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Six Sigma Methods and Formulas For Successful Quality Management

Six Sigma is basically the application of Statistical formulas and Methods to eliminate defects, variation in a product or a process. For example if you want to find the average height of male population in India, you cannot bring the entire population of more than 2 billion into one room and measure their height for a scenario like this we take samples that is we pick up sample(people) from each state and use statistical formulas to draw the inference about the average height of male population in a population which is more than 2 billion. One more example would be say a company manufactures pistons use d in motor cycles the customer demand is that the piston should not a diameter more than 9 cm and less than 5 cm anything manufactured outside this limits is said to be a variation and the six sigma consultant should confirm that the pistons are manufactured within the said limits else if there is variation in the range then the company is not operating at 6 sigma level it is operating at a very low level. A company is operating at six sigma level implies that there are only 3.4 defects per million opportunities for example an airline company operating at six sigma level means that it loses only 3.4 baggage’s per million of the passenger it handles. Below is Shown the Six Sigma Table and a graph explaining the meaning of various levels of Six Sigma. Sigma Level Defect Rate Yield Percentage 2 σ 308,770 dpmo (Defects Per Million 69.10000 %   Opportunities)   3 σ 66,811 dpmo 93.330000 % 4 σ 6,210 dpmo 99.38000 % 5 σ 233 dpmo 99.97700 % 6 σ 3.44 dpmo 99.99966 % Six Sigma is Denoted by the Greek alphabet σ which is shown in the table above and is called as Standard deviation. The father of Six Sigma is Bill Smith who coined the term Six Sigma and implemented it in Motorola in the 1980’s. Six Sigma is implemented in Five Phases which are Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control and we will discuss each phases in brief and the various methods used in Six Sigma. Define The objectives within the Define Phase which is first phase in DMAIC framework of Six Sigma are:- Define the Project Charter Define scope, objectives, and schedule Define the Process (top-level) and its stake holders Select team members Obtain Authorization from Sponsor Assemble and train the team. Project charters the charter documents the why, how, who and when of a project include the following elements Problem Statement Project objective or purpose, including the business need addressed Scope Deliverables Sponsor and stakeholder groups Team members Project schedule (using GANTT or PERT as an attachment) Other resources required Work break down Structure It is a process for defining the final and intermediate products of a project and their relationship. Defining Project task is typically complex and accomplished by a series of decomposition followed by a series of aggregations it is also called top down approach and can be used in the Define phase of Six Sigma framework. Now we will get into the formulas of Six Sigma which is shown in the table below. Central tendency is defined as the tendency for the values of a random variable to cluster round its mean, mode, or median. Where mean is the average for example if you have taken 10 sample of pistons randomly from the factory and measured their diameter the average would be sum of the diameter of the 10 pistons divided by 10 where 10 the number of observations the sum in statistics is denoted by ∑. In the above table X, Xi are the measures of the diameter of the piston and µ , XBar is the average. Mode is the most frequently observed measurement in the diameter of the piston that is if 2 pistons out 10 samples collected have the diameter as 6.3 & 6.3 then this is the mode of the sample and median is the midpoint of the observations of the diameter of the piston when arranged in sorted order. From the example of the piston we find that the formulas of mean, median , mode does not correctly depict variation in the diameter of the piston manufactured by the factory but standard deviation formula helps us to find the variance in the diameter of the piston manufactured which is varying from the customer mentioned upper specification limit and lower specification limit. The most important equation of Six Sigma is Y = f(x) where Y is the effect and x are the causes so if you remove the causes you remove the effect of the defect. For example headache is the effect and the causes are stress, eye strain, fever if you remove this causes automatically the headache is removed this is implemented in Six Sigma by using the Fishbone or Ishikawa diagram invented by Dr Kaoru Ishikawa. Measure Phase: In the Measure phase we collect all the data as per the relationship to the voice ofcustomer and relevantly analyze using statistical formulas as given in the above table. Capability analyses is done in measure phase. The process capability is calculated using the formula CP = USL-LSL/6 * Standard Deviation where CP = process capability index, USL = Upper Specification Limit and LSL = Lower Specification Limit. The Process capability measures indicates the following Process is fully capable Process could fail at any time Process is not capable. When the process is spread well within the customer specification the process is considered to be fully capable that means the CP is more than 2.In this case, the process standard deviation is so small that 6 times of the standard deviation with reference to the means is within the customer specification. Example: The Specified limits for the diameter of car tires are 15.6 for the upper limit and 15 for the lower limit with a process mean of 15.3 and a standard deviation of 0.09.Find Cp and Cr what can we say about Process Capabilities ? Cp= USL-LSL/ 6 * Standard deviation = 15.6 – 15 / 6 * 0.09 = 0.6/0.54 = 1.111 Cp= 1.111 Cr = 1/ 1.111 = 0.9 Since Cp is greater than 1 and therefore Cr is less than 1; we can conclude that the process is potentially capable. Analyze Phase: In this Phase we analyze all the data collected in the measure phase and find the cause of variation. Analyze phase use various tests like parametric tests where the mean and standard deviation of the sample is known and Nonparametric Tests where the data is categorical for example as Excellent, Good, bad etc. Parametric Hypothesis Test – A hypothesis is a value judgment made about a circumstance, a statement made about a population .Based on experience an engineer can for instance assume that the amount of carbon monoxide emitted by a certain engine is twice the maximum allowed legally. However his assertions can only be ascertained by conducting a test to compare the carbon monoxide generated by the engine with the legal requirements. If the data used to make the comparison are parametric data that is data that can be used to derive the mean and the standard deviation, the population from which the data are taken are normally distributed they have equal variances. A standard error based hypothesis testing using the t-test can be used to test the validity of the hypothesis made about the population. There are at least 3 steps to follow when conducting hypothesis. Null Hypothesis: The first step consists of stating the null hypothesis which is the hypothesis being tested. In the case of the engineer making a statement about the level of carbon monoxide generated by the engine , the null hypothesis is H0: the level of carbon monoxide generated by the engine is twice as great as the legally required amount. The Null hypothesis is denoted by H0 Alternate hypothesis: the alternate (or alternative) hypothesis is the opposite of null hypothesis. It is assumed valid when the null hypothesis is rejected after testing. In the case of the engineer testing the carbon monoxide the alternative hypothesis would be H1: The level of carbon monoxide generated by the engine is not twice as great as the legally required amount. Testing the hypothesis: the objective of the test is to generate a sample test statistic that can be used to reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis .The test statistic is derived from Z formula if the samples are greater than 30. Z = Xbar-µ/σ/ √n If the samples are less than 30, then the t-test is used T= X bar -µ/ s/√n where X bar and µ is the mean and s is the standard deviation. 1-Sample t Test such as an ideal off center (Mean v/s Target) this test is used to compare the mean of a process with a target value goal to determine whether they differ it is often used to determine whether a process is 1 Sample Standard Deviation This test is used to compare the standard deviation of the process with a target value such as a benchmark whether they differ often used to evaluate how consistent a process is 2 Sample T (Comparing 2 Means) Two sets of different items are measured each under a different condition there the measurements of one sample are independent of the measurements of other sample. Paired T The same set of items is measured under 2 different conditions therefore the 2 measurements of the same item are dependent or related to each other. 2-Sample Standard This test is used when comparing 2 standard deviations Standard Deviation test This Test is used when comparing more than 2 standard deviations Non Parametric hypothesis Tests are conducted when data is categorical that is when the mean and standard deviation are not known examples are Chi-Square tests, Mann-Whitney U Test, Kruskal Wallis tests & Moods Median Tests. Anova If for instance 3 sample means A, B, C are being compared using the t-test is cumbersome for this we can use analysis of variance ANOVA can be used instead of multiple t-tests. ANOVA is a Hypothesis test used when more than 2 means are being compared. If K Samples are being tested the null hypothesis will be in the form given below H0: µ1 = µ2 = ….µk And the alternate hypothesis will be H1: At least one sample mean is different from the others If the data you are analyzing is not normal you have to make it normal using box cox transformation to remove any outliers (data not in sequence with the collected data).Box Cox Transformation can be done using the statistical software Minitab. Improve Phase: In the Improve phase we focus on the optimization of the process after the causes are found in the analyze phase we use Design of experiments to remove the junk factors which don’t contribute to smooth working of the process that is in the equation Y = f(X) we select only the X’s which contribute to the optimal working of the process. Let us consider the example of an experimenter who is trying to optimize the production of organic foods. After screening to determine the factors that are significant for his experiment he narrows the main factors that affect the production of fruits to “light” and “water”. He wants to optimize the time that it takes to produce the fruits. He defines optimum as the minimum time necessary to yield comestible fruits. To conduct his experiment he runs several tests combining the two factors (water and light) at different levels. To minimize the cost of experiments he decides to use only 2 levels of the factors: high and low. In this case we will have two factors and two levels therefore the number of runs will be 2^2=4. After conducting observations he obtains the results tabulated in the table below. Factors Response     Water –High Light High 10 days     Water high – Light low 20 days     Water low – Light high 15 days     Water low – Light low 25 days     Control Phase: In the Control phase we document all the activities done in all the previous phases and using control charts we monitor and control the phase just to check that our process doesn’t go out of control. Control Charts are tools used in Minitab Software to keep a check on the variation. All the documentation are kept and archived in a safe place for future reference. Conclusion: From the paper we come to understand that selection of a Six Sigma Project is Critical because we have to know the long term gains in executing these projects and the activities done in each phase the basic building block is the define phase where the problem statement is captured and then in measure phase data is collected systematically against this problem statement which is further analyzed in Analyze phase by performing various hypothesis tests and process optimization in Improve phase by removing the junk factors that is in the equation y = f(x1, x2,x3…….) we remove the causes x1, x2 etc. by the method of Design of Experiments and factorial methods. Finally we can sustain and maintain our process to the optimum by using control charts in Control Phase.

Six Sigma Methods and Formulas For Successful Quality Management

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Six Sigma Methods and Formulas For Successful Quality Management

Six Sigma is basically the application of Statistical formulas and Methods to eliminate defects, variation in a product or a process. For example if you want to find the average height of male population in India, you cannot bring the entire population of more than 2 billion into one room and measure their height for a scenario like this we take samples that is we pick up sample(people) from each state and use statistical formulas to draw the inference about the average height of male population in a population which is more than 2 billion. One more example would be say a company manufactures pistons use d in motor cycles the customer demand is that the piston should not a diameter more than 9 cm and less than 5 cm anything manufactured outside this limits is said to be a variation and the six sigma consultant should confirm that the pistons are manufactured within the said limits else if there is variation in the range then the company is not operating at 6 sigma level it is operating at a very low level.

A company is operating at six sigma level implies that there are only 3.4 defects per million opportunities for example an airline company operating at six sigma level means that it loses only 3.4 baggage’s per million of the passenger it handles.

Below is Shown the Six Sigma Table and a graph explaining the meaning of various levels of Six Sigma.

Sigma Level Defect Rate Yield Percentage
2 σ 308,770 dpmo (Defects Per Million 69.10000 %
  Opportunities)  
3 σ 66,811 dpmo 93.330000 %
4 σ 6,210 dpmo 99.38000 %
5 σ 233 dpmo 99.97700 %
6 σ 3.44 dpmo 99.99966 %

Six Sigma is Denoted by the Greek alphabet σ which is shown in the table above and is called as Standard deviation. The father of Six Sigma is Bill Smith who coined the term Six Sigma and implemented it in Motorola in the 1980’s.

Six Sigma is implemented in Five Phases which are Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, Control and we will discuss each phases in brief and the various methods used in Six Sigma.

Define

The objectives within the Define Phase which is first phase in DMAIC framework of Six Sigma are:-

Define the Project Charter

  • Define scope, objectives, and schedule
  • Define the Process (top-level) and its stake holders
  • Select team members
  • Obtain Authorization from Sponsor
  • Assemble and train the team.

Project charters the charter documents the why, how, who and when of a project include the following elements

  • Problem Statement
  • Project objective or purpose, including the business need addressed
  • Scope
  • Deliverables
  • Sponsor and stakeholder groups
  • Team members
  • Project schedule (using GANTT or PERT as an attachment)
  • Other resources required

Work break down Structure

It is a process for defining the final and intermediate products of a project and their relationship. Defining Project task is typically complex and accomplished by a series of decomposition followed by a series of aggregations it is also called top down approach and can be used in the Define phase of Six Sigma framework.

Now we will get into the formulas of Six Sigma which is shown in the table below.

Central tendency is defined as the tendency for the values of a random variable to cluster round its mean, mode, or median.

Where mean is the average for example if you have taken 10 sample of pistons randomly from the factory and measured their diameter the average would be sum of the diameter of the 10 pistons divided by 10 where 10 the number of observations the sum in statistics is denoted by ∑. In the above table X, Xi are the measures of the diameter of the piston and µ , XBar is the average.

Mode is the most frequently observed measurement in the diameter of the piston that is if 2 pistons out 10 samples collected have the diameter as 6.3 & 6.3 then this is the mode of the sample and median is the midpoint of the observations of the diameter of the piston when arranged in sorted order.

From the example of the piston we find that the formulas of mean, median , mode does not correctly depict variation in the diameter of the piston manufactured by the factory but standard deviation formula helps us to

find the variance in the diameter of the piston manufactured which is varying from the customer mentioned upper specification limit and lower specification limit.

The most important equation of Six Sigma is Y = f(x) where Y is the effect and x are the causes so if you remove the causes you remove the effect of the defect. For example headache is the effect and the causes are stress, eye strain, fever if you remove this causes automatically the headache is removed this is implemented in Six Sigma by using the Fishbone or Ishikawa diagram invented by Dr Kaoru Ishikawa.

Measure Phase: In the Measure phase we collect all the data as per the relationship to the voice ofcustomer and relevantly analyze using statistical formulas as given in the above table. Capability analyses is done in measure phase.

The process capability is calculated using the formula CP = USL-LSL/6 * Standard Deviation where CP = process capability index, USL = Upper Specification Limit and LSL = Lower Specification Limit.

The Process capability measures indicates the following

  1. Process is fully capable
  1. Process could fail at any time
  1. Process is not capable.

When the process is spread well within the customer specification the process is considered to be fully capable that means the CP is more than 2.In this case, the process standard deviation is so small that 6 times of the standard deviation with reference to the means is within the customer specification.

Example: The Specified limits for the diameter of car tires are 15.6 for the upper limit and 15 for the lower limit with a process mean of 15.3 and a standard deviation of 0.09.Find Cp and Cr what can we say about Process Capabilities ?

Cp= USL-LSL/ 6 * Standard deviation = 15.6 – 15 / 6 * 0.09 = 0.6/0.54 = 1.111

Cp= 1.111

Cr = 1/ 1.111 = 0.9

Since Cp is greater than 1 and therefore Cr is less than 1; we can conclude that the process is potentially capable.

Analyze Phase:

In this Phase we analyze all the data collected in the measure phase and find the cause of variation. Analyze phase use various tests like parametric tests where the mean and standard deviation of the sample is known and Nonparametric Tests where the data is categorical for example as Excellent, Good, bad etc.

Parametric Hypothesis Test – A hypothesis is a value judgment made about a circumstance, a statement made about a population .Based on experience an engineer can for instance assume that the amount of carbon monoxide emitted by a certain engine is twice the maximum allowed legally. However his assertions can only be ascertained by conducting a test to compare the carbon monoxide generated by the engine with the legal requirements.

If the data used to make the comparison are parametric data that is data that can be used to derive the mean and the standard deviation, the population from which the data are taken are normally distributed they have equal variances. A standard error based hypothesis testing using the t-test can be used to test the validity of the hypothesis made about the population. There are at least 3 steps to follow when conducting hypothesis.

  • Null Hypothesis: The first step consists of stating the null hypothesis which is the hypothesis being tested. In the case of the engineer making a statement about the level of carbon monoxide generated by the engine , the null hypothesis is

H0: the level of carbon monoxide generated by the engine is twice as great as the legally required amount. The Null hypothesis is denoted by H0

  • Alternate hypothesis: the alternate (or alternative) hypothesis is the opposite of null hypothesis. It is assumed valid when the null hypothesis is rejected after testing. In the case of the engineer testing the carbon monoxide the alternative hypothesis would be

H1: The level of carbon monoxide generated by the engine is not twice as great as the legally required amount.

  • Testing the hypothesis: the objective of the test is to generate a sample test statistic that can be used to reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis .The test statistic is derived from Z formula if the samples are greater than 30.

Z = Xbar-µ/σ/ √n

If the samples are less than 30, then the t-test is used

T= X bar -µ/ s/√n where X bar and µ is the mean and s is the standard deviation.

1-Sample t Test such as an ideal off center (Mean v/s Target) this test is used to compare the mean of a process with a target value goal to determine whether they differ it is often used to determine whether a process is

1 Sample Standard Deviation This test is used to compare the standard deviation of the process with a target value such as a benchmark whether they differ often used to evaluate how consistent a process is

2 Sample T (Comparing 2 Means) Two sets of different items are measured each under a different condition there the measurements of one sample are independent of the measurements of other sample.

Paired T The same set of items is measured under 2 different conditions therefore the 2 measurements of the same item are dependent or related to each other.

2-Sample Standard This test is used when comparing 2 standard deviations

Standard Deviation test This Test is used when comparing more than 2 standard deviations

Non Parametric hypothesis Tests are conducted when data is categorical that is when the mean and standard deviation are not known examples are Chi-Square tests, Mann-Whitney U Test, Kruskal Wallis tests & Moods Median Tests.

Anova

If for instance 3 sample means A, B, C are being compared using the t-test is cumbersome for this we can use analysis of variance ANOVA can be used instead of multiple t-tests.

ANOVA is a Hypothesis test used when more than 2 means are being compared.

If K Samples are being tested the null hypothesis will be in the form given below

H0: µ1 = µ2 = ….µk

And the alternate hypothesis will be

H1: At least one sample mean is different from the others

If the data you are analyzing is not normal you have to make it normal using box cox transformation to remove any outliers (data not in sequence with the collected data).Box Cox Transformation can be done using the statistical software Minitab.

Improve Phase: In the Improve phase we focus on the optimization of the process after the causes are found in the analyze phase we use Design of experiments to remove the junk factors which don’t contribute to smooth working of the process that is in the equation Y = f(X) we select only the X’s which contribute to the optimal working of the process.

Let us consider the example of an experimenter who is trying to optimize the production of organic foods. After screening to determine the factors that are significant for his experiment he narrows the main factors that affect the production of fruits to “light” and “water”. He wants to optimize the time that it takes to produce the fruits. He defines optimum as the minimum time necessary to yield comestible fruits.

To conduct his experiment he runs several tests combining the two factors (water and light) at different levels. To minimize the cost of experiments he decides to use only 2 levels of the factors: high and low.

In this case we will have two factors and two levels therefore the number of runs will be 2^2=4. After conducting observations he obtains the results tabulated in the table below.

Factors Response
   
Water –High Light High 10 days
   
Water high – Light low 20 days
   
Water low – Light high 15 days
   
Water low – Light low 25 days
   

Control Phase: In the Control phase we document all the activities done in all the previous phases and using control charts we monitor and control the phase just to check that our process doesn’t go out of control. Control Charts are tools used in Minitab Software to keep a check on the variation. All the documentation are kept and archived in a safe place for future reference.

Conclusion: From the paper we come to understand that selection of a Six Sigma Project is Critical because we have to know the long term gains in executing these projects and the activities done in each phase the basic building block is the define phase where the problem statement is captured and then in measure phase data is collected systematically against this problem statement which is further analyzed in Analyze phase by performing various hypothesis tests and process optimization in Improve phase by removing the junk factors that is in the equation y = f(x1, x2,x3…….) we remove the causes x1, x2 etc. by the method of Design of

Experiments and factorial methods. Finally we can sustain and maintain our process to the optimum by using control charts in Control Phase.

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In a Six Sigma Organization, employees who take Yellow Belt Training courses are considered as support staff. They get an overview of the methodology, allowing them to be aligned with the intentions and goals of the company. They have sufficient knowledge to assist Black and Green Belts with their projects.What are the benefits of Yellow Belt certification?A lot of people wish to get certified at the highest level, which is why they directly skip to the Black Belt. While this approach isn’t necessarily wrong, earning a Yellow Belt certification has its benefits that include:Better understanding of the rolesFor getting Black Belt certification, it is important to understand the Green belt and Yellow belt roles as well. Being certified with Six Sigma Yellow Belt is an indication that you know what the job is all about. The certification exam is particularly aimed at the Yellow Belt level. It will provide you with an overview of the specific tasks performed by Yellow Belts for a project. They do not have the statistical abilities of a Green Belt, so it is not expected of them to perform such tasks. However, yellow belts do understand the basic Six Sigma principles such as y=f(x), Process Variances, DMADV variation, ISO, Needs Analysis, and more.Great for your resumeIt is not necessary to have a high-level certification in Six Sigma. With a Six Sigma Yellow Belt certification, you show your employers that you are dedicated towards the DMAIC process and have earned the certification to ensure quality. Employers are always looking for employees to know how to minimize wastage and save money. Even having your certification listed on LinkedIn will earn you more visibility as it allows employers to search for people with the traits they need.Potential for high salaryEarning the certification doesn’t necessarily guarantee you a higher salary, but it does make you a more valuable employee to your employer. Amidst such high competition, employers are always on the lookout for candidates with varying skill sets. They will always value someone who can get more tasks done. Your Yellow Belt certification will certainly give you an advantage over those who don’t have Six Sigma certification.Of course, apart from the above-mentioned benefits, there are other reasons to get certified as well. One great reason is that you get to learn something new and develop your skills to a great extent. Regardless, the Yellow Belt certification is beneficial for yourself and your organization.Six Sigma Yellow Belt Certification Exam RequirementsHere is the exam format for Six Sigma Yellow Belt Certification Exam:ASQType of questionsNo of questions  Duration  Open/closed  MCQ  85 for computer75 for paper-basedTwo and a half hourTwo hoursOpen bookIASSCType of questionsNo of questionsDurationOpen/closedPassing scoreMCQ and True/False60Two hoursClosed book230/300CSSCType of questionsNo of questionsDurationOpen/closedPassing scoreMCQ and True/False50Non-TimedOpen book140/200How to apply for the Six Sigma Yellow Belt exam?For the Six Sigma Yellow Belt exam, there are no prerequisites. To get the IASSC Certified Yellow Belt, you have to sit for the ICYB exam and pass it. You can contact your KnowledgeHut representative for ordering a voucher. You will have to pay extra for it as it is not included in the course fee. After this, you will be able to give the 2 hours long, closed-book exam. To gain the certification, you have to score 230 out of 300 points.ASQFor the ASQ, there are two ways to apply for Six Sigma Yellow Belt Exam, depending on your preference:Computer-based testingThe exam is delivered on-site and it is a popular option for environments like classroom training where a group of candidates can be organized into one location.Paper-based testingIt is a more conventional form of testing as opposed to computer-based testing.Prometric is the testing partner that delivers the certification exam. Here are the steps you need to follow for scheduling the exam:Visit the official website of Prometric.Under the Test Takers section, click on Schedule Your Exam.Search for Six Sigma Yellow Belt in the search bar.Click on Read More.On the left side of the page, under the Actions table, click on Schedule option.On the next page, select your Country.Read the Information Review and click on Next.On the next page, agree to the Privacy Policy.Enter your Eligibility ID and other details.Next, you will be asked to make the Appointment selection where you will have to select the Yellow Belt.On the next page, select the date and time for your exam.Your exam will be scheduled.CSSCFor the CSSC Six Sigma Yellow Belt certification exam, follow these steps:Visit the official website of CSSC by clicking here.Click on ‘Add to cart’.A pop-up will appear asking you to either ‘View Cart’ or ‘Checkout’. Select the latter.Enter the details and make the payment for placing your order.What is the average salary of a Six Sigma Yellow Belt certified professional?Since Yellow Belts have a comprehensive understanding of the Six Sigma methods, they are eligible for roles like:Operations ManagerQuality EngineerProcess EngineerSupply Chain ManagerBusiness Process Analyst.The average annual salary of Six Sigma Yellow Belt certified professional ranges from $67,000 to $99,000 per annum. The salary also depends on experience. The average salary is $49,539 per annum for people with 1-4 years of experience. The salary increases to $67,580 per year for those with 5-9 years of experience. Professionals with 10-19 years of experience earn $90,000 per annum on average. The salary can even reach more than $99,000 per annum for those with more than 20 years of experience. Other factors like job profile also have an impact on the salary.All the figures are from Indeed.com's salary estimation based on job advertisements and 512,851 employees.Become a pro at Lean Six Sigma. Get the personalized training you need for your Certified Lean Six Sigma Black Belt certification!
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Essential Guide to Six Sigma Yellow Belt Certifica...

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Essential Guide to Six Sigma Black Belt Certification

What is Six Sigma Black Belt?  Black Belts are skilled in analyzing huge chunks of data, managing different projects and organizing the team dynamics within the organisation, with respect to quality improvements in processes. So, in essence, they act as change agents who are dedicated to problem solving and ensuring quality adherence within processes and the organization.  The title 'Black Belt' has been inspired by martial arts and holds an integral meaning within the Six Sigma philosophy. The lean Six Sigma is a problem solving technique that encourages the user to adopt a no-waste approach to enhance the performance and customer satisfaction of the brand. The Six Sigma Black Belt developer measures, structures, and analyses the performance related issues of the system in accordance with the Six Sigma rule.  The basic purpose of this is to lead the project in a way that yields the best results. Black Belt Certification also trains candidates to understand, improve and improvise the concepts of variation, and deploy different roles to different teams in a method that is meticulous and process oriented.  The International Association for Six Sigma Certification (IASSC) certified Six Sigma Black Belt Exam is a closed book proctored exam where candidates have to answer 150 questions in a span of 4 hours. The paper has a combination of objective questions, long answers and non-graded questions. With this certification, developers can improve their interpersonal skills, become better managers and apply for better and more prestigious positions in the firm as well.  Who can take up the Six Sigma Black Belt course? Developers and industry professionals with sufficient work experience and industry knowledge can opt for the Six Sigma Black Belt certification. Also, note that only full-time positions are available in the Six Sigma framework. Some other aspects that are considered by recruiters are; Organisational skills and the ability to assign tasks to different departments  Ability to figure out quick and proactive measures to improve performance  Problem identification and solving skills  Understand team dynamics and take initiative for projects Work on extensive databases and find out patterns  Be up to date with the latest trends of the industry  Have the technical skills, understand common DFSS and DFX methods  The candidate must have the basic academic credentials and professional work experience of over 3 years. Other than that, you need the other standard skills like coding, technical knowledge, communication skills and analytical abilities.  How to get certified in Six Sigma Black Belt? The mini-infographic below provides a visual guide to the steps required to get Six Sigma Black Belt certified. In the section to follow, we guide you through the certification process through the International Association for Six Sigma Certification (IASSC), the Council for Six Sigma Certification (CSSC) and the American Quality for Quality (AQS).Certification from the International Association for Six Sigma Certification (IASSC) To get certified in the Six Sigma Black Belt from the IASSC, you have to first apply for and clear the IASSC exam which consists of 150 questions that you will have to complete in a span of 4 hours. These questions can contain a mix of objective questions, subjective questions and detailed answers. There are about 800 centres all over India where you can opt for giving your exams. All you have to do is contact the KnowledgeHut representative who will order a voucher for you. This is going to cost extra as the certification exam fee is not included in the course fee. Certification from the Council for Six Sigma Certification (CSSC) For the Six Sigma Black Belt certification exam from CSSC, you can follow these steps: Visit the official website of CSSC through this link. Click on ‘Add to cart’. A pop-up will appear. Select ‘Checkout’.  Enter the required details. Make the payment to finish placing your order. Certification from the American Society for Quality (ASQ) For the Six Sigma Black Belt certification exam from ASQ, you can follow these steps: Go to the official website of Prometric. Click on Schedule Your Exam present under the Test Takers section. Search for Six Sigma Black Belt in the search bar. Once you find it, click on Read More. Under the Actions table, select the Schedule option. Select your Country on the next page. Read the Information Review. Click on Next. Agree to the Privacy Policy. Enter your details like the Eligibility ID. Next, select the Black Belt for the Appointments Selection. On the next page, select the date and time for your exam. Your exam will be scheduled. What are the roles and responsibilities of a Six Sigma Black Belt?  Every Black Belt Six Sigma professional must be proficient in dealing with huge amounts of statistical data along with excellent managerial skills and analytical knowledge. This makes the professional responsible for inter-department management, organizing team dynamics and taking care of the internal setup of the company. Six Sigma certification prepares one to understand processes, reasons for failure and steps for mitigation of errors.  Six Sigma professionals are proficient in the Six Sigma philosophies, which enable them to establish better, more flexible and transparent communication channels between employees and hierarchies. They are also liable for gathering insights, sorting them and storing them in a systematic manner and then analyse it in a way that yields the best results.  The professionals also have to understand the different GAP analysis and SWOT analysis that help determine the strengths, weaknesses, threats and potential opportunities that would help the organization reach new heights.  The Six Sigma Black Belt certified candidates are responsible for the entire management, deployment of the resources and its follow-up within the organisation. This also prepares the professional to anticipate the possible risks and take the initiatives that would help them overcome these liabilities that covers the losses and enhances your profits.  What are the benefits of Black Belt certification? A Six Sigma degree and the Black Belt certification has far reaching career and personal benefits. This degree covers a smart mix of technical, theoretical and practical topics that would help you understand the happenings of the industry in a more detailed way, and how best you can tailor the Six Sigma to suit the needs of your organization and enhance your problem solving skills. Overall the Six Sigma helps you in the following:Improve your managerial and organisational skills  Develop better interpersonal relations with other people and departments  Boost the overall performance of the enterprise in a way that is beneficial to all the parties involved To develop a plan for holistic and sustainable growth of the sector and the company  Helps you gain better deeper insights into the market that gives you an edge over your peers  Formulate better business principles to ensure cost reduction and time saving techniques Six Sigma Black Belt Certification exam requirements There are no specific requirements or academic degrees that you would need to be eligible for the Six Sigma degree. However, recruiters do have a preference for professionals who have a technical background and are well versed with concepts like database management, programming languages, handling statistics and coding.  Candidates should know how to implement Six Sigma across the organization, be aware of quality benchmarks and factors that lead a project to success. Here are some of the other requirements that might be expected from the Six Sigma candidates that you should know about; Basic managerial skills and interpersonal skills Technical knowledge and industry experience Knowledge about the inter department workings Knowledge of tools for tracking project progress Team management Here are the specific requirements of the exam according to the accrediting body: IASSC: There are no prerequisites. ASQ:  One completed project with signed affidavit or two completed projects with signed affidavits Three years of work experience in one or more areas of the Six Sigma Body of Knowledge.CSSC: There are no prerequisites. Here are the exam formats from the various certification bodies for the Six Sigma Black Belt Certification Exam: ASQType of questionsNo of questionsDurationOpen/closedMCQ165 for computer 150 for paper based Four and a half hourFour hoursOpen bookIASSCType of questionsNo of questionsDurationOpen/closedMCQ150Four hoursClosed bookCSSC  Type of questionsNo of questionsDurationOpen/closedMCQ150Non-timedOpen bookHow to apply for the Six Sigma Black Belt exam?  The Six Sigma certification would be a great addition to your resume, opening new opportunities for candidates in a sector of their choice. The Black Belt degree makes you more eligible and capable of handling the internal affairs of the company, build strong teams and set in order processes that will help chart the path to success. It teaches you all about the ways in which you can gather the best of the resources and deploy them in a way that is productive for the organisation.  To get the black belt degree though you need to attempt and pass an exam that requires a fair bit of preparation to clear. The certification exams are conducted by a number of reputed bodies, chief among them being the IASSC, CSSC and ASQ.  The IASSC Black Belt exam paper is divided into 150 questions that cover major sections of the Lean Six Sigma Black Belt Body of Knowledge. Studying these topics and appearing for the exam ensures that you have through knowledge of tackling on-the-job situations.  Once you have signed up for the exam by following the relevant procedures and paying the fee, you can sit for the exam and give it your best shot.While this is quite an arduous exam, proper preparation will ensure that you clear at the first attempt. Enrolling for a Lean Six Sigma training that is provided by an accredited body will ensure that you have all the right resources and guidance to clear the exam.    What is the average salary of a Six Sigma Black Belt certified professional? As more and more organizations are going Lean the need for certified Six Sigma Black belt professionals is on the rise. This demand has ensured a subsequent increase in the salary that Six Sigma professionals earn.  Also, as a black belt certified professional, you can take on the following roles: Trainer/Coach Manager Influencer Process/Product/Project Manager Business Analyst Quality Assurance While the average salary of a Six Sigma Black belt certified professional is $104,019 per year, this largely depends on your industry experience, technical expertise and the country you’re working in.  The average salary of a Director of Quality with a Six Sigma Black Belt is $116,169 per year. A Process Manager and a Senior Process Manager can earn an average of $81,013 and $97,997 per year.  *All the figures are from Indeed.com's salary estimation based on job advertisements and 512,851 employees. Ready to grow your career in Lean Six Sigma? Browse through our Certified Lean Six Sigma Yellow Belt course for personalized guidance.
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Essential Guide to Six Sigma Black Belt Certificat...

What is Six Sigma Black Belt?  Black Belts are s... Read More

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