Even if it's a little restaurant or a lone freelancer looking to expand their customer base, all businesses are connected with the data (and tech) market. Massive data collecting, processing, and analysis on a bigger scale necessitate equally large storage and computational resources. Hadoop is one such technology that is capable of handling enormous amounts of data.
What is Hadoop?
Hadoop is an open-source software platform that uses basic programming principles to process enormous data sets across clusters of computers. Hadoop is built to scale from a single server to tens of thousands of computers.
Doug Cutting and Mike Cafarella created the open-source search engine Nutch, which gave rise to Hadoop. The two hoped to design a way to return web search results faster by sharing data and calculations across numerous computers so that multiple activities could be completed at the same time in the early days of the Internet.
While the platform is designed in Java, hadoop for data science can be programmed in a variety of languages including Python, C++, Perl, Ruby, and others.
After Google published a research paper that also explained its Google File System, Big Data concepts such as MapReduce became popular.
Here is an article on measures of dispersion.
Why use Hadoop?
Scalable solution for Big Data:
As there is so much data to store, organise, clean, analyse, and understand, data science has become one of the fastest growing areas. Analysing and making sense of all this information has become a separate industry.
Hadoop Ecosystem and the use of hadoop in big data have been hailed for its reliability and scalability. With the massive increase in information, it becomes increasingly difficult for the database systems to accommodate growing information.
Hadoop provides a scalable and a fault-tolerant architecture that allows massive information to be stored without any loss. Hadoop fosters two types of scalability:
Vertical scaling entails adding more resources (such as CPUs) to a single node. We enhance the hardware capacity of our Hadoop system under this way. We can upgrade it by adding additional RAM and CPU to increase its power and durability.
Horizontal scaling involves expanding the distributed software system by adding new nodes or systems. We can add more machines without pausing the system, unlike vertical scalability's way of adding capacity. This avoids downtime and ensures optimum efficiency as you scale out. This also renders several machines working at the same time.
Hadoop's distributed computing paradigm enables it to handle massive amounts of data. You have more processing power if you use more nodes.
Hadoop keeps many copies of every data by default, and if one node fails while processing data, jobs are moved to other nodes, and distributed computing continues.
Hadoop saves information without the need for pre-processing. It stores data—even unstructured data like text, photos, and video—and figure out what to do with it afterwards.
Data is saved on commodity hardware, and the open-source framework is free.
Who uses Hadoop?
Hadoop is used by a number of tech powerhouses. Here’s a quick round-up of who uses Hadoop for what:
- Hadoop is used by eBay for search optimization.
- Hadoop is utilised at Facebook to store copies of internal log and dimension data sources, as well as a source for reporting, analytics, and machine learning.
- LinkedIn's People You May Know functionality is powered by Hadoop.
- Opower use Hadoop to recommend ways for customers to save money on their energy costs.
- Orbitz analyses every element of visitors' sessions on its websites using Hadoop to discover user preferences.
- Hadoop is used by Spotify for content creation as well as data collection, reporting, and analysis.
- Hadoop is used by Twitter to store and process tweets as well as log files.
Hadoop for Data Science
Data science is a broad topic. It is derived from a variety of disciplines like mathematics, statistics, and programming.
Data Scientists are skilled at extracting, analysing, and predicting information from large amounts of data. It is a broad phrase that encompasses practically all data-related technologies.
Hadoop's primary job is storage of Big Data. It also enables users to store various types of data, including structured and unstructured data.
However, data science differs from big data in that the former is a discipline that encompasses all data operations. As a result, Big Data is now considered a subset of Data Science. It is not required to understand Big Data because Data Science contains a sea of knowledge.
Hadoop skills, on the other hand, will undoubtedly add to your expertise, allowing you to handle massive amounts of data with ease. Understanding the use of hadoop in data science will also enhance your market value by a significant amount, giving you a competitive advantage over rivals.
Furthermore, as a Data Scientist, you must be familiar with Machine Learning. With a larger dataset, machine learning algorithms perform substantially better. To learn more about data science, you can go for data science or a big data hadoop course in both online and offline modes. There are no prerequisites for taking this course, which means, you can sign up even with no prior knowledge of the field and get hands-on learning data science with python and other related skills.
Hadoop for Data Exploration
Data preparation takes up 80% of a data scientist's time, and data exploration is an important part of it. Hadoop excels in data exploration for data scientists because it assists them in identifying the complexities in the data that they don't perceive. Hadoop allows data scientists to store data without having to interpret it, which is what data exploration is all about. When working with "a lot of data," it is not necessary for the data scientist to understand the data.
Hadoop for Filtering Data
Data scientists only use the complete dataset to develop a machine learning model or a classifier in exceptional instances. They must filter data based on the needs of the company. Data scientists may want to examine a record in its entirety, but only a handful of them are likely to be useful. Data scientists detect corrupt or impure data that is unhelpful when filtering data. Hadoop knowledge allows data scientists to quickly filter a set of data and solve a specific industry problem.
Hadoop for Data Sampling
Because of the way data is typically written, similar types of records may be grouped together, a data scientist cannot simply develop a model by taking the first 1000 items from the dataset. A data scientist cannot gain a good picture of what's in the data as a whole, without sampling it. Sampling the data with Hadoop gives the data scientist a notion of what technique to use for modelling the data that might or might not work. The term "Sample" in Hadoop Pig is a useful tool for reducing the number of records.
Hadoop for Summarization
Data scientists can acquire a seeing view of better data creating models by using Hadoop MapReduce to summarise the data as a whole. Hadoop MapReduce is a data summarising system in which mappers collect data and reducers summarise it.
Although Hadoop is commonly utilised in the most critical stage of the data science process (data preparation), it is not the only big data platform capable of managing and manipulating large amounts of data. Although it is beneficial for a data scientist to be knowledgeable with topics such as distributed systems, Hadoop MapReduce, Pig, and Hive, a data scientist cannot be rated only on this expertise. Data Science is a multi-disciplinary field and a hadoop data science course can help you excel at your data science career if you have the desire and willingness to learn. Check out knowledgehut’s python with data science program and learn how you can apply Hadoop for data science projects.
Anatomy of Hadoop
Hadoop has a four-part design that supports two primary functions. The modules are as follows:
- Hadoop Common — Useful utilities and tools that the other modules refer to.
- Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) is a high-throughput file storage system developed by Hadoop.
- Hadoop YARN is a distributed process allocation job-scheduling framework.
- Hadoop MapReduce is a YARN-based parallel processing tool.
These components come together to form a distributed filesystem cluster (HDFS) and a software component for efficiently distributing and retrieving data throughout the cluster.
HDFS, like most filesystems, is unconcerned about the type of data it stores. It can be structured, like RDBMS tables, or unstructured, like noSQL key-value stores or even plain old binary data like Flickr photos.
Dealing with the unstructured nature of many Hadoop systems is the first barrier for data scientists. The need for speed competes with the overhead of storing data in effective relational structures, forcing data scientists to make up their own structure as they go.
Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS)
Hadoop applications use the Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS) as their primary data storage system. HDFS is a distributed file system that uses a NameNode and DataNode architecture to allow high-performance data access across highly scalable Hadoop clusters.
Hadoop is an open source distributed processing system for big data applications that controls data processing and storage. HDFS is an important component of the Hadoop ecosystem. It provides a secure platform for managing large data sets and supporting big data analytics applications.
Reasons to use HDFS:
- Fast Recovery from Data Failures
- Large Data Sets
- Access to streaming data
MapReduce is a programming technique and software framework for processing large volumes of data. The MapReduce program has two phases: Map and Reduce. Data is separated and mapped in Map jobs, while data is shuffled and reduced in Reduce tasks.
Hadoop can run MapReduce programs written in a variety of languages, including Java, Ruby, Python, and C++. Map Reduce applications in cloud computing are concurrent in nature, making them ideal for large-scale data analysis across numerous servers in a cluster.
Each step receives key-value pairs as input. Furthermore, every programmer must specify two functions: the map and reduce functions.
MapReduce has two fundamental tasks: map and reduce. We complete the first task before moving on to the second. We divide the incoming dataset into parts in the map job. These chunks are processed in parallel by the Map job.
We utilise the map's outputs as inputs for the reduction operations. Reducers break down the intermediate data from the maps into smaller tuples, which decreases the jobs and leads to the framework's ultimate output.
The resource management layer of Hadoop is Apache Yarn, which stands for "Yet Another Resource Negotiator." In Hadoop 2.x, the Yarn was introduced.
YARN introduced the idea of Application Master and Resource Manager in Hadoop 2.0. The Resource Manager monitors resource utilisation across the Hadoop cluster.
Yarn provides several data processing engines to operate and handle data stored in HDFS, including graph processing, interactive processing, stream processing, and batch processing (Hadoop Distributed File System). Yarn also handles work scheduling in addition to resource management.
Yarn brings Hadoop's capabilities to other emerging technologies, allowing them to benefit from HDFS (the world's most stable and popular storage system) and a cost-effective cluster. An expert-level apache hadoop data science skill is something you cannot skip while working on big data.
Hive is a structured data warehousing system that is used to analyse data. It is built on Hadoop's foundation. Facebook was the one who came up with the idea.
Hive allows you to access, write, and manage massive datasets that are stored in distributed storage. It uses HQL (Hive query language) to conduct SQL-like queries, which are then transformed to MapReduce jobs internally.
Using Hive, we can avoid the need to write sophisticated MapReduce scripts, which is a prerequisite of the old technique. Data Definition Language (DDL), Data Manipulation Language (DML), and User Defined Functions are all supported by Hive (UDF).
Pig is a high-level programming language that may be used to analyse massive amounts of data. Pig was created as a result of Yahoo! development's efforts.
Programs must be transformed into a succession of Map and Reduce stages in a MapReduce framework. However, data analysts are not conversant with this programming model. So, on top of Hadoop, an abstraction named Pig was constructed to bridge the gap.
On top of Hadoop file system, HBase is a shared column-oriented database. It is a horizontally scalable open-source project.
HBase is a data format akin to Google's Big Table that allows users to access large volumes of structured data at random. It takes advantage of the Hadoop File System's fault tolerance (HDFS).
It's a component of the Hadoop ecosystem that allows users to read and write data in the Hadoop File System in real time.
The data can be stored in HDFS directly or through HBase. Using HBase, the data consumer reads/accesses the data in HDFS at random. HBase is a read-write database that sits on top of the Hadoop File System.
Impact of Hadoop Usage on Data Scientist
Hadoop has had a major impact on Data Scientists in four ways:
Enforcing Data Agility
Unlike traditional database systems, which require a fixed schema structure, Hadoop allows users to create a flexible schema. This "schema on read" or flexible schema reduces the requirement for schema redesign whenever a new field is required.
Pre-processing Large Scale Data:
The majority of data pre-processing is done with data capture, transformation, cleansing, and feature extraction in Data Science jobs. The transformation of raw data into standardised feature vectors necessitates this step.
For data scientists, Hadoop makes large-scale data preparation simple. It includes tools such as MapReduce, PIG, and Hive for managing big amounts of data efficiently.
Exploring Data with Large Scale Data:
Data Scientists must be able to work with vast amounts of data. They were previously restricted to storing their datasets on a local workstation. However, as the amount of data grows and there is a greater demand for big data analysis, Hadoop provides a platform for exploratory data analysis.
You can build a MapReduce job, a HIVE script, or a PIG script in Hadoop and run it over the entire dataset to get results. Learners looking to master these additional tools should take the hadoop admin course and build job-ready skills.
Facilitating Large Scale Data Mining
Machine learning algorithms have been shown to train better and produce better outcomes with larger datasets. Clustering, outlier identification, and product recommenders are just a few of the statistical tools available.
Previously, machine learning experts had to work with a restricted amount of data, which resulted in their models performing poorly. You can, however, store all the data in RAW format using the Hadoop environment, which provides linear scalable storage.
The verdict on Hadoop
For its scalability and fault tolerance, Hadoop is commonly used for storing massive volumes of data. It also provides a robust analytical platform with tools such as Pig and Hive.
Furthermore, Hadoop has matured into a full-fledged data science platform. This is reinforced by the fact that corporations such as Marks & Spencer use Hadoop to analyse customer purchasing patterns and manage supply.
Frequently Asked Questions
Is Hadoop needed for data science?
Hadoop is a big data platform used for massive data processes. To take the first step toward being a comprehensively data scientist, you must be familiar with both enormous volumes of data and unstructured data.
As a result, mastering Hadoop will equip you with the capacity to handle a wide range of data operations, which is the primary responsibility of a data scientist. Because it encompasses most of the Data Science, using Hadoop as a first tool will equip you with all the necessary skills.
What is Hadoop in data science?
Hadoop is an excellent data technology that not only allows you to handle enormous amounts of data but also assess it using various extensions such as Mahout and Hive.
Hadoop offers the unique feature of storing and retrieving all data from a single location. The following can be accomplished in this manner:
- Capability to save all data in RAW format
- Data Scientists will explore advancements for pooled data assets
Why is Hadoop required for big data analytics?
As for 90 percent of data is unstructured and steadily growing, Hadoop is essential to place the appropriate Big Data tasks in the proper systems and improve an organization's data management structure. Hadoop's cost-effectiveness, scalability, and systematic architecture make it appropriate for businesses to process and manage Big Data.