The Agile methodologies and technique divides a project into many parts and uses these phases to manage the project. Continuous improvement at every stage and ongoing collaboration with stakeholders is required. Teams cycle through a process of planning, carrying out, and assessing once the job starts. Apart from the sections that follow, you can learn the various types of agile methodology by joining any of the Agile Management training courses on our platform. So let us get started.
What are Agile Methodologies?
There are more than a dozen agile techniques that are in use. Scrum, Extreme Programming (XP), lean product development, Kanban, Feature-Driven Development (FDD), Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM), and the Crystal family of methodologies are the most popular approaches. We'll go into detail about each of these types of agile methodologies in the discussion. Scrum and XP are the two most popular agile methodologies. The core concepts, people, activities, and deliverables of these two strategies will be thoroughly covered. To learn more in detail, please go through the various agile courses listed in the KnowledgeHut Agile Management training.
Types of Agile Methodology: 8 Important Categories
Scrum is a well-known agile framework that is simple to learn and lightweight, but like all agile techniques, it is challenging to master completely. The "Scrum framework" contains a collection of processes, roles, events, artifacts, and rules that are intended to direct the team as they carry out the project.
Scrum Pillars and Values
The theory behind Scrum is based on the three pillars
In addition to the three pillars,
Scrum also recognizes five fundamental values-
- Commitment, and
The major concepts and elements of the scrum are discussed in this section, as well as the responsibilities of a scrum team, the activities that take place during a sprint, and the sprint deliverables or artifacts.
i. Scrum Team Roles
Developers, product owners, and scrum masters make up scrum teams. Let's examine each of these jobs to determine what is expected of them on a Scrum project. Scrum teams are multidisciplinary as well;
- Developers: The team of experts who construct the product increments during each sprint. The team members are self-organizing, which means they have the authority to oversee their work.
- Product Owner: The product owner oversees managing the product backlog, or the list of tasks that need to be completed, to maximize the value of the product.
- Scrum Master: The effective understanding and application of the Scrum framework is the responsibility of the Scrum Master. By removing any obstacles to the development team's work, coordinating their events (meetings), and coaching the team members, this person serves as a servant leader.
ii. Scrum Events
Five "events," or meetings targeted at a particular goal, are defined under the Scrum framework. These consist of Sprint, sprint planning meetings, daily scrum, sprint reviews, and sprint retrospectives in -
A sprint is an iteration that is time-boxed (time-limited) that lasts no more than one month, during which the team creates a viable product for release. (The word "sprint" in Scrum is equivalent to the word "iteration" in the agile vocabulary.) Most Scrum sprints last one to two weeks. Every sprint functions as a mini-project. If the sprint aim becomes obsolete due to a shift in the company direction or technological conditions, the sprint may be terminated before the timebox expires. The sprint can, however, only be cancelled by the product owner.
"Grooming the backlog" takes place at the backlog refinement meetings. This indicates that all project participants meet to go over and revise the backlog terms.
Sprint Planning Meeting:
Everyone attends for the sprint planning meeting to decide what will be delivered during the forthcoming sprint and how that work will be accomplished. The group discusses the updated backlog items once the product owner delivers them to make sure everyone is on the same page. Based on their estimates, anticipated capacity, and prior performance, the development team predicts what can be achieved in the sprint. They establish the sprint objective keeping this forecast in mind.
While the team is working toward the sprint goal, a daily scrum—a 15-minute time-boxed meeting—is held at the same time and location every day. The purpose of this meeting is to have each team member give a succinct response to three questions about what they are doing to achieve the sprint goal.
- What has one accomplished since the previous daily scrum?
- What are your plans for the day?
- Are there any obstacles in my way?
The development team, the product owner, and the scrum master attend the sprint review meeting, which is held after the sprint along with other potential stakeholders. The team shows the product owner a demo of the increment (developing) product they developed during the sprint during this meeting.
The development team holds the sprint retrospective, which is the final "inspect and adapt" activity for the sprint, following the sprint review but before the following sprint planning meeting. This meeting is mostly for the development team, though others may be invited. This is their chance to reflect on their experiences and seek areas where they may do better. Any event that occurred during the sprint, including people, places, and things, maybe reflected upon during the retrospective.
iii. Scrum Artifacts
We'll talk about the Scrum artifacts now that we've covered the Scrum roles and activities. The product increment, the product backlog, and the sprint backlog are three items that the team creates or uses during a sprint.
Before the team starts working on the product increment, the team and the product owner need to decide on a definition of done so that everyone has a shared understanding of what "done" will look like for that increment. This will increase the likelihood that the product increment will be acceptable.
The product backlog is the one source for all the requirements for the product and is a prioritized list of all the work that needs to be done to construct the product. Features, functionalities, requirements, quality attributes (i.e., non-functional needs), additions, and fixes are some examples of the things in the backlog.
The sprint backlog, which is not a different list from the product backlog, is the portion of the product backlog that has been chosen as the objective of a particular sprint.
Anyone who would like to understand the practical concept of Scrum can join KnowledgeHut agile management training courses
2. Extreme Programming (XP)
Extreme Programming, sometimes known as "XP" or "eXtreme Programming," is an agile approach that is concentrated on software development. Scrum prioritizes work at the project management level and solicits feedback, whereas XP concentrates on best practices for software development.
The core values of XP are
To organize their releases and iterations, XP teams employ "user stories," which are brief requirements. Developers write code in pairs throughout these iterations, which are typically two weeks long. "Architectural spikes" are iterations used to demonstrate a technology method. "Spikes" are periods of effort conducted to eliminate threats and issues. The release planning procedures incorporate the spikes.
In contrast to Scrum, XP specifies the team roles as coach, customer, and tester. Let's examine the contributions that each of these jobs makes to an XP project.
The coach serves as the team's mentor, directing the process and assisting the members in staying on task. The coach serves as a conduit, facilitating communication both inside and between teams and assisting the squad in becoming more productive. This position has many duties in common with a ScrumMaster.
The "customer" is the business core of an XP team. which might give the project's needs, priorities, and business direction. This individual establishes the specifications for the finished product, ranks the importance of its features, and verifies that it performs as intended. This position is comparable to the Scrum product owner.
The developers who write and implement the programming for the requested user stories are known as programmers.
Testers The customer can define and write acceptance tests for the user stories with the assistance of the testers, who also provide quality assurance. If they have the necessary expertise, developers (programmers) may also fill this position.
Release planning and iteration planning are the two main planning games used in XP. New functionality is sent to the production user through a release. Typically, a project has one or more releases, but no more than one or two releases every year. The customer specifies the functionality needed during release planning, and the developers estimate how challenging it will be to construct that functionality. With these priorities and figures in hand, the client develops a plan for project delivery.
In XP, it is recommended to make frequent, short releases to a test environment, both at the iteration level to show progress and boost customer visibility and at the release, level to quickly provide functional software to the end users. Rigid testing and techniques like continuous integration, in which test suites are performed as frequently as feasible, are used to preserve quality in these short delivery times.
The customer specifies one or more test criteria that will show that the program is operating as intended as part of establishing the necessary functionality. The team then creates automated tests to demonstrate to both the team and the client that the program satisfies those requirements.
Collective Code Ownership:
Any two developers can enhance or modify any code in XP. This implies that numerous individuals will work on all the code, increasing visibility and enhancing the expertise of the code base. This technique results in a higher degree of quality because there is a greater likelihood that errors will be found when more individuals look at the code. Additionally, because the information is shared, the project is less affected if one of the programmers quits.
Although having community code ownership has its benefits, enabling anyone to change any code may cause problems if team members have different coding styles. To reduce this danger, XP teams adhere to a uniform coding standard, making sure that every piece of code appears to have been produced by a single, experienced programmer. It doesn't matter whatever specific standard each team chooses; what matters is that the team writes the code consistently.
The best degree of productivity is attained by a team working at a sustainable pace, according to XP. While occasional overtime may be required, working long hours every day is futile and unsustainable. The concept of keeping development at a sustainable pace enhances the delivery of long-term benefits.
To describe designs and establish a common technical vision, Metaphor XP employs metaphors and similes. These descriptions create comparisons that are clear to all parties involved and aid in illustrating how the system ought to operate.
Bringing the code together and ensuring that it all compiles and functions together is known as integration. This procedure is crucial because it highlights issues before additional code is added on top of flawed or incompatible ideas. Because XP uses continuous integration, integration tests are executed automatically each time a programmer checks in new code to the code repository, which is frequently several times per day.
A crucial component of the XP technique is testing. XP teams frequently employ the technique of test-driven development to guarantee adequate test coverage so that issues can be identified early in the development process. The group uses this method to write the acceptance tests before creating the new code. The original code entered will fail the tests if the tests are functioning properly because the necessary functionality has not yet been created. When written correctly, the code will pass the test. To benefit from early input, the test-driven development method aims to reduce the test-feedback cycle as much as feasible.
Refactoring is the practice of enhancing the design of already-written code without changing how it functions externally or introducing new features. Maintaining an effective design makes it simple to apply modifications and new functionality to the code. Refactoring is focused on reducing coupling (dependent connections between code modules), eliminating redundant code, and boosting cohesiveness.
XPs can create code rapidly and modify it as needed by concentrating on maintaining a simple but adequate design. Instead of using complex frameworks that try to account for potential future flexibility, XP adopts a purposeful design mindset that asks, "What is the simplest thing that could work?" Simple design is also a risk-reduction tactic, as it has been shown that code bloat and complexity are associated with many unsuccessful initiatives.
In XP, two developers collaborate to write production code. The other developer reviews the code as it is developed while one developer develops it; their responsibilities regularly swap. This method may appear ineffective, but XP proponents claim that it saves time since pairs identify problems earlier and that there is a value in having two individuals with more knowledge. Working in pairs also aids in transferring system expertise throughout the team.
3. Lean Product Development
Lean is not an agile methodology in the strictest sense, but as we'll see, the lean approach is quite like agile. Lean has its roots in the Toyota Production System, which was created to enhance Henry Ford's mass production method for making automobiles. Lean started as a manufacturing strategy, was subsequently extended to software development, and finally expanded to encompass many other types of knowledge work. When discussing lean in an agile setting, we are referring to a branch of lean known as "lean product development": Lean product development focuses on creating new and improved goods, as opposed to the initial lean production techniques, which focused on manufacturing items. The following are some of the major tenets of lean product development:
- Using visual management tools
- Identifying customer-defined value
- Building in learning and continuous improvement
Lean Core Concepts
Lean focuses on seven core concepts, as given below:
We must reduce waste if we are to maximize value. Waste can appear in knowledge work as incomplete work, delays, handoffs, superfluous features, etc. We must thus develop methods to recognize waste and then eliminate it if we want to maximize the value we derive from projects.
Empower the team:
Rather than micromanaging, we should recognize the team members' greater understanding of the technical procedures necessary for the project and allow them to make local judgments to be effective and successful.
Deliver as soon as possible:
By generating worthwhile deliverables as soon as possible and refining designs, we may increase the project's return on investment (ROI). Through the quick evolution of possibilities, we will find the best answer.
Optimize the system as a whole:
We want to recognize that a system is greater than the sum of its components. We examine the project's parts to see how it fits with the company. We also put a lot of effort into creating better intergroup relations as part of optimizing the entire.
Build quality in:
Lean development uses methods like refactoring, continuous integration, and unit testing to continuously ensure quality throughout the development process rather than trying to "test in" quality at the end.
Making judgments and commitments as late as possible is balanced with early planning. This can entail, for instance, revising the backlog's priorities just before starting the work or avoiding being forced to use an early, technologically constrained solution.
This idea calls for encouraging early and frequent contact, obtaining feedback as quickly as feasible, and building on what we discover. We should start early and never stop learning since knowledge work initiatives are business and technological learning opportunities.
4. Feature-Driven Development (FDD)
FDD (Feature-Driven Development) is an easy-to-understand but effective method for creating products or solutions. A project team using the FDD methodology will first create a general model of the product, create a list of features, then schedule the work. To develop the features, the team then goes through the design and construction stages.
FDD suggests a collection of best practices that were inspired by software engineering. Among them are
Domain object modeling:
Teams study and describe the domain (or business environment) of the problem to be solved in this exercise. Developing by feature entails dividing tasks into two-week or smaller chunks of labor, which are then referred to as features.
Individual class (code) ownership:
This technique assigns a single owner to a section of code for conceptual coherence, performance, and consistency. (Note that this differs significantly from the communal code ownership concept of XP, which seeks to share expertise with other team members.)
These are compact, spontaneously assembled teams that vet designs and enable the evaluation of several design choices before the selection of a design. The hazards connected with individual ownership are reduced with the aid of feature teams.
These are checks to make sure the design and code are of high quality.
This entails labeling code, keeping track of modifications, and controlling source code.
The team ensures that the new code works with the current code through regular builds. They can easily make a demo thanks to this practice.
Results and progress visibility:
This procedure keeps track of progress based on tasks that have been finished. Cumulative flow diagrams (described in chapter 2) and parking lot diagrams, which are one-page recaps of project progress, were popularized by feature-driven development, an agile technique. Both are effective tracking and diagnostic instruments that are currently utilized by other agile methodologies.
5. Dynamic Systems Development Method (DSDM)
One of the first agile methodologies was called DSDM, and it had a very precise and prescriptive beginning. The project life cycle is thoroughly covered by us, which includes everything from the business case and feasibility to implementation in an agile project. The DSDM life cycle is depicted in the picture below.
There are eight guiding concepts for DSDM. Even though the Agile Manifesto was not yet established when these principles were developed, they are very similar to