## Top Principles of COBIT 5 Foundation – IT Security

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# Top Principles of COBIT 5 Foundation – IT Security

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COBIT is created by international professional association (ISACA), which is a non-profit independent association. The COBIT (Control Objectives for Information and Related Technologies) provide a business framework for the governance and management of IT. COBIT supplies globally accepted principles, practices, and analytical tools, and a growth road map that influences proven practices. All of these are encompassed within a logical framework of IT-related processes. COBIT 5 consolidates COBIT 4.1, and following are the reasons for the transition from COBIT 4.1 to COBIT 5:

• There was a need to have an all-through scope of business/organisation that covers all the IT and business functions.

• There was a need to have a rational understanding of analysing the existing standards, methods, tools, and practices that relate and supplement each other.

• There was a need for COBIT to be rigidly assimilated with other ISACA frameworks.

• There was a need to have an improvised guidance on emerging technologies and enterprise architecture.

• There was a need for COBIT to be closely bound by the external standards and frameworks.

COBIT 5 is generic and proves to be useful for all the enterprises, whether small-scale or large-scale and whether commercial or non-profit. Wherever there is a dependency on technology for reliable information or a need to provide quality and control of information, COBIT 5 is used exclusively for all the business processes. COBIT 5 benefits organization and is majorly used by top-level executives and consultants in an enterprise covering the following areas of business:

• IT Operations

• Security and Risk Management

• Audit

• Governance

• Compliance

Following are the principles of COBIT 5:

COBIT 5 Principle 1: Meeting the Needs of the Stakeholder

COBIT 5 enables the transformation of the needs of the stakeholders into a more practical and achievable strategy. COBIT 5 strives to maintain a balance between the use of available resources and the realisation of the benefits of keeping in consideration the associated risks. This principle focuses on the governance, negotiation, and decision making about the various conflicting needs of the stakeholders. This assures that whenever the benefit, resources, and risk-assessment decisions are made for delivering the value, the needs of the stakeholders is taken into consideration. It uses a mechanism called the COBIT 5 Goals Cascade, which translates the needs of the stakeholder into more specific and manageable approach which are then mapped to specific processes and practices.

COBIT 5 Principle 2: Covering the entirety of the Project

In this approach, COBIT performs the integration of IT governance and enterprise governance and includes all the processes used to manage information and technology. Considering the latest views and developments in the governance and with the integration of IT governance into the enterprise governance, COBIT can combine both the form of governance at the same time. The overall business processes and IT services are included in the COBIT 5. The four main elements of this end-to-end approach are as follows:

• The objective of governance for creating value

• The enablers, which can individually or collectively decide what will work

• Deciding the scope

• Assigning roles, responsibilities, and activities

COBIT 5 Principle 3: Applying a Single Integrated Framework

The continuous changes in the technology and added pressure from customers and suppliers have led to a challenging task for the organisations to manage and govern its information and related technology. The COBIT 5 enables the organisations to have a single Integrated Framework, providing an enterprise coverage and consistency, and it also can be customised as per the needs of the organisation. COBIT 5 can retain the position of a single Integrated Framework due to the following reasons:

• COBIT 5 acts as a single integrated source of direction, even for the non-technical terms of language.

• COBIT 5 aligns itself with relevant standards and frameworks such as ITIL and ISO standards.

• Taking into account the latest standards and frameworks, COBIT 5 composes itself as a ‘Superstructure’ by aligning all the management and governance activities.

COBIT 5 Principle 4: Enabling Holistic Approach

We need to have a complete view of the organisation, including the management and governance structures and processes, while making important decisions concerning the organisation. COBIT 5 facilitates effective management and governance of IT across the organisation by the means of ‘enablers.’ Enablers are the factors driving the outcome of activities that are governance and management related. Enablers can be applied across the entire organisation, including all the internal and external resources relevant to the governance and management of IT. There are five categories of Enablers defined in COBIT 5, and they’re as follows:

• Principles and Policies: Performs day-to-day activities of translating the required behaviour into a logical guidance.

• Processes: It consists of applications required to achieve objectives which, in turn, produce outputs required to achieve IT-related goals.

• Structures in an Organisation: Are responsible for making informed decisions in an organisation.

• Information: It is the key product of an enterprise itself and keeps an organisation the organisation operating successfully and well governed.

• People’s skills and competencies: Links people with the right skills for successful completion of work, along with taking corrective steps and making corrective decisions.

COBIT 5 Principle 5: Separating Governance from Management

COBIT 5 clarifies that the governance and management each serve different purpose, have different responsibilities, require different types of activities, and need different supportive organisation structures. COBIT 5 uses EDM (evaluate, direct, and monitor) for governance, while PBRM (plan, build, run, and monitor) for management as follows:

• Governance or EDM ensures that the needs of the stakeholders are evaluated by identifying and agreeing on objectives to be achieved, which is directed by prioritisation and are also monitored for performance against objectives.

• Management or PBRM ensures to monitor the activities and confirm that they are in alignment with those described in the governance set.

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## Certified Ethical Hacker Jobs and Salaries

Businesses and government organizations need certified ethical hackers (CEHs) to ensure their networks, systems, and applications are secure from illegal hackers. When a company’s data is breached or a denial of service attack takes down the company’s systems, money is lost and the company’s reputation could be tarnished. Organizations are willing to pay high salaries for ethical hackers that have the right education, hold the right certification, and have the right experience. Credentials to Get a Job as a Certified Ethical Hacker Before you can obtain an ethical hacking job, you need to have the right credentials. You’ll need at least a couple of years of experience in the IT field for most large companies and government organizations to consider you for a position. Furthermore, you’ll probably need at least a bachelor’s degree to land a job at a Fortune 500 company. However, there are many different kinds of companies looking for ethical hackers, so these credentials aren’t always requirements. A credential that is a requirement is certification. When you become a certified ethical hacker, employers know you have the technical knowledge to do the job as well as the necessary soft skills such as social engineering, communications, and problem solving. Importantly, employers see the certified ethical hacker credential and know that you understand the laws and ethics of legal hacking and that you adhere to the certified ethical hacker’s professional code of conduct. Job Titles for Certified Ethical Hackers Certified ethical hackers have a specialized and highly sought after set of skills that can be applied to a variety of job titles. When you’re looking for a position, search for jobs with titles like information security analyst, security engineer, penetration tester, security analyst, security consultant, site administrator, network security specialist, information technology auditor, computer forensics analyst, and homeland security specialist. In the government sector, search for defense contractors like Lockheed Martin or Booz Allen Hamilton, which provide information technology contractors to government organizations. You can also search for jobs directly with the military or government agencies such as the U.S. Army, U.S. Air Force, National Security Agency, or the Department of Defense. Of course, you could always start your own independent security consulting company. Many companies prefer to bring in an external expert to handle penetration testing and other ethical hacking projects rather than hire a full-time employee for the job. Salaries for Certified Ethical Hackers Entry level salaries for professionals who are certified ethical hackers typically start in the $50,000 range. Depending on how many years of experience you have, your salary could start in the$80,000, $90,000, or even$100,000 range. According to Payscale.com, salaries for individuals with certified ethical hacker credentials in the United States range from $48,952 to$109,573. Payscale.com also reports that most people with certified ethical hacker credentials have between one and 19 years of experience (2% have less than 1 year, 29% have between 1-4 years, 28% have between 5-9 years, 33% have between 10-19 years, and 8% have 20 or more years). Bottom-line, if you enjoy legal hacking and have the right education, experience, and certification, then a job as a certified ethical hacker could be perfect for you.
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Certified Ethical Hacker Jobs and Salaries

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