Search

The DMAIC Methodology in Six Sigma

Six Sigma is a quality improvement approach created in early 1980s. Thanks to the efforts of engineer, Bill Smith, working in Motorola in the 80s, this approach has found its way into mainstream business. Today, it has become one of the most common methodological practices used to improve business processes, product quality, enhance customer satisfaction and increase overall profitability. Over the years, although the Six Sigma approach has been refined, the goal has remained the same: to improve business processes by eliminating the causes of errors leading to defects in a service or a product.To accomplish this, a combination of management philosophy, a set of statistical tools and a problem-solving approach must be employed to eliminate errors and provide systems. People who work with Six Sigma practices work at different levels of accomplishment: Yellow Belt, Green Belt, Black Belt, and Master Black Belt.The Six Sigma methodology was based on the bell curve created by Carl Frederick Grauss in the 19th century. In the 1920s, a founder member of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, statistician Cark Shewhart, showed that the process had deviated from the mean by 3 sigmas and had to be corrected. Fast forward to the 1970s, Art Sundry, Senior Executive at Motorola, complained that there was a lack of consistent quality products in the company. Bill Smith responded to the complaint by implementing the six sigma methodology in 1986. Over time, other management improvement strategies influenced the system like Zero Defects and Total Quality Management.In this article, we discuss the DMAIC framework and provide an overview of the steps in each phase and the tools that can be used in each phase.The DMAIC frameworkTo improve business processes systematically, the DMAIC framework can be used. DMAIC is a data-driven and effective five-step approach that works on eliminating expensive variation from the manufacturing and business processes. It stands for Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control. This methodology was designed for delivering the best performance without any defects and with competitive quality costs.Let us discuss the five phases of DMAIC:DefineThis is the first step in which we identify the customers, internal and external deliverables of the customer and the goal of the project will be defined. The primary focus of this phase is selecting high-impact projects and metrics that will be reflecting the success of the project. During this phase, questions like who the targeted customers are, what their requirements regarding products and services are, and what their expectations are, are asked. Also, the boundaries of the project are defined. Along with this the start and stop points, as well as the process flow, need to be mapped out during this phase.Steps in the Define phaseDefining Customers and requirements (CTQs)Defining resourcesDeveloping a high-level process mapDeveloping milestones and project planDeveloping problem statement, benefits and goalsPrepare a project charterEvaluating key organization supportIdentifying team, process owner, and champion  Tools that can be used in the Define phaseCTQ DefinitionsDMAIC Work Breakdown StructureProcess FlowchartProject CharterSIPOC DiagramRACI DiagramStakeholder AnalysisVoice of the Customer gathering MeasureThis is the second phase of the DMAIC where the current process must be documented. This also includes validating the forms of measurement and assessment of the performance of the baseline. This step is similar for determining shortfall by using a customer survey. In this phase, we collect data from different sources for determining the type of defects and metrics. The most important tools that can be used in this phase are basic Pareto charts, process capability measurement, Gage R & R, and process flowcharts.Steps in the Measure phaseDeveloping data collection planCollecting the dataBeginning Developing y = f(x) relationshipDefining unit, opportunity, and defectDetailing the process map of different, appropriate areasDetermining sigma baseline and process capabilityValidating the measurement systemTools that can be used in the Measure phaseBenchmarkingData Collection Plan/ExampleMeasurement System AnalysisProcess Flowchart & Value Stream MapProcess Sigma CalculationVoice of the Customer GatheringAnalyzeThe primary focus of the Analyze phase is the filtration of the topmost causes of the Critical-to-Quality Characteristic or the CTC metric for examination. Usually, for being successful, there should not be more than three causes that require control. If there are more than three causes, it means that the isolation of the critical causes was not done properly. The other reason behind this can be that the project’s goal is way too ambitious. In this step, you will have to identify if there is any gap present between the goal performance and the current performance. Sources of variation and opportunities for priority improvement needs to be identified as well. There are several tools that can be used for this phase including scatter diagrams, hypothesis testing, multi-vari analysis, time series plots, fishbone diagrams, histograms, and Pareto charts.Steps in the Analyze phaseDefining performance objectivesDetermining important few x’s and y=f(x) relationshipIdentifying value as well as non-value added process stepsIdentifying sources of variationDetermining root causesPrioritize the root causesTools that can be used in the Analyze phase5 WhysCause and EffectFishbone DiagramHistogramHypothesis TestingNon-Normal Data AnalysisPareto ChartProcess Map Analysis and ReviewRegression AnalysisRun ChartScatter PlotStatistical AnalysisTime SeriesImproveThis is the fourth step of the DMAIC framework that ensures an understanding of all the causes that were identified in the Analyze phase. The aim of this phase is eliminating and controlling the causes for achieving the required breakthrough performance. Now, discipline and technology are used for designing creative and innovative solutions that will be fixing as well as preventing problems. You will also have to develop and deploy an implementation plan. For this phase, you can use tools like Hypothesis Testing, Regression Analysis, Design of Experiments (DOE), and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).Steps in the Improve phaseAssessing potential solution’s failure modesCorrecting or re-evaluating potential solutionsDefining the potential system’s operational tolerancesDeveloping potential solutionsPerforming design experimentsValidating potential improvements through pilot studiesTools that can be used in the Improve phase5 SBrainstormingDesign of ExperimentsFailure Modes and Effects AnalysisHouse of QualityMistake ProofingPugh MatrixQFDSimulation SoftwareControlIn this last phase, you have to ensure that all the improvements that were made must be controlled for ensuring sustained changes and lasting results. In the case of best controls, there will be a need for little to no monitoring such as irreversible product changes and process design. But there are always some process setting, setup procedures, or some other improvements that will make the daily operation and monitoring requirements necessary. Steps need to be taken for ensuring that the process doesn’t revert to the old way.Steps in the Control phaseCommunicating to businessClosing project and finalizing documentationDefining and validating control system and monitoringDetermining process capabilityDeveloping handoff to process owner and transfer planDeveloping procedures and standardsImplementing statistical process controlVerifying cost savings/avoidance, benefits, and profit growthTools that can be used in the Control haseControl ChartsControl PlanCost Savings CalculationsProcess Sigma CalculationEach of the five DMAIC phases come together in the implementation of six sigma, which can turn the business around for any organization.Implementation of DMAICIn this section, we will take a look at two examples of DMAIC implementation that use varied continuous improvement models for specific applications:Floor yield improvement in a manufacturing shopThe first example is of a repetitive manufacturing process, where the yield is increased by making products:Define: Identify the product flow, the specific products, and the goalMeasure: Define the metrics that will be used as the first-pass yield, rolled first-pass yield, or OTIFNE; it will also include monitoring for time to gather baseline data that is statistically meaningful.Analyze: Look for trends, assess the standard deviation and mean from data, address, and identify outliers; this also includes identifying variables impacting the yield using root cause analyses.Improve: Define and put in place countermeasures o address the identified root causes; monitor the process to confirm the achievement of desired yield improvement.Control: Implement measures to maintain improved performance.Impact on Hospital outcomes through evidence-based careThe second example shows how improvements can be driven in a hospital through observation and usage of principles of Lean in a DMAIC framework:Define: Ask questions like how often infections occur in a hospital, over what time frame will infection’s treatments will improve.Measure: Measuring the current stateAnalyze: Determine the root cause like the procedures introducing contamination and specific process steps.Improve: Implement a checklist like basic hygiene steps, sterile barriers, disinfectants, enhancing equipment, and avoiding susceptible areas.Control: Incorporate reinforcement and training to internalize the process and improve the culture; this can also include empowerment of nursing staff to ensure enforcement of the measures introduced.ConclusionAccording to the six sigma level, only 3.4 defects out of one million products or services are acceptable. To achieve this, continuous efforts are made to the point where predictable results and stable products are achieved.As discussed above, the six sigma methodology deconstructs the process of manufacturing to its smallest, essential parts. It then works on defining and evaluating every step of the process and searches for ways to improve efficiencies in the structure of the business. This is done to both improve the process quality and increase the bottom-line profit.With a good overview of the DMAIC framework, you can now work towards becoming proficient in the six sigma methodology. Start with the Yellow Belt or move up the Green Belt and Black Belt to the Master Black Belt.

The DMAIC Methodology in Six Sigma

4K
The DMAIC Methodology in Six Sigma

Six Sigma is a quality improvement approach created in early 1980s. Thanks to the efforts of engineer, Bill Smith, working in Motorola in the 80s, this approach has found its way into mainstream business. Today, it has become one of the most common methodological practices used to improve business processes, product quality, enhance customer satisfaction and increase overall profitability. Over the years, although the Six Sigma approach has been refined, the goal has remained the same: to improve business processes by eliminating the causes of errors leading to defects in a service or a product.

To accomplish this, a combination of management philosophy, a set of statistical tools and a problem-solving approach must be employed to eliminate errors and provide systems. People who work with Six Sigma practices work at different levels of accomplishment: Yellow Belt, Green Belt, Black Belt, and Master Black Belt.

The Six Sigma methodology was based on the bell curve created by Carl Frederick Grauss in the 19th century. In the 1920s, a founder member of the Institute of Mathematical Statistics, statistician Cark Shewhart, showed that the process had deviated from the mean by 3 sigmas and had to be corrected. Fast forward to the 1970s, Art Sundry, Senior Executive at Motorola, complained that there was a lack of consistent quality products in the company. Bill Smith responded to the complaint by implementing the six sigma methodology in 1986. Over time, other management improvement strategies influenced the system like Zero Defects and Total Quality Management.

In this article, we discuss the DMAIC framework and provide an overview of the steps in each phase and the tools that can be used in each phase.

The DMAIC framework

To improve business processes systematically, the DMAIC framework can be used. DMAIC is a data-driven and effective five-step approach that works on eliminating expensive variation from the manufacturing and business processes. It stands for Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control. This methodology was designed for delivering the best performance without any defects and with competitive quality costs.

DMAIC Methodology in Six Sigma

Let us discuss the five phases of DMAIC:

Define

This is the first step in which we identify the customers, internal and external deliverables of the customer and the goal of the project will be defined. The primary focus of this phase is selecting high-impact projects and metrics that will be reflecting the success of the project. During this phase, questions like who the targeted customers are, what their requirements regarding products and services are, and what their expectations are, are asked. Also, the boundaries of the project are defined. Along with this the start and stop points, as well as the process flow, need to be mapped out during this phase.

Steps in the Define phase

  • Defining Customers and requirements (CTQs)
  • Defining resources
  • Developing a high-level process map
  • Developing milestones and project plan
  • Developing problem statement, benefits and goals
  • Prepare a project charter
  • Evaluating key organization support
  • Identifying team, process owner, and champion  

Tools that can be used in the Define phase

  • CTQ Definitions
  • DMAIC Work Breakdown Structure
  • Process Flowchart
  • Project Charter
  • SIPOC Diagram
  • RACI Diagram
  • Stakeholder Analysis
  • Voice of the Customer gathering 

Measure

This is the second phase of the DMAIC where the current process must be documented. This also includes validating the forms of measurement and assessment of the performance of the baseline. This step is similar for determining shortfall by using a customer survey. In this phase, we collect data from different sources for determining the type of defects and metrics. The most important tools that can be used in this phase are basic Pareto charts, process capability measurement, Gage R & R, and process flowcharts.

Steps in the Measure phase

  • Developing data collection plan
  • Collecting the data
  • Beginning Developing y = f(x) relationship
  • Defining unit, opportunity, and defect
  • Detailing the process map of different, appropriate areas
  • Determining sigma baseline and process capability
  • Validating the measurement system

Tools that can be used in the Measure phase

  • Benchmarking
  • Data Collection Plan/Example
  • Measurement System Analysis
  • Process Flowchart & Value Stream Map
  • Process Sigma Calculation
  • Voice of the Customer Gathering

Analyze

The primary focus of the Analyze phase is the filtration of the topmost causes of the Critical-to-Quality Characteristic or the CTC metric for examination. Usually, for being successful, there should not be more than three causes that require control. If there are more than three causes, it means that the isolation of the critical causes was not done properly. The other reason behind this can be that the project’s goal is way too ambitious. In this step, you will have to identify if there is any gap present between the goal performance and the current performance. Sources of variation and opportunities for priority improvement needs to be identified as well. There are several tools that can be used for this phase including scatter diagrams, hypothesis testing, multi-vari analysis, time series plots, fishbone diagrams, histograms, and Pareto charts.

Steps in the Analyze phase

  • Defining performance objectives
  • Determining important few x’s and y=f(x) relationship
  • Identifying value as well as non-value added process steps
  • Identifying sources of variation
  • Determining root causes
  • Prioritize the root causes

Tools that can be used in the Analyze phase

  • 5 Whys
  • Cause and Effect
  • Fishbone Diagram
  • Histogram
  • Hypothesis Testing
  • Non-Normal Data Analysis
  • Pareto Chart
  • Process Map Analysis and Review
  • Regression Analysis
  • Run Chart
  • Scatter Plot
  • Statistical Analysis
  • Time Series

Improve

This is the fourth step of the DMAIC framework that ensures an understanding of all the causes that were identified in the Analyze phase. The aim of this phase is eliminating and controlling the causes for achieving the required breakthrough performance. Now, discipline and technology are used for designing creative and innovative solutions that will be fixing as well as preventing problems. You will also have to develop and deploy an implementation plan. For this phase, you can use tools like Hypothesis Testing, Regression Analysis, Design of Experiments (DOE), and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA).

Steps in the Improve phase

  • Assessing potential solution’s failure modes
  • Correcting or re-evaluating potential solutions
  • Defining the potential system’s operational tolerances
  • Developing potential solutions
  • Performing design experiments
  • Validating potential improvements through pilot studies

Tools that can be used in the Improve phase

  • 5 S
  • Brainstorming
  • Design of Experiments
  • Failure Modes and Effects Analysis
  • House of Quality
  • Mistake Proofing
  • Pugh Matrix
  • QFD
  • Simulation Software

Control

In this last phase, you have to ensure that all the improvements that were made must be controlled for ensuring sustained changes and lasting results. In the case of best controls, there will be a need for little to no monitoring such as irreversible product changes and process design. But there are always some process setting, setup procedures, or some other improvements that will make the daily operation and monitoring requirements necessary. Steps need to be taken for ensuring that the process doesn’t revert to the old way.

Steps in the Control phase

  • Communicating to business
  • Closing project and finalizing documentation
  • Defining and validating control system and monitoring
  • Determining process capability
  • Developing handoff to process owner and transfer plan
  • Developing procedures and standards
  • Implementing statistical process control
  • Verifying cost savings/avoidance, benefits, and profit growth

Tools that can be used in the Control hase

  • Control Charts
  • Control Plan
  • Cost Savings Calculations
  • Process Sigma Calculation

Each of the five DMAIC phases come together in the implementation of six sigma, which can turn the business around for any organization.

Implementation of DMAIC

In this section, we will take a look at two examples of DMAIC implementation that use varied continuous improvement models for specific applications:

Floor yield improvement in a manufacturing shop

The first example is of a repetitive manufacturing process, where the yield is increased by making products:

  • Define: Identify the product flow, the specific products, and the goal
  • Measure: Define the metrics that will be used as the first-pass yield, rolled first-pass yield, or OTIFNE; it will also include monitoring for time to gather baseline data that is statistically meaningful.
  • Analyze: Look for trends, assess the standard deviation and mean from data, address, and identify outliers; this also includes identifying variables impacting the yield using root cause analyses.
  • Improve: Define and put in place countermeasures o address the identified root causes; monitor the process to confirm the achievement of desired yield improvement.
  • Control: Implement measures to maintain improved performance.

Impact on Hospital outcomes through evidence-based care

The second example shows how improvements can be driven in a hospital through observation and usage of principles of Lean in a DMAIC framework:

  • Define: Ask questions like how often infections occur in a hospital, over what time frame will infection’s treatments will improve.
  • Measure: Measuring the current state
  • Analyze: Determine the root cause like the procedures introducing contamination and specific process steps.
  • Improve: Implement a checklist like basic hygiene steps, sterile barriers, disinfectants, enhancing equipment, and avoiding susceptible areas.
  • Control: Incorporate reinforcement and training to internalize the process and improve the culture; this can also include empowerment of nursing staff to ensure enforcement of the measures introduced.

Conclusion

According to the six sigma level, only 3.4 defects out of one million products or services are acceptable. To achieve this, continuous efforts are made to the point where predictable results and stable products are achieved.

As discussed above, the six sigma methodology deconstructs the process of manufacturing to its smallest, essential parts. It then works on defining and evaluating every step of the process and searches for ways to improve efficiencies in the structure of the business. This is done to both improve the process quality and increase the bottom-line profit.

With a good overview of the DMAIC framework, you can now work towards becoming proficient in the six sigma methodology. Start with the Yellow Belt or move up the Green Belt and Black Belt to the Master Black Belt.

KnowledgeHut

KnowledgeHut

Author

KnowledgeHut is an outcome-focused global ed-tech company. We help organizations and professionals unlock excellence through skills development. We offer training solutions under the people and process, data science, full-stack development, cybersecurity, future technologies and digital transformation verticals.
Website : https://www.knowledgehut.com

Join the Discussion

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Suggested Blogs

Supply Chain Certifications For A Better Career Option

The Supply Chain Management (SCM), a process used in many organizations, is an assortment of steps for transforming raw components into a meaningful final product. The stages of SCM include: • Plan: involves developing strategy to meet the needs of the customer. • Develop: Involves identifying reliable suppliers for raw materials, building strong relationship with them and formulating methods for shipping, delivery and payment. • Build: involves manufacturing, testing, packaging and scheduling the product. • Deliver: Involves delivery of products/goods as planned. • Return: involves creating a flexible and responsive network for receiving defective products from customers and registering their feedback and complaints. Initially, Supply Chain Management was a process adopted by organizations to achieve substantial operational efficiencies and reduce costs. Considering todays’ competitive market, Supply Chain Management entails the strategic positioning of end-to-end business processes in order to achieve economic value. Following are the benefits of SCM: • Improves the Supply Chain network of the organization • Enhances collaboration in the organization • Minimizes delays • Reduces costs Certifications have become prerequisites in all the corporate world. Certified professionals in Supply Chain Management will definitely have an edge over their peers. It is not only the most preferred career option but it also provides better future prospects. Following are the top 5 Supply Chain Certifications: 1. Certified Supply Chain Professional (CSCP) This certified supply chain professional training demonstrates your knowledge and organizational skills by enhancing your expertise in the Supply Chain Management practices. This certification gives you an in depth understanding of how supply chain is integrated in areas of planning, manufacturing and delivering the product. Eligibility requirements: • A Bachelor’s degree or international equivalent • 3 years of relative business experience along with other ISM or APICS certification • CLTD or CSCP, CPIM, CSM or CPSM designations Benefits: • Improves hiring potential • Provides a hike in salary • Gives you the attributes required to enhance your professional value • Maximizes the ERP investments of your organization • Enables you to increase and retain customer satisfaction • Manage effectively end-to-end supply activities 2. Certified in Production and Inventory Management (CPIM) The CPIM certified professionals have the proven knowledge and skills to critically streamline operations. This certification is for those who have a keen interest in the field of inventory management and want to have detailed understanding of production planning and scheduling. The CPIM does not require any Bachelor’s degree, only 2-3 years of relevant experience in the field is needed. To obtain a CPIM certification, an individual must pass 5 CPIM exams. The CPIM program consists of 5 different modules, each representing a critical area in inventory management and production, as follows: Module 1: Basics of Supply Chain Management Module 2: Master Planning of Resources Module 3: Detailed Scheduling and Planning Module 4: Execution and Control of Operations Module 5: Strategic Management of Resources Benefits: • Provides a hike in salary by at least 12% • Highlights your attributes and increases your chances of employability • Gives you an edge over others • Increases and retains customer satisfaction • Adds an increased value to your organization • Reduces costs • Maximizes ROI 3. Certified Professional in Supply Management (CPSM) This certification proves that you are an expert in Supply Chain Management and validates that you have the attributes required to deal with finance, risk management and supplier relationship management. Individuals enrolling themselves to the program are required to take 3 exams, in any order, to become a certified CPSM. They are: Exam 1: Foundation of Supply Management Exam 2: Effective Supply Management Exam 3: Leadership in Supply Management Eligibility Requirements: • A Bachelor’s degree or international equivalent with 3 years of full-time supply management experience Or • A qualified Bachelor’s degree with 5 years of full-time supply management experience • Successfully pass the exams based on all the 3 modules Benefits: • The certification proves your expertise in supply chain management and demonstrates your knowledge, skills and passion for your profession. • There is an increasing demand of CPSM certified professionals in the most resilient and competitive companies. • CPSM certified professionals are likely to earn an average of 23% more annually compared to the non-certified individuals. • CPSM certified professionals demonstrate proper supply chain management strategies. 4. SCPro SCPro certification, offered by Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP), is a three-tiered program which performs assessment of dynamic knowledge and skills over supply chain activities. This certification certifies an individuals’ ability to evaluate business challenges, implement supply chain improvements, and develop a thorough project plan for achieving positive results. SCPro consists of 3 levels of certification as follows: SCPro Level One: Cornerstones of Supply Chain Management SCPro Level Two: Analysis and Application of Supply Chain Challenges SCPro Level Three: Initiation of Supply Chain Transformation Benefits: • Increases your hiring potential and gives you an advantage over your peers. • Expands your professional knowledge and skills in supply chain management. • Highlights your expertise in the operational skills of supply chain management. • Demonstrates your capability to analyse, design and implement change across the global supply chain activities. • Introduces you to a group of professionals with SCPro certification. These certification courses are just a few of the courses on offer. It is essential for individuals in the field of Supply Chain Management to at least have one of these certifications’ to grow in their receptive organizations. So what are you waiting for? Go get certified
3760
Supply Chain Certifications For A Better Career Op...

The Supply Chain Management (SCM), a process used ... Read More

Six Sigma Green Belts vs. Black Belts : What's the Difference?

Successful firms lay great emphasis on quality and strive to achieve the highest standards in their products and services. The Six Sigma methodology has helped to give many companies the leading edge against their competitors, by implementing process improvements across the enterprise that help them realise their maximum potential. Those who are not familiar with the Six Sigma jargon may have heard of Green Belts and Black Belts, but may not know what the key differences are between the two. Both Six Sigma Green Belts and Black Belts are trained professionals who are responsible for streamlining process quality and improving the key metrics of a business. Green Belts generally carry out process improvement or project management tasks in addition to other work responsibilities- that is to say; quality improvement is not their entire or sole responsibility. Green Belts are considered as the future leaders of the company. As they work with stakeholders at all levels of the organisation, they are considered as valuable assets. Green Belts work under the supervision and mentorship of Black Belts. Green Belts who find they want to lead quality change initiatives on a larger scale across the organisation can take the next step and undertake the Black Belt Certification. Black Belts are leaders and change agents, who assume the entire responsibility of turning around quality standards and process improvements in the organisation. Their specialised training and experience enables them to work on cross functional projects across the enterprise, not just projects within one business unit or department. Black Belt training goes beyond that of the Green Belt level to include highly advanced statistical analysis tools and techniques. Their proven managerial acumen and abilities to withstand pressure and deliver projects on time without compromising on quality standards will stand the organisation in good stead. Skilled Black Belts who have significant experience and a positive never-say-die attitude can go very far in their career and assume top leadership positions within the organisation.
Six Sigma Green Belts vs. Black Belts : What'...

Successful firms lay great emphasis on quality and... Read More

What is the Capability Maturity Model? (CMM)

Capability Maturity Model (CMM) broadly refers to a process improvement approach that is based on a process model. CMM also refers specifically to the first such model, developed by the Software Engineering Institute (SEI) in the mid-1980s, as well as the family of process models that followed. A process model is a structured collection of practices that describe the characteristics of effective processes; the practices included are those proven by experience to be effective. CMM can be used to assess an organization against a scale of five process maturity levels. Each level ranks the organization according to its standardization of processes in the subject area being assessed. The subject areas can be as diverse as software engineering, systems engineering, project management, risk management, system acquisition, information technology (IT) services and personnel management. CMM was developed by the SEI at Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh. It has been used extensively for avionics software and government projects, in North America, Europe, Asia, Australia, South America, and Africa.Currently, some government departments require software development contract organization to achieve and operate at a level 3 standard. History The Capability Maturity Model was initially funded by military research. The United States Air Force funded a study at the Carnegie-Mellon Software Engineering Institute to create a model (abstract) for the military to use as an objective evaluation of software subcontractors. The result was the Capability Maturity Model, published as Managing the Software Process in 1989. The CMM is no longer supported by the SEI and has been superseded by the more comprehensive Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI). Maturity Model The Capability Maturity Model (CMM) is a way to develop and refine an organization’s processes. The first CMM was for the purpose of developing and refining software development processes. A maturity model is a structured collection of elements that describe characteristics of effective processes. A maturity model provides: a place to start the benefit of a community’s prior experiences a common language and a shared vision a framework for prioritizing actions a way to define what improvement means for your organization A maturity model can be used as a benchmark for assessing different organizations for equivalent comparison. It describes the maturity of the company based upon the project the company is dealing with and the clients. Context In the 1970s, technological improvements made computers more widespread, flexible, and inexpensive. Organizations began to adopt more and more computerized information systems and the field of software development grew significantly. This led to an increased demand for developers—and managers—which was satisfied with less experienced professionals. Unfortunately, the influx of growth caused growing pains; project failure became more commonplace not only because the field of computer science was still in its infancy, but also because projects became more ambitious in scale and complexity. In response, individuals such as Edward Yourdon, Larry Constantine, Gerald Weinberg, Tom DeMarco, and David Parnas published articles and books with research results in an attempt to professionalize the software development process. Watts Humphrey’s Capability Maturity Model (CMM) was described in the book Managing the Software Process (1989). The CMM as conceived by Watts Humphrey was based on the earlier work of Phil Crosby. Active development of the model by the SEI began in 1986. The CMM was originally intended as a tool to evaluate the ability of government contractors to perform a contracted software project. Though it comes from the area of software development, it can be, has been, and continues to be widely applied as a general model of the maturity of processes in IS/IT (and other) organizations. The model identifies five levels of process maturity for an organisation. Within each of these maturity levels are KPAs (Key Process Areas) which characterise that level, and for each KPA there are five definitions identified: 1. Goals 2. Commitment 3. Ability 4. Measurement 5. Verification
What is the Capability Maturity Model? (CMM)

Capability Maturity Model (CMM) broadly refers to ... Read More