## Top Principles of COBIT 5 Foundation – IT Security

COBIT is created by international professional association (ISACA), which is a non-profit independent association. The COBIT (Control Objectives for Information and Related Technologies) provide a business framework for the governance and management of IT. COBIT supplies globally accepted principles, practices, and analytical tools, and a growth road map that influences proven practices. All of these are encompassed within a logical framework of IT-related processes. COBIT 5 consolidates COBIT 4.1, and following are the reasons for the transition from COBIT 4.1 to COBIT 5: • There was a need to have an all-through scope of business/organisation that covers all the IT and business functions. • There was a need to have a rational understanding of analysing the existing standards, methods, tools, and practices that relate and supplement each other. • There was a need for COBIT to be rigidly assimilated with other ISACA frameworks. • There was a need to have an improvised guidance on emerging technologies and enterprise architecture. • There was a need for COBIT to be closely bound by the external standards and frameworks. COBIT 5 is generic and proves to be useful for all the enterprises, whether small-scale or large-scale and whether commercial or non-profit. Wherever there is a dependency on technology for reliable information or a need to provide quality and control of information, COBIT 5 is used exclusively for all the business processes. COBIT 5 benefits organization and is majorly used by top-level executives and consultants in an enterprise covering the following areas of business: • IT Operations • Security and Risk Management • Audit • Governance • Compliance Following are the principles of COBIT 5: COBIT 5 Principle 1: Meeting the Needs of the Stakeholder COBIT 5 enables the transformation of the needs of the stakeholders into a more practical and achievable strategy. COBIT 5 strives to maintain a balance between the use of available resources and the realisation of the benefits of keeping in consideration the associated risks. This principle focuses on the governance, negotiation, and decision making about the various conflicting needs of the stakeholders. This assures that whenever the benefit, resources, and risk-assessment decisions are made for delivering the value, the needs of the stakeholders is taken into consideration. It uses a mechanism called the COBIT 5 Goals Cascade, which translates the needs of the stakeholder into more specific and manageable approach which are then mapped to specific processes and practices. COBIT 5 Principle 2: Covering the entirety of the Project In this approach, COBIT performs the integration of IT governance and enterprise governance and includes all the processes used to manage information and technology. Considering the latest views and developments in the governance and with the integration of IT governance into the enterprise governance, COBIT can combine both the form of governance at the same time. The overall business processes and IT services are included in the COBIT 5. The four main elements of this end-to-end approach are as follows: • The objective of governance for creating value • The enablers, which can individually or collectively decide what will work • Deciding the scope • Assigning roles, responsibilities, and activities COBIT 5 Principle 3: Applying a Single Integrated Framework The continuous changes in the technology and added pressure from customers and suppliers have led to a challenging task for the organisations to manage and govern its information and related technology. The COBIT 5 enables the organisations to have a single Integrated Framework, providing an enterprise coverage and consistency, and it also can be customised as per the needs of the organisation. COBIT 5 can retain the position of a single Integrated Framework due to the following reasons: • COBIT 5 acts as a single integrated source of direction, even for the non-technical terms of language. • COBIT 5 aligns itself with relevant standards and frameworks such as ITIL and ISO standards. • Taking into account the latest standards and frameworks, COBIT 5 composes itself as a ‘Superstructure’ by aligning all the management and governance activities. COBIT 5 Principle 4: Enabling Holistic Approach We need to have a complete view of the organisation, including the management and governance structures and processes, while making important decisions concerning the organisation. COBIT 5 facilitates effective management and governance of IT across the organisation by the means of ‘enablers.’ Enablers are the factors driving the outcome of activities that are governance and management related. Enablers can be applied across the entire organisation, including all the internal and external resources relevant to the governance and management of IT. There are five categories of Enablers defined in COBIT 5, and they’re as follows: • Principles and Policies: Performs day-to-day activities of translating the required behaviour into a logical guidance. • Processes: It consists of applications required to achieve objectives which, in turn, produce outputs required to achieve IT-related goals. • Structures in an Organisation: Are responsible for making informed decisions in an organisation. • Information: It is the key product of an enterprise itself and keeps an organisation the organisation operating successfully and well governed. • People’s skills and competencies: Links people with the right skills for successful completion of work, along with taking corrective steps and making corrective decisions. COBIT 5 Principle 5: Separating Governance from Management COBIT 5 clarifies that the governance and management each serve different purpose, have different responsibilities, require different types of activities, and need different supportive organisation structures. COBIT 5 uses EDM (evaluate, direct, and monitor) for governance, while PBRM (plan, build, run, and monitor) for management as follows: • Governance or EDM ensures that the needs of the stakeholders are evaluated by identifying and agreeing on objectives to be achieved, which is directed by prioritisation and are also monitored for performance against objectives. • Management or PBRM ensures to monitor the activities and confirm that they are in alignment with those described in the governance set.
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# Top Principles of COBIT 5 Foundation – IT Security

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COBIT is created by international professional association (ISACA), which is a non-profit independent association. The COBIT (Control Objectives for Information and Related Technologies) provide a business framework for the governance and management of IT. COBIT supplies globally accepted principles, practices, and analytical tools, and a growth road map that influences proven practices. All of these are encompassed within a logical framework of IT-related processes. COBIT 5 consolidates COBIT 4.1, and following are the reasons for the transition from COBIT 4.1 to COBIT 5:

• There was a need to have an all-through scope of business/organisation that covers all the IT and business functions.

• There was a need to have a rational understanding of analysing the existing standards, methods, tools, and practices that relate and supplement each other.

• There was a need for COBIT to be rigidly assimilated with other ISACA frameworks.

• There was a need to have an improvised guidance on emerging technologies and enterprise architecture.

• There was a need for COBIT to be closely bound by the external standards and frameworks.

COBIT 5 is generic and proves to be useful for all the enterprises, whether small-scale or large-scale and whether commercial or non-profit. Wherever there is a dependency on technology for reliable information or a need to provide quality and control of information, COBIT 5 is used exclusively for all the business processes. COBIT 5 benefits organization and is majorly used by top-level executives and consultants in an enterprise covering the following areas of business:

• IT Operations

• Security and Risk Management

• Audit

• Governance

• Compliance

Following are the principles of COBIT 5:

COBIT 5 Principle 1: Meeting the Needs of the Stakeholder

COBIT 5 enables the transformation of the needs of the stakeholders into a more practical and achievable strategy. COBIT 5 strives to maintain a balance between the use of available resources and the realisation of the benefits of keeping in consideration the associated risks. This principle focuses on the governance, negotiation, and decision making about the various conflicting needs of the stakeholders. This assures that whenever the benefit, resources, and risk-assessment decisions are made for delivering the value, the needs of the stakeholders is taken into consideration. It uses a mechanism called the COBIT 5 Goals Cascade, which translates the needs of the stakeholder into more specific and manageable approach which are then mapped to specific processes and practices.

COBIT 5 Principle 2: Covering the entirety of the Project

In this approach, COBIT performs the integration of IT governance and enterprise governance and includes all the processes used to manage information and technology. Considering the latest views and developments in the governance and with the integration of IT governance into the enterprise governance, COBIT can combine both the form of governance at the same time. The overall business processes and IT services are included in the COBIT 5. The four main elements of this end-to-end approach are as follows:

• The objective of governance for creating value

• The enablers, which can individually or collectively decide what will work

• Deciding the scope

• Assigning roles, responsibilities, and activities

COBIT 5 Principle 3: Applying a Single Integrated Framework

The continuous changes in the technology and added pressure from customers and suppliers have led to a challenging task for the organisations to manage and govern its information and related technology. The COBIT 5 enables the organisations to have a single Integrated Framework, providing an enterprise coverage and consistency, and it also can be customised as per the needs of the organisation. COBIT 5 can retain the position of a single Integrated Framework due to the following reasons:

• COBIT 5 acts as a single integrated source of direction, even for the non-technical terms of language.

• COBIT 5 aligns itself with relevant standards and frameworks such as ITIL and ISO standards.

• Taking into account the latest standards and frameworks, COBIT 5 composes itself as a ‘Superstructure’ by aligning all the management and governance activities.

COBIT 5 Principle 4: Enabling Holistic Approach

We need to have a complete view of the organisation, including the management and governance structures and processes, while making important decisions concerning the organisation. COBIT 5 facilitates effective management and governance of IT across the organisation by the means of ‘enablers.’ Enablers are the factors driving the outcome of activities that are governance and management related. Enablers can be applied across the entire organisation, including all the internal and external resources relevant to the governance and management of IT. There are five categories of Enablers defined in COBIT 5, and they’re as follows:

• Principles and Policies: Performs day-to-day activities of translating the required behaviour into a logical guidance.

• Processes: It consists of applications required to achieve objectives which, in turn, produce outputs required to achieve IT-related goals.

• Structures in an Organisation: Are responsible for making informed decisions in an organisation.

• Information: It is the key product of an enterprise itself and keeps an organisation the organisation operating successfully and well governed.

• People’s skills and competencies: Links people with the right skills for successful completion of work, along with taking corrective steps and making corrective decisions.

COBIT 5 Principle 5: Separating Governance from Management

COBIT 5 clarifies that the governance and management each serve different purpose, have different responsibilities, require different types of activities, and need different supportive organisation structures. COBIT 5 uses EDM (evaluate, direct, and monitor) for governance, while PBRM (plan, build, run, and monitor) for management as follows:

• Governance or EDM ensures that the needs of the stakeholders are evaluated by identifying and agreeing on objectives to be achieved, which is directed by prioritisation and are also monitored for performance against objectives.

• Management or PBRM ensures to monitor the activities and confirm that they are in alignment with those described in the governance set.

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## Certified Ethical Hacker Jobs and Salaries

Businesses and government organizations need certified ethical hackers (CEHs) to ensure their networks, systems, and applications are secure from illegal hackers. When a company’s data is breached or a denial of service attack takes down the company’s systems, money is lost and the company’s reputation could be tarnished. Organizations are willing to pay high salaries for ethical hackers that have the right education, hold the right certification, and have the right experience. Credentials to Get a Job as a Certified Ethical Hacker Before you can obtain an ethical hacking job, you need to have the right credentials. You’ll need at least a couple of years of experience in the IT field for most large companies and government organizations to consider you for a position. Furthermore, you’ll probably need at least a bachelor’s degree to land a job at a Fortune 500 company. However, there are many different kinds of companies looking for ethical hackers, so these credentials aren’t always requirements. A credential that is a requirement is certification. When you become a certified ethical hacker, employers know you have the technical knowledge to do the job as well as the necessary soft skills such as social engineering, communications, and problem solving. Importantly, employers see the certified ethical hacker credential and know that you understand the laws and ethics of legal hacking and that you adhere to the certified ethical hacker’s professional code of conduct. Job Titles for Certified Ethical Hackers Certified ethical hackers have a specialized and highly sought after set of skills that can be applied to a variety of job titles. When you’re looking for a position, search for jobs with titles like information security analyst, security engineer, penetration tester, security analyst, security consultant, site administrator, network security specialist, information technology auditor, computer forensics analyst, and homeland security specialist. In the government sector, search for defense contractors like Lockheed Martin or Booz Allen Hamilton, which provide information technology contractors to government organizations. You can also search for jobs directly with the military or government agencies such as the U.S. Army, U.S. Air Force, National Security Agency, or the Department of Defense. Of course, you could always start your own independent security consulting company. Many companies prefer to bring in an external expert to handle penetration testing and other ethical hacking projects rather than hire a full-time employee for the job. Salaries for Certified Ethical Hackers Entry level salaries for professionals who are certified ethical hackers typically start in the $50,000 range. Depending on how many years of experience you have, your salary could start in the$80,000, $90,000, or even$100,000 range. According to Payscale.com, salaries for individuals with certified ethical hacker credentials in the United States range from $48,952 to$109,573. Payscale.com also reports that most people with certified ethical hacker credentials have between one and 19 years of experience (2% have less than 1 year, 29% have between 1-4 years, 28% have between 5-9 years, 33% have between 10-19 years, and 8% have 20 or more years). Bottom-line, if you enjoy legal hacking and have the right education, experience, and certification, then a job as a certified ethical hacker could be perfect for you.
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## Top 10 Skills to Become an Ethical Hacker

With industries moving to cloud-based platforms to operate and store critical information, cybersecurity is a growing concern of all industries. A recent data-breach in Adobe Systems has resulted in a loss of personal data for nearly 3 million of its customers. As a preventive measure, top IT companies like IBM are investing crores to protect their information. This is where Ethical Hacking comes into the picture. The process of locating weaknesses and vulnerabilities of existing information systems or computers and thereby helping companies enhance their security systems is known as ethical hacking. Often, ethical hacking takes the same route as hackers/malicious actors by replicating their methodologies and tools. It is also known as penetration testing, intrusion testing, or red teaming. Who is an Ethical Hacker?An ethical hacker or whitehat hacker is a security professional using hacking skills for defensive purposes to test the security status of organizations’ information systems. The ethical hacker primarily looks for the following information: What are the loopholes such as information, locations, or systems that an attacker can gain access to? What can an attacker see with this information? What can the attacker do with the available information? Is anyone already noticing or reacting to such attempts in the information systems? The digital transformation and emerging technologies like blockchain, Internet of Things (IoT) have multiplied the demand for ethical hackers. Payscale reports that the average salary of a Certified Ethical Hacker is \$92,000 in the US and ₹483,875 in India.  So what does it take to become an ethical hacker? Top 10 Skills to Become an Ethical Hacker  1. Excellent computer skillsThis might seem like a basic skill, but it is very important to become an ethical hacker. One should be very prompt at handling basic skills related to operating a system and have a firm hold on the command line in Windows/operating software, edit the registry, and set their networking parameters. 2. Programming skillsTo gain access to the foundation of the software, one needs to have a proper understanding of different programming languages used to develop it. The most common languages are Python, SQL, C, C++, and Perl. 3. Database management systems (DBMS)DBMS is the crux of creating and managing all databases. Access to a database where all the information is stored can put the company in a huge threat, so ensuring that this software is hack-proof is important. An ethical hacker needs a good understanding of this, along with different database engines and data schemas to help the organization build a strong DBMS. 4. Linux As most web servers run on Linux operating system, gaining access to this server to check for loopholes is another must-have skill for ethical hackers. Insights into operating systems like Redhat, Ubuntu, Fedora, their commands, and GUI (graphical user interface) will give you great leverage. 5. CryptographyCryptography deals with converting a normal text/message to a non-readable form during the transmission to make it incomprehensible to hackers. An ethical hacker ensures that communication between different people within the organization does not leak. 6. Social engineeringHackers have a common tendency to use tricks such as social engineering, phishing, and trojans to access personal information. Social engineering is the psychological manipulation of users to perform actions or give away confidential/personal information that may threaten the business. Ethical hackers replicate these tricks to test the loopholes, which makes it a desirable skill in them. 7. Web applications Web applications are the software that users access on the internet through their web browsers. As this has been a breeding ground for cyber-attacks, learning these web applications has become crucial for ethical hackers to protect an organization’s data. By learning software like HTML, JavaScript, and PHP, an ethical hacker can provide a database that protects them. 8. Wireless technologiesLearning wireless technologies like WEP, WPA, WPA2, WPS, etc., will help ethical hackers protect systems from sending information via invisible waves. A protocol for connection, authentication, and restrictions on wireless technologies can be put in place by having a deep understanding of the same. 9. Networking Understanding networks like DHCP, NAT, Subnetting and more will equip ethical hackers to explore the different interconnected computers in a network and the potential security threats that this may create, as well as how to handle them.  10. Critical thinking & problem-solvingApart from the technical skills pointed above, an ethical hacker also needs to be a critical thinker and proactive problem solver. They must be eager to learn new ways and ensure all security breaches are thoroughly checked. This requires a lot of testing and a creative penchant to device new ways of problem-solving.  How to become an ethical hacker?Professionals aspiring to become an ethical hacker can learn the skills themselves or develop them with the help of industry experts. A Certified Ethical Hacker certification is a commonly recognized certification managed by the EC-Council to train individuals on ethical hacking and give them skills and expertise to safeguard their interests. Along with this, proactive reading, researching, and learning about the latest industry trends and technologies will come a long way.
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## Top It-security Certification Courses in Demand As of 2019

The field of information technology seems a bit of isolated and saturated when it comes to any innovation in that regard. This is not the case at present, though it seems a bit monotonous there are several IT security certification courses that you can do to not only boost your income but also to make sure that you excel in your department. With a lot of security breaches happening in the past, IT security has become one of the most demanding fields as far as the security and its maintenance is concerned. Here is a detailed list of the Top IT-Security certification courses in Demand in 2017. We’ve covered almost all the aspects of the certificate course details. Let us proceed further and understand each one of these certification courses. Information Systems Security Engineering Professional (ISSEIP/CISSP) Certification Course This was developed in conjunction with the NSA (National Security Agency, USA) this CISSP certification course mainly focusses on the integration of security methodologies and best practices in the information systems. There are several added applications of it in the business practices, several other private and government based projects. EC- Council Licensed Penetration Tester Certification Course The License Penetration Tester certification demonstrates the ability of the professional to audit the security of the network, penetration testing performance and recommending a suitable correction for whatsoever weaknesses found. The two-part EC-Council certified security analyst (CSA) and Licensed Penetration Tester (LPT) is a comprehensive and standard based, intensive training program that teaches IT security professionals to conduct the tests and find the errors or weaknesses in the systems. Later on, they are asked to perform the required rectification protocols. GIAC certified penetration tester Certification Course The GPEN Certification is for the IT security personnel who can assess the target networks for all sorts of vulnerabilities including Virus, various Malwares & Ransomwares. These certified pros are capable of knowing the ins-and-outs of the penetration testing methodology. There are also aware of the legal issues that are related to the penetration testing also. Also, they are very much expert in knowing, how a successful penetration test can be conducted with the technical and non-technical techniques that are related to the penetration testing. GIAC Security Essentials Certification Course The GSEC certification allows the security professionals to demonstrate the hands-on application of security tasks related to the broad range of the IT systems. The candidates are required to demonstrate a proper understanding of IT security that is beyond simple terminologies and concepts, and they must prove the theory into practice. Cybersecurity Forensic Analyst Certification Course The CSFA or the Cybersecurity Forensic Analyst proves that certification holders can do a scheduled and comprehensive analysis of the systems. Then can properly interpret the evidence and deliver the so formed investigation results in an effective and efficient manner to the stakeholders of the company. This will be going to be a time bound job, so it is very much necessary that these professionals can perform the analysis as fast as they can. EC-Council Certified Secure Programmer Certification Course You might have known that most of the software-related vulnerabilities are caused because of some programming errors. The EC-council certified secure programmers (ECSP), they have proven that they can develop some top quality codes that can be later on used so that the system can be protected from such vulnerabilities. These certifications are available for .Net and Java programming languages. Check Point Certifies Security Expert Certification Course CCSE or the Check Point Certifies Security Expert program ensures that they professionals are being taught, how to build, modify, deploy and troubleshoot some of the many checkpoint security systems. There are several hands-on lab exercises developed for them to take part in and they are taught how they can debug firewall processes, optimise the VPN performance and upgrade management servers for getting the optimal security. Certified Security Software Lifecycle Professional Certification Course The CSSLP or the Certified Secure Software Lifecycle Professional certification course validates the ability of a professional so that he can develop application and software for security protocols. These can later on used as an add-on to reduce the security system vulnerabilities. And then can lock down all the potential breach points throughout the software development lifecycle (SDLC). Conclusion These are some of the most popular IT-security certification courses that can be done in the year 2017. The data we’ve got is valid since the year 2015, and there are only a minor ups and downs in the percentage of market change in individual sectors since then. These IT security certification courses enhance one’s capability to such an extent that they can easily foresee any security any inbound security breached, beforehand and will make them potent enough to strategize a plan to counteract the threat.
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