispatch method accepts an action as its parameter. Store allows components to access the state via getState() method. Registers listeners via subscribe method. That is the listener is called whenever the state is changed inside the store. Listener is a function which is passed to the subscribe method to call whenever the state changes. Unregister the listeners using the function returned by the subscribe method.Now let’s implement all the above in the code. If you see, we already have the state object by the name initialState in our code. Let’s create a store to hold our state using the redux package we installed earlier.As shown above, import Redux package using the required syntax. We need to make use of createStore method in Redux to create a store.Create a store by calling createStore method we pulled out from redux.createStore takes reducer as the parameter which has the application state.The store we created has the getState method which gives us the state of the application. To prove this, let’s add the console statement as shown below.If you run the file using node index command, you can see the console statement is printing the initial state to the console.  Now let’s quickly implement subscribe and dispatch methods as shown below.As mentioned earlier subscribe method takes a function as an argument. Here it’s a simple console statement which prints the state.  dispatch method takes in the action creator as an argument. I have just called it more times to trigger the state transitions more times.If you run the index file, you can see that the subscribe method is calling the listener function for every state change, and printing the new state as you can see above.  Now let’s unsubscribe to the listeners by calling the method returned by the subscribe method as shown below.Capture the unsubscribe method returned by the subscribe method, and call it in the middle to prove that we are unsubscribed to the state changes.If you can see above, listener has been called only 3 times for the 4 dispatch calls we made, as we unsubscribed before the 4th dispatch call.What is happening when we call dispatch method?When we call the dispatch method it dispatches an action buyMeal to the reducer which is returning the action which has a type BUY_A_MEAL. Now the reducer looks at the action type and compares with the case mentioned and returns the new state. As the state changes and the new state gets created in the store, the listener gets called and prints the new state to the console.This is the flow of redux. Going forward, do make sure that you understand and remember this flow.What if we have multiple actions?Let’s take the restaurant example again and say that we have snacks along with meals and we have different retailers(reducers) for each of these.  So, first step first, you need to update the initialState object to add the number of snacks and action type to buy a snack as shown below.Now let’s add an action creator to buy a snack (buySnack method).And also, a reducer case to handle buying a snack caseAnd also add some dispatch methods to dispatch buySnack action.Now if you run the index.js file and see the terminal output when buyMeal is dispatched, only the number of meals decreases, and when buySnack is dispatched only the number of snacks decreases.This method of using a single reducer works in this case. However, in a large-scale application, it gets hard to maintain and debug, also hard to keep track of the work flow.So, in many cases developers tend to create multiple reducers.  Create multiple reducers:For this you need to split the initial state of the application within index.js as shown belowHere, initialState object has been split into 2 state objects; one to store the number of Meals(initialMealState) and one to store the number of Snacks(initialSnackState).Similarly, we will split the reducer into 2 parts.Reducer related to Meals.Here, we have made mealReducer to handle actions related to Meals.Reducer related to Snacks.Here, we have made snackReducer to handle actions related to Snacks.If you observe by splitting the state and reducer, we are maintaining the centralized state and reducer functions for each component or feature in our application. By doing this it's always easy to maintain the code and to keep track of the workflow too.But if you look at the createStore method there is reducer passed in as an argument but now it no more exists. So, we need to combine the reducers before we pass it to createStore method.Combining Reducers:Combining reducers is very simple, and we can do this by using the combine reducers function which redux package offers.Extract combineReducers function from redux package as shown below:Now we need to combine all the reducers we have using the method we extracted above.The combineReducers function takes an object as a parameter which has all the reducers we have created as a key value pairs, and its generally called as rootReducer.We have to pass that rootReducer as an argument to the createStore method as shown in the above image.  Now if you run the file using node index you will see something like this inside the terminal.The meal and snack in the state object corresponds to the meal and snack keys we specified while combining the reducers.Now we have centralized state and reducers for each of our meals and snacks. We can add more actions to the existing reducers or even add new reducers. Also, it’s easy to maintain the code.This is the flow of the redux. We dispatch an action which has a type property to the reducer, and the reducer—based on the action type— updates the store accordingly.In real time applications, the actions are not synchronous as we have learnt above. We may have asynchronous actions, or we may want to add additional functionality to our redux workflow. For all of this we need to use middlewares.Middlewares:  Middlewares are the suggested way to extend redux functionality. Middlewares provide third party extension between dispatching an action and the moment the action reaches the reducer.Middlewares are normally used for logging, crash reporting or to perform some async tasks.  For example, we will now see how to add a middleware by using redux-logger middleware.  Read more about redux logger here.To install redux logger, go to vs code and run the following command in the terminal.Command: npm install redux-loggerNow if you go to the above-mentioned link for redux logger, you will find the code we write now.  We need to require the redux logger we just installed and create a logger as shown below.Now to apply this middleware, Redux has a function built into it which is called applyMiddleware.Extract applyMiddleware function from redux as shown below.Now pass the applyMiddleware as a second parameter to the createStore function as shown below.applyMiddleWare takes all the middlewares we have as arguments. In our case, it is logger.To see the middleware in action, remove the console.log statement inside the subscribe method of store and run the file using node index. You should see the outputs of the logger in the terminal as shown below.As mentioned above the actions used in the above example are synchronous actions but in real time applications the actions will be asynchronous.  As soon as we dispatch an action the state is updated in the above example. But in real time apps we may need to do an API call before we update the state. These types of actions are called asynchronous actions or async actions.Now let’s see how async actions are handled.Handling async actions:For this, let’s make an API call to fetch some users.So, let’s go to the same project we have been working with, for the above example, and create a new file asyncActions.js and work in this file.To implement redux, we need 3 things as we have learnt:StateActionsReducersLet’s look at each one of them.State:The state object looks like this:The loading key in the state object is set to false initially, and it is used to show a spinner when we are making an API call.The users key in the state object is initially set to an empty array, as we get an array of users after making the API call.The error key in the state object is initially set to an empty string as if the API call fails, we get the error string and we store the error message in this error key.Actions:  The action types and the action creators can be written as shown below.The fetchUsersLoading action creator can be used when the API call is in progress. So, this returns action type FETCH_USERS_LOADING.The fetchUsersSuccess action creator can be used when the API call is successful. We get an array of users as an argument for this function which returns the users array as a payload along with action type FETCH_USERS_SUCCESS.The fetchUsersFail action creator can be used when the API call fails, and we get an error message string as an argument for this function which returns the error message as a payload along with the action type FETCH_USERS_FAIL.Reducer:The reducer for the given scenario can be written as shown below.As mentioned already, FETCH_USERS_LOADING denotes that the API call is going on so loading should be set to true.FETCH_USERS_SUCCESS denotes that the API call is done and was successful. We can set loading to false again and users to action.payload as we are sending users inside payload in the action creator.FETCH_USERS_FAIL denotes that the API call is done and failed. We set loading to false again and error to action.payload as we are sending the error message inside payload in the action creator. Users is sent to an empty array as we will not get any users from the API.Now the last step remaining is to create the redux store.Create the store in the same way as the previous example.Now let’s see how to make an api call and actually handle async actions.To make an api call we use axios. You can read more about axios here.To define async action creators we use redux-thunk. It is a middleware that must be used in the same way that we used logger in the previous example.Read more about redux-thunk here.We need to install both the packages in order to use them. For that, open the terminal and run the following command.Command: npm install axios redux-thunkLet’s apply redux-thunk middleware as shown below. By requiring the redux-thunk and making use of applyMiddleWare in the same way as the previous example, we get:Now let’s write our async action creator which dispatches action creators which we have created earlier.We will make use of this API.First import axios as shown below.Next, make an API call for the above-mentioned end point using axios in our async action creator as shown below.Here fetchUsers is our async action creator and as we are using redux-thunk we can define async action creators. Redux-thunk allows us to return a function which has access to dispatch method through the arguments so that we can dispatch actions.We dispatch fetchUsersLoading initially as we are making an api call.Once the api call is successful we dispatch fetchUsersSuccess along with users as argument.If the API call fails, we dispatch fetchUsersFail along with the error message.  This is our async action creator which dispatches the necessary synchronous actions whenever required.Now write a subscribe method as shown in the above image and dispatch fetchUsers at the last.In the terminal, to run the file use the below command.Command: node asyncActions.jsYou can see the list of users in the terminal as shown below.Redux-thunk is widely used middleware to handle side effects such as API calls and other async tasks. It's important that you should learn about this package.And that’s it! You have completed learning about Redux concepts.Next, we move on to learning how to integrate Redux with your React application.  Before we start learning to integrate redux with react, let’s take a look at what react redux is.What is React Redux?React is a UI library whereas Redux is a state management library. They both work independently. We cannot use Redux directly in a react application, so we use React Redux to bind Redux in our React applications.React Redux is the official Redux UI binding library for React. If you are using Redux and React together, you should also use React Redux to bind these two libraries.This means if we want to use React and Redux together, we also need to use React Redux to bind them together.  For more information on React Redux, check this link.Installation:To directly create a redux app, run the following command inside the terminal.Command: npx create-react-app my-app --template reduxNavigate into the application using cd command and start making changes to the application.To integrate redux into an existing react project, run the following command inside the react project.Command: npm install redux react-reduxThis installs redux and react-redux packages to the React application and we can start integrating redux with react.We are going to follow the second method as we are going to integrate redux with the existing react application.Let’s try rebuilding the above example with a UI.We will start with the setup as shown below. This has been created using create-react-app and has been changed according to our needs.Folder structure:App.js:App.js has only one component called MealContainer.MealContainer.js:Now if you run the app using the npm start command you will see the similar UI in the browser.Now, let’s start with integrating redux with our react application.As mentioned above, install redux and redux-thunk by running the below command.Command: npm install redux react-reduxAfter the installation, create a new folder inside src with the name redux. All our redux logic goes into this folder. Now inside this, I would like to create folders with the feature names as all the logic related to a particular feature can be kept organized in a single place. As we have only one feature by the name meals, create a folder with the name meals and 2 files with the names mealActions.js and mealTypes.js to create the actions and action types for this particular feature as shown below.Inside the mealTypes.js export the action type as shown below.Note: export keyword is used so that we are able to use the particular function or object in other files by importing them using import key word.Create an action creator to buy a meal as we have learnt in the previous example.Now let’s create reducer for our meals feature. For this, create a new file with the name mealReducer.js inside the same folder and create reducer for the meals feature.Now let’s create the redux store. For this, create a file with the name store.js inside redux folder as store is common for all the features. Next, create a store as we have already learnt, and export it as the default.Now that we have set up our redux for the application, how does our application get access to the store? Well, for that we need to go to the react-redux package we installed; this is where react-redux makes its first appearance. We need to go to Provider which react-redux offers in order to make our app know about the store.Go to the app.js file and import Provider from react-redux, and wrap the whole app with this provider passing store as a prop to it.Now what remains is to connect redux to our components, dispatch an action and update the store from the components.Connecting redux to the components:As a first step, write a couple of functions mapStateToProps and mapDispatchToProps as shown below.mapStateToProps is a function that you would use to provide the store data to the component as prop. Whereas mapDispatchToProps is something that you will use to provide the action creators as props to the component.Read more about the 2 functions here.We import buyMeal action from the action file to use in mapDispatchToProps.Now to connect both the functions to the component, we need to import connect which react-redux offers us as shown below.Now using that, we connect the state and actions to the component as shown below.mapStateToProps and mapDispatchToProps are passed as arguments to the connect function.Now we can access the numOfMeals using the props object and show that in the UI.The numOfMeals upon the props pertains to the key returned by the object in the mapStateToProps.If you save and check the UI, you can see the number of meals displayed.Now let’s dispatch our buyMeals action. This is available on the props object, as we have used mapDispatchToProps. Upon the click of the button, we execute the function which dispatches our action as shown below.Now if you click the button in the UI, the meals should decrease by 1.Now, let’s integrate logic for the snacks as well.  Add SnackContainer.js file similar to mealContainer and add it in the App.js file as shown below.In the redux folder, add a new folder for snacks feature and add the necessary files in the same manner as the meals folder.snackTypes.jssnackActions.jsNext, write the reducer in the snackReducer.jsAs we have 2 reducers, we need to combine reducers as we have learnt previously, and pass the rootReducer to the store.Due to this change, the application will break as we have changed the structure of the state in the store. So, we need to make some changes in mealContainer as shown below.Let’s connect the state to the snackContainer component in the same way that we have done in the mealContainer component, as shown below.If you check the UI, you will be able to see the number of snacks displayed as shown below.If we click on the Buy Snacks button, that should decrease the number of snacks by 1.And that’s it! We have implemented React-Redux along with the React UI.Let’s see how to manage Async actions in UI.If you see, we have rewritten the same code we have used to learn Redux.Let’s implement the same API call example we have learnt above in React. We will consider that these are the users who are using our restaurant.  Async Actions along with React UI:  Install the necessary packages as shown below.Command: npm install axios redux-thunkCreate a user’s folder as we are adding user features to this application. In the user’s folder add usersTypes.js to add the types we have learnt in the async actions example we used while learning redux.Now let’s create the usersReducer in the same way that we have learnt.Add our async action creator as well.Now let’s create the usersReducer in the same way that we have learnt.Next, add our usersReducer to the combineReducers and configure redux-thunk middleware in store.js.And we are done with the redux-logic! Let’s add usersContainer.js file in the components folder, write the following code and add it to App.js.App.js now looks as shown below.Now let’s connect our state to the component as shown below.Now if you go to the UI and click the Load Users button, this should show up all the users names that we have fetched from the API.We are done!Reasons to use React Redux:It is the official Redux UI Binding for React.It encourages good React architecture.  It implements Performance Optimizations  It has great community support.Redux has its own drawbacks that need to be overcome. For this, Redux has come up with Redux-toolkit.An Introduction to Redux toolkit:The Redux Toolkit package is intended to be the standard way to write Redux logic. It was originally created to help address three common concerns about Redux:"Configuring a Redux store is too complicated""I have to add a lot of packages to get Redux to do anything useful""Redux requires too much boilerplate code"Read more about redux-toolkit here.Installation:To create a new React app, along with Redux toolkit run the below command.Command: npx create-react-app my-app --template reduxTo add the Redux toolkit to an already existing app:Command: npm install @reduxjs/toolkitOther Resources:Link to learn more about React Redux.To read more about the connect function we have used.Learn React.Summary:In this blog you have all the information you need to work with React-Redux. You have learnt how to implement Redux, and understood the use of actions, reducers, store, action creators, middlewares. You would have understood how to handle async actions, combine reducers, integrate redux to react UI, connect components and also the use of Redux toolkit.Good luck with your React-Redux learning journey!
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What is React Redux?

React is a JavaScript library for building user in... Read More