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A List of Programming Languages for 2024

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12th Feb, 2024
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    A List of Programming Languages for 2024

    With the invention of Computers, programming language became a necessity in this world. The term "Programming Language" was first coined as early as 1883, when the Analytical Engine was invented by Ada Lovelace and Charles Babbage, which required an enormous amount of manual work and calculation to get a simple mathematical program written. Since then, we have come a long way to a better place.

    Today's programming languages are similar to the language we speak and are much more powerful and faster. They are used almost everywhere in today's world and have an important place in our lives. Let us get to the details to understand more. For training on Programming and getting started, visit the Software Programming course.

    What is a Programming Language?

    According to the Wikipedia definition, A programming language is a notation for writing programs, which are specifications of a computation or algorithm ("Programming language"). Putting it in layman's terms, a programming language can be used to communicate with a computer and make it perform certain tasks. While humans communicate and exchange ideas through various languages, computers use various programming languages to communicate between users and themselves.

    Benefits of Learning Programming Languages

    • Logical Thinking: Coding cultivates a structured and logical thought process, enhancing analytical skills.
    • Problem-Solving Abilities: By dissecting complex tasks into manageable steps, individuals bolster their problem-solving techniques.
    • Diverse Career Opportunities: Beyond just software development, skills in coding open doors to roles in data analysis, system administration, and digital marketing.
    • Futureproofing: With increasing automation and digital transformation, programming knowledge ensures career longevity and adaptability.
    • Innovation: Learning to code empowers individuals to bring innovative ideas to fruition, from app development to automation solutions.
    • Expressing Creativity: Programming is not just logical, but also an art, offering a canvas to visualize and create.
    • Increased Autonomy: Knowledge of coding allows better control over personal projects, reducing reliance on third-party software or developers.
    • Global Opportunities: Programming is a universal language, enabling work opportunities across borders and cultures.
    • Financial Rewards: Often, roles requiring programming knowledge offer competitive salaries and benefits.
    • Continuous Learning: The ever-evolving nature of technology ensures that coders are always learning, keeping the mind agile and informed.

    A List of Programming Languages

    In this section, we will look at the list of the 30 most popular programming languages and the various types of programming languages (from highest to lowest level). Most importantly, we will understand what makes them popular, their uses, their career outlook, and their position in the Information Technology Industry.

    1. Python

    Python
     

    Python is a high-level interpreted language found in 1989 and developed by Guido Van Rossum. Python is among the most popular in the top programming languages 2024 list. Python, like Java, supports Memory management and Object-Oriented Capability. Python is popular for its easy-to-read and written syntax making it one of the most trending languages today and one of the best backend programming languages. Python is mostly used for web applications and Artificial Intelligence applications. Python has great demand in today's jobs and is one of the highest-paying programming languages. Finding a job with Python is quite easy and has great demand and a bright future. For training on Python Programming, visit the best Python Programming course.

    • Levels: Beginner to Advanced
    • Skills: Web Development, Data Analysis, Machine Learning.
    • Platform: Web, Desktop, Cloud, and Scientific computing.
    • Prerequisites: Familiarity with basic programming concepts.
    • Salary: Approx. $115,000/year
    • Pros: Clear and readable syntax, extensive libraries, strong community support.
    • Cons: Slower than compiled languages, can be memory-intensive, not ideal for mobile development.

    2. Java

    Java

    Java is a general-purpose, high-level language developed by Sun Microsystems in 1991. It is one of the most demanding and popularly used languages throughout industries and academic institutions. Java achieves the top position in the list for the programming languages list ranking. The features of Java that made it stand out are Memory management and Cross-Platform Compatibility. Memory management helped Java reduce the dependence on developers to remove unused memory when not in need. Automating this via garbage collection ensured developers would have to worry less about memory management. Cross Platform Compatibility ensures Java can be used on various platforms (Operating Systems) without any compatibility issues. This helped Java spread its popularity faster. Java is popularly used for Web, Mobile, and Embedded Systems, which are in wide demand now. If you are considering a career in them, Java is a good start.

    • Levels: Beginner to Advanced
    • Skills: Web Development, Android Apps, Enterprise Software.
    • Platform: Web, Mobile (Android), Desktop, Servers.
    • Prerequisites: Familiarity with object-oriented programming concepts and basic algorithms.
    • Salary: Approx. $110,000/year
    • Pros: Platform independence with JVM, extensive libraries, strong community support.
    • Cons: Verbose syntax, slower compared to some low-level languages, memory consumption.

    3. C

    C

    C is one of the oldest high levels and most common programming languages. Developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie in AT&T Bell Laboratories, C is one of the popularly used languages for lower-level components in software, like Kernal in an OS. C is also in great demand for the programming of embedded systems. For situations where speed matters, C is the most preferred language. This is the main feature that makes C preferred for hardware programming. C is also widely used in Academic Institutions and is the best coding language to learn for beginners. C is preferred if you are looking for a career in Kernel Programming or Hardware Programming. However, there can be an overlap with the C++ language because of its Object-Oriented Capability. 

    • Levels: Beginner (C) to Advanced (C++)
    • Skills: System Programming, Game Development, Embedded Systems.
    • Platform: Almost everywhere: Desktop, Servers, Embedded Devices.
    • Prerequisites: Understanding of basic programming structures; knowledge of memory management for advanced tasks.
    • Salary: Approx. $125,000/year
    • Pros: High performance, immense control over system resources, vast legacy codebase.
    • Cons: Manual memory management can lead to errors, the steep learning curve for C++, and dated syntax.

    4. C++
    C++

    C++, the successor of C, is the extension of C with Object Oriented Features. Developed during the 1980s by Bjarne Stroustrup, C++ is used popularly for Hardware Programing and Software applications and has a wide range of libraries available. C++ is one of the in-demand programming languages for beginners looking to learn object-oriented concepts. It is also one of the best game programming languages, such as creating game engines. C++ has a similar place in the market compared to C; hence the career prospects will be similar to that of C. 

    5. Visual Basic .NET

    Visual Basic

    Visual Basic was developed by Microsoft in the year 2001. It is a high-level language that supports Object Oriented Capability. It was mainly used for Web Applications and Desktop applications. Visual Basic is now a legacy language and has been replaced by better languages and frameworks.

    • Levels: Beginner to Intermediate
    • Skills: Windows Applications, Web Services, .NET Development.
    • Platform: Windows primarily, with some web capabilities.
    • Prerequisites: Familiarity with basic programming concepts.
    • Salary: Approx. $90,000/year
    • Pros: Intuitive syntax, rapid application development, integration with .NET framework.
    • Cons: Less popular than C# for .NET, transitioning from Classic VB can be challenging, primarily confined to Windows.

    6. C#

    C#

    C# was developed by Microsoft in 2001, along with its .NET framework. C# is very similar to C++ or Java in terms of syntax. Initially, .NET was used to develop Windows Forms and to develop Web Applications with ASP.NET. The framework has evolved a lot since then, especially with the introduction to .NET Standard and .NET Core. The latest frameworks are cross-platform, running on Windows, Linux, and Mac. The latest versions of .NET also allow developers to write Android and iOS applications. C# is mostly used for writing desktop and web applications but rarely used for system programming and embedded applications. C# has a wide demand in the industry and is an active language.

    • Levels: Beginner to Advanced
    • Skills: Windows Applications, Game Development (Unity), Web Services.
    • Platform: Primarily Windows but also Web and Mobile with Xamarin.
    • Prerequisites: Basic understanding of object-oriented programming concepts.
    • Salary: Approx. $110,000/year
    • Pros: Seamless integration with .NET, strong support from Microsoft, versatile for different applications.
    • Cons: More confined to the Windows ecosystem, slower than some low-level languages, licensing costs associated with some Microsoft tools.

     

    7. PHP

    PHP

    PHP is a general-purpose language used for server-side programming. Developed by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994, PHP is a popular language among beginners looking to learn web development. PHP is known for its ease of learning. Although many jobs are available in PHP, it is getting replaced by better languages and frameworks. 

    • Levels: Beginner to Intermediate
    • Skills: Web Development, Content Management Systems, Server-side Scripting.
    • Platform: Web Servers.
    • Prerequisites: Basic understanding of HTML and server-client architecture.
    • Salary: Approx. $95,,000/year
    • Pros: Easy to start with, vast ecosystem with platforms like WordPress, flexible for web development.
    • Cons: Inconsistencies in function names, lacks modern features compared to newer languages, not optimal for large-scale applications.

    8. JavaScript

    JavaScript

    JavaScript is a high-level, dynamically typed, interpreted language that runs in the browser. Developed by Brendan Eich and first released in the year of 1995, JavaScript is the most used programming language in the world for the internet and has become unavoidable in the current world. JavaScript is the programming language used in most popular websites. JavaScript is popular for its ease of learning and widespread usage. Many frameworks like NodeJS and TypeScript are based on JavaScript syntax. JavaScript is one of the market's most important and widely used languages. If you are comfortable with OOPs concepts, it is also worth looking into the typescript. TypeScript makes use of OOPs concepts and compiles them into native JavaScript. 

    • Levels: Beginner to Advanced
    • Skills: Web Development, Frontend and Backend (with Node.js), Game Development.
    • Platform: Web primarily, but also server-side with Node.js.
    • Prerequisites: Basic understanding of HTML and web structures.
    • Salary: Approx. $114,000/year
    • Pros: Ubiquitous in web development, large ecosystem of frameworks/libraries, supported across browsers.
    • Cons: Asynchronous challenges, potentially inconsistent across browsers, can become unwieldy for large-scale apps.

    9. SQL

    SQL
     

    SQL is a query language used for Relational Database Management Systems (RDBMS). 

    SQL was developed by IBM Researchers Raymond Boyce and Donald Chamberlin in the 1970s. SQL is not directly used to write applications but as part of any software to access any database to fetch, read or update data. SQL is an important language in the IT industry, but it is not the primary skill for any job role. SQL is often combined with other requirements like a programming language for developers, analytics tools for Big Data roles, etc. Hence, learning SQL is a big plus, along with other requirements for the job. 

    • Levels: Beginner to Advanced
    • Skills: Database Querying, Management, and Design.
    • Platform: Database systems like MySQL, PostgreSQL, and MS SQL.
    • Prerequisites: Understanding of relational database concepts.
    • Salary: Approx. $105,000/year
    • Pros: Universally accepted database language, optimized for complex queries, consistent across most database systems.
    • Cons: Limited to database operations, variations in advanced features between systems, not suited for non-relational databases.

    10. Objective-C

    Objective-C

    Objective-C is a general-purpose, compiled, an object-oriented language developed and used by Apple until 2014. Objective C is still popular due to the large number of existing applications written in it. It is used only for development for the Apple ecosystem. Objective C is still in demand, but it is advised to learn Swift since Apple shifted to Swift from Objective C. 

    11. Delphi/Object Pascal

    Delphi

    Delphi is the name of a compiler for the Object Pascal, the object-oriented version of Pascal, which Larry Tesler developed in the late 1960s. Although there is existing software written on Delphi/Object Pascal, they are not in use anymore. 

    12. Ruby

    Ruby

    Ruby is an interpreted, dynamically typed, object-oriented programming language developed by Yukihiro "Matz" Matsumoto in the mid-1990s. The language was inspired by many other languages like Lisp, Pearl, and Ada. Ruby is a popular language used for web development. The framework Ruby on Rails is a server-side framework written in Ruby. It is popular for its ease of learning. Ruby is used for web application development and hence is still used in the market and has plenty of job opportunities. 

    • Levels: Beginner to Advanced
    • Skills: Web Development (notably with Ruby on Rails), Scripting, Data Analysis.
    • Platform: Web, Servers, and some Desktop applications.
    • Prerequisites: A grasp of basic programming structures and OOP concepts.
    • Salary: Approx. $105,000/year
    • Pros: Elegant and readable syntax, strong community, rapid development with Rails.
    • Cons: Performance can lag behind some languages, transitioning from Rails to other frameworks can be challenging, not as concurrent as some modern languages.

    13. Assembly Language

    Assembly language

    Assembly language is a low-level language used for hardware programming or embedded programs. The first assembly language was developed by Kathleen Booth in 1947 for ARC2. Assembly language actually varies depending on the given microprocessor since the language is basically the instruction set of a given microprocessor. Unlike normal languages, the programmer will have to know the microprocessor in detail - instruction set, registers, data sizes, etc. to work with assembly language. Assembly is used when performance is the goal making it the best feature of this language. Considering this language's career outlook, jobs requiring systems programming / hardware programming will require knowledge of assembly language. 

    • Levels: Advanced
    • Skills: Low-level Hardware Programming, Systems Development.
    • Platform: Embedded Systems, Firmware, Real-time Systems.
    • Prerequisites: Deep understanding of computer architecture and binary arithmetic.
    • Salary: Approx. $115,000/year
    • Pros: Close-to-hardware programming, maximum optimization, fine-grained control.
    • Cons: Steep learning curve, hardware-specific, verbose and labor-intensive.

    14. Swift

    Swift

    Apple developed the swift language in 2014 for its ecosystem. Swift was made to make debugging easier and make the syntax easy to read. Apple shifted its language of use from Objective C to Swift. Swift is still in demand for iOS programmers, but it is advised to learn Objective C alongside since older applications are written in this.

    • Levels: Beginner to Advanced
    • Skills: iOS/MacOS Development, Server-side Development, Machine Learning (with Apple’s Core ML).
    • Platform: Primarily Apple ecosystems (iOS, MacOS) but expanding to Web and Server-side.
    • Prerequisites: Basics of programming and familiarity with Apple’s development environment.
    • Salary: Approx. $115,000/year
    • Pros: Highly optimized for Apple ecosystems, expressive syntax, memory safe design.
    • Cons: Limited outside the Apple ecosystem, transition from Objective-C can be challenging, dependency on Xcode for development.

    15. Go

    Golang

    Go / Golang was introduced by two Google Engineers in 2009. Go borrows syntax heavily from C and Java. The language focused on cross-platform compatibility, simplicity, and support for modern processors. It is an easy language to learn. Considering its market demand, it is popular in engineering and devops circles but not much asked in job descriptions.

    • Levels: Intermediate to Advanced
    • Skills: Systems Programming, Web Backend, Cloud-based Solutions.
    • Platform: Web, Cloud, and System tools.
    • Prerequisites: Understanding of fundamental programming concepts and structures.
    • Salary: Approx. $130,000/year
    • Pros: Efficient performance, in-built concurrency support, robust standard library.
    • Cons: Limited GUI libraries, lacks certain modern features, garbage collector can be slower compared to manual memory management.

    16. Perl

    Perl

    Per is a utilitarian scripting language evolving from CGI scripting. Developed by Larry Wall in 1987, it is easy to learn and has quite a good number of software written under it. Although not the topmost language, it has quite a good demand that can be visible in many job descriptions.

    • Levels: Beginner to Advanced
    • Skills: System Administration, Web Development, Text Processing.
    • Platform: Desktop, Servers, Web.
    • Prerequisites: Basics of programming and familiarity with Unix (if used for system scripting).
    • Salary: Approx. $95,000/year
    • Pros: Powerful text manipulation, vast CPAN library, flexible syntax.
    • Cons: Falling popularity in favor of newer languages, "write-only" nature due to flexible syntax, slower than some compiled languages.

    17. R

    R

    R is a programming language used by statisticians and researchers mainly for the analytics of datasets. In the market, data-related jobs (Data Analysts, Data Scientists, etc.) require R knowledge for analytics purposes. It was developed by Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman in 1993. R has a good demand in the market, but only for roles related to statistics, research, and data science.

    • Levels: Intermediate
    • Skills: Data Analysis, Statistical Modeling, Data Visualization.
    • Platform: Desktop, Servers for large-scale data processing.
    • Prerequisites: Understanding of basic programming concepts and statistics.
    • Salary: Approx. $105,000/year
    • Pros: Comprehensive statistical analysis packages, strong data visualization, active community.
    • Cons: Memory consumption, not general-purpose, slower than some compiled languages.

    18. F#

    F#

    Microsoft introduced F# in 2005 as an Object Oriented, functional language that compiles to .NET Intermediate Language. As a functional language, it expresses programs as mathematical functions and does not allow mutable states and data (Object Oriented Concepts). Since F# is only suited for certain programs, not many jobs demand it as the primary requirement.

    19. Bash

    Bash

    Bash is a scripting language written by Brian Fox and released in the year 1989. It is mainly used to automate tasks on Unix and Linux Platforms. Bash has a fairly easy syntax. Although it is not a programming language by itself, it is used for many automation tasks and Linux / Unix Administration purposes. Hence, many jobs have Bash as a requirement, although not primary.

    20. Scala

    Scala

    Scala is a high-purpose language developed to fill in the gaps in Java, such as functional libraries. Developed by Martin Odersky in 2003, Scala gained traction in the development of Software Libraries and applications. Although it has a high learning curve, there are plenty of Scala jobs available, and it is worth learning it.

    21. COBOL

    Cobol

    COBOL is a very old programming language mainly used for mainframe systems. It was combinedly developed by CODASYL, ANSI, and ISO/IEC in 1959. Although less, there is an excellent chance of exiting employees since people who know COBOL today are very scarce. But there are not many upcoming opportunities with COBOL.

    22. RUST

    RUST

    Rust is a comparatively new and powerful programming language that Graydone Hoare developed in 2006. Its best features are safety, reliability, and speed. The downside of this language is that it is complex and has a high learning curve. It is not recommended as a first language, but quite a few use it out there. Boasting a unique ownership system, Rust eliminates notorious bugs like null pointer dereferences and data races. Its growing community and safe concurrency patterns have driven Rust's adoption in projects like Firefox, and it's heralded for its robustness in creating operating systems, game engines, and browser components. 

    • Levels: Intermediate to Advanced
    • Skills: Systems Programming, Web Assembly, Embedded Systems.
    • Platform: Systems, Web (via WebAssembly), and Embedded Devices.
    • Prerequisites: Familiarity with programming concepts and prior experience with a language like C.
    • Salary: Approx. $120,000/year
    • Pros: Memory safety guarantees, excellent concurrency support, empowering community.
    • Cons: Steeper learning curve, verbose error messages, young ecosystem compared to older languages.

    23. Prolog

    Prolog

    Prolog is a declarative language based on mathematical and logical theories. Developed by Alain Colmerauer in 1973, It is mainly used in research, Artificial Intelligence, and complex systems. It has a difficult syntax and is worthwhile to learn only if you are in a field that requires a prolog. 

    • Levels: Advanced
    • Skills: Artificial Intelligence, Knowledge Systems, Pattern Matching.
    • Platform: Desktop, Research Systems.
    • Prerequisites: Familiarity with formal logic and symbolic reasoning.
    • Salary: Approx. $105,000/year
    • Pros: Natural language for rule-based systems, powerful for symbolic reasoning, foundational in AI.
    • Cons: Steep learning curve, not general-purpose, limited commercial use.

    24. Julia

    Julia

    Julia is quite a new language and is a descendant of C. Developed by Jeff Bezanson, Stefan Karpinski, Viral B. Shah, and other contributors in 2012, and it is mainly designed for data science and analytics-based applications. Like other application-specific languages, Julia is designed specifically for analytics purposes. Considering the career outlook, Julia can come in handy if you work in a field (Data Science) that requires Julia. 

    25. Haskell

    Haskell

    Haskell is an older high-level, functional programming language. Many other functional programming languages derive from Haskell. Developed by a group of researchers in 1990, Haskell is only used as a specialized software development method. Considering the career outlook, Haskell can come in handy if you aspire to work in a field that requires a language like Haskell. 

    26. Apex

    Apex

    Apex is a proprietary language developed by salesforce.com for development on the Salesforce platform. Its difficulty is similar to C# and Java. Apex is an application-specific language developed for the Salesforce platform. Considering its career outlook, Apex can come in handy if you are a Salesforce developer. 

    27. Kotlin

    Kotlin

    Kotlin is a language that runs on JavaVM. It is compiled into JavaScript. Kotlin has a syntax that is similar to Java. Developed by JetBrains in 2011, Google supports Kotlin for Android OS development. Kotlin is mainly used for the development of Android Applications. Considering your career outlook, Kotlin can come in handy if you are an Android Developer. 

    • Levels: Beginner to Advanced
    • Skills: Android Development, Web Development, Server-side Development.
    • Platform: Mobile (Android primarily), Web, Server.
    • Prerequisites: Basic understanding of Java or another OOP language.
    • Salary: Approx. $110,000/year
    • Pros: Null safety features, seamless Java interoperability, modern syntax.
    • Cons: Slightly slower compilation than Java, smaller community (though growing rapidly), transition from Java might require adaptation.

    28. Groovy

    Groovy

    Groovy is closely associated with Java and even compiles Java Bytecode. Developed by James Strachan in 2003, Groovy adds features not present in Java, like dynamic typing and operator overloading. Groovy also has the capability to be uncompiled, making it a scripting language. Learning Groovy is easy if you already know Java. Groovy is used in some popular tools like Jenkins. Considering the career outlook, it is listed on many job listings but is not a core requirement. 

    • Levels: Intermediate
    • Skills: Java Ecosystem Enhancement, Scripting, Testing.
    • Platform: Java platforms including web, servers, and desktop.
    • Prerequisites: Java basics.
    • Salary: Approx. $100,000/year
    • Pros: Java compatibility, dynamic language capabilities, simplifies boilerplate code.
    • Cons: Slower runtime compared to Java, niche community, overshadowed by other JVM languages like Kotlin.

    29. LISP

    LISP

    LISP is one of the oldest languages (one year less than FORTRAN). Developed by John McCarthy in 1960, LISP has inspired many younger languages like Python, JavaScript, Scala, etc. 

    30. LUA

    Lua

    Lua was a language that was created out of necessity in Brazil. The Computer Graphics Technology Group members created it in 1993. It is a portable, easy-to-learn language used mainly by Game Developers as a scripting language. Considering its career outlook, Lua does not have many jobs available, but learning it might make you a well-rounded programmer. 

    31. TypeScript

    TypeScript

    Typescript is a popular JavaScript-based language that can be used on both the client and server sides. Developed in 2012 by Microsoft, Typescript is a typed version of JavaScript suited for large code bases. Considering its career outlook, Typescript is one of the most in-demand programming languages, has a great future, and is the "most adopted tech" in the 2021 JavaScript State of Survey. 

    • Levels: Intermediate to Advanced
    • Skills: Web Development, Large-scale JS projects, Angular Development.
    • Platform: Web primarily.
    • Prerequisites: Profound knowledge of JavaScript and web development.
    • Salary: Approx. $110,000/year
    • Pros: Static typing in JS, early error detection, strong tooling support with popular editors.
    • Cons: Requires compilation, steeper learning curve for JS developers, additional setup compared to vanilla JS.

    32. HTML

    Overview: HTML, or HyperText Markup Language, is the cornerstone of the web. Emerging in the late 1980s through the efforts of Tim Berners-Lee, HTML provides the structural foundation of web pages. It's not a programming language per se, but a markup language that dictates content structure on the web. From paragraphs and links to images and forms, HTML elements shape the content of the World Wide Web.

    • Levels: Beginner
    • Skills: Web Page Structure, Semantic Web Design.
    • Platform: Web.
    • Prerequisites: Basic understanding of how websites work.
    • Salary: Approx. $95,000/year

    (For HTML/CSS combined roles; pure HTML roles are rare)

    • Pros: Foundation of every web page, easy to learn, wide-ranging browser support.
    • Cons: Not a programming language, requires CSS and JS for styling and interactivity, evolving standards may demand relearning.

    33. CSS

    CSS, or Cascading Style Sheets, introduced in the late 1990s, revolutionized web design by separating content structure (defined by HTML) from presentation. With CSS, web designers could craft pixel-perfect, responsive, and visually captivating web experiences. Over the decades, CSS has evolved with enhanced layout mechanisms like Flexbox and Grid, fostering intricate and responsive web designs.

    • Levels: Beginner to Advanced
    • Skills: Web Design, Responsive Design, Animation.
    • Platform: Web.
    • Prerequisites: Familiarity with HTML and general web structure.
    • Salary: Approx. $95,000/year

    (For HTML/CSS combined roles; pure HTML roles are rare)

    • Pros: Precision in web design, wide browser support, enables responsive design.
    • Cons: Requires frequent updates due to browser differences, can get complex for large-scale applications, steep learning curve for advanced layouts.

    34. NoSQL

    NoSQL databases, emerging in the late 2000s, broke away from the traditional relational databases by offering flexible schemas and scalable data models. Tailored for large-scale data operations and distributed computing, NoSQL includes document databases, key-value stores, column-family stores, and graph databases. Companies with massive, fast-growing datasets, like Facebook and Amazon, leverage NoSQL for its scalability and flexibility.

    • Levels: Intermediate to Advanced
    • Skills: Database Design, Scalable Data Models, Distributed Computing.
    • Platform: Servers, Cloud.
    • Prerequisites: Basic understanding of database concepts and data structures.
    • Salary: Approx. $105,000/year
    • Pros: Scalability, flexibility in data modeling, optimized for large-scale operations.
    • Cons: Less mature than SQL, consistency and durability trade-offs, requires a new mindset compared to RDBMS.

    35. Matlab

    Matlab, developed by MathWorks in the 1980s, started as a matrix manipulation tool, but quickly expanded into a high-performance language for technical computing. Especially dominant in academia, research, and industries like automotive or aerospace, Matlab provides an integrated environment for data analysis, visualization, and algorithm development.

    • Levels: Intermediate
    • Skills: Data Analysis, Algorithm Development, Model Simulation.
    • Platform: Desktop, some server-side operations for large-scale analysis.
    • Prerequisites: Understanding of linear algebra, calculus, and programming basics.
    • Salary: Approx. $110,000/year
    • Pros: Comprehensive toolboxes, built-in visualization, supports various domains from finance to image processing.
    • Cons: Proprietary and costly, not optimal for general-purpose programming; transitioning to other languages can be challenging.

    36. Classic Visual Basic

    Overview: Classic Visual Basic, introduced in the early 1990s by Microsoft, was designed to offer a simpler, graphical approach to programming Windows applications. With its event-driven model and visual IDE, it democratized Windows software development. While later succeeded by VB.NET, Classic VB remains iconic for its role in the 1990s software boom.

    • Levels: Beginner to Intermediate
    • Skills: Windows Applications, Rapid Application Development.
    • Platform: Windows.
    • Prerequisites: Basic understanding of event-driven programming.
    • Salary: Approx. $95,000/year(mostly for legacy system maintenance)
    • Pros: Intuitive design, rapid development, vast support in its prime.
    • Cons: Outdated, limited compared to modern languages, transition to VB.NET isn't direct.

    Classifications of Programming Languages

    A. Front-end vs Back-end

    ParameterFront-endBack-end
    PurposeDeals with the user interface and user experience.Manages data, application logic, and server operations.
    ExecutionRuns on the user's browser.Runs on the server.
    LanguagesHTML, CSS, JavaScript, TypeScript.Java, Python, Ruby, PHP, Node.js, C#.
    Frameworks/LibrariesReact, Vue, Angular, Svelte.Express.js, Django, Ruby on Rails, Spring Boot.

    B. High-Level vs Low-level

    ParameterHigh LevelLow-level
    AbstractionCloser to human language.Closer to machine language.
    Ease of UseEasier to read and write.Requires a deeper understanding of the hardware.
    LanguagesPython, Java, Ruby, PHP.Assembly, C, C++.
    PortabilityTypically more portable.Hardware-specific.

    C. Interpreted vs Compiled

    ParameterInterpretedCompiled
    ExecutionCode is translated into machine code on-the-fly during execution.Code is pre-translated into machine code before execution.
    PerformanceGenerally slower due to on-the-spot translation.Faster since translation is done beforehand.
    LanguagesPython, JavaScript, Ruby.C, C++, Fortran, Swift.
    FlexibilityEasier to debug and modify.Requires recompilation for changes.

    Different Types of Programming Languages

    1. Procedural Programming Languages: Rooted in the concept of "procedure calls," these languages follow a step-by-step paradigm, detailing a sequence of instructions that are executed in order. Data is separated from the procedures, and the code is organized as reusable functions or procedures. Example: C.
    2. Functional Programming Languages: Inspired by mathematical functions, these languages treat every operation as a function's evaluation. There's a strong emphasis on immutability and statelessness, promoting code that produces the same output for a given input without side effects. This approach is particularly favored for parallel processing. Example: Haskell.
    3. Object-Oriented Programming Languages: These languages represent the world as a collection of objects that possess both data (attributes) and methods (functions). By encapsulating these into single entities and promoting concepts like inheritance and polymorphism, they offer a structured and modular approach to coding. Example: Java.
    4. Scripting Languages: Typically utilized for automating specific tasks in a software application, scripting languages are interpreted and are often used for web development, task automation, and more. They tend to be dynamic, flexible, and can interact with other languages or components. Example: Python (though it's versatile and not limited to scripting).
    5. Logic Programming Languages: Predicated on formal logic, these languages enable programmers to make declarative statements, and the system then finds the solutions that meet the stated conditions. They're especially useful for tasks that involve complex rule-based or symbolic reasoning. Example: Prolog.

    Programming Languages to Learn for Career Goals

    Programming languages are the building blocks of software. They are used to create everything from simple websites to complex enterprise applications. With the growing demand for software, programming languages are in high demand.

    If you are interested in a career in programming, it is important to choose a programming language that is in high demand and that aligns with your career goals. 

    Here are some additional tips for choosing a programming language:

    • Consider your interests: When choosing a programming language, it is important to consider your interests. If you are not interested in the language, then you are less likely to stick with it.
    • Think about your career goals: What type of work do you want to do? What kind of software do you want to develop? Once you know what you want to do, you can choose a programming language that is in high demand in that area.
    • Do your research: Once you have narrowed down your choices, do some research on each language to learn more about its strengths and weaknesses. You can read articles, watch videos, and talk to other programmers to get their insights.
    • Don't be afraid to experiment: There is no right or wrong answer when it comes to choosing a programming language. The best way to find the right language for you is to experiment and try different ones.

    Once you have chosen a programming language, it is important to start learning it and practicing regularly. There are many resources available to help you learn, such as online tutorials, books, and courses. You can also practice by working on personal projects or contributing to open source projects.

    How to Get Started with Programming?

    For non-technical users, getting started with programming can be a confusing task and a search in the dark. Fortunately, they, too, can get used to the field with stepwise learning.

    1. Understand what a programming language does

    As detailed in the introduction of this article, programming language helps a user to communicate with the computer to complete specific tasks. This can be as simple as displaying a message or taking user input or as complex as sending data over a network or connecting to a remote machine. A clear understanding of this concept helps quickly write code depending on the requirements. 

    2. Understand what programs/software do

    Programs are the code we write, which, when run, executes the code and gets the tasks done. Software is a combination of multiple programs used for larger and more complex tasks. 

    3. Start with a simple language

    Now to get hands-on, start with a most straightforward programming language like C instead of choosing the best programming language to learn. C is a basic language to be taught for a beginner, considering its easy-to-read and write syntax, a slightly low-level language, which will help understand the more profound and basic concepts like memory allocation and pointers.

    4. Get to the advanced concepts

    Once you are comfortable with the concepts, move on to more important concepts like Object Oriented Programming. From the list of object-oriented programming languages, C++ / Java may be chosen for this. Many languages have a variety of advanced concepts available -- DBMS access, CGI Programming, etc. Hence, go through your preferred language syllabus to list the advanced concepts. 

    Once basic coding is mastered, anyone can move on to their interested domain - Full Stack Developer, Backend Developer, Front End Developer, etc. which has its requirements and skill sets.

    The Well-Rounded Programmer

    Becoming someone who writes code vs becoming a well-rounded programmer are two different things. In this section, we will look at some points that will make you a well-rounded and skilled programmer, which will indeed highlight you from the crowd. 

    1. Know the basics

    Everyone wants to master a language, but the key to mastering a language is by knowing the basics harder than any higher concepts. Counterintuitively, this is true because all higher and complex concepts (OOPs, Pointers, etc.) are all built on the basic ideas of computer hardware and what each statement does in the computer. Hence, keep the basics strong. 

    2. Knowing what to write

    Writing down a bunch of code is not the goal here, but knowing what to write is. Often rookies make the mistake of jumping to the keyboard before deciding what to write. Any skilled programmer's first step is brainstorming and deciding what to write. Identifying the requirements and developing the right programs will make you a skilled programmer. 

    3. Learn OOPs Concepts

    Object Oriented Programming is one of today's world's most essential and unavoidable programming methodologies. Mastering the whole of OOPs will make you a very well-developed programmer and add to your job interview and career.

    4. Learn to debug

    Nothing comes perfect, and so do programmers. Finding errors within the program is a great skill to master and is most needed in your career. Understanding the data flow and finding out the root cause of an error is most required and an essential skill any programmer should have. Without this, writing and delivering error-free code will be a tough time.

    5. Learn to Refer

    Memorizing the whole of a programming language and its libraries is impractical and of not much use. Master the art of going through the documentation, referring to the required libraries and code, and implementing it for your needs. This is very much required and comes in handy when writing large codebases with complex code.

    6. Workout hobby projects

    Working out on self-developed hobby projects is the best way to excel in programming and software development. It is okay if your project is not an industry standard one - Even the most minor matters when you are trying to learn something. Check out internet sources or brainstorm a project idea to develop one.

    Conclusion

    Programming as a career has been on steady growth since the last decade. It is expected to rise in the coming years with the adoption of large-scale digitization by the government, organizations, and the general public. Programmers are among the most in-demand and well-paying jobs in the market today. Now that we have an insight into the various aspects of programming, getting hands-on and becoming a skilled programmer, training or certification will be a big plus for a great career ahead. If you need a training program, KnowledgeHut has a variety of training programs curated to shape the finest programmers for the future. To get started, visit Java Programming online

    Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    1What are the 5 main coding languages?

    According to market demand, the top programming languages are Python, Java, JavaScript / TypeScript, C#, and PHP.

    2What is the No 1 programming language?

    Although no such language has the topmost position, Python, Java, JavaScript / TypeScript, C#, etc., are the languages in most demand in the market and are being used widely.

    3Is SQL a programming language?

    SQL cannot be directly used to develop applications but can be used as a querying language to query databases which are further used as a component in applications to perform read / write operations in databases.

    4Which language is the hardest to learn?

    Although there is a clear distinction regarding difficulty among the languages we have discussed, Assembly language is generally said to be challenging to get used to and master because of its low-level nature and its dependence on the given type of microprocessor.

    Profile

    Vishnu U

    Trainer & Consultant

    Vishnu U is currently working as an Associate Software Engineer at Mindtree Ltd, Bangalore, working on developing internal solutions for the organization using Microsoft Technologies. With a Bachelor’s Degree in Computer Science and Engineering from Dayananda Sagar University, he is proficient in building technology solutions using Software Engineering, Data Science and Cloud. Vishnu has over a year of experience in writing technical content in Data Science and Software Engineering.

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