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Advantages and Disadvantages of Angular

What is Angular? Angular is a frontend web application development framework based on TypeScript, built by folks at Google and heavily contributed to by a huge community of developers around the world. It is a Single Page Application (SPA) framework, which means that Angular is capable and is primarily used to build single page web applications or SPAs.Angular logoAngular is developed by the same team of individuals that developed the popular framework AngularJS. The modern Angular requires you to have knowledge of the Typescript language which is a strict syntactical superset of JavaScript and adds optional static typing and some other features to the language that otherwise JavaScript lacks. The AngularJS framework was re-written and called "Angular 2", but this led to a lot of confusion and panicwithin the developer community. To clarify, the Angular team started to use separate terms for each framework. At this point, "AngularJS" now referred to the 1.X versions and "Angular" without the "JS" referred to versions 2 and up. Since then, all the versions of the framework other than 1.X are just called Angular. You can, however, mention the version number to be more precise. TypeScript is designed for development of large applications and transpiles to JavaScript. As TypeScript is a superset of JavaScript, existing JavaScript programs are also valid TypeScript programs. So, you can still use JavaScript in your TypeScript code files, but please do not do that. In this article, we will take a closer look at how Angular has evolved into one the mostpopular web development frameworks and understand its pros, cons, features and more. We will leave you with a few quick tips and suggest how you can get started with understanding Angular indepth to achieve mastery over the subject. History of Angular AngularJS was the first version of the framework, created by Google, that first came out in 2010and it shook the developer community. There were so many amazing features that AngularJS offered. Most talked and loved of all the features that it offered was two-way binding between the view and the model.  So, it let us developers get rid of a lot of useless code to set up bindings and keep the view and model in sync at all times. AngularJS was golden. AngularJS became very popular within the developer community and was widely adopted.It received a lot of traction. Still, the team decided to take another step further and developed a new version which was initially named Angular 2 but later was called Angular without the “JS” part. Soon after, in 2014, Angular 2.0 was announced which was a complete rewrite of the framework from scratch and unlike AngularJS that used JavaScript as the primary language, it used TypeScript. A final version of the framework, Angular 2, was released in 2016. Later, it was renamed to Angular to avoid conflicts and confusions within the developer community.  A lot of new changes were brought in and developers had to learn it all over again which was a tough change but was welcomed by the community. Angular opted for semantic versioning and from now on, all versions of Angular will just be called Angular. Near the end of 2016, Angular 4 came out (yeah, they skipped Angular 3 to avoid some conflicts and confusions). With a few more major versions and performance upgrades in each version, we have now arrived (at the time of writing of this article) to Angular 9.  Angular 9 has better than ever performance and latest features. In these intermediate versions, there have been updates to the performance, CLI features, progressive-web app features, router, and a lot more. They even upgraded to a better rendering engine in Angular 9. Angular 10, a major upgrade to the popular web development framework, has reached the release candidate stage, with six release candidates published as of June 17, 2020. The upgrade to the Google-developed, TypeScript-based framework focuses more on ecosystem improvements than new features. Advantages of Angular Angular hascome a long way since 2012. There are benefits to using the framework and there are some drawbacks as well, especially if you are a beginner. Let us talk about the good things first. Maintained by Google The best things about Angular is that it is developed and maintained by Google. As it is backed by a trusted company, trust is well established within the community. Developers believe in the framework and in the fact that it will be maintained, and issues will be resolved, of course withthe help of community contributions. Large community and ecosystem Angular is actively maintained and has a large community and ecosystem. You can find lots of material on this framework as well as many useful third-party tools. Currently, Angular has around over 63K stars on GitHub, a clear indication of the popularity of the framework. Github   Two-way Data binding Two-way data binding in Angular will help users to exchange data from the component to view and from view to the component. It will help users to establish communication bi-directionally. Two-way data binding can be achieved using a ngModel directive in Angular. This ensures that the model and the view are always kept in sync without any extra effort. Use of TypeScript Angular opted for TypeScript as the primary programming language. TypeScript adds a lot of syntactic sugar to JavaScript. With TypeScript, we also get several productivity benefits. In editors like VS Code and WebStorm, we have access to robust code help (intellisense) as we type, making it easier to discover types, the features they offer, and most importantly the common syntactical errors.TypeScript is a typed superset of JavaScript that compiles to plain JavaScriptSupport for i18n Internationalization is the process of making sure that an application is designed and prepared to be used in regions with different languages. Localization is the process of translating your internationalized app into specific languages for particular locales. Angular can take care of most things when it comes to multiple languages. Dates, numbers, times, and other things are easily taken care of based on the locale. On top of that, the Angular CLI allows us to install the @angular/localize package and generate most of the boilerplate code necessary. Support for lazy loading An Angular module is a logical unit of code that performs a certain task or takes care of a certain responsibility in the application. A normal Angular application can be broken down into multiple modules, where each module is delegated a certain responsibility. A module can comprise of components, pipes, directives or more modules.  Breaking down an application into modules not only allows to easily manage an application as it grows, but also offers huge performance advantages. Instead of loading all the application code at once in the browser which may cause more loading time and a slower initial render of the web page, it loads only what is necessary. This is called lazy loading.  Only the modules that are required are loaded initially and more modules or rather chunks of code are loaded as an when required. This offers seamless performance and smaller loading times. Every Angular app has at least one NgModule class, the root module which is responsible to bootstrap the project. Conventionally, it is named AppModule and itresides in a file named app.module.ts.  Dependency injection Dependency injection or DI is one of the most important application design patterns and Angular has its own dependency injection framework. It is typically used in the design of Angular applications to increase their efficiency and modularity. This is closely related to the previous point - modularization of the Angular app.   Dependencies are services or objects that a class needs to perform its function. The class requests services from an external resource, generally another module or class in this case, instead of creating them themselves. This allows us to delegate single responsibility to each module. The advantage of dependency injection design pattern is to divide the task into multiple services. The class will not create the dependent object itself, rather it will be created and injected by an Angular injector. Dependency Injection is technique that is used to reduce the coupling amongst various components of an application. Looser coupling allows for better testability and maintainability. Powerful Router Routing or in-app navigation in Angular is taken care of by the Angular Router. It is a module available in the @angular/router package. Angular router is a very powerful and flexible navigational service. It usesa component called router-outlet to load various components into the view depending upon the URL in the browser.  Angular Router has built-in support for lazy loading components, so the modules are loaded from the server as the user navigates within the app. Huge apps have a lot of benefits because of this feature.  Support for Ionic Angular was the first framework that was supported by the Ionic framework. It allows building cross-platform mobile applications for Android and iOS using the Ionic components and Angular code. As of now, more frameworks like ReactJS and VueJS are also supported but still, Angular is widely used with the Ionic framework for mobile application development.Angular is widely used with the Ionic framework for mobile app developmentAvailability of packages There is a huge repository of open-source packages available for Angular developers. Some of the most important packages are NgBootstrap, Angular Google Maps, NgRx, NgTranslate, AngularFire, NgxTextEditor, Angular Material, Ng2 Pdf Viewer, NgxCharts, and many more. Some of these packages are maintained by the official Angular team and most of these are taken care of by the community of developers as well. It is most likely that if you are looking to build a complex feature or a component for your application, a package already exists for you, so why reinvent the wheel? Disadvantages of Angular So, we have seen the good things about Angular, but there is another side to the story as well. Let us talk about some of the downsides of using one of the most popular web development framework. Steeper learning curve While Angular is great, it may not be the case for a complete beginner. Even if you have experience with HTML, CSS and JS, you may feel a little bit uncomfortable with the steep learning curve that it has. It brings its own notions and philosophy to the table that you need to work around.  Angular is an opinionated framework which means that it has its own rules that developers need to learn and follow. This can be a good and a bad thing, but the learning curve can be uncomfortable for total beginners. I would recommend that you stay patient and start slow. Slow and steady! Limited SEO Capabilities Angular is just great for building powerful single-page web applications. However, as with all single-page web applications, there is a disadvantage when it comes to search engine optimization.   Usually single-page applications are rendered on the client side and therefore web crawlers of search engines like Google and Bing are not able to see the complete structure and content of the individual pages of the websites. With this limitation in place,it is not possible to list your website correctly in search engine results.  However, there are techniques and packages to make this work, but it is an extra effort in terms of development. Angular universal is a way to render the Angular application of the server itself. The technology enables server-side rendering for Angular applications. Angular Universal generates static application pages on the server through a process called server-side rendering. While Angular universal takes care of most aspects, it still requires a lot of setup. If you prefer to do it all manually, there are documents available to help you do that but there are gotchas that you need to watch out for. Too many versions Angular has been evolving. It started out as a JavaScript framework AngularJS and now the current version is Angular 9 with a total of 6 major releases in between. This can cause confusion especially for beginners. Many a time, beginners struggle to understand the versioning. I have seen students learning a version of the framework, latest at the time, and by the time they finish their first project, a new major release is out. This causes trust issues. Developers, at times, feel that they must keep working on their apps and resolve version conflicts and compatibility issues. Decline in popularity With the advent of newer frameworks like VueJS and ReactJS, Angular has seen a downfall in its popularity. Just a few years ago, developers were mainly debating on whether they should be using Angular or React for their projects. But over the course of the last couple of years, we saw a growth of interest in a third player called VueJS or Vue.js. While the job market in Angular continues to expand, it has been observed that the popularity of the framework has been declining. I believe that too many versions is one of the main issues that the framework needs to address. Lot of boilerplate code If you are building a simple app, there is a lot of boilerplate code that the application requires. Although with tools like StackBlitz, it has become easier to try code ideas and experiment without having to install anything on your computer, but if you decide to start developing an Angular app on your system, you need to install a bunch of things and the most simple “Hello World!” application will have a lot of code that you do not care about. What’s new in Angular 9? Let us take a closer look at what is in store for us in the Angular 9 version of the framework. We will delve into the latest version of Angular 10, released in June 2020, in a separate blog post. Step-by-step guide The official Angular website offers a step-by-step guide on how to upgrade your existing apps to the latest version. GuideIvy, the next-gen compilation and rendering engine Ivy is the code name for Angular's next-generation compilation and rendering engine. With the version 9 release of Angular, the new compiler and runtime instructions are used by default instead of the older compiler and runtime, known as View Engine. You can, however, disable Ivy if you still want to use View Engine for your app. It is a huge milestone for the framework. Ivy offers faster build times and small build sizes. It also offers a new change detection system.The important point is that we don’t have to change how we write our applications. Ivy aims to be compatible with the existing applications. Ivy is going to be smaller, simpler, and faster as quoted by the Angular team.  In the demo shown by Miško Hevery, the creator of the AngularJS framework,in ngConf 2018, the Hello World application was merely 3.2KB which is significantly small although 3.2KB is the result after minification + gzip.Total bundle SizeIvy compiles one file at a time and therefore follows the locality principle. Ivy looks at a component's template when generating the compiled output. This process leads to faster compilation. Ivy makes sure that, if you are not using something in Angular, it does not get included. Since Ivy pipelining is simplified, templates will be part of the stack trace.  No more cryptic error messages when something is broken in our template syntax as we will see the exact line number where the error is. The Ivy compiler has been designed to remove parts of Angular code that aren’t being used via a mechanism called tree-shaking and to generate less code for each Angular component. With these improvements, small apps and large apps can see the most dramatic size savings. Angular ahead-of-time (AOT)  In Angular 9, AOT is enabled for Dev build as well. The Angular ahead-of-time (AOT) compiler converts your Angular HTML and TypeScript code into efficient JavaScript code during the build phase before the browser downloads and runs that code.  Compiling your application during the build process provides a faster rendering in the browser. AOT allows faster rendering of the application and also makes sure that there are a lot less asynchronous requests. According to the docs, AOT compilation with Ivy is faster and should be used by default. Lazy loading components Before Angular 9, we could only lazy load modules. Now, you can also lazy load components. It is a great way to shrink the size of your main bundle and boost the initial load of your application. Lazy loading of single components has not been possible so far. But things have changed with Ivy.  Works with TypeScript 3.6 and 3.7 The latest version of the TypeScript is 3.7 and Angular 9 is updated to work with TypeScript 3.6 and 3.7. Angular 9 supports usage of the same TypeScript Diagnostics format for the TypeScript Compiler diagnostics, which will generate more descriptive error messages. According to the official docs - “In TypeScript 3.7, when opening a project with dependencies, TypeScript will automatically use the source . ts / . tsx files instead. This means projects using project references will now see an improved editing experience where semantic operations are up-to-date and “just work”. SupportscCSS variables or custom properties Angular 9 supports CSS variables or custom properties. CSS variables or custom properties allowsdevelopers to define their own variables for CSS values that can be shared between components and style rules.  CSS custom properties or CSS variables allow the CSS property values to be changed at runtime. The possibility that the CSS custom properties can be updated during runtimeopens the opportunity to easily create themes for newer Angular application.  Angular:Quick tips and facts Angular is a framework used for front-end development. This involves the client-side of the application and has little to do with the back end. Angular is best utilized for completing advanced, large-scale projects under the direction of a seasoned developer. Angular is created for enterprise-scale applications. Angular elements can be added to projects that were built using a different platform, such as React or Polymer. Angular is supported by Google. This program is not up to par with SEO best practices, so if your primary focus is search engine optimization, opt for a different platform. Angular is a JavaScript framework—not a JS Library.Angular ranked second in “most used technology” in the Stack Overflow Survey of 2018.  How to get started with Angular?Are you ready to take on the best and become a master of the Angular framework? Check out the Angular Training and Certification which comes with instructor-led live training and real-life project experience.  This training will help you understand Angular in-depth and help you achieve mastery over the subject. Master Angular programming with our in-depth online courses. Explore them now!

Advantages and Disadvantages of Angular

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Advantages and Disadvantages of Angular

What is Angular? 

Angular is a frontend web application development framework based on TypeScript, built by folks at Google and heavily contributed to by a huge community of developers around the world. It is a Single Page Application (SPA) framework, which means that Angular is capable and is primarily used to build single page web applications or SPAs.

Angular logoAngular logo

Angular is developed by the same team of individuals that developed the popular framework AngularJS. The modern Angular requires you to have knowledge of the Typescript language which is a strict syntactical superset of JavaScript and adds optional static typing and some other features to the language that otherwise JavaScript lacks. 

The AngularJS framework was re-written and called "Angular 2", but this led to a lot of confusion and panicwithin the developer community. To clarify, the Angular team started to use separate terms for each framework. At this point, "AngularJS" now referred to the 1.X versions and "Angular" without the "JS" referred to versions 2 and up. Since then, all the versions of the framework other than 1.X are just called Angular. You can, however, mention the version number to be more precise. 

TypeScript is designed for development of large applications and transpiles to JavaScript. As TypeScript is a superset of JavaScript, existing JavaScript programs are also valid TypeScript programs. So, you can still use JavaScript in your TypeScript code files, but please do not do that. 

In this article, we will take a closer look at how Angular has evolved into one the mostpopular web development frameworks and understand its pros, cons, features and more. We will leave you with a few quick tips and suggest how you can get started with understanding Angular indepth to achieve mastery over the subject. 

History of Angular 

AngularJS was the first version of the framework, created by Google, that first came out in 2010and it shook the developer community. There were so many amazing features that AngularJS offered. Most talked and loved of all the features that it offered was two-way binding between the view and the model.  

So, it let us developers get rid of a lot of useless code to set up bindings and keep the view and model in sync at all times. AngularJS was golden. AngularJS became very popular within the developer community and was widely adopted.It received a lot of traction. Still, the team decided to take another step further and developed a new version which was initially named Angular 2 but later was called Angular without the “JS” part. 

Soon after, in 2014, Angular 2.0 was announced which was a complete rewrite of the framework from scratch and unlike AngularJS that used JavaScript as the primary language, it used TypeScript. A final version of the framework, Angular 2, was released in 2016. Later, it was renamed to Angular to avoid conflicts and confusions within the developer community.  

A lot of new changes were brought in and developers had to learn it all over again which was a tough change but was welcomed by the community. Angular opted for semantic versioning and from now on, all versions of Angular will just be called Angular. 

Near the end of 2016, Angular 4 came out (yeah, they skipped Angular 3 to avoid some conflicts and confusions). With a few more major versions and performance upgrades in each version, we have now arrived (at the time of writing of this article) to Angular 9.  

Angular 9 has better than ever performance and latest features. In these intermediate versions, there have been updates to the performance, CLI features, progressive-web app features, router, and a lot more. They even upgraded to a better rendering engine in Angular 9. 

Angular 10, a major upgrade to the popular web development framework, has reached the release candidate stage, with six release candidates published as of June 17, 2020. The upgrade to the Google-developed, TypeScript-based framework focuses more on ecosystem improvements than new features. 

Advantages of Angular 

Angular hascome a long way since 2012. There are benefits to using the framework and there are some drawbacks as well, especially if you are a beginner. Let us talk about the good things first. 

Maintained by Google 

The best things about Angular is that it is developed and maintained by Google. As it is backed by a trusted company, trust is well established within the community. Developers believe in the framework and in the fact that it will be maintained, and issues will be resolved, of course withthe help of community contributions. 

Large community and ecosystem 

Angular is actively maintained and has a large community and ecosystem. You can find lots of material on this framework as well as many useful third-party tools. Currently, Angular has around over 63K stars on GitHub, a clear indication of the popularity of the framework. 

Angular is one of the most popular frameworks

Github   

Two-way Data binding 

Two-way data binding in Angular will help users to exchange data from the component to view and from view to the component. It will help users to establish communication bi-directionally. Two-way data binding can be achieved using a ngModel directive in Angular. This ensures that the model and the view are always kept in sync without any extra effort. 

Use of TypeScript 

Angular opted for TypeScript as the primary programming language. TypeScript adds a lot of syntactic sugar to JavaScript. With TypeScript, we also get several productivity benefits. In editors like VS Code and WebStorm, we have access to robust code help (intellisense) as we type, making it easier to discover types, the features they offer, and most importantly the common syntactical errors.

TypeScript is a typed superset of JavaScript that compiles to plain JavaScriptTypeScript is a typed superset of JavaScript that compiles to plain JavaScript

Support for i18n 

Internationalization is the process of making sure that an application is designed and prepared to be used in regions with different languages. Localization is the process of translating your internationalized app into specific languages for particular locales. Angular can take care of most things when it comes to multiple languages. Dates, numbers, times, and other things are easily taken care of based on the locale. On top of that, the Angular CLI allows us to install the @angular/localize package and generate most of the boilerplate code necessary. 

Support for lazy loading 

An Angular module is a logical unit of code that performs a certain task or takes care of a certain responsibility in the application. A normal Angular application can be broken down into multiple modules, where each module is delegated a certain responsibility. A module can comprise of components, pipes, directives or more modules.  

Breaking down an application into modules not only allows to easily manage an application as it grows, but also offers huge performance advantages. Instead of loading all the application code at once in the browser which may cause more loading time and a slower initial render of the web page, it loads only what is necessary. This is called lazy loading.  

Only the modules that are required are loaded initially and more modules or rather chunks of code are loaded as an when required. This offers seamless performance and smaller loading times.
 
Every Angular app has at least one NgModule class, the root module which is responsible to bootstrap the project. Conventionally, it is named AppModule and itresides in a file named app.module.ts.  

Dependency injection 

Dependency injection or DI is one of the most important application design patterns and Angular has its own dependency injection framework. It is typically used in the design of Angular applications to increase their efficiency and modularity. This is closely related to the previous point - modularization of the Angular app.  
 
Dependencies are services or objects that a class needs to perform its function. The class requests services from an external resource, generally another module or class in this case, instead of creating them themselves. This allows us to delegate single responsibility to each module.
 
The advantage of dependency injection design pattern is to divide the task into multiple services. The class will not create the dependent object itself, rather it will be created and injected by an Angular injector. Dependency Injection is technique that is used to reduce the coupling amongst various components of an application. Looser coupling allows for better testability and maintainability. 

Powerful Router 

Routing or in-app navigation in Angular is taken care of by the Angular Router. It is a module available in the @angular/router package. Angular router is a very powerful and flexible navigational service. It usesa component called router-outlet to load various components into the view depending upon the URL in the browser.  

Angular Router has built-in support for lazy loading components, so the modules are loaded from the server as the user navigates within the app. Huge apps have a lot of benefits because of this feature.  

Support for Ionic 

Angular was the first framework that was supported by the Ionic framework. It allows building cross-platform mobile applications for Android and iOS using the Ionic components and Angular code. As of now, more frameworks like ReactJS and VueJS are also supported but still, Angular is widely used with the Ionic framework for mobile application development.

Angular is widely used with the Ionic framework for mobile app developmentAngular is widely used with the Ionic framework for mobile app development

Availability of packages 

There is a huge repository of open-source packages available for Angular developers. Some of the most important packages are NgBootstrap, Angular Google Maps, NgRx, NgTranslate, AngularFire, NgxTextEditor, Angular Material, Ng2 Pdf Viewer, NgxCharts, and many more. Some of these packages are maintained by the official Angular team and most of these are taken care of by the community of developers as well. It is most likely that if you are looking to build a complex feature or a component for your application, a package already exists for you, so why reinvent the wheel? 

Disadvantages of Angular 

So, we have seen the good things about Angular, but there is another side to the story as well. Let us talk about some of the downsides of using one of the most popular web development framework. 

Steeper learning curve 

While Angular is great, it may not be the case for a complete beginner. Even if you have experience with HTML, CSS and JS, you may feel a little bit uncomfortable with the steep learning curve that it has. It brings its own notions and philosophy to the table that you need to work around.  

Angular is an opinionated framework which means that it has its own rules that developers need to learn and follow. This can be a good and a bad thing, but the learning curve can be uncomfortable for total beginners. I would recommend that you stay patient and start slow. Slow and steady! 

Limited SEO Capabilities 

Angular is just great for building powerful single-page web applications. However, as with all single-page web applications, there is a disadvantage when it comes to search engine optimization.  
 
Usually single-page applications are rendered on the client side and therefore web crawlers of search engines like Google and Bing are not able to see the complete structure and content of the individual pages of the websites. With this limitation in place,it is not possible to list your website correctly in search engine results.  

However, there are techniques and packages to make this work, but it is an extra effort in terms of development. Angular universal is a way to render the Angular application of the server itself. The technology enables server-side rendering for Angular applications. Angular Universal generates static application pages on the server through a process called server-side rendering. 

While Angular universal takes care of most aspects, it still requires a lot of setup. If you prefer to do it all manually, there are documents available to help you do that but there are gotchas that you need to watch out for. 

Too many versions 

Angular has been evolving. It started out as a JavaScript framework AngularJS and now the current version is Angular 9 with a total of 6 major releases in between. This can cause confusion especially for beginners. 

Many a time, beginners struggle to understand the versioning. I have seen students learning a version of the framework, latest at the time, and by the time they finish their first project, a new major release is out. This causes trust issues. Developers, at times, feel that they must keep working on their apps and resolve version conflicts and compatibility issues. 

Decline in popularity 

With the advent of newer frameworks like VueJS and ReactJS, Angular has seen a downfall in its popularity. Just a few years ago, developers were mainly debating on whether they should be using Angular or React for their projects. But over the course of the last couple of years, we saw a growth of interest in a third player called VueJS or Vue.js.
 
While the job market in Angular continues to expand, it has been observed that the popularity of the framework has been declining. I believe that too many versions is one of the main issues that the framework needs to address. 

Lot of boilerplate code 

If you are building a simple app, there is a lot of boilerplate code that the application requires. Although with tools like StackBlitz, it has become easier to try code ideas and experiment without having to install anything on your computer, but if you decide to start developing an Angular app on your system, you need to install a bunch of things and the most simple “Hello World!” application will have a lot of code that you do not care about. 

What’s new in Angular 9? 

Let us take a closer look at what is in store for us in the Angular 9 version of the framework. We will delve into the latest version of Angular 10, released in June 2020, in a separate blog post. 

Step-by-step guide 

The official Angular website offers a step-by-step guide on how to upgrade your existing apps to the latest version. 

Step-by-step guide

Guide

Ivy, the next-gen compilation and rendering engine 

Ivy is the code name for Angular's next-generation compilation and rendering engine. With the version 9 release of Angular, the new compiler and runtime instructions are used by default instead of the older compiler and runtime, known as View Engine. You can, however, disable Ivy if you still want to use View Engine for your app. It is a huge milestone for the framework. Ivy offers faster build times and small build sizes. It also offers a new change detection system.

The important point is that we don’t have to change how we write our applications. Ivy aims to be compatible with the existing applications. Ivy is going to be smaller, simpler, and faster as quoted by the Angular team.  

In the demo shown by Miško Hevery, the creator of the AngularJS framework,in ngConf 2018, the Hello World application was merely 3.2KB which is significantly small although 3.2KB is the result after minification + gzip.

Total bundle SizeTotal bundle Size

Ivy compiles one file at a time and therefore follows the locality principle. Ivy looks at a component's template when generating the compiled output. This process leads to faster compilation. Ivy makes sure that, if you are not using something in Angular, it does not get included. Since Ivy pipelining is simplified, templates will be part of the stack trace.  

No more cryptic error messages when something is broken in our template syntax as we will see the exact line number where the error is. 

The Ivy compiler has been designed to remove parts of Angular code that aren’t being used via a mechanism called tree-shaking and to generate less code for each Angular component. With these improvements, small apps and large apps can see the most dramatic size savings. 

Angular ahead-of-time (AOT)  

In Angular 9, AOT is enabled for Dev build as well. The Angular ahead-of-time (AOT) compiler converts your Angular HTML and TypeScript code into efficient JavaScript code during the build phase before the browser downloads and runs that code.  

Compiling your application during the build process provides a faster rendering in the browser. AOT allows faster rendering of the application and also makes sure that there are a lot less asynchronous requests. According to the docs, AOT compilation with Ivy is faster and should be used by default. 

Lazy loading components 

Before Angular 9, we could only lazy load modules. Now, you can also lazy load components. It is a great way to shrink the size of your main bundle and boost the initial load of your application. Lazy loading of single components has not been possible so far. But things have changed with Ivy.  

Works with TypeScript 3.6 and 3.7 

The latest version of the TypeScript is 3.7 and Angular 9 is updated to work with TypeScript 3.6 and 3.7. Angular 9 supports usage of the same TypeScript Diagnostics format for the TypeScript Compiler diagnostics, which will generate more descriptive error messages. 

According to the official docs - “In TypeScript 3.7, when opening a project with dependencies, TypeScript will automatically use the source . ts / . tsx files instead. This means projects using project references will now see an improved editing experience where semantic operations are up-to-date and “just work”. 

SupportscCSS variables or custom properties 

Angular 9 supports CSS variables or custom properties. CSS variables or custom properties allowsdevelopers to define their own variables for CSS values that can be shared between components and style rules.  

CSS custom properties or CSS variables allow the CSS property values to be changed at runtime. The possibility that the CSS custom properties can be updated during runtimeopens the opportunity to easily create themes for newer Angular application.  

Angular:Quick tips and facts 

Angular is a framework used for front-end development. This involves the client-side of the application and has little to do with the back end. 

  1. Angular is best utilized for completing advanced, large-scale projects under the direction of a seasoned developer. 
  2. Angular is created for enterprise-scale applications. 
  3. Angular elements can be added to projects that were built using a different platform, such as React or Polymer. 
  4. Angular is supported by Google. 
  5. This program is not up to par with SEO best practices, so if your primary focus is search engine optimization, opt for a different platform. 
  6. Angular is a JavaScript framework—not a JS Library.
  7. Angular ranked second in “most used technology” in the Stack Overflow Survey of 2018.  

How to get started with Angular?

Are you ready to take on the best and become a master of the Angular framework? Check out the Angular Training and Certification which comes with instructor-led live training and real-life project experience.  

This training will help you understand Angular in-depth and help you achieve mastery over the subject. 

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How to Become a Successful Full Stack Web Developer?

Full stack developer roles are among the hottest careers in the tech space now. These talented folks can develop a whole product from scratch. A full stack developer is a combination of Front-end developer and Backend developer. These two in themselves are full time jobs and most people make careers out of one of them. So, we will start with Front-end roadmap and then go to Back-end roadmap. A person interested in becoming a Full-stack developer needs to have proficiency in both the front end and back-end tools, just like I started as a Front-end developer and later on become a Full stack developer by mastering JavaScript backend technologies and databases.The demand for Full Stack Web DeveloperThe demand for Full stack developers is the highest in early-stage startups, where they want to create a Minimum Viable Product at the earliest to showcase to the investors. It is also a nice skill to have in addition to frontend technologies or backend technologies alone, since an employer prefers people with both skills.There are a lot of technologies to learn to be a Full-Stack developer. We will discuss about them in the coming sections.   List of technologies to master to become a Full-Stack developer A full-stack developer is actually a combination of Frontend developer and Backend developer. We need to master both, and both have different Roadmaps. Let’s start with the basics. The frontend is the web-site which we see and it is primarily made with HTML and CSS.  JavaScript was also used earlier but nowadays, it is created with JavaScript frameworks like ReactJS, Angular or Vue. All these frameworks require one to learn the basics of HTML, CSS, & JavaScript. So, we need to learn the basics followed by at least one framework.In the backend we have a lot of technologies and databases also. So, we need to choose one backend framework from Java (Spring Framework), JavaScript (NodeJS) etc and then also learn databases. Databases are divided into two categories, which is NoSQL(MongoDB) and SQL(PostgreSQL, MySQL, Oracle) databases. So, you need to choose one of the databases.We are also required to know about DevOps, which is a practice of harmonizing development and operations whereby the entire pipeline from development, testing, deployment, continuous integration and feedback is automated. The knowledge of either AWS or Azure based cloud ecosystem is required, and also CI/CD like Jenkins and containerizing & orchestrating applications using Docker and Kubernetes.1. Frontend RoadmapLearn the BasicsPlease refer to the attached figure for Front-end roadmap, as we will be referring to this throughout this article. We have to start our journey by learning HTML, CSS and JavaScript which is the base for a web-app or website. HTML has changed a bit over the years, with the introduction of HTML 5 and semantics tags, so make sure to update yourself. JavaScript which was released in 1995, didn’t change much during the next 20 years. But once more and more developers started using it, the ECMA committee decided to add some very nice features and enhance the language, and renamed it ES6 in 2015. After that they regularly added new features to the language and have just released ES2020 in June 2020, which has many additional features. So, learn the basic JavaScript first and then upgrade to ES6 and newer versions. CSS is what makes a website or web-app beautiful, and is often considered the hardest part by a developer. Earlier, CSS was very confusing and had a steep learning curve, because of the use of floats to create a layout. Developers usually used to work with CSS frameworks like bootstrap to design a site. But things have changed a lot with the invention of CSS Grid and Flexbox. Some of the best resources to learn the basics are - html.specdeveloper.mozilla.HTMLStyle CSSdeveloper.mozilla.CSSdeveloper.mozilla.JavaScriptGetting Deeper Now, just learning JavaScript and some basic CSS will not make you a good Front-end developer as you have to take a deep dive into JavaScript. We will discuss CSS later, after learning the essentials of JavaScript.JavaScript EssentialsThere are many things associated with JavaScript which we need to learn before moving forward.The Terminal The first thing to learn is to work in a terminal, and master some of the basic commands. If you are on a Mac, it’s already based on Linux and runs most Linux commands. If you are working on Windows then you must install git bash, which will give you a Linux environment to work with. In JavaScript frameworks, we need to run a lot of commands from the terminal, like if we want to install a third-party dependency by npm.  The basics of Linux can be learnt from their official site.1. Linux FoundationVersion ControlNext, learning version control is very important because we should always keep our code in some remote repository like Github. The industry works on Git, which is version control software. It is completely command-based and is used heavily everywhere. Learn the basic commands which will be useful even for an individual developer. Later on, when working with teams, more advanced knowledge of the git command is required.Through the git commands, we store our code in repositories. The most popular ones are Github and Bit Bucket, so we need to learn how to store and link them.The basics of git can be learnt from this awesome tutorial.1. Git TutorialTask Runners   Task runners are applications which are used to automate tasks required in projects. These tasks include minification of JavaScript and CSS files, CSS preprocessing like from SASS to CSS, image optimization and Unit testing. The three popular task runners are npm scripts, gulp and grunt. The npm script is nothing but the package.json file which comes with React projects or is created in a Node.js project using npm init. Gulp and Grunt are much bigger applications and also have a plugin ecosystem that is suited for large JavaScript projects. The basics for these two technologies can be learnt from here. 1. Gulp2. GruntModule Loader and Bundler  Both module loaders and bundlers are required for large JavaScript applications. Knowledge of both is required, if the project you are working is a big Vanilla JavaScript project. When a large JavaScript application consists of hundreds of files, the module loader takes care of the dependency and makes sure all the modules are loaded when the application is executed. Examples are RequireJS and SystemJS.Module bundlers also do the same thing, building it at the time of application build rather than at the runtime. Popular examples are Webpack and Rollup. 1. RequireJS2. Github3. Webpack4. RollupJSTesting  Testing nowadays is very important in any type of project. There are two types of testing; one is known as Unit testing and other as end-to-end testing. For unit testing we write test cases and the most popular tool nowadays is Jest. End-to-end testing is automated testing, which emulates the whole app. Suppose, an app has a login screen and then it shows posts. The testing tool will run the web-app to check whether all the functionalities are done correctly. The two most popular options today are Puppeteer and Cypress. The tutorials to refer for these topics are - 1. Jest2. Puppeteer3. CypressLibraries and FrameworkThey are the most important part of the JavaScript ecosystem nowadays. It all started with the release of AngularJS in 2010. Before that period most enterprise apps were made in Java and were desktop apps. But AngularJS changed everything, because it made it easy to manage big projects with JavaScript and helped to create complex web-apps.1. React   It is the most popular JavaScript library today and is used by both enterprises and startups that have a huge ecosystem. It is not a complete framework like Angular and we have to install third party dependencies for most things. But if you want to learn a framework that will get you a job, then that framework would be ReactJS, and its demand is not going away for the next 5 years. The component approach and its easy learning curve have made React more popular than other frameworks. A good starting tutorial for React is1. ReactJSState Management   In React state management can sometimes become complex, when we need to share data between components. We generally take help of external packages in it with the most popular being Redux. But we also have other state management libraries like XState and Recoil. Server-side rendering   With performance becoming important nowadays, Server-Side Rendering speeds up the React projects even faster. In SSR projects, the React code is rendered on the server and the client browser directly receives the HTML, CSS, JS bundle. The only framework to do it is NextJS. Static Site Generators   Lot of sites don’t need to be updated frequently and it is the place where the only Static Site Generator for ReactJS, which is GatsbyJS shines. With the help of GatsbyJS we can create extremely fast static sites and it gets into Wordpress domain a lot with it. GatsbyJS also has a huge ecosystem of plugins, which enhances its functionalities. React Testing   Unit testing is a very important part of ReactJS projects, especially the ones which are very large. Unit testing ensures that we have lower bugs in Production build. The two popular libraries are – Enzyme and Jest. 2. Angular    It is a complete framework and unlike React requires very few external dependencies. Everything is built within Angular and we don’t have to go outside for more features. Since it was among the earliest frameworks, older projects are in Angular and it is still widely used in enterprises. A good tutorial to learn Angular is below. Angular3. Vue    Vue is another very popular JavaScript library, which has the best features of both ReactJS and Angular and has become very popular in recent years. It is widely used in both enterprise and startups. A good tutorial to start with Vue is below. Vue4. NuxtJS   It is used for Server-Side Rendering in Vue projects and is similar to the NextJS framework used in ReactJS for SSR.  5. Svelte    It is the newest of all frameworks/libraries and has become quite popular, but still not used much in enterprises and startups. It is different from React, Vue and Angular and converts the app at build time rather than at run time as in the other three. Good tutorials to start with Svelte are below. SvelteSvelte handbookCSS Deep DiveA lot has changed in CSS after it included CSS Grid and Flexbox; it has become much easier for developers to work with. CSS Essentials   It is now mandatory for frontend developers to learn CSS Grid and Flexbox, because through it we can develop beautiful layouts with ease. More companies are moving away from CSS Frameworks and have started working with CSS Grid and Flexbox, which are now supported by all browsers. Good tutorials to learn Flexbox and CSS Grid are below. CSS FlexboxCSS GridCSSPreprocessors  CSS preprocessors are used to add special functionalities in CSS, which it lacks. An example is Sass, which adds special features like variables and nested rules in CSS and is widely used in the industry for larger projects. The other popular one is PostCSS, in which we can use custom plugin and tools in CSS. CSS Frameworks  Frameworks were very popular from the early days of CSS, when it was very complicated because of floats. Bootstrap  This is the most popular and oldest CSS framework; easy to learn and also has a wide variety of elements, templates and interfaces. Bulma   It is another CSS framework, which is very popular and much easier to use than bootstrap. Tailwind CSS   This is a fairly new CSS framework and is quite popular nowadays. It follows a different approach than the other frameworks and contains easier classes. Styled Components (React)   This is a CSS in JS library and is for React only. It is used to create components out of every style and is very popular in the React world.  CI/CDThe Continuous Integration/ Continuous deployment is mainly used by DevOps. But a frontend engineer should know its basics. It is used to build, test and deploy applications automatically.Github Actions    It is a freely available CI/CD pipeline, which directly integrates to your github based project and can be used in a variety of languages. Deployment It is again a task which mainly falls into the domain of Backend engineers and DevOps, but a frontend engineer should know some basic and simple tools. Static Deployment   These products are mainly used to deploy static sites, which consists of HTML, CSS and JavaScript only. Two very popular services are Amazon S3 and Surge.sh Node Application Deployment   The projects containing node code cannot be deployed using static deployment. Even if the project is a simple ReactJS project, it also uses node for processing. These applications require services which run the Node code and deploy it. The three most popular services are Vercel, Firebase and Netlify. 2. Backend Roadmap (Including Storage, Services & Deployment)Understanding the BackendBackend is the part of the website that provides the functionality, allowing people to browse their favorite site, purchase a product and log into their account, for instance. All data related to a user or a product or anything else are generally stored in databases or CMS (Content Management System) and when a user visits any website, they are retrieved from there and shown. One of the responsibilities of a backend engineer involves writing APIs, which actually interact with the database and get the data. They are also involved in writing schemas of database and creating the structure of databases. Backend EssentialsFor a backend engineer, working in a Linux environment is an essential skill. A lot of the configurations are done on the terminal. So, he or she should be very good with Linux commands.Also, they should know both commands and the use of any git powered platforms like Github or bitbucket.Languages and FrameworksAll of the popular languages have some framework, which has been used for backend development. These frameworks are generally used to create API endpoints, which are used to fetch or store data in the database. For example, when we scroll articles on Facebook, these articles are fetched from a database and we use the GET method to fetch them. Similarly, when we write an article and hit submit, it uses POST method.Now, different frameworks implement this GET, POST and other APIs also referred to as RESTful APIs in their own way.Java   Java is by far the oldest and the most used language for backend development. It is also used for a variety of other tasks like Android development, but it shines in the backend because of its multithreading abilities. So, enterprise grade web-apps and web-apps with a lot of traffic prefer Java, because it handles loads better. The most popular frameworks for backend development in Java are Spring Framework and Hibernate. Some good beginner's tutorials are - 1. Spring framework2. Hibernate3. JavatpointJavaScript   It is a very popular choice for backend development, because on the frontend side JavaScript is the only choice. So, a lot of frontend engineers can take this choice to become Full-stack developers. Node.js   It allows developers to use JavaScript to write server-side code, through which they can write APIs. Actually, the API part can be done by numerous frameworks of Node.js out of which Express is widely used. The other popular framework is Fastify. Some good beginner's tutorials are - 1. Nodejs2. ExpressJs3. fastifyPython   Python is one of the most popular languages among developers and has been used in a variety of fields. The two most popular frameworks for Python are Flask and Django. Some good beginner tutorials are - 1. Flask2. DjangoC#   It is a very popular programming language which was developed by Microsoft and it has the power of C++. Its popularity increased once the .NET framework was released for backend development. As Microsoft is very popular in enterprises, the .NET framework is generally preferred in enterprises. A good tutorial to learn .NET is - 1. Dotnet2. Dotnet FrameworkGo  Go language which is also referred to as Golang, has gained popularity in recent years. It is used a lot in Backend programming and the two popular frameworks are Gin and Beego. DatabaseFor a Backend engineer, after making APIs with framework based on language, it's time to learn about Databases. Databases are used to store most of the things which we see in a web-app, from user login credentials to user posts and everything else. In the earlier days we only used to have one type of Database and that was Relational databases, which use tables to store data. Now we have two other categories also, one being NoSQL databases and the other In-memory databases. 1. Relational databases   Relational databases allow you to create, update and delete data stored in a table format. This type of database mostly uses SQL language to access the data, hence is also known as an SQL database. MySQL  It is one of the oldest databases and was released in 1995. It is an open-source database and was very popular in the 2000s with the rise of LAMP (Linux, Apache, MySQL, PHP) stack. It is still widely in use, but there are other popular Relational databases. A good tutorial to learn MySQL is - 1. MySQLPostgreSQL  PostgreSQL, which is also known as Postgres is also an old open-source Relational database, which was released in 1996. But it gained popularity recently, as it goes very well with modern stacks containing NodeJS and other backend technologies. A good tutorial to learn PostgreSQL is - 1. PostgreSQLOracle is the most popular and oldest relational database. It was released in 1979 and still remains the number one preference for enterprise customers. All the big banks and other organizations, run on Oracle databases. So, the knowledge of Oracle is a must in many companies for an Engineer. A good tutorial to learn Oracle is - 1. OracleMS-SQL  MS-SQL is also known as Microsoft SQL and is yet another commercial Relational database. It has got different editions, used by different audiences. It is also heavily used by enterprise users and powers a whole lot of big systems around the world. A good tutorial to learn MS-SQL is - 1. SQLServer2. NoSQL databases  NoSQL databases are also called non-SQL databases. The NoSQL databases mainly store data as key-value pairs, but some of them also use a SQL-like structure. These databases have become hugely popular in the 21st century, with the rise of large web-apps which have a lot of concurrent users. These databases can take huge loads, even millions of data connections, required by web-apps like Facebook, Amazon and others. Beside this, it is very easy to horizontally scale  a NoSQL database by adding more clusters, which is a problem in Relational Databases. MongoDB  It is the most popular NoSQL database, used by almost every modern app. It is a free to use database, but the hosting is charged if we host on popular cloud services like MongoDB atlas. Its knowledge is a must for backend engineers, who work on the modern stack. MongoDB uses json like documents to store data. A good tutorial to learn MongoDB is - 1. MongodbIt is a proprietary database service provided by Amazon. It is quite similar to MongoDB and uses key-value pairs to store data. It is also a part of the popular AWS services. A good tutorial to learn DynamoDB is-DynamoDBCassandra is an open-source and free to use NoSQL database . It takes a different approach when compared to other NoSQL databases, because we use commands like SQL, which are known as CQL (Cassandra Query Language). A good tutorial to learn Cassandra is - Cassandra3. In-memory databases   The in-memory database is a database, which keeps all of the data in the RAM. This means it is the fastest among all databases.  The most popular and widely used in-memory database is Redis. Redis  Redis (Remote Dictionary Server) is an in-memory database, which stores data in RAM in a json like key-value format. It keeps the data persistent by updating everything in the transaction log, because when systems are shut down their RAM is wiped clean. A good tutorial to learn Redis - RedisStorageStoring the data is an important part of any application. Although this is mainly DevOps territory, every backend developer should know the basics for the same. We need to store the database data and also the backend code. Beside this the frontend code must also be stored somewhere. Nowadays everything is stored in the cloud, which is preferred by individuals, startups and enterprises. The two most popular cloud-based storages are – Amazon S3 Azure Blob Storage Good beginner's tutorials for both areServices and APIsThese are theoretical concepts and are implemented by various services, but a backend engineer should know them and how to use them. Restful APIs  This is by far the most popular way to get data from a database. It was made more popular, with the rise of web-apps. We do GET, PUT, POST and DELETE operations to read, update, create or delete data from databases. We have earlier discussed different languages and frameworks, which have their own implementations for these operations. Microservices Architecture  In microservice architecture, we divide a large and complex project into small, independent services. Each of these is responsible for a specific task and communicates with other services through simple APIs. Each service is built by a small team from the beginning, and separated by boundaries which make it easier to scale up the development effort if needed. GraphQL  It is the hottest new kid in the block, which is an alternative to the Restful APIs. The problem with Restful APIs is that if you want some data stored in database, you need to get the whole data sent by the endpoint. On the other hand, with GraphQL, you get a query type language which can return only the part of the data which you require.  DevOps & DeploymentA backend engineer requires a fair bit of DevOps knowledge. So, we will next deep dive into the methodologies in DevOps. 1. Containerization & Orchestration   Containers are a method of building, packaging and deploying software. They are similar to but not the same thing as virtual machines (VMs). One of the primary differences is that containers are isolated or abstracted away from the underlying operating system and infrastructure that they run on. In the simplest terms, a container includes both an application’s code and everything that code needs to run properly. Container orchestration is the automatic process of managing the work of individual containers for applications based on microservice architecture. The popular Containerization and Orchestration tools are – Kubernetes Docker Good beginner's tutorials for both are -Kubernetes2. DevOps   DevOps is a set of practices that combine software development (Dev) and IT operations (Ops). It aims to shorten the systems development life cycle and provide continuous delivery with high software quality. The two most popular DevOps services are AWS and Azure. Both of them are cloud based and are market leaders. Both of these platforms contain a wide variety of similar services. AWS  It consists of over 200 products and services for storage, database, analytics, deployment, serverless function and many more. AWS is the market leader as of now with 33% of market share. The AWS certifications are also one of the most in-demand certifications and a must for frontend engineers as well as Backend engineers. Azure  Microsoft Azure is second in terms of market share of cloud-based platforms, with 18% of the market. It also consists of SaaS (Software as a Service), PaaS (Platform as a Service) and IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) like AWS. 3. PaaS (Platform as a Service)   There are several smaller players, which provide Platform as a Service and are much easier to use than services like AWS and Azure. With these services you can directly deploy your React or other web-apps, by just hosting them on GitHub and pushing the code. These services are preferred a lot by freelancers, hobbyists and small companies as they don’t require investment in learning complicated services like AWS and Azure. The three most popular PaaS services are Digital Ocean Heroku Netlify 4. Serverless  Serverless computing is an execution model where the cloud provider (AWS, Azure, or Google Cloud) is responsible for executing a piece of code by dynamically allocating resources and only charging for the number of resources used to run the code. The code is typically run inside stateless containers that can be triggered by a variety of events including http requests, database events, queuing services, monitoring alerts, file uploads, scheduled events (cron jobs), etc. The code that is sent to the cloud provider for execution is usually in the form of a function. AWS Lambda  It is an event-driven, serverless platform which is part of AWS. The various languages supported by AWS Lambda are Node.js, Python, Java, Go, Ruby and .NET. AWS Lambda was designed for use cases such as updates to DynamoDB tables, responding to a website click etc. After that it will “spin down” the database service, to save resources. Azure Functions  They are quite similar to AWS Lambda, but are for Microsoft Azure. Azure functions have a browser-based interface to write code to respond to events generated by http requests etc. The service accepts programming languages like C#, F#, Node.js, Python, PHP and Java. Serverless Framework  It is an open-source web-framework written using Node.js. The popular services like AWS Lambda, Azure functions and Google cloud functions are based on it. CI/CD A backend developer should know the popular CI/CD (Continuous Integration/Continuous deployment) tools. These tools help to automate the whole process of building, testing and deployment of applications. Github Actions   It is a freely available CI/CD pipeline, which directly integrates to your GitHub based project and can be used in variety of languages. Jenkins  Jenkins is the most popular CI/CD automation tool, which helps in building, testing and deployment of applications. Jenkins was written in Java and over the years has been built to support over 1400 plugins, which extend its functionalities. Circle CI  Circle CI is also a CI/CD automation tool, which is cloud based and so it is different from Jenkins. It is much easier to use than Jenkins, but has a smaller community and lower user base. SecuritySecurity is an important aspect of any application. Most applications containing user personal data, like email etc, are often targeted by hackers. OWASP   The Open Web Application Security Project (or OWASP), is a non-profit organization dedicated to web application security. They have free material available on their website, making it possible for anyone to improve their web application security. Protecting Services & databases against threats   Hackers target databases of popular web-apps on a regular basis to get sensitive information about their customers. This data is then sold to the highest bidder on the dark-net. When such public breaches are reported, then it's a reputation loss for the enterprise also. So, a lot of emphasis should be given to Authentication, Access, Backups, and Encryption while setting up a database. The databases should also be monitored for any suspicious activities. Besides this the API routes also need to be protected, so that the hacker cannot manipulate them. Career roles Most of the companies hire Frontend developers, Backend developers and DevOps engineers separately. This is because most of the enterprise projects are huge, in which roles and responsibilities are distributed. But there is a huge demand for Full Stack developers in the startup sector in US and India. These companies need specialists who can get the product out as soon as possible with agile and small teams. Top companies hiringAlmost every company on the planet is hiring web-developers or outsourcing the development work. Since the past decade, the demand for developers has risen exponentially. The top technology companies which hire full stack developers are Facebook, Amazon, Apple, Netflix, Google, Uber, Flipkart, Microsoft and more.  The sites of each of these companies are web-apps (excluding Apple and Microsoft), with complex frontend and backend systems. The frontend generally consists of React or Angular and the backend is a combination of various technologies. The DevOps part is also quite important in these web-apps as they handle millions of concurrent connections at once.Salaries  The salary of a beginner Frontend developer in India starts from Rs. 300,000($ 3980) per year in service-based companies to Rs. 12,00,000($ 15,971) per year in the top tech companies mentioned above. The salary of a Beginner Full-Stack developer in India starts at Rs. 4,50,000 ($ 5989) per year in service companies to Rs. 12,00,000($ 15,971) per year in top tech companies. The salary for an entry level Frontend developer in USA is $ 59,213 per year and for an entry level Full stack developer is $ 61,042 per year.Below are some sources for salaries. web-developerfull-stack-developerfront-end-vs-back-endTop regions where there is demand There are plenty of remote and freelancing opportunities in web-development across the world. The two countries with most developers and top tech companies are USA and India. Silicon Valley, which is the San Francisco Bay Area, in Northern California, USA is the hub of technology companies.  The top city in India to start a developer job is the Silicon Valley of India – Bengaluru. The number of jobs is more than all the other cities combined and it also has a very good startup ecosystem. Almost all the big technology companies mentioned earlier and top Indian service companies are located in the city. After Bengaluru, the city where the greatest number of technology jobs are based is Hyderabad, followed by Chennai and then Pune. Entry PointsThe demand for web-developers is high and anyone with a passion for creating apps can become a web-developer. An Engineering degree is not mandatory to land a job as a web developer.  The most in-demand skill today and for the next 5 years is React and its ecosystem. So, if you know HTML, CSS, JavaScript and React, it is impossible to not get a job. Career Pathway  Most people start as an intern Front-end developer or Intern Full-Stack developer and in many cases Intern Backend developer. Many companies directly hire junior Frontend/Backend/Full-stack developers.  After that, the next step is the role of Senior Frontend/Backend/Full-stack developers. Many Frontend and Backend developers become full stack developers at this level, by learning additional technologies. Senior resources in Frontend/Backend/Full-stack can then go on to assume Team Lead roles. These people manage small teams in addition to being individual contributors.  After this a professional can become a Project manager, whose main responsibility is managing the team. Another role is that of Technical Project Manager, who manages the team and also has hands-on knowledge in Technology. The last role at this level is that of a Software Architect, who handles and designs big projects and has to look at every aspect of the technology to create the enterprise app. Generally Full-stack developers are preferred in this role, as they need to know all technologies. The highest career milestone is CTO or Chief Technology Officer, who handles all the technology teams and makes all technology decisions in a Technology company. Job SpecializationThere are some Full stack development specializations which I see nowadays in the industry. Full stack developers who work with React in the Frontend and Java in the Backend are in great demand. Similarly, developers who work with Angular in the Frontend and .NET in the backend are in great demand.How KnowledgeHut can helpAll these free resources are a great place to start your Frontend or Full-Stack journey. Beside these there are many other free resources on the internet, but they may not be organized and may not have a structured approach.  This is where KnowledgeHut can make a difference and serve as a one stop shop alternative with its comprehensive Instructor-led live classes. The courses are taught by Industry experts and are perfect for aspirants who wish to become Frontend or FullStack developers.Links for some of the popular courses & Bootcamps by KnowledgeHut are appended below-CSS3JavaScriptReactJSNodeJSDevopsFull-stack developer BootcampFront-end developer Bootcampback-end developer BootcampConclusion This completes our article on the Full stack developer journey by combining both the Frontend and backend roadmap. There are many people who become backend developers first by working on languages like Java and then go on to learn React to become full stack developers.  Again, many developers learn front-end development first with frameworks like React, and then become full stack developers by learning Node.JS. This path is easier for developers because both React and Node.JS use the same language which is JavaScript.We hope you have found this blog useful, and can now take the right path to become a full stack developer. Good luck on your learning journey!
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How to Become a Successful Full Stack Web Develope...

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Top Five Reasons to Become a Full Stack Developer

Do you have an inclination for dabbling with technology? Are you interested in figuring out how websites work? Eager to learn more about the world of Full-Stack Development? Dig in!While some prefer the artistic and creative side of web development, others are drawn to the technical one. There’s a third group of people who are masters of both these aspects. The first group is that of front-end developers, the second is of back-end developers, and the third that of full-stack developers.Most modern web applications today require over 20 different job functions and developers who can navigate across these various functions across the stack are highly valuable. Full-stack developers are always in vogue and much sought after both in startups as well as leading enterprises owing to their versatility, ability to step in and troubleshoot areas across the technology ecosystem that goes into building a winning product, and their contribution to speed and cost-effectiveness.From mobile-first strategies, product testing through MVP (minimum viable product) cycles, app development, and creating exceptional UI/UX, a full-stack developer enables it all. Before we dive into everything you’ll have going for you once you become a skilled full-stack developer, let’s understand what a full-stack is and what a full-stack developer actually does.What is Full-Stack Development?Full-stack development refers to the development of both the front-end and back-end of a web application or website. But first, what’s ‘full stack’?A full stack is made up of the front-end that deals with the user interface, the back-end that deals with data validation, and the database that acts as storage—a repository of information from the front-end through the logic layer.‘Full stack’ refers to the collection of multiple components in a software application that work together to ensure its smooth running—this includes software products, patches, coding frameworks, servers, operating systems, database tools, and more.Each of these components come together to facilitate user interaction, to run calculations, and to power back-end functions: a full stack.Each full stack uses different tools, frameworks, and technologies. To become a Full-Stack developer, you need to acquire the skills to use the associated front and back-end languages, tools, and frameworks so you can create your own application from start to finish.What Does a Full-Stack Developer Do?A FULL-STACK DEVELOPER designs and builds dynamic data-driven websites and applications using a rich ensemble of technologies, techniques and workflows that serve both the end user and the back-end infrastructure.The word ‘stack’ simply refers to an amalgamation of technologies and products that form the technical ecosystem and backbone needed to build and operate the product.A stack is typically made up of a database such as MongoDB, MySQL, and others, an application framework such as Express, Rails or Laravel, a platform or runtime such as Node.js, PHP or Ruby and a client-side web application framework such as React, Angular or Vue. Depending on the project requirement, different kinds of stacks like MEAN, MERN, LAMP stack, Ruby on Rails, and many other stacks are required and used.Full-Stack Developers are Jacks of multiple trades, handling both the front-end and the back-end, including servers, databases, and even clients. A Full-Stack Developer must be able to work with all the components of a stack to ensure they work together efficiently.Why Should You Consider a Full-Stack Development Career?Full-stack development is not only about learning various front-end and back-end technologies. It's also about understanding the two areas in sufficient detail and making communication between them easy and smooth.As technologies and industries evolve, Full-Stack developers will need to learn new technologies to stay abreast of the latest trends. This broad range of skills across the stack is a superpower for software developers.If you’re a fresher looking to break into your tech career or a mid-career professional looking to enter the world of tech from a non-tech profession, you should consider the following advantages of becoming a full-stack developer:1. Full-Stack Development opens multi-faceted scope for growthCompanies are no longer in pursuit of specialists in software development. The preference is towards full-stack developers who are multi-faceted and cultivate a mindset to constantly upskill themselves.There is huge scope for accelerated growth as companies resort to this broad skillset that brings in speed and cost-effectiveness for their businesses. Full-stack developers boast of a fast-tracked, multi-dimensional career growth across companies ranging across globally valued end-to-end enterprise solutions and startups.Full-stack engineers typically begin their careers as front-end or back-end developers at the entry-level, quickly moving up ranks as they perfect their technical skills. Practice-oriented bootcamps that provide you work-like experience can help you master every aspect of development and get you industry ready in a relatively short time and are a great alternative to this.2. Full-Stack Development is one of the highest paid jobsFull-stack development is one of the highest-paid jobs across the globe due to its impact on business and marketing. This versatile approach to development helps organizations distinguish themselves and catalyses revenue growth.According to ZipRecruiter, the average salary of an entry-level full-stack developer is $58,040 annually in the US. For mid-level developers, it is $97,500 a year, and $116,504 for experienced ones. Even Indeed points out that the average annual salary figure sits at $113,462 a year in the US, and between £40,000 - £70,000 in the UK.While full-stack programming is one of the most rewarding tech jobs, the remuneration of a full-stack developer depends on factors such as core skills, additional skills (databases, UI/UX basics, etc.), and the location of the organization, demographics, and experience.3. Full-Stack Development enables rapid project deliveryTasks related to integration, updates, front-end, and back-end coordination, and meeting client expectations—all fall within the scope of a full-stack developer role. Not only does this help in lowering the dependencies on other teams—which often delays execution—it speeds up the development cycle and brings in cost efficiencies.If you’re a full-stack developer, you also need to be well versed with the Agile Project Management (APM) framework, Scrum, and its building blocks. The job profile also mandates effective communication with team members to streamline development processes.A full-stack developer learns to deliver results quickly with a toolkit that constitutes the most efficient tools in the industry, enabling smart and fast work.4. Full-Stack development is all about building versatilityA full-stack developer is a one-stop-solution of sorts for companies. The onus of handling different stages of the project right from initiating the project, basic level of development, key project contributions both on front-end and back-end, as well as managing the UI/UX as per client feedback falls on the full-stack developer. This gives them great responsibility, dependability, and credit for successful project execution.Full stack developers, with their multi-dimensional skillset are equipped to step in anywhere across the development spectrum to provide an end-to-end solution. Tech companies appreciate and value them for their versatility across the stack, which translates to speed to market.Learning full-stack development will help you master a wide set of skills ranging from HTML, CSS, JavaScript, back-end languages (Python, PHP, Ruby), database storage, HTTP, REST, and NPM, along with a good set of Agile project management and soft skills.5. With greater productivity comes greater responsibilityFull-stack developers get to work with the client-side as well as the server-side of the application. This gives the developer more control over the product and makes way for far more creative flexibility. The ability to see the big picture empowers full-stack developers to make decisions faster, giving them an edge over other developers.The broad range of skills across the stack and the creative liberty coupled with good judgment skills is what increases the overall productivity of full-stack developers, empowering them to be self-reliant and move the needle on the development better and faster.How to Get Future-Ready with Full-Stack DevelopmentWhether you have a tech background or are starting from a blank slate, with a passion to learn and a well-structured program coupled with hands-on practice, you can go from zero to an advanced level where you’ll be able to contribute right away to projects.Figuring out what projects to build is half the battle won and that’s where a Full-Stack Dev Bootcamp like KnowledgeHut’s adds immense value. At the end of the bootcamp, you will have a portfolio of real-world projects deployed on GitHub, working through an immersive project-based curriculum focused on practical developer skills.The program equips you with world-class mentorship and real work-like experiences, enabling you to build internship-grade projects in an actual developer environment. You will deploy project portfolios on GitHub that you can impress recruiters with during your interviews.The demand for full-stack developers will steadily increase in the market as new technologies enter. While the opportunity comes with its bells and whistles, the developers who will get ahead are the ones who will constantly keep abreast of the latest and continually hone their full-stack development skills.If you’re interested to learn more about the full-stack and gain more insights on how KnowledgeHut can help you position yourself to crack a full-stack or front-end role in top tech companies, be sure to look up our Full-Stack Development Bootcamp. Designed to get you hired, the program offers live instructor-led sessions, hands-on practice with Cloud Labs, on-demand self-paced learning, one-on-one mentorship, capstone projects, assignments, assessments, quizzes and more.Ready to become a Full-Stack Developer? Join the Full-Stack Career Track Bootcamp!
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What is React Redux?

React is a JavaScript library for building user interfaces. One of the most popular UI libraries in use today, React is opensource and is maintained by Facebook. React has the best community support, with millions of developers who take part in discussions on best practices, React architecture, and the way forward with React.You can read more about React here.In this blog you are going to learn about React Redux. We can use it along with React for state management within the application.Prerequisites:This blog expects you to have good knowledge of JavaScript.You should have basic understanding of React, React Hooks and Components in React.Please ensure that the latest versions of npm and node are installed in your machine.To get started with React Redux, let’s first see what Redux is:What is Redux?Redux is a predictable state container for JavaScript apps, which means that Redux is predictable and it stores the state of your application. Redux will store and manage the application state.Redux itself is a standalone library that can be used with any UI layer or framework. Along with React, Redux can be used with many other JavaScript libraries and frameworks such as Angular, Vue and even with Vanilla JavaScript.You can read more about Redux here.When we are building a large-scale application, there is a need for a state management tool to avoid prop drilling all through the component. Redux is the most popular and widely used state management tool today.Note: Redux does what context api does in React. However, Redux was introduced before context api was introduced, and it continues to be the most popular state management library.In the next part of this article, you will learn to use Redux and in later parts you can learn how to integrate it with your React application.Learn Redux:Here you will understand the essential core concepts of Redux before learning how to use it with React.Start with creating an empty folder with the name Redux-Learnings in your desired location and open the folder in your favourite editor. VScode is preferred.Initially your project folder looks like this when it is opened in VScode:It should be empty. Let’s setup our project first.Now, let’s initialize a package.json file to store all our dependencies to learn Redux.Open integrated terminal for vscode and navigate to the project location.Next, run the below command in our terminal to initialize package.json in our project.Command: npm init –yesThere should be a package.json file inside the project as shown below.The next step is to install redux as a dependency for our project. Run the below command in the terminal to add redux as a dependency.Command: npm install reduxIf you check package.json file, you can see redux listed under the dependencies as shown below:Now create a file with the name index.js at the root level of the project and add a simple console statement to see the output on the terminal as shown below.Now, run the below command to run the index.js file.Command: node indexIt has to print the console statement to the terminal as shown below.Let’s start learning some theory behind Redux.Redux has 3 main components:StoreAction  ReducerWe will explain these components with the help of a real-world scenario.Imagine there is a restaurant, and you want to buy a meal. You will go to the restaurant and tell the retailer that you want to BUY a meal. The retailer takes out the meal from the bunch of meals with him, and gives it to you. You will then pay the money for the meal and get the receipt for the purchase. The receipt for the purchase is the proof that the number of meals has been decreased by one.Let’s see the 3 components in relation to the above scenario:Store: The store holds all the states of the application. This is similar to the restaurant holding all the meals.  Action: The Action here is to BUY_A_MEAL which describes what has happened. In this case you have bought a meal. The action describes changes in the state of the application.  Reducer: Reducers are similar to the retailer. They connect the store to the actions. In this case the retailer is decreasing the number of meals the restaurant (store) has. Reducers update the store according to the action.To put the 3 components of Redux into code, it’s important to learn the 3 main principles of Redux:The state of the whole application is stored in a single main object in the store. This means state is a single JavaScript object and lies inside the store. In our example, all the meals of the restaurant are to be represented in a single object. For example: { numberOfMeals: 10}The only way to change the state is to emit an Action. Emitting an action is the way of letting the Redux know what has happened. It’s an object describing what has happened. In our example BUY_A_MEAL is the action which is describing the action of buying a meal. You are NOT ALLOWED to update the state directly, but you always need an action to update the state.  Actions have types. For example: {type: “BUY_A_MEAL”}To specify how state changes based on actions, we use Reducers. A Reducer is a function that take initial state and action as inputs, and returns new state based on the type the action has. An example of a reducer for the above example is shown below. It decreases the number of meals in the restaurant (store).const reducer = (state, action) => { switch(action.type) { case BUY_A_MEAL: return { numberOfMeals: state.numberOfMeals-1 } } }Now let’s start coding our Redux app.As you have seen already, the 3 main components of redux are to be implemented in code. Let’s start with Actions.Creating Action:As you know that Actions are plain JavaScript objects and have ‘type’ property, which indicates the type of the actions being performed. You are not restricted to just having a type property;  instead, you can have additional properties as well.Also, in Redux we have action creator. As the name suggests, an action creator is a function which simply creates an action.Let’s go back to the project we have setup earlier and start coding Actions.  The Action Type and the Action Creator for our restaurant example can be written as shown below.Here BUY_A_MEAL is an action type and function buyMeal is an action creator, which returns an action which has type and the description in it.Creating Reducer:As we already know, a reducer is a function which takes in initial State and action, and returns a new state based on the type of action.The reducer can be created as shown below:Here the reducer is taking in the initial state and the action and returns the new state in the switch statement, where we compare the type in the case block and return the new state object.…state means that we are creating a copy of the state object and we are changing only the required properties.However, it's important to keep in mind that in redux we cannot change the state. Instead a new state is created with the changed properties and that is stored inside the Store.Creating Store:Before creating a store, its required to know the characteristics of Store:  Store holds the state of the application. Store provides a method called dispatch which allows updates to the application state. Dispatch method accepts an action as its parameter. Store allows components to access the state via getState() method. Registers listeners via subscribe method. That is the listener is called whenever the state is changed inside the store. Listener is a function which is passed to the subscribe method to call whenever the state changes. Unregister the listeners using the function returned by the subscribe method.Now let’s implement all the above in the code. If you see, we already have the state object by the name initialState in our code. Let’s create a store to hold our state using the redux package we installed earlier.As shown above, import Redux package using the required syntax. We need to make use of createStore method in Redux to create a store.Create a store by calling createStore method we pulled out from redux.createStore takes reducer as the parameter which has the application state.The store we created has the getState method which gives us the state of the application. To prove this, let’s add the console statement as shown below.If you run the file using node index command, you can see the console statement is printing the initial state to the console.  Now let’s quickly implement subscribe and dispatch methods as shown below.As mentioned earlier subscribe method takes a function as an argument. Here it’s a simple console statement which prints the state.  dispatch method takes in the action creator as an argument. I have just called it more times to trigger the state transitions more times.If you run the index file, you can see that the subscribe method is calling the listener function for every state change, and printing the new state as you can see above.  Now let’s unsubscribe to the listeners by calling the method returned by the subscribe method as shown below.Capture the unsubscribe method returned by the subscribe method, and call it in the middle to prove that we are unsubscribed to the state changes.If you can see above, listener has been called only 3 times for the 4 dispatch calls we made, as we unsubscribed before the 4th dispatch call.What is happening when we call dispatch method?When we call the dispatch method it dispatches an action buyMeal to the reducer which is returning the action which has a type BUY_A_MEAL. Now the reducer looks at the action type and compares with the case mentioned and returns the new state. As the state changes and the new state gets created in the store, the listener gets called and prints the new state to the console.This is the flow of redux. Going forward, do make sure that you understand and remember this flow.What if we have multiple actions?Let’s take the restaurant example again and say that we have snacks along with meals and we have different retailers(reducers) for each of these.  So, first step first, you need to update the initialState object to add the number of snacks and action type to buy a snack as shown below.Now let’s add an action creator to buy a snack (buySnack method).And also, a reducer case to handle buying a snack caseAnd also add some dispatch methods to dispatch buySnack action.Now if you run the index.js file and see the terminal output when buyMeal is dispatched, only the number of meals decreases, and when buySnack is dispatched only the number of snacks decreases.This method of using a single reducer works in this case. However, in a large-scale application, it gets hard to maintain and debug, also hard to keep track of the work flow.So, in many cases developers tend to create multiple reducers.  Create multiple reducers:For this you need to split the initial state of the application within index.js as shown belowHere, initialState object has been split into 2 state objects; one to store the number of Meals(initialMealState) and one to store the number of Snacks(initialSnackState).Similarly, we will split the reducer into 2 parts.Reducer related to Meals.Here, we have made mealReducer to handle actions related to Meals.Reducer related to Snacks.Here, we have made snackReducer to handle actions related to Snacks.If you observe by splitting the state and reducer, we are maintaining the centralized state and reducer functions for each component or feature in our application. By doing this it's always easy to maintain the code and to keep track of the workflow too.But if you look at the createStore method there is reducer passed in as an argument but now it no more exists. So, we need to combine the reducers before we pass it to createStore method.Combining Reducers:Combining reducers is very simple, and we can do this by using the combine reducers function which redux package offers.Extract combineReducers function from redux package as shown below:Now we need to combine all the reducers we have using the method we extracted above.The combineReducers function takes an object as a parameter which has all the reducers we have created as a key value pairs, and its generally called as rootReducer.We have to pass that rootReducer as an argument to the createStore method as shown in the above image.  Now if you run the file using node index you will see something like this inside the terminal.The meal and snack in the state object corresponds to the meal and snack keys we specified while combining the reducers.Now we have centralized state and reducers for each of our meals and snacks. We can add more actions to the existing reducers or even add new reducers. Also, it’s easy to maintain the code.This is the flow of the redux. We dispatch an action which has a type property to the reducer, and the reducer—based on the action type— updates the store accordingly.In real time applications, the actions are not synchronous as we have learnt above. We may have asynchronous actions, or we may want to add additional functionality to our redux workflow. For all of this we need to use middlewares.Middlewares:  Middlewares are the suggested way to extend redux functionality. Middlewares provide third party extension between dispatching an action and the moment the action reaches the reducer.Middlewares are normally used for logging, crash reporting or to perform some async tasks.  For example, we will now see how to add a middleware by using redux-logger middleware.  Read more about redux logger here.To install redux logger, go to vs code and run the following command in the terminal.Command: npm install redux-loggerNow if you go to the above-mentioned link for redux logger, you will find the code we write now.  We need to require the redux logger we just installed and create a logger as shown below.Now to apply this middleware, Redux has a function built into it which is called applyMiddleware.Extract applyMiddleware function from redux as shown below.Now pass the applyMiddleware as a second parameter to the createStore function as shown below.applyMiddleWare takes all the middlewares we have as arguments. In our case, it is logger.To see the middleware in action, remove the console.log statement inside the subscribe method of store and run the file using node index. You should see the outputs of the logger in the terminal as shown below.As mentioned above the actions used in the above example are synchronous actions but in real time applications the actions will be asynchronous.  As soon as we dispatch an action the state is updated in the above example. But in real time apps we may need to do an API call before we update the state. These types of actions are called asynchronous actions or async actions.Now let’s see how async actions are handled.Handling async actions:For this, let’s make an API call to fetch some users.So, let’s go to the same project we have been working with, for the above example, and create a new file asyncActions.js and work in this file.To implement redux, we need 3 things as we have learnt:StateActionsReducersLet’s look at each one of them.State:The state object looks like this:The loading key in the state object is set to false initially, and it is used to show a spinner when we are making an API call.The users key in the state object is initially set to an empty array, as we get an array of users after making the API call.The error key in the state object is initially set to an empty string as if the API call fails, we get the error string and we store the error message in this error key.Actions:  The action types and the action creators can be written as shown below.The fetchUsersLoading action creator can be used when the API call is in progress. So, this returns action type FETCH_USERS_LOADING.The fetchUsersSuccess action creator can be used when the API call is successful. We get an array of users as an argument for this function which returns the users array as a payload along with action type FETCH_USERS_SUCCESS.The fetchUsersFail action creator can be used when the API call fails, and we get an error message string as an argument for this function which returns the error message as a payload along with the action type FETCH_USERS_FAIL.Reducer:The reducer for the given scenario can be written as shown below.As mentioned already, FETCH_USERS_LOADING denotes that the API call is going on so loading should be set to true.FETCH_USERS_SUCCESS denotes that the API call is done and was successful. We can set loading to false again and users to action.payload as we are sending users inside payload in the action creator.FETCH_USERS_FAIL denotes that the API call is done and failed. We set loading to false again and error to action.payload as we are sending the error message inside payload in the action creator. Users is sent to an empty array as we will not get any users from the API.Now the last step remaining is to create the redux store.Create the store in the same way as the previous example.Now let’s see how to make an api call and actually handle async actions.To make an api call we use axios. You can read more about axios here.To define async action creators we use redux-thunk. It is a middleware that must be used in the same way that we used logger in the previous example.Read more about redux-thunk here.We need to install both the packages in order to use them. For that, open the terminal and run the following command.Command: npm install axios redux-thunkLet’s apply redux-thunk middleware as shown below. By requiring the redux-thunk and making use of applyMiddleWare in the same way as the previous example, we get:Now let’s write our async action creator which dispatches action creators which we have created earlier.We will make use of this API.First import axios as shown below.Next, make an API call for the above-mentioned end point using axios in our async action creator as shown below.Here fetchUsers is our async action creator and as we are using redux-thunk we can define async action creators. Redux-thunk allows us to return a function which has access to dispatch method through the arguments so that we can dispatch actions.We dispatch fetchUsersLoading initially as we are making an api call.Once the api call is successful we dispatch fetchUsersSuccess along with users as argument.If the API call fails, we dispatch fetchUsersFail along with the error message.  This is our async action creator which dispatches the necessary synchronous actions whenever required.Now write a subscribe method as shown in the above image and dispatch fetchUsers at the last.In the terminal, to run the file use the below command.Command: node asyncActions.jsYou can see the list of users in the terminal as shown below.Redux-thunk is widely used middleware to handle side effects such as API calls and other async tasks. It's important that you should learn about this package.And that’s it! You have completed learning about Redux concepts.Next, we move on to learning how to integrate Redux with your React application.  Before we start learning to integrate redux with react, let’s take a look at what react redux is.What is React Redux?React is a UI library whereas Redux is a state management library. They both work independently. We cannot use Redux directly in a react application, so we use React Redux to bind Redux in our React applications.React Redux is the official Redux UI binding library for React. If you are using Redux and React together, you should also use React Redux to bind these two libraries.This means if we want to use React and Redux together, we also need to use React Redux to bind them together.  For more information on React Redux, check this link.Installation:To directly create a redux app, run the following command inside the terminal.Command: npx create-react-app my-app --template reduxNavigate into the application using cd command and start making changes to the application.To integrate redux into an existing react project, run the following command inside the react project.Command: npm install redux react-reduxThis installs redux and react-redux packages to the React application and we can start integrating redux with react.We are going to follow the second method as we are going to integrate redux with the existing react application.Let’s try rebuilding the above example with a UI.We will start with the setup as shown below. This has been created using create-react-app and has been changed according to our needs.Folder structure:App.js:App.js has only one component called MealContainer.MealContainer.js:Now if you run the app using the npm start command you will see the similar UI in the browser.Now, let’s start with integrating redux with our react application.As mentioned above, install redux and redux-thunk by running the below command.Command: npm install redux react-reduxAfter the installation, create a new folder inside src with the name redux. All our redux logic goes into this folder. Now inside this, I would like to create folders with the feature names as all the logic related to a particular feature can be kept organized in a single place. As we have only one feature by the name meals, create a folder with the name meals and 2 files with the names mealActions.js and mealTypes.js to create the actions and action types for this particular feature as shown below.Inside the mealTypes.js export the action type as shown below.Note: export keyword is used so that we are able to use the particular function or object in other files by importing them using import key word.Create an action creator to buy a meal as we have learnt in the previous example.Now let’s create reducer for our meals feature. For this, create a new file with the name mealReducer.js inside the same folder and create reducer for the meals feature.Now let’s create the redux store. For this, create a file with the name store.js inside redux folder as store is common for all the features. Next, create a store as we have already learnt, and export it as the default.Now that we have set up our redux for the application, how does our application get access to the store? Well, for that we need to go to the react-redux package we installed; this is where react-redux makes its first appearance. We need to go to Provider which react-redux offers in order to make our app know about the store.Go to the app.js file and import Provider from react-redux, and wrap the whole app with this provider passing store as a prop to it.Now what remains is to connect redux to our components, dispatch an action and update the store from the components.Connecting redux to the components:As a first step, write a couple of functions mapStateToProps and mapDispatchToProps as shown below.mapStateToProps is a function that you would use to provide the store data to the component as prop. Whereas mapDispatchToProps is something that you will use to provide the action creators as props to the component.Read more about the 2 functions here.We import buyMeal action from the action file to use in mapDispatchToProps.Now to connect both the functions to the component, we need to import connect which react-redux offers us as shown below.Now using that, we connect the state and actions to the component as shown below.mapStateToProps and mapDispatchToProps are passed as arguments to the connect function.Now we can access the numOfMeals using the props object and show that in the UI.The numOfMeals upon the props pertains to the key returned by the object in the mapStateToProps.If you save and check the UI, you can see the number of meals displayed.Now let’s dispatch our buyMeals action. This is available on the props object, as we have used mapDispatchToProps. Upon the click of the button, we execute the function which dispatches our action as shown below.Now if you click the button in the UI, the meals should decrease by 1.Now, let’s integrate logic for the snacks as well.  Add SnackContainer.js file similar to mealContainer and add it in the App.js file as shown below.In the redux folder, add a new folder for snacks feature and add the necessary files in the same manner as the meals folder.snackTypes.jssnackActions.jsNext, write the reducer in the snackReducer.jsAs we have 2 reducers, we need to combine reducers as we have learnt previously, and pass the rootReducer to the store.Due to this change, the application will break as we have changed the structure of the state in the store. So, we need to make some changes in mealContainer as shown below.Let’s connect the state to the snackContainer component in the same way that we have done in the mealContainer component, as shown below.If you check the UI, you will be able to see the number of snacks displayed as shown below.If we click on the Buy Snacks button, that should decrease the number of snacks by 1.And that’s it! We have implemented React-Redux along with the React UI.Let’s see how to manage Async actions in UI.If you see, we have rewritten the same code we have used to learn Redux.Let’s implement the same API call example we have learnt above in React. We will consider that these are the users who are using our restaurant.  Async Actions along with React UI:  Install the necessary packages as shown below.Command: npm install axios redux-thunkCreate a user’s folder as we are adding user features to this application. In the user’s folder add usersTypes.js to add the types we have learnt in the async actions example we used while learning redux.Now let’s create the usersReducer in the same way that we have learnt.Add our async action creator as well.Now let’s create the usersReducer in the same way that we have learnt.Next, add our usersReducer to the combineReducers and configure redux-thunk middleware in store.js.And we are done with the redux-logic! Let’s add usersContainer.js file in the components folder, write the following code and add it to App.js.App.js now looks as shown below.Now let’s connect our state to the component as shown below.Now if you go to the UI and click the Load Users button, this should show up all the users names that we have fetched from the API.We are done!Reasons to use React Redux:It is the official Redux UI Binding for React.It encourages good React architecture.  It implements Performance Optimizations  It has great community support.Redux has its own drawbacks that need to be overcome. For this, Redux has come up with Redux-toolkit.An Introduction to Redux toolkit:The Redux Toolkit package is intended to be the standard way to write Redux logic. It was originally created to help address three common concerns about Redux:"Configuring a Redux store is too complicated""I have to add a lot of packages to get Redux to do anything useful""Redux requires too much boilerplate code"Read more about redux-toolkit here.Installation:To create a new React app, along with Redux toolkit run the below command.Command: npx create-react-app my-app --template reduxTo add the Redux toolkit to an already existing app:Command: npm install @reduxjs/toolkitOther Resources:Link to learn more about React Redux.To read more about the connect function we have used.Learn React.Summary:In this blog you have all the information you need to work with React-Redux. You have learnt how to implement Redux, and understood the use of actions, reducers, store, action creators, middlewares. You would have understood how to handle async actions, combine reducers, integrate redux to react UI, connect components and also the use of Redux toolkit.Good luck with your React-Redux learning journey!
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What is React Redux?

React is a JavaScript library for building user in... Read More