Search

DevOps Engineer Salary

Before we start discussing the salary of DevOps Engineer, let’s understand what DevOps is? DevOps is a software development strategy which bridges the gap between the developers and the IT staff. It enables organizations to release small features very quickly and incorporate the feedback which they receive very quickly. Its benefits are less software failure and shortened the lead time between fixes.As a DevOps Engineer, you get a clear understanding of the Software Development Lifecycle along with various automation tools for developing digital pipelines (CI/CD pipelines). Glassdoor ranks DevOps at second among the 50 Best Jobs in America. But who can become a DevOps Engineer? The journey of becoming a DevOps Engineer is pretty long. However, you can become a DevOps Engineer even as a fresher. Further, working as a Developer, Ops person, Quality Assurance also prepares you to work in this role. The 2019 Tech Salary Report released by Dice shows that the salary of DevOps Engineer ranks in the Top 5 salaries with an average of $111,683.According to Experts, the popularity of DevOps is going to reach its peak in 2019. The above chart shows the Google trend for the term DevOps in the year 2019 projecting a hypothesis of its growth.Salary of DevOps EngineerWith all the skills and expertise as a DevOps Engineer, it is important for you to know where you stand in terms of salary. The salary you can earn as a DevOps Engineer in the major countries are as follows:CountriesCurrenciesSalary of DevOps Engineer (per annum)IndiaINR6,42,692UKPound Sterling40,883USAUSD92,054CanadaCAD76,357Experience also plays a pivotal role while determining your salary. Now let’s take a look at the experience-wise salary of DevOps Engineer across the globe:CountriesCurrenciesSalary of DevOps Engineer (per annum)Entry-levelMid-CareerExperiencedIndiaINR3,52,23310,47,56716,12,255UKPound Sterling29,59848,56160,629USAUSD72,966100,576117,161CanadaCAD61,19182,27789,198Further, the maximum and minimum salaries that DevOps Engineers earn in the above-mentioned countries can be seen in the following chart:CountriesCurrenciesMinimum Salary (per annum)Maximum Salary (per annum)IndiaINR3,07,00020,00,000UKPound Sterling26,00067,000USAUSD63,000134,000CanadaCAD55,00099,000Company-wise salary in various countriesAs we have seen the average as well as the minimum and maximum salary in the major countries, now let’s take a look at a company-wise salary in those countries. First, let’s take a look at the top companies hiring DevOps Engineers in India and the salary paid by them:Company NameAverage Salary (per annum in INR)Tata Consultancy Services4,92,545Accenture6,40,043IBM4,35,534Cognizant Technology Solutions4,43,759Amazon11,15,053Now, let’s take a look at the average salary paid by the top companies to DevOps Engineer in the United Kingdom:Company NameAverage Salary (per annum in £)Cloudreach35,222Accenture33,198KPMG58,575ClearScore55,827Sky44,642The top companies hiring DevOps Engineer in the United States and the salaries offered to them are as follows:Company NameAverage Salary (per annum in $)IBM112,432Cognizant Technology Solutions96,381Accenture107,086Amazon110,779Capital One100,344The following are the top companies hiring DevOps Engineer in Canada and the salaries offered to them are as follows:Company NameAverage Salary (per annum in CA$)IBM104,170Cloudreach74,068SAP105,500Blackberry89,500Global Relay83,544Why DevOps Engineers are paid highly?DevOps is one of the most spoken and popular terms in IT. As you can see in the above charts that apart from being in demand, DevOps can set you on a promising journey in terms of your career prospects. Now let’s take a look at a few reasons which make DevOps Engineer the most demanded job:1. High ROIDid you ever imagine why companies are ready to invest in paying high salaries to DevOps Engineers? The reason for the demand is high ROI. Implementation of DevOps helps an organisation to increase its annual profit, resulting in companies searching for such engineers.2. DevOps lead the futureReports tell that DevOps is going to remain an essential part of IT projects. This is another reason that leads to high demand in job. This increase in demand for hiring DevOps engineers as the experts believe that it’s going to be more vital for businesses in the future.3. It’s cloud-basedIn this era, when most of the applications are changing to cloud-based platforms, you might be glad to know that it’s important for you to have some DevOps experts by your side. The clouds and infrastructural processes applied through DevOps are complementary. Organisations need to deploy proper processes to successfully change the applications in the main platform. This is the core reason behind IT projects and businesses looking to hire DevOps Engineers.4. Triggers sufficiencyDevOps focuses on increasing the sufficiency. You are able to interact with the applications easily as well as all the changes are confirmed a fast as possible once you apply the practices and updates more frequently. This reduced reputation-threatening errors.5. CompetitiveAnother reason for DevOps’ demand is that it is capable of pushing you up the list. From IT-based company to business application company, DevOps can keep it going without fail.On a concluding noteTo conclude, a DevOps Engineer is equipped with the skills of testing, building, integrating, coding, and deployment along with problem-solving skills. Also, as a DevOps Engineer, you need to multitask and handle challenges that arise from multiple roles in order to justify your designation. It is suggestible to opt for a DevOps training with a reputed training provider and get DevOps certified to explore its benefits.The skills and expertise that you possess as a DevOps Engineer also makes you eligible to move towards a promising career with a good salary. This blog will give you a clear idea about the earning prospect around the globe as well as the top companies hiring DevOps Engineers across the globe. All the best for your DevOps career!
Rated 4.5/5 based on 5 customer reviews

DevOps Engineer Salary

10K
DevOps Engineer Salary

Before we start discussing the salary of DevOps Engineer, let’s understand what DevOps is? DevOps is a software development strategy which bridges the gap between the developers and the IT staff. It enables organizations to release small features very quickly and incorporate the feedback which they receive very quickly. Its benefits are less software failure and shortened the lead time between fixes.

As a DevOps Engineer, you get a clear understanding of the Software Development Lifecycle along with various automation tools for developing digital pipelines (CI/CD pipelines). Glassdoor ranks DevOps at second among the 50 Best Jobs in America. But who can become a DevOps Engineer? The journey of becoming a DevOps Engineer is pretty long. However, you can become a DevOps Engineer even as a fresher. Further, working as a Developer, Ops person, Quality Assurance also prepares you to work in this role. The 2019 Tech Salary Report released by Dice shows that the salary of DevOps Engineer ranks in the Top 5 salaries with an average of $111,683.

Devops Engineer Salary

According to Experts, the popularity of DevOps is going to reach its peak in 2019. The above chart shows the Google trend for the term DevOps in the year 2019 projecting a hypothesis of its growth.

Salary of DevOps Engineer

With all the skills and expertise as a DevOps Engineer, it is important for you to know where you stand in terms of salary. The salary you can earn as a DevOps Engineer in the major countries are as follows:

CountriesCurrenciesSalary of DevOps Engineer (per annum)
IndiaINR6,42,692
UKPound Sterling40,883
USAUSD92,054
CanadaCAD76,357

DevOps Engineer Salary

Experience also plays a pivotal role while determining your salary. Now let’s take a look at the experience-wise salary of DevOps Engineer across the globe:

CountriesCurrenciesSalary of DevOps Engineer (per annum)
Entry-levelMid-CareerExperienced
IndiaINR3,52,23310,47,56716,12,255
UKPound Sterling29,59848,56160,629
USAUSD72,966100,576117,161
CanadaCAD61,19182,27789,198

Further, the maximum and minimum salaries that DevOps Engineers earn in the above-mentioned countries can be seen in the following chart:

CountriesCurrenciesMinimum Salary (per annum)Maximum Salary (per annum)
IndiaINR3,07,00020,00,000
UKPound Sterling26,00067,000
USAUSD63,000134,000
CanadaCAD55,00099,000

Company-wise salary in various countries

As we have seen the average as well as the minimum and maximum salary in the major countries, now let’s take a look at a company-wise salary in those countries. First, let’s take a look at the top companies hiring DevOps Engineers in India and the salary paid by them:

Company NameAverage Salary (per annum in INR)
Tata Consultancy Services4,92,545
Accenture6,40,043
IBM4,35,534
Cognizant Technology Solutions4,43,759
Amazon11,15,053

Now, let’s take a look at the average salary paid by the top companies to DevOps Engineer in the United Kingdom:

Company NameAverage Salary (per annum in £)
Cloudreach35,222
Accenture33,198
KPMG58,575
ClearScore55,827
Sky44,642

The top companies hiring DevOps Engineer in the United States and the salaries offered to them are as follows:

Company NameAverage Salary (per annum in $)
IBM112,432
Cognizant Technology Solutions96,381
Accenture107,086
Amazon110,779
Capital One100,344

The following are the top companies hiring DevOps Engineer in Canada and the salaries offered to them are as follows:

Company NameAverage Salary (per annum in CA$)
IBM104,170
Cloudreach74,068
SAP105,500
Blackberry89,500
Global Relay83,544

Why DevOps Engineers are paid highly?

DevOps is one of the most spoken and popular terms in IT. As you can see in the above charts that apart from being in demand, DevOps can set you on a promising journey in terms of your career prospects. Now let’s take a look at a few reasons which make DevOps Engineer the most demanded job:

1. High ROI

Did you ever imagine why companies are ready to invest in paying high salaries to DevOps Engineers? The reason for the demand is high ROI. Implementation of DevOps helps an organisation to increase its annual profit, resulting in companies searching for such engineers.

2. DevOps lead the future

Reports tell that DevOps is going to remain an essential part of IT projects. This is another reason that leads to high demand in job. This increase in demand for hiring DevOps engineers as the experts believe that it’s going to be more vital for businesses in the future.

3. It’s cloud-based

In this era, when most of the applications are changing to cloud-based platforms, you might be glad to know that it’s important for you to have some DevOps experts by your side. The clouds and infrastructural processes applied through DevOps are complementary. Organisations need to deploy proper processes to successfully change the applications in the main platform. This is the core reason behind IT projects and businesses looking to hire DevOps Engineers.

4. Triggers sufficiency

DevOps focuses on increasing the sufficiency. You are able to interact with the applications easily as well as all the changes are confirmed a fast as possible once you apply the practices and updates more frequently. This reduced reputation-threatening errors.

5. Competitive

Another reason for DevOps’ demand is that it is capable of pushing you up the list. From IT-based company to business application company, DevOps can keep it going without fail.

On a concluding note

To conclude, a DevOps Engineer is equipped with the skills of testing, building, integrating, coding, and deployment along with problem-solving skills. Also, as a DevOps Engineer, you need to multitask and handle challenges that arise from multiple roles in order to justify your designation. It is suggestible to opt for a DevOps training with a reputed training provider and get DevOps certified to explore its benefits.

The skills and expertise that you possess as a DevOps Engineer also makes you eligible to move towards a promising career with a good salary. This blog will give you a clear idea about the earning prospect around the globe as well as the top companies hiring DevOps Engineers across the globe. All the best for your DevOps career!

KnowledgeHut

KnowledgeHut

Author

KnowledgeHut is a fast growing Management Consulting and Training firm that is a source of Intelligent Information support for businesses and professionals across the globe.


Website : https://www.knowledgehut.com

Join the Discussion

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

5 comments

Ramya Bhardwaj 17 Jun 2019

Thanks for the genuine information Knowledgehut now I got a good understanding of DevOps salary.

Bhanu 20 Jun 2019

In this article, I got to know why DevOps Engineers are paid highly and the structure of salaries in different companies

Effective Project Management Consultancy 21 Jun 2019

Amazing insights. Thank you for sharing this piece of knowledge with us. This blog is actually helpful for all the candidates who want to complete DevOps certification.

Sai Teja 17 Jul 2019

Very detailed and well articulated!

David 17 Jul 2019

Where do I get the information on the upcoming DevOps schedules?

Knowledegehut Editor 17 Jul 2019

Hello David, here's the link: https://www.knowledgehut.com/devops/devops-training/schedule/ you can view all our upcoming schedules which will be updated here. Thank you!

Suggested Blogs

Making DevOps Applicable For You

In summary, DevOps is a philosophy of software development that focuses on meeting business requirements quickly and efficiently. It helps shorten time to value and in so doing helps create a more responsive organization. It multiplies the value from investments in cloud and encourages automation of key processes for better outcomes. All of which makes it highly suitable to cost constrained organizations that must deliver improvements to their current services and products while taking advantage of the opportunities presented by new digital and data-driven technologies. However, the advantages of the DevOps helping for organizations in large scale.  The long-term cost reductions are substantial, but the initial investment can be high. Although automation delivers a strong return on initial investment of time and resources, it does take longer to complete this initial automation of a task that it does to perform the same task manually. Maintaining the DevOps approach will also require specific technical skills to be build up, managed and retained by the implementation organization as well as the client organization. So, how do you make sure that the adoption of the DevOps approach works for your organization? The following can be those critical factors. Senior management buy-in As with all change projects, success is in part dependent on having committed leaders at senior leadership levels; in this case the CIO, CTO or the chief architect (and even the enterprise architect of the client organization) who can deliver technical and cultural changes. They are responsible for making sure the focus remains on breaking down the barriers between development and operations and ensuring the approach is designed around this core principle. They need to make sure that close collaboration between developers, system operators and testers is maintained and that open lines of communication with business users and service commissioners remain intact. Understand the demands of digital transformation It is important to understand the demands of digital transformation and balance it with the rigour of ITIL. At present, only about 5% of services of organizations are driven by technologies that are digital by design. Applying DevOps to these technologies is relatively straightforward. But mission-critical platforms on physical or virtual servers are a different question altogether.  An iterative approach to migrating these applications to the cloud, taking small steps to transformation and applying DevOps one step at a time requires not just digital skills but the depth of understanding residing in experienced IT managers. Need for security, compliance and governance It is important to ensure that testing and security are built into the automated processes of the implementing organization. Those processes must stay true to ITIL standards for security testing and compliance checking. Even at this pace software can only be put into production when it has no vulnerabilities that can corrupt sensitive information.  DevOps does not replace the need for quality assurance, software testing or data validation before and after a software release. Hence it is important to get the QA practices with regards to automated testing for security, performance and code check-ins and check-outs in top shape. Work with the right people Some IT services service providers are great at automation or at building digital services. Bringing them together is the key. This means that IT practitioners who already have wide experience of delivering systems under the DevOps umbrella and are prepared to share best practice and ensure effective knowledge transfer are a key part of the team. So are leaders with expertise in automating business and management processes and have a well defined and tested set of tools to support their work.  It is important for client organizations to look for service providers with real, in-depth experience of open technologies, domain expertise and cloud-based solutions and with the necessary hands-on experience in designing, building, migrating, supporting and operating scalable and robust systems for their customers.  
Rated 4.0/5 based on 20 customer reviews
Making DevOps Applicable For You

In summary, DevOps is a philosophy of software dev... Read More

Docker Vs Virtual Machines(VMs)

Let’s have a quick warm up on the resource management before we dive into the discussion on virtualization and dockers.In today’s multi-technology environments, it becomes inevitable to work on different software and hardware platforms simultaneously.The need to run multiple different machines (Desktops, Laptops, handhelds, and Servers) platforms with customized hardware and software requirements has given the rise to a new world of virtualization in IT industry.What a machine need?Each computing environment(machine) needs its own component of hardware resources and software resources.As more and more machines are needed, building up and administering many such stand-alone machines is not only cumbersome, time consuming but also adds up to the cost and energy.Apparently; to run a customized High-power Scalable Server is a better idea to consolidate all the hardware and software requirements into one place and have a single server run and distribute the resources to many machines over a network.That saves us time, resources, energy and revenue.These gigantic servers are stored in a data warehouse called a Datacenter.Below Diagram (2) indicates a single server serving and sharing resources and data among multiple client machinesDoes this look simplified enough? Yes of course!So, this setup looks feasible we have a high-power, high-storage Server that gives resources to many smaller(resources) machines over a network.How to manage huge data - ServersWith Internet Of Things in boom, Information is overflowing with a huge amount of data; handling tremendous data needs more system resources which means more Dedicated servers are needed.Many Servers approach challenge:Running several Dedicated servers for specific services such as Web service, application or database service as indicated in Diagram (3) is difficult to administer and consumes more energy, resources, manpower and is highly expensive.In addition; resource utilization of servers is very poor resulting in resource wastage.This is where simulating different environments and running them all on a single server is a smart choice; rather than having to run multiple physically distinct servers.This is how Diagram (3) would change after consolidating different servers into one as shown in Diagram (4).Sheet 2VirtualizationWhat is VirtualizationThe above single server implementation can be defined as the following term.Virtualization is a technique used to simulate and pretend a single infrastructure resource (hardware resources and software resources) to be acting as many providing multiple functionalities or services without the need to physically build, install and configure.In other words;Running multiple simulated environments in a single machine without installing and configuring them is called Virtualization.Technically speaking;Virtualization is an abstract layer that shares the infrastructure resources among various simulated virtual machines without the need to physically set up these environments.Diagram (5) displays different virtual Operating systems are running on the same machine and using the same hardware architecture of the underlying machine.What is a Virtual machineThe simulated virtualized environments are called virtual machines or VM.Virtual machine is a replication/simulation of an actual physical machine.A VM acts like a real physical machine and uses the physical resources of the underlying host OS.A VM is a running instance of a real physical machine.Need for virtualizationSo; we have an overview of virtualization, let us examine when should we virtualize and what are the benefits of virtualization?Better resource management and cost-effective: as indicated in Diagram (6) and Diagram (7); hardware resources are distributed wisely on need basis to different environments; all the virtual machines share the same resources and reduce resource wastage.Ease of quick administration and maintenance: It is easier to build, install, configure one server rather than multiple servers. Updating a patch on various machines from a single virtualized server is much more feasible.Disaster recovery: Since all the virtualized machines reside on the same server and are treated as mounted volumes of data files, it is easier to back up these machines. In case of a disaster failure (power failure, network down, cyber-attacks, failed test code, etc) VM screenshots are used to recover the running state of the machine and the whole setup can be built up within minutes.Isolated and independent secure test environment: virtualization provide an isolated independent virtual test environment to test the legacy code or a vendor-specific product or even a beta release or say a corrupt code without affecting the main hardware and software platform. (This is a contradictory statement though; will discuss more under types of virtualization)These test environments like dev, uat, preprod, prod etc..can be easily tested and discarded.Easily scalable and upgradable: Building up more simulated environments means spinning up more virtual machines. Also upgrading VMs is as good as to run a patch in all VMs.Portable: Virtual machines are lightweight compared to the actual running physical machines; in addition, a VM that includes its own OS, drivers, and other installation files is portable on any machine. One can access the data virtually from any location.The screenshot of activity monitor below compares the CPU load:Implementation a) What is hypervisor and its types?As discussed in the previous section; virtualization is achieved by means of a virtualized layer on top of hardware or a software resource.This abstract layer is called a hypervisor.A hypervisor is a virtual machine monitor (VMM)There are 2 types of hypervisors: Diagram (8)Type-1 or bare-metal hypervisorType-2 or hosted hypervisorType-1 or bare-metal hypervisor is installed directly on the system hardware, thus abstracting and sharing the hardware components with the VMs.Type-2 or hosted hypervisor is installed on top of the system bootable OS called host OS; this hypervisor abstracts the system resources visible to the host OS and distributes it among the VMs.Both have their own role to play in virtualization.b) Comparing hypervisor typesType-1 or bare-metal hypervisorType-2 or hosted hypervisorInstalled directly on the infrastructure-OS independent and more secure against software issues.Installed on top of the host OS-more prone to software failures.Better resource flexibility: Have direct access to the hardware infrastructure (Hard-drive partition, RAM, embedded cards such as NIC). Provide more flexibility and scalability to the VMs and assign resources on a need basis.Limited resource allocation: Have access to just the resources exposed by the host OS.VMs installed will have limited access to hardware resources allocated and exposed by the host OS.Single point of failure: A compromised VM may affect the kernel. Extra security layers needed.A compromised VM may affect only the host OS, kernel still remains unreachable.Low latency due to direct link to the infrastructure.High latency as all the VMs have to pass through the OS layer to access the system resources.Generally used in ServersGenerally used on small client machinesExpensiveLess expensiveType-1 Hypervisors in market:VMWare ESX/ESXiHyperkit (OSX)Microsoft Hyper-V (Windows)KVM(Linux)Oracle VM ServerType-2 Hypervisors in market:Oracle VM VirtualBoxVMWare WorkstationParallels desktop for MACTypes of virtualizationBased on what resource is virtualized, there are different classifications of virtualization.Server, Storage device, operating system, networkDesktop virtualization: Entire desktop environment is simulated and distributed to run on a single server all at once. A desktop virtualization allows administrators to manage, install, configure similar setups on many machines. Upgrading all the machines with a single patch update or security checks becomes easier and faster.Server virtualization: Many dedicated servers can be virtualized into a single server that provides multi-server functionality.Example:Many virtual machines can be built up sharing the same underlying system resources.Storage, RAM, disks, CPUOperating system virtualization: This happens at the kernel level Hypervisor on hardware type 2 bare-metal One machine: Can boot up as multiple OS like Windows or Linux side-by-sideApplication virtualization: Apps are packaged and stored in a virtual environment and are distributed across different VMs. Example Microsoft applications like excel, MS word, Powerpoint etc, Citrix applications.Network functions virtualization: Physical network components such as NIC cards, switches, routers, servers, hubs, and cables are all assembled in a single server and used virtually by multiple machines without having the load of installing them on every machine.Virtualization is one of the building blocks and driving force behind cloud computing.Cloud computing provide virtualized need-based services. This has given an uplift to the concept of virtualization.A quick mention of various cloud computing models/services are listed below:SaaS – Software as a Service– end-user applications are maintained and run by service providers and easily distributed and used by the end users without having to install them.Top SaaS providers: Microsoft (Office suite, CRM, SQL server databases), AWS, Adobe, Oracle (ERP, CRM, SCM), Cisco’s Webex, GitHub ( git hosting web service)PaaS – Platform as a Service – computing infrastructure(hardware/software) is maintained and updated by the service provider and the user just have to run the product over this platform.Top Paas providers: AWS beanstalk, Oracle Cloud Platform (OCP), Google App EngineIaaS – Infrastructure as a Service – Provide infrastructure such as servers, physical storage, networking, memory devices etc. Users can build their own platform with customized operating system and applications.Key IaaS providers: Amazon Web Services, Microsoft Azure, Google compute engine, CitrixConclusion:We now have a fair understanding of types of virtualization and how they are implemented.ContainerizationThough virtualization has its pros; there are certain downsides of virtualization such as:Not all systems can be virtualized always.A corrupt VM is sometimes contagious and may affect other VMs or the kernel in-case of a Type-1 or bare-metal hypervisor.Latency of virtual disks due to increased payload on the CPU resources with a higher number of VMsUnstable performanceAn alternative approach to overcome the above flaws of virtualization is to Containerize the applications and the run-time environment together.What is containerization  Containerization is an OS-level virtualization; wherein the entire build of an application along with run-time environment is encapsulated or bundled up in a package.These packages are called containers.Containers are lightweight virtualized environments. These are independent of the infrastructure both hardware and software.The run-time environment includes the operating system, binaries, libraries, configuration files and other applications as shown in Diagram (9).What is DockersDockers provide an excellent framework for containerization and allow to build, ship, and run distributed applications over multiple platforms.Docker framework is setup as a docker engine installed on host OS and a docker daemon (background process) process is started that manage the virtual containers.Refer Diagram (10) that shows a Docker engine with 3 containers residing on host OS (MAC OS).An instruction file called dockerfile is written with a set of system commands that change the filesystem such as add, copy or delete commands, run commands, install utilities, system calls etc…This dockerfile is built and packaged along with its run-time environment as an executable file called a docker image.Docker daemon services run these images to create docker containers.Docker container is a run-time instance of an imageIt is wise to say that many images (or layers of instruction files) make up a container.Docker containers have a compact packaging and each container is well isolated.We can run, start, stop, attach, move or delete containers as these runs as services on the host OS.Each image is made up of different layers; each image based on top of the other with the customized command changes that we make.Every time we make a change in the filesystem, each change related to the image is encapsulated in a new layer of filesystem and stacked up above the parent image.Only the changed layers are rebuilt, rest of the unchanged image layers are reused.Certain docker commands ADD, RUN and COPY create a new layer with increased byte size; rest of the commands simply adds up a new layer with zero-byte size.These layers are re-used to build a new image, hence faster and lightweight.Docker images are alsoThe layer approach of an image every time there is a change in the image makes it possible to Version control the docker images.Here is a terminal recording that shows docker engine process and how images and containers are created.Docker documentation - to create containers.Ppt diagram:Code -> package -> build images -> registry hub -> download/pull image -> run containerAnimation: sheet4Let’s consider the docker container: divyabhushan/learn_docker hosted on docker hub.Latest tagged image: centOS_release1.2What is the container environment?Base OS: Centos:7Utilities: vim, yum, gitApps/files: Dockerfile, myApp.sh, runtests.sh, data and other supporting files.Git source code: dockerImagesDownload as: git clone https://github.com/divyabhushan/DockerImages_Ubuntu.gitWhat does the container do?Container launches “myApp.sh” in Ubuntu:14.04 environment and run some scripts along with a set of post test_suites in the container (Ubuntu:14.04) and saves the output log file.How to modify and build your own appStep 1: pull 1.1: Pull the docker image1.2: Run image to create a container and exitStep 2: modify2.1: Start the container2.2: Attach to the container and make some changesStep 3: commit3.1: Examine the history logs and changes in the container3.2: Commit the changes in containerStep 4: push4.1: Push new image to docker hubLet us see the steps in action:Step 1: pull docker image on your machine1.1: Pull the docker imageCommand:docker pull divyabhushan/learn_docker:myApp_ubuntu_14.04View the image on systemdocker imagesscreenshotCommand:docker run -it --name ubuntu14.04 0a6f949131a6Run command in ubuntu container and exit, the container is stopped on exiting out.View the stopped container with the ‘ps -a’ command.Step 2: modifyStart the containerCommand:docker start Now the container is listed as a running process Attach to the container and make some changesCommand:docker attach 7d0d0225778cedit the ‘git configuration’ file and ‘myApp.sh’ scriptContainer is modified and stoppedStep 3: commitExamine the history logs and changes in the containerThe changes done inside the container filesystem can be viewed using the ‘docker diff’ command as:Command: docker diff 7d0d0225778cCommit the changes in containerDocker commit:Usage: docker commit [OPTIONS] CONTAINER [REPOSITORY[:TAG]]docker commit -m 'new Ubuntu image' 7d0d0225778c divyabhushan/learn_docker:ubuntu14.04_v2New image is created and listedStep 4: pushPush new image to docker hubCommand:docker push divyabhushan/learn_docker:ubuntu14.04_v2Point to note: just the latest commit change layer ‘50a5ce553bba’ has been pushed, while the other layers were re-used.Image available on docker hub:The latest tagged image can now be pulled from other machines; and run to create the same container environment.Conclusion: An image was pulled and run to create a container to replicate the environment. Container was modified, new changes were committed to form a new image. New Image pushed back on the docker hub and now available as a new tag ready to be pulled by other machines.Difference between Dockers and Virtual machinesTabular differences on various parametersParametersVMsDockersarchitectureHardware level virtualization. Each VM has its own copy of OS.Software level virtualization. Dockers have no own OS, run on host OSIsolationFully isolatedProcess or application-level isolation.  InstallationHypervisor can run directly on the hardware resources or on the host OS.Docker engine is installed on top of the host OS. A docker daemon process is initiated on the host OS. There is no separate OS for every container.CPU processing + performanceSlower: A VM contains the entire run-time environment that has to be loaded every time. Uses more CPU cycles; gives unstable performance.Faster: Docker images are pre-built and share host resources as a result running an image as a container is lightweight and consumes less CPU cycle; gives a stable performanceHardware storageMore storage space as each VM is an independent machine (OS). Example: 3 VMs of 800MB each will take 2.4 GB of space.Docker containers are lightweight since do not require to load OS+drivers, run on host OS as processes.PortableDependency on host OS and hardware makes VM less portable. Importing a VM still requires manual setup such storage, RAM and network.Highly portable since lightweight and zero dependency on hardware.Scalable and code-reusabilitySpinning up more VMs still need administrative tasks such as distributing resources to VM. Running a new machine puts extra load on the system resources also re-managing earlier VMs becomes a task. Every VM keeps its own copy of resources-poor code-reusability.Spinning up new docker containers simply means running pre-built images into containers as a process inside host OS. Containers are also configured on-the-fly passing parameters and run-time. Single image can be run and used to create many containers; encourage code-reusabilityResource utilizationStatic allocation results in resource wastage in case of idle VMs or if a VM’s resource requirement increases.Resources are dynamically allocated and de-allocated on the need basis by the docker engine.Docker system prune or garbage collectionVirtual machines do not have an in-built prune mechanism, these have to be administered manually.Docker image and containers can be pruned; which frees up a sensible amount of storage and memory space and CPU cycles.New environmentCreating new VM from the scratch is a tedious, repetitive tasks. It involves installing a new OS, loading kernel drivers and other tools and configurations.Package the code and dependency files, build into an image, run the image to create a new container. Use an existing or a base image (dockerhub- scratch) to run and create more containers on the go.Web-hosted HubNo web hosted hub for VMsdockerHub provides an open-source reliable trusted source of pre-built images that can be downloaded to run new containers.Version control (backup, restore,track history)(refer git)Snapshot of VMs are not very user-friendly and consume more space.Docker images are version controlled. Every delta difference in each docker container can easily be viewed (demo: docker diff ). Any change in the image is stored as a different layered version. A reference link to older images saves build time and space.Auto-buildAutomation of creating VMs is not very feasible.Docker images can also be auto-built from every source code check-in to GitHub (Automated builds on Dockerhub)Disaster recoveryTedious to recover from VM backup files.Easier to restore docker images (like files) just like git source files in case images are version controlled. Backup images only have to be run to create containers. (refer: screenshot).UpdateAll the VMs have to updated with the release patch.A single image is updated, re-built and distributed across multiple platforms.Memory usage+speedSlower: Entire snapshot of a machine and the OS is loaded into the cache memory.Real-time and fast: pre-built images. Only the instance, i.e, a container has to be run as a process and uses memory like an executableData integrityVM behavior may change if the dependency includes beyond the VM boundaries. (example: an app depends on production host network settings)Same behavior of apps in any environmentsecurityMore secure: A failure inside a VM may reach its guest OS but not the host OS or other virtual machines. Type-2 hypervisor though has a risk of kernel attack.Less secure: If a docker container compromised; underlying OS and hence all the containers may be affected since they share the same host kernel. OS Kernel may also be risked.Key providersRed hat KVM, VMWare, Oracle VM VirtualBox, Mircrosoft Hyper-V, Citrix XenServerDockers, Google kubernetes Engine, AWS Elastic Container serviceData authenticationLot of software licenses.Docker maintains inbuilt content trust to verify published images. When to use VM or a DockerWhen the need is an isolated OS, go for VMs.For a hardware and software independent isolated application that needs fast distribution on multiple environments, use dockers.Docker use-case:Example: A database application along with its databaseConsider the docker image - Oracle WebLogic Server on Docker Hub.This image is pre-built Oracle WebLogic Server runtime environment, including Oracle Linux 7 and Oracle JDK 8 for deploying Java EE applications.To create Server configurations on any machine, just download this image and run to create and start a container.There is no need to install and configure JDK, Linux or other run-time environment.Do not use Docker use-case:The application depends on utility outside the docker container.Code developed on dev machine with base OS as MAC; needs certain firewall setting on say Ubuntu OS.How can the code be tested on the production ubuntu OS firewall while running from MAC OS docker container?Solution:  Install a virtualization software on host OS-MAC; Create a VM (Virtual machine) with host OS as Ubuntu (same as production environment).Configure the desired firewall settings on host VM – Ubuntu; import the test code inside Ubuntu and test.Use a VM:For Embedded systems programming, a VM is installed that connects to the system device drivers, controllers and kernel.Virtualization used along with docker:An extension to the previous scenario would be if you would want to also test your python application in the host OS-Ubuntu VM without having to set up the python exe and its libraries and binaries.All you have to do is: Install Docker engine for Ubuntu OS and pull the python image from Docker hub as:docker pull python:tag [ tag is the python version-choose the appropriate version ]docker pull python:2.7Refer: Python imageEither write a Dockerfile to import/copy entire source code to python environment or directly run the image passing the script path as below:Command:$docker run -it --name my-python-script -v “$PWD”:/usr/src/myapp -w /usr/src/myapp python:2.7 python my-application.pyCommand options:-v = volume list-bind mount a volume [mount present working directory onto /usr/src/myapp inside container]-w = workdir string-working directory inside the containerMoreover; you can also test your python code in more than one version by downloading different python images, running them to create different containers and running your app in each container.What’s exciting here is that once the code tested in each python environment; you could quickly work on the test results and drop the containers. And deploy the code to production only once code tested against various python versions.Final thoughtsVMs and dockers are compatible with each other. Dockers are not here to replace Virtual machines.Both serve the same purpose of virtualizing the computing and infrastructure resources for optimized utilization.Using both Virtual machines and dockers together can yield better results in virtualization.When one desires a fast, lightweight, portable and highly scalable hardware-independent environment for multiple applications isolation; wherein security is not the major concern; Dockers is the best choice.Use a VM for embedded systems that are integrated with hardware; such as device driver or kernel coding.A scenario simulating an infrastructure setup with a high resource control and dependency on system resources; VMs are a better choice.Use of Dockers inside VMCI/CD pipelines scenario:Virtualization enables a smooth CI/CD process flow by promoting the users to concentrate only on developing the code on a working system that is set up for automated continuous integration and deployment without having to duplicate the entire setup each time.A virtualized environment is set up; either using a VM or a docker image that takes care of the automatic code check-ins, builds, regression testing, and deployments on the server.
Rated 4.5/5 based on 3 customer reviews
7865
Docker Vs Virtual Machines(VMs)

Let’s have a quick warm up on the resource manag... Read More

What is DevOps

You landed up here which means that you are willing to know more about DevOps and hey, you can admit it! And of course, the business community has been taking this trend to the next level not because it looks fancy but of course, this process has proven the commitment. The growth and adoption of this disruptive model are increasing the productivity of the company.  So here, we will get an idea of how this model works and how we can enable this across the organization. According to DevOps.com, during the period of the year 2015 to 2016, the adoption rate of DevOps increased significantly, with a rise of 9 per cent in its usage rate. You may have a look at DevOps Foundation training course to know more about the benefits of learning DevOps.1. What is DevOpsDevOps is a practice culture having a union of people, process, and tools which enables faster delivery. This culture helps to automate the process and narrow down the gaps between development and IT. DevOps is a kind of abstract impression that focuses on key principles like Speed, Rapid Delivery, Scalability, Security, Collaboration & Monitoring etc.A definition mentioned in Gartner says:“DevOps represents a change in IT culture, focusing on rapid IT service delivery through the adoption of agile, lean practices in the context of a system-oriented approach. DevOps emphasizes people (and culture) and seeks to improve collaboration between operations and development teams. DevOps implementations utilize technology— especially automation tools that can leverage an increasingly programmable and dynamic infrastructure from a life cycle perspective.”2. History of DevOpsLet's talk about a bit of history in cloud computing. The word “cloud compute” got coined in early 1996 by Compaq computer, but it took a while to make this platform easily accessible even though they claimed its a $2 billion market per year.  In August 2006 Amazon had introduced cloud infra which was easily accessible, and then it became a trend, and post this, in April 2008 Google, early 2010 Microsoft and then April 2011 IBM has placed his foot in this vertical. This showed a trend that all Giants are highly believed in this revolution and found potential in this technology.And in the same era DevOps process got pitched in Toronto Conference in 2008 by Patrick Debois and Andrew Shafer. He proposed that there is a better approach can be adopted to resolve the conflicts we have with dev and operation time so far. This again took a boom when 2 Flickr employee delivered a  seminar that how they are able to place 10+ deployment in a day. They came up with a proven model which can resolve the conflicts of Dev and operation having component build, test and deploy this should be an integrated development and operations process.3. Why market has adopted so aggressivelyLouis Columbus has mentioned in  Forbes that by the end of 2020 the 83% of the workload will be on the cloud where major market contributor will be AWS & Google. The new era is working more on AI, ML, Crypto, Big Data, etc. which is playing a key role in cloud computing adoption today but at the same time, IT professionals say that the security is their biggest concern in adopting a cloud computing. Moreover, Cloud helped so many startups to grow at initial stages and later they converted as a leader in there market place, which has given confidence to the fresh ideas.This entire cloud enablement has given more confidence to the team to adopt DevOps culture as cloud expansion is helping to experiment more with less risk.4. Why is Devop used?To reduce day to day manual work done by IT team To avoid manual error while designing infra Enables a smooth platform for technology or cloud migration Gives an amazing version control capabilities A better way to handle resources whether it’s cloud infra or manpower Gives an opportunity to pitch customer a realistic feature rollout commitment To adopt better infra scaling process even though you receive 4X traffic Enables opportunity to build a stable infrastructure5. Business need and value of DevOpsLet's understand this by sharing a story of, a leading  Online video streaming platform 'Netflix' which was to disclose the acquisition or we can say a company called Blockbuster LLC got an opportunity in 2000 to buy Netflix in $50 million. Netflix previously was working only on  DVD-by-mail service, but in 2016 Netflix made a business of $8.83 billion which was tremendous growth in this vertical. Any idea of how this happened? This started with an incident at Netflix office where due to a database mismatch a DVD shipping got disrupted for 3 days which Forced Management to move on the cloud from relational systems in their data centers because this incident made a massive impact on core values. The shift happened from vertical to horizontal, and AWS later provided with Cloud service even I have read that in an early stage they gathered with AWS team and worked to scale the infrastructure. And, today Netflix is serving across 180 countries with the amount of 15,00,00,000 hours of video content to less or more 8,60,00,000 members.6. Goal Of DevOpsControl of quality and increase the frequency of deploymentsAllows to enable a risk-free experimentEnables to improve mean time to recovery and backupHelps to handle release failure without losing live dataHelps to avoid unplanned work and technical failureTo achieve compliance process and control on the audit trailAlert and monitoring in an early stage on system failureHelps to maintain SLA in a uniform fashionEnabling control for the business team7. How Does DevOps workSo DevOp model usually keeps Development and operation team tightly coupled or sometimes they get merged and they roll out the entire release cycle. Sometime we may see that development, operation and security & Network team is also involved and slowly this got coined as DevSecOps. So the integration of this team makes sure that they are able to crack development, testing, deployment, provisioning infra, monitoring, network firewalling, infrastructure accessibility and accountability. This helps them to build a clean application development lifecycle to deliver a quality product.8. DevOps workflow/LifecycleDevOps Workflow (Process)DevOps workflow ensures that we are spending time on the right thing that means the right time is involved in building product/infrastructure. And how it enables we can analyze in below diagram. When we look into the below diagram, it seems DevOps process in an extended version of agile methodologies but it doesn’t mean that it can fit in other SDLC methodologies.  There is enough scope in other SDLC process as well. Once we merge process and Tools workflow diagram, it showcases a general DevOps environment. So the team puts an effort to keep pushing the releases and at the same time by enabling automation and tools we try maintaining the quality and speed.DevOps Workflow (Process)DevOps Workflow (Tool)9. DevOps valuesI would like to split DevOps values into  two groups: Business Values Organization Values Business values are moreover customer centricHow fast we recover if there is any failure?How we can pitch the exact MRR to a customer and acquire more customers?How fast we can deliver the product to customersHow to roll out beta access asap if there any on-demand requirement?Organizational ValuesBuilding CultureEnabling communication and collaborationOptimize and automate the whole systemEnabling Feedbacks loopsDecreasing silosMetrics and Measurement10. Principle of DevOpsAutomated: Automate as much as you can in a linear and agile manner so you can build an end to end automated pipeline for software development life cycle in an effective manner which includes quality, rework, manual work and cost. And it’s not only about the cycle it is also about the migration from one technology to another technology, one cloud to another cloud etc.Collaborative: The goal of this culture is to keep a hold on both development and operations. Keep an eye and fix the gaps to keep moving thing in an agile way, which needs a good amount of communication and coordination. By encouraging collaborative environment an organization gets ample of ideas which help to resolve issue way faster. The beauty of the collaboration is it really handles all unplanned and manual work at an early stage which ends up given a quality build and process.Customer Centric approach: DevOps team always reacts as a startup and must keep a finger on the pulse to measure customer demands. The metrics they generate give an insight to the business team to see the trend of usage and burn rate. But of course, to find a signal in the noise, you should be focused and collect only those metrics which really matters.Performance Orientation: Performance is a principle and a discipline which gives an insight to the team to understand the implication of bad performance. Before moving to production if we get metrics and reports handy it gives confidence to technology and business both. This gives an opportunity to plan how to scale infrastructure, how to handle if there is a huge spike or the high usage, and the utilization of the infrastructure.Quality Indicators per application: Another set which is a predefined principle is to set measurable quality Assigning a quality gate to indicators with predefined targets, covering fit for purpose and security gives an opportunity to deliver a complete quality application.11. DevOps Key practices:i) CI/CD When we say “continuous” it doesn’t translate that “always running” but of course “always ready to run”.Continuous integration is nothing but the development philosophy and practices that drive teams to check-in code to version control system as often as possible. So keeping your build clean and QA ready developer's changes need to be validated by running automated tests against the build that could be a Junit, iTest. The goal of CI is to place a consistent and automated way to build and test applications which results in better collaboration between teams, and eventually a better-quality product.Continuous Delivery is an adjunct of CI which enables a facility to make sure that we can release new changes to your customers quickly in a sustainable way.Typical CD involves the below steps:Pull code from version control system like bitbucket and execute build.Execute any required infrastructure steps command line/script to stand up or tear down cloud infrastructure.Move build to right compute environmentAble to handle all the configuration generation process.Pushing application components to their appropriate services, such as web servers, API services, and database services.Executing any steps required to restarts services or call service endpoints that are needed for new code pushes.Executing continuous tests and rollback environments if tests fail.Providing log data and alerts on the state of the delivery.Below there is a table which will help us better understand what we need to put as an effort and what we will gain if we enable CI/CD in place:Practice TypeEffort RequiredGainContinuous integrationa) Need to prepare automated your team will need to write automated tests for each new feature,improvement or bug fix.b) You need a continuous integration server that can monitor the main repository and run the tests automatically for every new commits pushed.c) Developers need to merge their changes as often as possible, at least once a day.a Will give control on regressions which can be captured in early stage of automated testing.b) Less context switching as developers are alerted as soon as they break the build and can work on fixing it before they move to another task.c) Building the release is easy as all integration issues have been solved early.d) Testing costs are reduced drastically -your Cl server can run hundreds of tests in the matter of seconds.e) Your QA team spend less time testing and can focus on significant improvements to the quality culture.Continuous Delivery a) You need a strong foundation in continuous integration and your test suite needs to cover enough of your codebase.b) Deployments need to be automated. The trigger is still manual but once a deployment is started  there shouldn't be a need for human intervention.c) Your team will most likely need to embrace feature flags so that incomplete features do not affect customers in productiona) The complexity of deploying software has been taken away. Your team doesnt't have to spend days preparing for a release anymore.b) You can release more often,thus accelerating the feedback loop with your  customers.c) There is much less pressure on decisions for small changes,hence encoraging iterating faster.ii) Maintaining infra in a secure and compliant wayKeeping infrastructure secure and compliant is also a responsibility of DevOps or some organization are nowadays pitching as SecOps. A general and traditional way of security methodologies or rules get fails when you have multi-layer or multi-cloud system running for your product organization and sometimes it really fail when you moving with the continuous delivery process. So the job is to ensure that the team is putting clear and neat visibility on risk and vulnerabilities which may cause a big problem. Below adding a basic rule to avoid small loophole (Specific to GCP) :Level 1:- Define your resource hierarchy.- Create an Organization node and define the project structure.- Automation of project creation which helps to achieve uniformity and testability.Level 2:- Manage your Google identities.- Synchronize your existing identity platform.- Have single-sign-on (SSO).- Don’t add multiple users instead of that select resource level permission.- Be specific while providing resource access also with action type (Read, Write & Admin).- Always use service accounts to access meta-data because to authenticate this it uses keys instead of password and GCP rotates the service account keys for code running on GCP.Level 3:- Add VPC for network definition and create firewall rules to manage traffic.- Define a specific rule to control external access and avoid having unwanted port opens.- Create a centralized network control template which can be applied across the project.Level 4:- Enable centralized logging and monitoring (Preferred Stackdriver).- Enable audit log which helps you to collect the activity of Admin, System Event and Data Access in a phrase of who did what, where and when?Level 5:- Enable cold line data storage if there is a need to keeping a copy for disaster management.- Further reference for placing security standard in AWS there is an article I have posted a few months back. 12. DevOps Myths or What DevOps is not?Before I mention the myths I would clarify the biggest myth which every early stage learner carries that “DevOps practice can be rolled out in a day and output will be available from the 1st day”. This is too early to reach this conclusion, as the definition of DevOps always says that it's a culture and process which can be built in a day. But of course, you will get an opportunity to overcome your mistakes at an early stage. Let's discuss a few more myths:It’s now only about the tool, (It’s a component of the whole DevOps practice)Dev and Ops team should have used the same set of tools (How to overcome- push them to integrate both)Only startups can follow this practice (Azure has published an article on best practices of DevOps which says it can be applied anywhere)Joining DevOps/ DevOps tool conf with fancy sticker (Good you join but don’t pretend that now you are carrying DevOps tag)Pushing build in production in every 5 mins (This is not what Continuous delivery)DevOps doesn’t fit the existing system (Overcome: You may need to find the right approach to make an attempt)13. Benefits of DevOpsBusiness Benefitsa) Horizontal and vertical growth: When I’m using “Horizontal and Vertical Growth” I’m keeping customer satisfaction on X, Business on Y2 and time on the Y-axis. Now the question is how it helps to populate growth in 2 axis, and my answer will be the quick turnaround time for minor and major issues. Once we adopt DevOps we scale and built in such a fashion that in less time the graph shows a rapid jump.b) Improving ROI of Data: Having DevOps in an organization ensures that we can design a decent ROI from data at an early stage more quickly. If we will do a raw survey now Software industry is playing with data and have control over there a team should have an end to end control on data. And if we define DevOps it will help the team to crunch data in various ways by automating small jobs. By automation, we can segregate and justify data and this helps to populate either in Dashboard or can present offline to the customer.Technical Benefitsc) Scalability & Quality: If a business starts reaching to more user we start looking to increase infrastructure and bandwidth. But on the other hand, it starts popping up a question whether we are scaling our infra in the right way and also if a lot of people are pushing changes (Your code commits/builds) are having the same or greater quality we have earlier. Both the questions are somehow now reserved by the DevOps team. If your business pitch that we might be going to hit 2000+ client and they will be having billion of traffic and we are ready to handle, DevOps take these responsibilities and says yes can scale infra at any point of time. And if the same time internal release team says I want to deliver 10 feature in next 10 days independently, DevOps says quality can be maintained.Culture  Benefitsd) Agility & Velocity: They key param of adopting DevOps is to improve the velocity of product development. DevOps enables Agility and if both are in sync we can easily observe the velocity. The expectation of end users are always high and at the same time, the deliverable time span is short. To achieve this we have to ensure that we are able to our rollout new features to customers at much higher frequencies otherwise your competitors may win the market.e) Enabling Transparency:  A Practice to enable total transparency is a key impact on the DevOps culture. Sharing knowledge across the team gives you an opportunity to work faster and get aligned with the goal. Transparency will encourage an increasingly well-rounded team with heightened understandings.14. How to adopt a DevOps modelThe ideal way is to pick up a small part of the project or product but sometimes we start adopting when we are touching the bottleneck. So whatever you start few things need to be taken care like Goal should be clean and the team is are in sync to chase the same, loop whole which turns to a downtime, how can testing (Stress, performance, load ) to avoid production glitches and at the same time enable automated deployment process. All this could have some basic plan and move forward it can be elaborated in detailed format. While adopting a DevOps model, need to make sure that the team is always looking into metrics so they can justify no’s and make assumption towards the goal. If you want to have a roadmap of DevOps adoption then you really need to find the gaps up front and the typical problem you face every day which really holds your release process or spoils your team time.15. DevOps automation toolJenkins: Jenkins is an open source automation server which is used to automate the software build, and deliver or deploy the build.  It can be installed through native system packages, Docker, or even run standalone by any machine with a Java Runtime Environment (JRE) installed. In short, Jenkins enables continuous integration which helps to accelerate the development. There are ample of plugins available which enable the integration for Various DevOps stages. For example Git, Maven 2 project, Amazon EC2, HTML publisher etc. More in-depth information about the same can be found here in our training material on Jenkins and if you are inquisitive about what sort of questions related to Jenkins are asked in job interviews, then feel free to view our set of 22 Jenkins interview questions.Ansible: An open-source platform which helps to automate the IT engine which actually pushes off the slavery work from DevOps day to day life. Usually, Ansible helps in 3 day to day task, Provisioning, configuration management and application deployment. Beauty is it can automate traditional servers, virtualization platforms, or the cloud one. It is built on playbooks which can be applied to an extensive variety of systems for deploying your app. To know more, you may have a look at our Ansible training material here or go through our set of 20 interview questions on Ansible.Chef: It’s an open source config management system and works as a master-client model. It is having a transparent design and works based on instruction which needs to be defined properly. Before you plan using this tool you need to make sure that you have a proper Git practice going on and you have an idea about Ruby as this is completely built on Ruby. The industry says that this is good to have for development-focused environments and enterprise mature architecture. Our comprehensively detailed training course on Chef will give you more insight into this tool.Puppet:  So Puppet works as a master-client setup and utilized as model driven. This is built on Ruby but you can customize this as scripting language somewhere close to JSON. Puppet helps you to get control of full-fledged configuration management. This tool somewhere helps Admin (Part of DevOps) to add stability and maturity towards config management. A more detailed explanation of Puppet and its functionality can be found in our training material.Docker:  A tool designed to help developers and administrators to provide flexibility to reduce the count of the system as docker don’t create a complete virtual operating system, instead they allow applications to use the same Linux kernel as the system. So somewhere we can say we use Docker to create, deploy, and run applications by using containers. Just a stats submitted by docket that over 3.5 million applications placed in containers using docker and 37 billion containerized applications have been downloaded. Specifically, Docker CI /CD provided an opportunity to have exactly like a live server and run multiple dev infra form the same host with different config and OS. You may visit our training course on Docker to get more information.Kubernetes: Platform developed to manage containerized applications which provide high availability and scalability. According to the usage we can downgrade and upgrade the system, we can perform rolling updates, rollback feasibility, switch traffic between to different versions of the application.  So we can have multiple instances having Kubernetes installed and can be operated as Kubernetes cluster. Post this you get an API endpoint of Kube cluster, configure Kubel and you are ready to serve. Read our all-inclusive course on Kubernetes to gather more information on the same.Docker and Kubernetes, although being widely tools as DevOps automation tools, have notable differences between their setup, installation and their attributes, clearly mentioned in our blog stressing the differences between Docker and Kubernetes.Alert:Pingdom: Pingdom is a platform which enables monitoring to check the availability,  performance, transaction monitoring (website hyperlink) and incident collection of your websites, servers or web applications. Beauty is if you are using a collaboration tool like slack or flock you can just integrate by using the webhook (Pretty much simpler no code required )you can easily get notified at any time. Pingdom also provides an API so you can have your customized dashboard (Recently started) and the documentation is having enough details and self-explanatory.Nagios: It’s an Open Source Monitoring Tool to monitor the computer network. We can monitor server, applications, incident manager etc and you can certainly configure email, SMS, Slack notifications and phone calls even. Nagios is licensed under GNU GPLv2. Listing some major components which can be monitored with Nagios:Once we install Nagios we get a dashboard to monitor network services like SMTP, HTTP, SNMP, FTP, SSH, POP, etc and can view current network status, problem history, log files, notifications that have been triggered by the system, etc.We can monitor Servers resources like disk drives, memory, processor, server load usage, system logs, etc.Image copyright stackdriver- D-4Stackdriver: Stackdriver is again a Monitoring tool to get the visibility of performance, uptime, and overall health for cloud-powered applications. Stackdriver monitoring collects events and metadata from Google Cloud Platform, Amazon Web Services (AWS). Stackdriver consumes data and generates insights via dashboards, charts, and alerts. And for alerting we can integrate to collaboration tools like Slack, PagerDuty, HipChat, Campfire, and more.Image copyright stackdriver- D-2Adding one sample log where we can see what all parameter it collects and also i have just separated them in fashion which will help us to understand what all it logs it actually collects:Log InformationUser Details and Authorization InfoRequest Type and Caller IPResource and Operation DetailsTimeStamp and Status Details{  insertId:    logName:  operation: {   first:     id:   producer:  } protoPayload: {   @type:   authenticationInfo: {   principalEmail:       }   authorizationInfo: [   0: {   granted:     permission:       }   ]methodName:     request: {    @type:     } requestMetadata:  { callerIp: callerSuppliedUserAgent:   } resourceName: response: { @type:    Id:  insertTime:    name:  operationType:    progress:    selfLink:    status:      targetId:     targetLink:    user:    zone:     }   serviceName:    }receiveTimestamp:  resource: {  labels: {  instance_id:  project_id:      zone:      }  type:    }  severity:  timestamp:   }Monitoring:Grafana: It is an open source visualization tool and can be used on top of different data stores like InfluxDB,Elasticsearch and Logz.io.We can create comprehensive charts with smart axis formats (such as lines and points) as a result of Grafana’s fast, client-side rendering — even over long ranges of time — that uses Flot as a default option. We can get the 3 different levels of access, watcher, Editor and Admin, even we can enable G-Auth for having good access control. A detail information guide can be found hereImage copyright stackdriver- D-5Elasticsearch:It's an open source realtime distributed, RESTful search and analytics engine. It collects unstructured data and stores in a cultivated format which is optimized and available for language based search. The beauty of Elastic is scalability, speed, document-oriented, schema-free. It scales horizontally to handle kajillions of events per second, while automatically managing how indices and queries are distributed across the cluster for smooth operations.Cost OptimizationreOptimize.io : Once we run ample of servers we usually end up with burning good amount not intentionally but of course because of not have a clear visualization. At reOptimze helps thereby providing a detailed insight about the cloud expense the integration can be done with 3-4 simple steps but before that you might need to look into the prerequest which can be accessed here. Just a heads up that they only need read access for all these and permission docs can be found here . Image copyright reOptimizeD-616. DevOps vs AgileDevOpsAgileDevOps culture can be enabled in the software industry to deliver reliable build.Agile is a generic culture which can be deployed in any department.The key focus area is to have involvement at an end to end process.Agile helps the management team to push a frequent release.Enables quality build with rapid delivery.Keep team aware of frequent changes for any release and feature.Agile sprints work within the immediate future, A sprint life cycle varies between 7-30 days.DevOps don’t have such scheduled metrix, they work to avoid such unscheduled disruptions.Team size also differs, in Agile wee can minimal resource can be one as well.DevOps works on collaboration and bridge a big set of the team. 17. Future of DevOpsThe industry is moving more on cloud which enables a few more responsibilities to DevOps. And immediate hot topic could be DevSecOps because more automation tends to more connectivity means more exposure. AI or ML is more data-centric and learning based which gives an opportunity to DevOps to share hand to train ML modules, unique analysis correlating, code, test results, user behavior, and production quality & performance. There is also an opportunity to break the stereotype that DevOps can be only adopted by startup and surely the next 2-3 years this will become a general practice in Enterprise.18. Importance of DevOps training certificationCertifications work like an add-on, and add-on always gives some crisp and cumulative results. Certification works similar to that if someone adds any professional certificates to resume it gives an add-on value. In the process of certification, professionals help you to understand in detail and the deep dive of DevOps culture help individual to get a clear picture. While certification you may have to look into the vendor reputation, an academic who is giving approval, the transparency, session hour and many more components.19. Conclusion: I have been working closely and observing the DevOps team from a year & so and found every day we learn something new. The more we dive we see a lot can be done and can be achieved in a couple of different ways. As the industry is growing the responsibility of DevOps seems to increase which creates a possible chance for professional but always set a new bar of quality. Now, since you have come to know everything about DevOps, feel free to read our blog on how you can become a DevOps Engineer.
Rated 4.0/5 based on 11 customer reviews
3667
What is DevOps

You landed up here which means that you are willin... Read More

Useful links