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Angular Material UI Component Library: Style Your Apps

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05th Sep, 2023
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    Angular Material UI Component Library: Style Your Apps

    A component library is a collection of pre-designed website components or pre-coded software components. Designers can simply drag and drop the component into their project, eliminating the need to recode everything. When done effectively, it assists designers to work in a predictable way and saves time. Many UI component packages offer customizability as well. As a result, developers can be more creative and customize or create new angular components

    Component libraries are also beneficial for team cooperation. If you're working on a large project with a large team, a component library will make it simple to manage many versions and maintain consistency throughout the program. 

    Angular seems to have a strong and growing community that is always working on new libraries to fill in the gaps left by Angular or to improve the functionality of specific features. In 2022, there a plenty of trendy angular component libraries to explore. With the many options available, selecting the finest component libraries can be difficult.  

    Anyone can construct their custom user interface components but using a UI library is a far more effective method to build your project. 

    Also, check out the details on angular pros and cons here. 

    What is AngularJS Material?

    To Angular JS developers, Angular Material is a UI component library. Angular Material components support the introduction of visually appealing, consistent, and effective online pages and web applications that adhere to modern web design concepts such as browser mobility, devices autonomy, and gradual degeneration. It aids in the creation of websites that are speedier, more attractive, and more responsive. It's based on Google's Material Design. 

    It attracts consumers and allows them to access the parts or components of our app. It also aids in the creation of distinctive styles and forms for our apps. 

    These elements improve the application's or website's design consistency and responsiveness. It mixes traditional design concepts with innovation and technology to create a successful product. 

    Angular Material was created by Google in 2014. It was attached to AngularJS at the time in order to make the apps more appealing and perform faster. In September 2016, Google rewrote the code from the ground up, removing the JS, and renamed it Angular Material. Angular Materials are user interface and user experience components. 

    AngularJS versus Angular? 

    Language

    The far more fundamental distinction between the two open-source frameworks is that Angular is based on Typescript, whereas AngularJs is based on JavaScript. This basically means that their individual components will differ. 

    Based on Architecture

    Components such as structural directives and attributive directives typically accompany within templates are commonly used in Angular's framework. The earlier is responsible for changing the DOM layout, whereas the latter oversees changing the DOM behaviour. Structural directives alter elements in order to accomplish their goals, while attribute directives alter the presentation of elements. The functional and logical components are segregated according to their objectives in Angular's architecture, which can improve the application. 

    Angular JS, from the other hand, is based on the model-view-controller (MVC) framework, in which it serves as the Controller, handling data, rules, and receiving and processing input before sending commands to the Model and View. It also manages the behaviour of applications. 

    Model: The model is where all data management is kept. 

    View: After examining the information in the model, the view generates the output. 

    Controller: The input is received by the controller, which transforms it into commands that are sent to the model and view. 

    To get the detailed knowledge of angular material concept, you can opt for Angular training by KnowledgeHut. 

    Use of Directives

    While both Angular and AngularJS make use of directives.  AngularJS has a set of directives, whereas Angular has a set of standard directives.  When creating a two-way binding with AngularJS, for example, you'll need to employ the ng-model. ng-bind is used for one-way binding. 

    Only the ngModel is available in Angular. One-way binding symbols are "[]," and two-way binding symbols are "[()]." Property binding is done with "[]," whereas event binding is done with "()." 

    Performance and Speed

    There is a separate two-way binding option in AngularJs, which saves time and effort. Angular has a more robust structure, which is critical for improving the speed and efficiency of its operations. 

    The ng-bind for one-way binding and the ng-model for two-way binding are available in AngularjS. The kind of binding is indicated by symbols: 

    • One-way binding – [] 
    • Two-way binding – [()] 
    • Event binding – () 
    • Property binding – [] 

    Management

    Because of their structure, Angular projects are easier to manage than AngularJS projects. This is especially advantageous in larger applications. 

    Tool Support

    Angular JS: It is a framework that uses third-party tools like IDE and WebStorm. 

    Angular: It employs the Command Line Interface (CLI) to speed up application development. 

    Testing and Tools

    For building apps and testing for problems, AngularJs uses third-party Javascript tools such as IDE and Webstorm. 

    Angular gets another point for leveraging the Command Line Interface (CLI) to build projects. This has the added benefit of saving time and increasing flexibility whenever it comes to detecting. 

    Routing

    @routeProvider.when is used by AngularJS to define routing table. Angular, on the other hand, imitates a directive by using a URL to navigate to the client-view. The routing information is provided by the @Route configuration. This distinguishes Angular from AngularJS. 

    Detecting Changes

    AngularJS uses scope.$apply() to implement adjustments to data bindings after each event, either manually or automatically. 

    The scope.$apply() function is not required by Angular. Angular is almost always aware that whenever a piece of code ends since it runs in the Angular zone. It starts the remotely sensed procedure in this way. 

    Installing AngularJS Material

    Angular Material can be used in two ways. 

    Local Installation: One can use npm, jspm, or bower to download the Angular Material libraries to your local workstation and use them in your HTML code. 

    CDN Based version: You can incorporate the angular-material.min.css and angular-material js files directly from the Content Delivery Network into your HTML code. 

    Using the AngularJS Material Library

    We need to have NodeJS installed on our machine before we can execute the following npm command. To install the Angular Material libraries, use the command below. 

    npm install angular-material 

    npm will download the files under node_modules > angular-material folder. 

    Example:

    <html lang = "en">
       <head>
          <link rel = "stylesheet"
             href = "https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angular_material/1.0.0/angular-material.min.css">
          <script src = "https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angularjs/1.4.8/angular.min.js"></script>
          <script src = "https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angularjs/1.4.8/angular-animate.min.js"></script>
          <script src = "https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angularjs/1.4.8/angular-aria.min.js"></script>
          <script src = "https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angularjs/1.4.8/angular-messages.min.js"></script>
          <script src = "https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angular_material/1.0.0/angular-material.min.js"></script>
          <script type = "text/javascript">    
             angular.module('firstApplication', ['ngMaterial']);
          </script>
       </head>
       <body ng-app = "firstApplication" ng-cloak>
          <md-toolbar class = "md-warn">
             <div class = "md-toolbar-tools">
                <h2 class = "md-flex">HTML 5</h2>
             </div>
          </md-toolbar>
          <md-content flex layout-padding>
             <p>Hello</p>
             <p>Hello 2p>
             <p>Hello 3</p>
          </md-content>
       </body>
    </html>

    Using the CDN

    The angular-material can be used. directly from the Content Delivery Network css and angular-material.js files into your HTML code (CDN). For the most recent version, Google CDN supplies material.

    Example:

    <html lang = "en" >
       <head>
          <link rel = "stylesheet"
             href = "https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angular_material/1.0.0/angular-material.min.css">
          <script src = "https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angularjs/1.4.8/angular.min.js"></script>
          <script src = "https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angularjs/1.4.8/angular-animate.min.js"></script>
          <script src = "https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angularjs/1.4.8/angular-aria.min.js"></script>
          <script src = "https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angularjs/1.4.8/angular-messages.min.js"></script>
          <script src = "https://ajax.googleapis.com/ajax/libs/angular_material/1.0.0/angular-material.min.js"></script>
          <script type = "text/javascript">    
             angular.module('firstApplication', ['ngMaterial']);
          </script>
       </head>
       <body ng-app = "firstApplication" ng-cloak>
          <md-toolbar class = "md-warn">
             <div class = "md-toolbar-tools">
                <h2 class = "md-flex">HTML 5</h2>
             </div>
          </md-toolbar>
          <md-content flex layout-padding>
             <p>Hello</p>
             <p>Hello 2</p>
             <p>Hello 3p>
          </md-content>
       </body>
    </html>

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    Unit Testing with Angular Material 

    A new version of the Material component library was launched at the same time as Angular 9. The Angular Material test harnesses are a standout feature in this edition.

    The PageObject pattern inspired the "Harness principle." A harness class allows a test to communicate with a component via a public API.

    A test isolates itself against the internals of the component library and resists inside abstractions by employing component harnesses.

    let loader: HarnessLoader;
    describe('my-component', () => {
      beforeEach(async () => {
        await TestBed.configureTestingModule({imports: [MyModule], declarations: [UserProfile]})
            .compileComponents();
        fixture = TestBed.createComponent(UserProfile);
        loader = TestbedHarnessEnvironment.loader(fixture);
      });
    }

    A loader is the very first thing we'll need. As a result, in our top-level describe, we declare a variable and assign it to the beforeEach hook. To retrieve a HarnessLoader instance, we use the TestbedHarnessEnvironment.

    Our harness test is formed based on a HarnessEnvironment. HarnessEnvironments come in a variety of shapes and sizes. We use the TestbedHarnessEnvironment for the Karma/Jasmine environment.

    • Symbols in @angular/cdk/testing are shared regardless of the environment in which your tests are run.
    • Symbols in @angular/cdk/testing/testbed are only used in Karma tests.
    • The symbol @angular/cdk/testing/selenium-webdriver (not seen above) is exclusively used in Selenium WebDriver tests.

    We use async/await a lot when developing harness tests. As a result, one of the first things we should do is add the async keyword to the beginning of our callback.

    We may use the loader to load the harness items. In our scenario, we're looking for the radio button harness with the "Dead" label. We can utilise the harness's API to invoke the check method once we have it. We no longer need to query implementation details ofmat-radio-button because the check method is self-explanatory and internally knows how to check the checkbox.

    The table is in the same boat. Because we just have one table on our website, asking the loader for the MatTableHarness without specifying a selection is sufficient. We can use the getRows function to get the number of rows once we have the MatTableharness.

    A test using the MatButtonHarness to interact with a mat-button might look like the following:

    it('should mark confirmed when ok button clicked', async () => {
      const okButton = await loader.getHarness(MatButtonHarness.with({selector: '.confirm'});
      expect(fixture.componentInstance.confirmed).toBe(false);
      expect(await okButton.isDisabled()).toBe(false);
      await okButton.click();
      expect(fixture.componentInstance.confirmed).toBe(true);
    });

    It's worth noting that the code above does not use the term fixture. detectChanges() is a frequent function in unit tests. After completing activities and before accessing state, the CDK's component harnesses automatically initiate change detection. The harness constantly waits as for fixture to stabilise, which causes the testing to wait for setTimeout, Promise, and other events.

    Comparison with and without component harness

    Consider a component called issue-report-selector that you want to test. It lets users to select an item category and see the forms and reports that are required for that problem kind. You'll have to run a test to ensure that if the user selects an issue type, the appropriate report appears. Consider how the test may appear if component harnesses were not used:

    it('should switch to bug report template', async () => {
        expect(fixture.debugElement.query('bug-report-form')).toBeNull();
        const selectTrigger = fixture.debugElement.query(By.css('.mat-select-trigger'));
        selectTrigger.triggerEventHandler('click', {});
        fixture.detectChanges();
        await fixture.whenStable();
        const options = document.querySelectorAll('.mat-select-panel mat-option');
        options[1].click(); // Click the second option, "Bug".
        fixture.detectChanges();
        await fixture.whenStable();
        expect(fixture.debugElement.query('bug-report-form')).not.toBeNull();
      });
    });

    using the Angular Material component harnesses:

    it('should switch to bug report template', async () => {
        expect(fixture.debugElement.query('bug-report-form')).toBeNull();
        const select = await loader.getHarness(MatSelectHarness);
        await select.open();
        const bugOption = await select.getOption({text: 'Bug'});
        await bugOption.click();
        expect(fixture.debugElement.query('bug-report-form')).not.toBeNull();
      });
    });

    Conclusion 

    For Angular JS developers, Angular Material is a UI component library. Angular Material components assist in the creation of visually appealing, consistent, and effective online pages and web applications that adhere to modern web design concepts such as browser portability, device independence, and graceful degradation. It aids in the creation of websites that are speedier, more attractive, and more responsive. It's based on Google's Material Design.

    Since both Angular and Angular JS have advantages for developers, Angular is the clear winner in several categories. Angular's dynamic web and single-page apps are also very mobile-friendly. AngularJS code, on the other hand, does not enable mobile applications, which is perhaps Angular's most significant advantage over AngularJs.

    Furthermore, you can check similar topics from KnowledgeHut blogs. If you are new to React, enroll yourself in the KnowledgeHut’s Angular training  and get a competitive edge over your peers.  

    Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

    1Is angular material better than Bootstrap?

    Bootstrap is clearly inferior to Angular Material and Flex Layout. That isn't to say you shouldn't utilize bootstrap; rather, you should consider combining the two libraries.

    2Does angular use material?

    Angular Material is a collection of Angular components that have been pre-built. Unlike Bootstrap, which provides you the freedom to decorate your components anyway you want, Angular Material aims to create a better and more consistent user experience. At the same time, it allows you to modify the behaviour of many components.

    3Is angular material free? 

    Because Angular Material is released under the MIT licence, it is both free and commercially viable. Provide modern web design elements including portability, device independence, and a visually appealing application.

    4What is CDK in Angular material? 

    The Component Dev Kit (CDK) is a collection of tools that implement common interaction patterns while remaining agnostic about how they are presented. It's an abstraction of the Angular Material library's main functionality, but without any Material Design-specific aesthetic.

    5Do I need a license for Angular? 

    No, registering the Syncfusion Angular component in the application does not require a licence key.

    Profile

    Abhresh Sugandhi

    Author

    Abhresh is specialized as a corporate trainer, He has a decade of experience in technical training blended with virtual webinars and instructor-led session created courses, tutorials, and articles for organizations. He is also the founder of Nikasio.com, which offers multiple services in technical training, project consulting, content development, etc.

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