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What is AWS Certification Syllabus?

Cloud computing has become a lucrative space for IT graduates and tech-savvy students to develop a career in. With data at the forefront of the modern-world, Cloud tech plays an important role in the development of businesses. AWS is among the biggest platforms offering a selection of 11 top-notch cloud certifications to professionals, setting a new yardstick of quality and efficiency in the industry. Getting certified by AWS is a sure-shot way for professionals to make them stand out among peers.Need for AWS CertificatesHaving an  AWS certification adds a degree of authenticity to your cloud computing skills, widening your web visibility, and generating better earning opportunities. Most companies are looking for reliable and professional cloud support to speed up their projects. AWS certification increases your credibility in the IT sector, it also enhances your chances of getting hired by the top companies and corporate houses around the world.Choosing the Right AWS CertificateMost enterprises have switched over to cloud-based platforms, tweaking their marketing strategies to suit the needs of their customers. Cloud storage, sharing, and services have been in vogue for a few years now, gaining more popularity and business with each passing year. AWS has over a million customers at present, changing the prejudice that people have against multi-cloud strategies. The top cloud provider in 2018 is AWS, according to the  2018 RightScale State of the Cloud Report. The future of cloud-based platforms and services looks very promising with the likes of AWS gaining increasing popularity among clients. Also, with investments pouring in and a gradual yet consistent expansion to international markets, AWS is slowly but surely growing and will soon become a leading cloud-based service provider in the industry.Candidate CertificateAWS certifications help validate the applicant’s technical skills and overall practical knowledge. It is, therefore, a very sought-after platform for both newbies and established professionals in the tech sector. AWS is equipped with the latest tech developments, upgrading the coursework regularly to keep up with the changing trends of the industry. AWS also provides candidates with the necessary practical skills and hands-on experience in cloud architecture, data management, and web security.Employee CertificateAWS cloud platform is not only useful to independent candidates and tech-savvy engineers but also employees looking for new ways to improve their skills and get better promotional opportunities within the organization. Some companies are also developing their own cloud certificate programs to customize the skills and coding knowledge of the employees to suit their needs.Getting Started- how long does it take to get certified?Candidates who are planning to opt for AWS certification need not devote their entire time to studying. You can easily manage the coursework along with the various professional and personal commitments. Usually, it takes about two months for professionals to complete the AWS curriculum. And this is when you are devoting approx. 80 hours of study. Candidates who are new to the AWS framework might need more time to get used to the system. We would recommend 120 hours of study or a minimum of three months of preparation before you opt for the exam. Start with the basics, and then move on to the more complex topics to get a thorough understanding of the subjects.Which is the Best AWS Certificate?AWS at present offers eleven certifications: an introductory certification, three associate-level certifications, two professional-level certifications, and three specialty certifications.AWS Certified Cloud PractitionerAWS Certified Developer – AssociateAWS Certified SysOps Administrator – AssociateAWS Certified Solutions Architect – AssociateAWS Certified DevOps Engineer – ProfessionalAWS Certified Solutions Architect – ProfessionalAWS Certified Big Data – SpecialtyAWS Certified Advanced Networking – SpecialtyAWS Certified Security – SpecialtyAWS Certified Alexa Skill Builder – SpecialtyAWS Certified Machine Learning – SpecialtyThe Process- Steps to Prepare For AWS ExamsGetting an AWS certificate is not an easy task. For starters, you have to put in a lot of time and effort into mastering the fundamental and core concepts of AWS and cloud computing. Next, you have to clear the certification exam and then undergo rigorous training to get some on-site job experience. Here are some of the steps that aspiring candidates can follow to study for the AWS certificate test:Pick an AWS training institute and get yourself enrolled to get an understanding of the syllabus and overall curriculum of AWS certification exam.Go through all the study guides and other reference materials that you can get your hands on.Read numerous AWS whitepapers, as these contain crucial information about the kind of questions asked in the evaluation test and how to answer themNow that you have an idea about the theory, it is time to put it to practice. Take practice tests and work on sets to learn to execute technical skills.Once you are certain of your preparation, schedule the exam. Most candidates take about 80-120 hours of practice/studying to prepare for the exam.Foundational CertificationAWS Certified Cloud Practitioner is the latest certification offered by AWS and is an entry-level course which is designed to evaluate the candidate’s understanding of the core concepts of cloud computing. People opting for this course need at least six months experience in AWS cloud services from either the technical, managerial or marketing sector.The foundational AWS course includes the basic AWS features and the common uses of the cloud services. It also teaches students about the core cloud architectural principles, security functions, and operations offered here as well.Associate Certification:Getting an AWS certification can work wonders for your IT career. It helps learners build credibility in the market, and also boost their confidence about their own programming skills. Most IT-based organizations and companies from other sectors prefer candidates who have cleared their AWS exams and received a high-level certification for the same. Listed below are some of the top AWS certifications available.AWS Solutions Architect AssociateAWS Solutions Architect Associate certification is for the experienced candidates who have already mastered the basic features and concepts of AWS. It covers the technical aspects of cloud-based applications- particularly the designing and advertising part of it. Candidates have to answer a set of multiple-choice questions in 130 minutes. The questions will be based on networking technologies of AWS, AWS applications, hybrid systems, AWS data protection measures, etc.AWS Developer AssociateThe  AWS developer associate exam lasts for a duration of 80 minutes in which candidates have to answer a set of multiple choice questions. The main topics would be from AWS services and databases. There might also be questions from AWS architecture and other practical topics.AWS SysOps Administrator AssociateThis  AWS Certified SysOps Administrator Associate exam is suited for system administrators. It is taken only by industry professionals who have substantial experience in AWS concepts as well as the practical experience to back it up. Knowledge in Linux or Windows administrator will be an added perk. The exam format is the same.Professional Certification:Solution Architect ProfessionalAn AWS Architect Professional is an advanced position, involving a wider set of responsibilities and greater flexibility. Candidates should have a deeper understanding of AWS framework, come up with better actionable solutions and offer effective architectural recommendations. Only applicants who have 2 years of work experience are eligible for this exam.AWS DevOps Engineer professional The DevOps Engineer certification involves detecting, delegating, operational, and supervising applications on the AWS platform. This exam concentrates on the two fundamental concepts of the DevOps movement- continuous delivery (CD) and the automation of processes.Specialty CertificationsAWS offers Specialty certifications, including Big Data Speciality, Networking Speciality, Security Speciality, Alexa Skill Builder Speciality, and Machine Learning Speciality.AWS Big Data Speciality This courseware is perfect for data analysts and engineers looking for better opportunities in the cloud computing sector. It allows the applicant to explore the numerous big data concepts and its execution on the AWS platform. It even tests the person’s coding skills, automation data analysis using AWS. Minimum five years hands-on experience in a data analytics field is recommended.AWS Networking SpecialityThe networking specialty certification is intended to check a candidate’s networking skills and ability to implement them on the AWS framework. It even validates your cross IT architectural skills at figuring out innovative solutions for real-time issues. Advanced knowledge of AWS networking concepts and technologies is recommended.AWS Security SpecialityThis certification covers topics necessary for assuring the safety and security of the AWS platform. Hence, it is a field that requires a sense of responsibility, sincerity and deep knowledge of programming. The exam tests the applicant’s knowledge on a variety of topics including infrastructure development, data security, encryption, incident response, and access management. At least two years of hands-on experience securing AWS workloads is recommended.AWS Alexa Skill Builder SpecialityThis certification is necessary to authenticate your practical know-how in generating, testing, and organizing Amazon Alexa. Candidates basically have to be good at coding, building applications and have six-months experience in creating Alexa skills by means of the Alexa Skills Kit.AWS Machine Learning SpecialityThis certification exam tests the candidates coding skills, technical knowledge and also ML skills. The applicant should be able to identify, create and implement ML concepts in basic AWS platforms and cloud-based programs. Also, note, only people with a minimum of 2 years’ experience in Ml or big data can apply.AWS Exam TopicsAWS Exams are not limited to a few select topics or set coursework. In fact, candidates have to be well versed in almost all the areas concerning the IT sector from basic coding to complicated concepts like big data and machine learning. Also, we would suggest the aspiring candidates have some practical experience with AWS before applying for the exam. Cloud-based architectures, cloud developing services, Networking skills, and data security are some of the core areas one can focus on.Preparing for AWS Certificate Exams AWS certifications, as discussed earlier, are a series of exams which aim at preparing and validating aspiring candidates by honing their programming skills and other technical skills and optimize it for the AWS platform. AWS is a cloud computing interface, which is intuitive and reliable enough to allow clients to save, manage, monitor and share their information in a quick, protected and hassle-free way. Aspiring candidates who are planning to prepare for the AWS certificate exams must already be aware of the intense competition. There are various candidates trying for these exams every year. AWS offers a set of 11 certifications: a foundational certification, three associate-level certifications, two professional-level certifications, and three specialty certifications.There are several online courses and tutorials available online where one can log in to know all about the various areas one can explore and learn about via the AWS platform. The AWS exam includes multiple-choice questions and lasts for a duration of 130 minutes. These questions check the candidate’s comprehension skills as well, as you have to carefully read and understand the question to comprehend what is asked and which AWS concept should be applied to solve the issue.What’s New In AWS CertificationAWS has recently expanded its test centers and is now accessible in 5000 locations spread across 180 countries. Other than that, AWS now also offers candidates better courseware and updates syllabus for the latest exams. This curriculum is detailed, comprehensive, easy and freely accessible. Now, all there is left to do is sign up and take a class that piques your interest and best suits your caliber. Best of luck!
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What is AWS Certification Syllabus?

14K
  • by Joydip Kumar
  • 06th Sep, 2019
  • Last updated on 06th Sep, 2019
  • 13 mins read
What is AWS Certification Syllabus?

Cloud computing has become a lucrative space for IT graduates and tech-savvy students to develop a career in. With data at the forefront of the modern-world, Cloud tech plays an important role in the development of businesses. AWS is among the biggest platforms offering a selection of 11 top-notch cloud certifications to professionals, setting a new yardstick of quality and efficiency in the industry. Getting certified by AWS is a sure-shot way for professionals to make them stand out among peers.

Need for AWS Certificates

Having an  AWS certification adds a degree of authenticity to your cloud computing skills, widening your web visibility, and generating better earning opportunities. Most companies are looking for reliable and professional cloud support to speed up their projects. AWS certification increases your credibility in the IT sector, it also enhances your chances of getting hired by the top companies and corporate houses around the world.

Choosing the Right AWS Certificate

Most enterprises have switched over to cloud-based platforms, tweaking their marketing strategies to suit the needs of their customers. Cloud storage, sharing, and services have been in vogue for a few years now, gaining more popularity and business with each passing year. AWS has over a million customers at present, changing the prejudice that people have against multi-cloud strategies. The top cloud provider in 2018 is AWS, according to the  2018 RightScale State of the Cloud Report. The future of cloud-based platforms and services looks very promising with the likes of AWS gaining increasing popularity among clients. Also, with investments pouring in and a gradual yet consistent expansion to international markets, AWS is slowly but surely growing and will soon become a leading cloud-based service provider in the industry.

Candidate Certificate

AWS certifications help validate the applicant’s technical skills and overall practical knowledge. It is, therefore, a very sought-after platform for both newbies and established professionals in the tech sector. AWS is equipped with the latest tech developments, upgrading the coursework regularly to keep up with the changing trends of the industry. AWS also provides candidates with the necessary practical skills and hands-on experience in cloud architecture, data management, and web security.

Employee Certificate

AWS cloud platform is not only useful to independent candidates and tech-savvy engineers but also employees looking for new ways to improve their skills and get better promotional opportunities within the organization. Some companies are also developing their own cloud certificate programs to customize the skills and coding knowledge of the employees to suit their needs.

Getting Started- how long does it take to get certified?

Candidates who are planning to opt for AWS certification need not devote their entire time to studying. You can easily manage the coursework along with the various professional and personal commitments. Usually, it takes about two months for professionals to complete the AWS curriculum. And this is when you are devoting approx. 80 hours of study. Candidates who are new to the AWS framework might need more time to get used to the system. We would recommend 120 hours of study or a minimum of three months of preparation before you opt for the exam. Start with the basics, and then move on to the more complex topics to get a thorough understanding of the subjects.

Which is the Best AWS Certificate?

AWS at present offers eleven certifications: an introductory certification, three associate-level certifications, two professional-level certifications, and three specialty certifications.

  • AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner
  • AWS Certified Developer – Associate
  • AWS Certified SysOps Administrator – Associate
  • AWS Certified Solutions Architect – Associate
  • AWS Certified DevOps Engineer – Professional
  • AWS Certified Solutions Architect – Professional
  • AWS Certified Big Data – Specialty
  • AWS Certified Advanced Networking – Specialty
  • AWS Certified Security – Specialty
  • AWS Certified Alexa Skill Builder – Specialty
  • AWS Certified Machine Learning – Specialty

The Process- Steps to Prepare For AWS Exams

Getting an AWS certificate is not an easy task. For starters, you have to put in a lot of time and effort into mastering the fundamental and core concepts of AWS and cloud computing. Next, you have to clear the certification exam and then undergo rigorous training to get some on-site job experience. Here are some of the steps that aspiring candidates can follow to study for the AWS certificate test:

Process Steps to Prepare For AWS Exams

  1. Pick an AWS training institute and get yourself enrolled to get an understanding of the syllabus and overall curriculum of AWS certification exam.
  2. Go through all the study guides and other reference materials that you can get your hands on.
  3. Read numerous AWS whitepapers, as these contain crucial information about the kind of questions asked in the evaluation test and how to answer them
  4. Now that you have an idea about the theory, it is time to put it to practice. Take practice tests and work on sets to learn to execute technical skills.
  5. Once you are certain of your preparation, schedule the exam. Most candidates take about 80-120 hours of practice/studying to prepare for the exam.

Foundational Certification

AWS Certified Cloud Practitioner is the latest certification offered by AWS and is an entry-level course which is designed to evaluate the candidate’s understanding of the core concepts of cloud computing. People opting for this course need at least six months experience in AWS cloud services from either the technical, managerial or marketing sector.

The foundational AWS course includes the basic AWS features and the common uses of the cloud services. It also teaches students about the core cloud architectural principles, security functions, and operations offered here as well.

Associate Certification:

Getting an AWS certification can work wonders for your IT career. It helps learners build credibility in the market, and also boost their confidence about their own programming skills. Most IT-based organizations and companies from other sectors prefer candidates who have cleared their AWS exams and received a high-level certification for the same. Listed below are some of the top AWS certifications available.

AWS Solutions Architect Associate

AWS Solutions Architect Associate certification is for the experienced candidates who have already mastered the basic features and concepts of AWS. It covers the technical aspects of cloud-based applications- particularly the designing and advertising part of it. Candidates have to answer a set of multiple-choice questions in 130 minutes. The questions will be based on networking technologies of AWS, AWS applications, hybrid systems, AWS data protection measures, etc.

AWS Developer Associate

The  AWS developer associate exam lasts for a duration of 80 minutes in which candidates have to answer a set of multiple choice questions. The main topics would be from AWS services and databases. There might also be questions from AWS architecture and other practical topics.

AWS SysOps Administrator Associate

This  AWS Certified SysOps Administrator Associate exam is suited for system administrators. It is taken only by industry professionals who have substantial experience in AWS concepts as well as the practical experience to back it up. Knowledge in Linux or Windows administrator will be an added perk. The exam format is the same.

Professional Certification:

Solution Architect Professional

An AWS Architect Professional is an advanced position, involving a wider set of responsibilities and greater flexibility. Candidates should have a deeper understanding of AWS framework, come up with better actionable solutions and offer effective architectural recommendations. Only applicants who have 2 years of work experience are eligible for this exam.

AWS DevOps Engineer professional 

The DevOps Engineer certification involves detecting, delegating, operational, and supervising applications on the AWS platform. This exam concentrates on the two fundamental concepts of the DevOps movement- continuous delivery (CD) and the automation of processes.

Specialty Certifications

AWS offers Specialty certifications, including Big Data Speciality, Networking Speciality, Security Speciality, Alexa Skill Builder Speciality, and Machine Learning Speciality.

AWS Big Data Speciality 

This courseware is perfect for data analysts and engineers looking for better opportunities in the cloud computing sector. It allows the applicant to explore the numerous big data concepts and its execution on the AWS platform. It even tests the person’s coding skills, automation data analysis using AWS. Minimum five years hands-on experience in a data analytics field is recommended.

AWS Networking Speciality

The networking specialty certification is intended to check a candidate’s networking skills and ability to implement them on the AWS framework. It even validates your cross IT architectural skills at figuring out innovative solutions for real-time issues. Advanced knowledge of AWS networking concepts and technologies is recommended.

AWS Security Speciality

This certification covers topics necessary for assuring the safety and security of the AWS platform. Hence, it is a field that requires a sense of responsibility, sincerity and deep knowledge of programming. The exam tests the applicant’s knowledge on a variety of topics including infrastructure development, data security, encryption, incident response, and access management. At least two years of hands-on experience securing AWS workloads is recommended.

AWS Alexa Skill Builder Speciality

This certification is necessary to authenticate your practical know-how in generating, testing, and organizing Amazon Alexa. Candidates basically have to be good at coding, building applications and have six-months experience in creating Alexa skills by means of the Alexa Skills Kit.

AWS Machine Learning Speciality

This certification exam tests the candidates coding skills, technical knowledge and also ML skills. The applicant should be able to identify, create and implement ML concepts in basic AWS platforms and cloud-based programs. Also, note, only people with a minimum of 2 years’ experience in Ml or big data can apply.

AWS Exam Topics

AWS Exams are not limited to a few select topics or set coursework. In fact, candidates have to be well versed in almost all the areas concerning the IT sector from basic coding to complicated concepts like big data and machine learning. Also, we would suggest the aspiring candidates have some practical experience with AWS before applying for the exam. Cloud-based architectures, cloud developing services, Networking skills, and data security are some of the core areas one can focus on.

Preparing for AWS Certificate Exams 

AWS certifications, as discussed earlier, are a series of exams which aim at preparing and validating aspiring candidates by honing their programming skills and other technical skills and optimize it for the AWS platform. AWS is a cloud computing interface, which is intuitive and reliable enough to allow clients to save, manage, monitor and share their information in a quick, protected and hassle-free way. Aspiring candidates who are planning to prepare for the AWS certificate exams must already be aware of the intense competition. There are various candidates trying for these exams every year. AWS offers a set of 11 certifications: a foundational certification, three associate-level certifications, two professional-level certifications, and three specialty certifications.

There are several online courses and tutorials available online where one can log in to know all about the various areas one can explore and learn about via the AWS platform. The AWS exam includes multiple-choice questions and lasts for a duration of 130 minutes. These questions check the candidate’s comprehension skills as well, as you have to carefully read and understand the question to comprehend what is asked and which AWS concept should be applied to solve the issue.

What’s New In AWS Certification

AWS has recently expanded its test centers and is now accessible in 5000 locations spread across 180 countries. Other than that, AWS now also offers candidates better courseware and updates syllabus for the latest exams. This curriculum is detailed, comprehensive, easy and freely accessible. Now, all there is left to do is sign up and take a class that piques your interest and best suits your caliber. Best of luck!


Joydip

Joydip Kumar

Solution Architect

Joydip is passionate about building cloud-based applications and has been providing solutions to various multinational clients. Being a java programmer and an AWS certified cloud architect, he loves to design, develop, and integrate solutions. Amidst his busy work schedule, Joydip loves to spend time on writing blogs and contributing to the opensource community.


Website : http://geeks18.com/

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What is AWS CLI and How to Install it?

Whether you are a small business or a big organisation, you must be familiar with Amazon Web Services. AWS is the world’s most widely used cloud computing platform – something that lets you move faster, operate more securely and save substantial costs. AWS offers 165 services spanning a wide range including computing, tools for the Internet of Things, developer tools, deployment, analytics, database, networking, etc. The AWS Command Line Interface (CLI) is a unified tool to manage your AWS services.Do you want to Get AWS Certified? Learn about various  AWS Certification in detailWhat is AWS CLI?The AWS Command Line Interface (CLI) is a unified tool that manages the AWS services for you. You only have to download and configure one simple tool to control a plethora of AWS services. They are automated through scripts and help you implement a certain level of automation. It is indeed AWS CLI that makes AWS so dynamic and easy to use.How to Install AWS CLI?Putting AWS CLI to use in your AWS involves a few steps.There are a few different ways to install it – you need to choose what works for your system.Every operating system has a different method of installation.Some generic steps are followed after the installation.Then comes the configuration.You will also need to upgrade it timely. Follow these steps to successfully install and configure the AWS CLI for use.Ways to Install:You can effectively install the AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI) using:pipa virtual environmenta bundled installerWhat do you need?Unix, macOS, Linux, WindowsPython 3 version 3.3+ or Python 2 version 2.6.5+It is important to know that you may not be able to use an older version of Python with all AWS Services. Update to a newer version if there are Insecure Platform Warning or deprecation notices. To find out what version you currently have, visit:  https://github.com/aws/aws-cli/blob/master/CHANGELOG.rst.1. Installing the AWS CLI Using pipPip is the main distribution method for the AWS CLI on macOS, Windows and Linux. It is a package manager for Python.Installing the current AWS CLI VersionIf you have pip and a supported version of Python, use the following command to install the AWS CLI. Use the pip3 command if you have Python version 3+ installed:$ pip3 install awscli --upgrade –userThe --upgrade option commands pip3 to upgrade the requirements that are already installed. The --user option commands pip3 to install the program to a subdirectory of the user directory. Doing this avoids the complication of modifying libraries used by your operating system.Upgrading to the latest versionUse the pip list -o command to identify packages that are "outdated”:$ aws --version aws-cli/1.16.170 Python/3.7.3 Linux/4.14.123-111.109.amzn2.x86_64 botocore/1.12.160 $ pip3 list -o Package Version Latest Type ---------- -------- -------- ----- awscli 1.16.170 1.16.198 wheel botocore 1.12.160 1.12.188 wheelNow, run pip install --upgrade to get the latest version:$ pip3 install --upgrade --user awscli Collecting aws cli Downloadinghttps://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/dc/70/b32e9534c32fe9331801449e1f7eacba6a1992c2e4af9c82ac9116661d3b/awscli-1.16.198-py2.py3-none-any.whl (1.7MB) |████████████████████████████████| 1.7MB 1.6MB/s Collecting botocore==1.12.188 (from awscli) Using cached https://files.pythonhosted.org/packages/10/cb/8dcfb3e035a419f228df7d3a0eea5d52b528bde7ca162f62f3096a930472/botocore-1.12.188-py2.py3-none-any.whl Requirement already satisfied, skipping upgrade: docutils>=0.10 in ./venv/lib/python3.7/site-packages (from awscli) (0.14) Requirement already satisfied, skipping upgrade: rsa=3.1.2 in ./venv/lib/python3.7/site-packages (from awscli) (3.4.2) Requirement already satisfied, skipping upgrade: colorama=0.2.5 in ./venv/lib/python3.7/site-packages (from awscli) (0.3.9) Requirement already satisfied, skipping upgrade: PyYAML=3.10; python_version != "2.6" in ./venv/lib/python3.7/site-packages (from awscli) (3.13) Requirement already satisfied, skipping upgrade: s3transfer=0.2.0 in ./venv/lib/python3.7/site-packages (from awscli) (0.2.0) Requirement already satisfied, skipping upgrade: jmespath=0.7.1 in ./venv/lib/python3.7/site-packages (from botocore==1.12.188->awscli) (0.9.4) Requirement already satisfied, skipping upgrade: urllib3=1.20; python_version >= "3.4" in ./venv/lib/python3.7/site-packages (from botocore==1.12.188->awscli) (1.24.3) Requirement already satisfied, skipping upgrade: python-dateutil=2.1; python_version >= "2.7" in ./venv/lib/python3.7/site-packages (from botocore==1.12.188->awscli) (2.8.0) Requirement already satisfied, skipping upgrade: pyasn1>=0.1.3 in ./venv/lib/python3.7/site-packages (from rsa=3.1.2->awscli) (0.4.5) Requirement already satisfied, skipping upgrade: six>=1.5 in ./venv/lib/python3.7/site-packages (from python-dateutil=2.1; python_version >= "2.7"->botocore==1.12.188->awscli) (1.12.0) Installing collected packages: botocore, awscli Found existing installation: botocore 1.12.160 Uninstalling botocore-1.12.160: Successfully uninstalled botocore-1.12.160 Found existing installation: awscli 1.16.170 Uninstalling awscli-1.16.170: Successfully uninstalled awscli-1.16.170 Successfully installed awscli-1.16.198 botocore-1.12.1882. Installing the AWS CLI in a Virtual EnvironmentAnother option is to install the AWS CLI in a virtual environment to separate the tool and its dependencies. You can also use a different Python version for this purpose.3. Installing the AWS CLI Using an InstallerUse the bundled installer for automated and offline installation on Unix, macOS, and Linux. It includes the AWS CLI, its dependencies, and a shell script that is responsible for the installation. For Windows, try MSI installer. Both these methods simplify the initial installation. Installation of Linux or UnixBoth the platforms have identical installation process. You need to have Python’s latest version. We recommend using the bundled installer for this. The steps are as follows:1. To begin the installation:curl "https://s3.amazonaws.com/aws-cli/awscli-bundle.zip" -o "awscli-bundle.zip"2. Unzip the downloaded package:unzip awscli-bundle.zip3. Run the installation:sudo ./awscli-bundle/install -i /usr/local/aws -b /usr/local/bin/awsUsing the -b option allows you to use the AWS CLI from any directory.Installation on Amazon LinuxThe AWS Command Line Interface comes preinstalled on both Amazon Linux and Amazon Linux 2. Below are the steps to install:1. Identify currently installed version:$ aws --version aws-cli/1.16.116 Python/3.6.8 Linux/4.14.77-81.59.amzn2.x86_64 botocore/1.12.1062. Use pip3 to install the latest version of the AWS CLI. If you run the command from within a Python virtual environment (venv), then you don't need to use the --user option.$ pip3 install --upgrade --user awscli3. Add the install location to the beginning of the PATH variable.$ export PATH=/home/ec2-user/.local/bin:$PATH4. Verify that you're running new version with aws --version.$ aws --version aws-cli/1.16.116 Python/3.6.8 Linux/4.14.77-81.59.amzn2.x86_64 botocore/1.12.106Installation on WindowsThe AWS Command Line Interface can be installed on Windows by using a standalone installer or through a pip - a package manager for Python> Through InstallerDownload the appropriate MSI installer.Run the downloaded MSI installer or the setup file.Follow these instructions:By default, the CLI installs to C:\Program Files\Amazon\AWSCLI (64-bit version) or C:\Program Files (x86)\Amazon\AWSCLI (32-bit version). To confirm the installation, use the aws --version command at a command prompt (open the Start menu and search for cmd to start a command prompt).C:\> aws --version aws-cli/1.16.116 Python/3.6.8 Windows/10 botocore/1.12.106If Windows is unable to find the program, you might need to close and reopen the command prompt to refresh the path, or add the installation directory to your PATH environment variable manually.> Through Pip1. Open Start menu→Command Prompt2. Verify that both Python and pip are installed correctly:C:\> python --version Python 3.7.1 C:\> pip3 --version pip 18.1 from c:\program files\python37\lib\site-packages\pip (python 3.7)3. Install AWS CLI via pipC:\> pip3 install awscli4. Check if the installation went rightC:\> aws --version aws-cli/1.16.116 Python/3.6.8 Windows/10 botocore/1.12.106To upgrade to the latest version:C:\> pip3 install --user --upgrade awscliInstallation on MAC OS> Through Installer1. Download the  AWS CLI Bundled Installer$ curl "https://s3.amazonaws.com/aws-cli/awscli-bundle.zip" -o "awscli-bundle.zip"2. Unzip the package$ unzip awscli-bundle.zip3. Run the installation$ sudo ./awscli-bundle/install -i /usr/local/aws -b /usr/local/bin/awsThis command installs the AWS CLI to /usr/local/aws and creates the symlink aws in the /usr/local/bin directory. Using the -b option to create a symlink eliminates the need to specify the install directory in the user's $PATH variable. It enables users to run the AWS CLI by typing “aws” from any directory.If you want to see an explanation of the -i and -b options, use the -h option$ ./awscli-bundle/install -hthe commands summarized for easy cut and paste at the command line.curl "https://s3.amazonaws.com/aws-cli/awscli-bundle.zip" -o "awscli-bundle.zip" unzip awscli-bundle.zip sudo ./awscli-bundle/install -i /usr/local/aws -b /usr/local/bin/aws> Through PIP1. Download and install the latest version of Python from Python.org.2. Download and run the pip3 installation script provided by the Python Packaging Authority$ curl -O https://bootstrap.pypa.io/get-pip.py $ python3 get-pip.py --user3. Use pip3 to install the AWS CLI. We recommend using the pip3 command if you use Python version 3+$ pip3 install awscli --upgrade --user4. See if AWS CLI is installed correctly$ aws --version AWS CLI 1.16.116 (Python 3.6.8)To upgrade to the latest version, run the command:$ pip3 install awscli --upgrade --userInstallation on Ubuntu> Through APT Package Manager1. Update the package repository cache$ sudo apt-get update2. Install AWS CLI with the following command$ sudo apt-get install awsclipress y and then press to continue. Your screen should look something like this: 3. Now that it’s installed, check if it’s working properly or not$ aws --version> Through PIPAWS CLI being a Python module itself makes it easy for users who install it through PIP to update it on a regular basis. Assuming you have Python 3, follow the below steps to install:1. Install Python PIP with the following command$ sudo apt-get install python3-pipPress y and then press to continue2. Install AWS CLI using PIP with the following command$ pip3 install awscli --upgrade --user3. Run AWS CLI with the following command$ python3 -m awscli --versionAfter InstallationAfter you have successfully installed AWS CLI, you need to set the Path to Include the AWS CLI in your system.> LINUXFind out the folder in which pip installed the AWS CLI$ which aws /home/username/.local/bin/awsYou can reference this as “~/.local/bin/” because of the reason that “/home/username” corresponds to ~ in Linux OSIn case you don't know where Python is installed, run this command$ which python /usr/local/bin/pythonIf this is the same folder you added to the path while installing pip, there’s nothing else to be done. Otherwise, perform those same steps again, adding this additional folder to the path.> WINDOWSThe Windows System PATH tells your PC where it can find specific directories:C:\> where awsC:\Program Files\Amazon\AWSCLI\bin\aws.exeFind out where the aws program is installedC:\> where c:\ awsC:\Program Files\Python37\Scripts\awsIf the command returns the following error, then it is not in the system PATH and you can't run it by typing its name.C:\> where c:\ awsINFO:Could not find files for the given pattern.In that case, you need to add the path manually. First, you need to search where it is installed on your computer:C:\> where /R c:\ awsc:\Program Files\Amazon\AWSCLI\bin\aws.exec:\Program Files\Amazon\AWSCLI\bincompat\aws.cmdc:\Program Files\Amazon\AWSCLI\runtime\Scripts\awsc:\Program Files\Amazon\AWSCLI\runtime\Scripts\aws.cmd...To modify your PATH variable (Windows)Press the Windows key and enter environment variables.Choose the Edit environment variables for your account.Choose the PATH →Edit.Add the path to the Variable value field. For example: C:\new\pathClick OK twice to apply the new settings.Close any running command prompts and reopen the command prompt window.> MAC OSLocate Python$ which python /usr/local/bin/pythonThe output might be the path to a symlink, not the actual program. Run ls -al to see where it points.$ ls -al /usr/local/bin/python ~/Library/Python/3.7/bin/python3.6Pip install programs in the same folder as the Python application. Add this folder to your PATH variable.To modify the PATH variable for macOS (and Linus or Unix):1. Find the shell profile script in the user folder. In case you don’t know which shell you have, run echo $SHELL2. Through the following, add an export command to the profile scriptexport PATH=~/.local/bin:$PATHThis adds a path, ~/.local/bin in this example, to the current PATH variable.3. The updated profile can now be loaded into your current session$ source ~/.bash_profile
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What is AWS CLI and How to Install it?

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Test Drive Your First Istio Deployment using Play with Kubernetes Platform- Cloud Computing

As a full stack Developer, if you have been spending a lot of time in developing apps recently, you already understand a whole new set of challenges related to Microservice architecture. Although there has been a shift from bloated monolithic apps to compact, focused Microservices for faster implementation and improved resiliency but the fact is  developers have to really worry about the challenges in integrating these services in distributed systems which includes accountability for service discovery, load balancing, registration, fault tolerance, monitoring, routing, compliance, and security.Let us understand the challenges faced by the developers and operators with the Microservice Architecture in details. Consider a 1st Generation simple Service Mesh scenario. As shown below, Service (A) communicates to Service (B). Instead of communicating directly, the request gets routed via Nginx. The Nginx finds a route in Consul (A service discovery tool) and automatically retries to form the connection on HTTP 502’s happen.                                                                    Figure: 1.0 – 1st Gen Service Mesh                                                      Figure:1.1 – Cascading Failure demonstrated with the increase in the number of servicesBut, with the advent of microservices architecture, the number is growing ever since. Below are the  listed challenges encountered by both developers as well as operations team:How to make these growing microservices communicate with each other?Enabling the load balancing architectures over these microservices.Providing role-based routing for the microservices.How to implement outgoing traffic on these microservices and test canary deployment?Managing complexity around these growing pieces of microservices.Implementation of fine-grained control for traffic behavior with rich-routing rules.Challenges in implementing Traffic encryption, service-to-service authentication, and strong identity assertions.In a nutshell, although you could enable service discovery and retry logic into application or networking middleware, the fact is that service discovery becomes tricky to make it right.Enter Istio’s Service Mesh“Service Mesh” is one of the hottest buzzwords of 2018. As the name suggests, it’s a configurable infrastructure layer for a microservices app. It lays out the network of microservices that make up applications and enables interactions between them. It makes communication between service instances flexible, reliable, and fast. The mesh provides service discovery, load balancing, encryption, authentication and authorization, support for the circuit breaker pattern, and other capabilities.Istio is completely an open source service mesh that layers transparently onto existing distributed applications. Istio v1.0 got announced last month and is ready for production. It is written completely in Go Language and its a fully grown platform which provides APIs that let it integrate into any logging platform, or telemetry or policy system. This project adds a very tiny overhead to your system. It is being hosted on GitHub. Istio’s diverse feature set lets you successfully, and efficiently, run a distributed microservice architecture, and provides a uniform way to secure, connect, and monitor microservices.Figure-1.2: Istio’s CapabilityThe Istio project adds a very tiny overhead to your system. It is being hosted on GitHub. Last month, Istio 1.0 release went public and ready for production environment.What benefits does Istio bring?Istio lets you connect, secure, control, and observe services.It helps to reduce the complexity of service deployments and eases the strain on your development teams.It provides developers and DevOps fine-grained visibility and control over traffic without requiring any changes to application code.It provides CIOs with the necessary tools needed to help enforce security and compliance requirements across the enterprise.It provides behavioral insights & operational control over the service mesh as a whole.Istio makes it easy to create a network of deployed services with automatic Load Balancing for HTTP, gRPC, Web Socket & TCP Traffic.It provides fine-grained control of traffic behavior with rich routing rules, retries, failovers, and fault injection.It enables a pluggable policy layer and configuration API supporting access controls, rate limits and quotas.Istio provides automatic metrics, logs, and traces for all traffic within a cluster, including cluster ingress and egress.It provides secure service-to-service communication in a cluster with strong identity-based authentication and authorization.If you want to deep-dive into Istio architecture, I highly recommend the official Istio website.It’s Demo Time !!!Under this blog post, I will showcase how Istio can be setup on Play with Kubernetes (PWK) Platform for a free of cost. In case you’re new, Play with Kubernetes rightly aka PWK is a labs site provided by Docker. It is a playground which allows users to run K8s clusters in a matter of seconds. It gives the experience of having a free CentOS LinuxVirtual Machine in the browser. Under the hood Docker-in-Docker (DinD) is used to give the effect of multiple VMs/PCs.Open  to access Kubernetes Playground.Click on the Login button to authenticate with Docker Hub or GitHub ID.Once you start the session, you will have your own lab environment.Adding First Kubernetes NodeClick on “Add New Instance” on the left to build your first Kubernetes Cluster node. It automatically names it as “node1”. Each instance has Docker Community Edition (CE) and Kubeadm already pre-installed. This node will be treated as the master node for our cluster.Bootstrapping the Master NodeYou can bootstrap the Kubernetes cluster by initializing the master (node1) node with the below script. Copy this script content into bootstrap.sh file and make it executable using “chmod +x bootstrap.sh” command.When you execute this script, as part of initialization, the kubeadm write several configuration files needed, setup RBAC and deployed Kubernetes control plane components (like kube-apiserver, kube-dns, kube-proxy, etcd, etc.). Control plane components are deployed as Docker containers.Copy the above kubeadm join token command and save it for the next step. This command will be used to join other nodes to your cluster.Adding Worker NodesClick on “Add New Node” to add a new worker node.Checking the Cluster StatusVerifying the running PodsInstalling Istio 1.0.0Istio is deployed in a separate Kubernetes namespace istio-system. We will verify it later. As of now, you can copy the below content in a file called install_istio.sh and save it. You can make it executable and run it to install Istio and related tools.You should be able to see screen flooding with the below output.As shown above, it will enable the Prometheus, ServiceGraph, Jaeger, Grafana, and Zipkin by default.Please note – While executing this script, it might end up with the below error message –unable to recognize "install/kubernetes/istio-demo.yaml": no matches for admissionregistration.k8s.io/, Kind=MutatingWebhookConfigurationThe error message is expected.As soon as the command gets executed completely, you should be able to see a long list of ports which gets displayed at the top center of the page.Verifying the ServicesExposing the ServicesTo expose Prometheus, Grafana & Servicegraph services, you will need to delete the existing services and then use NodePort instead of ClusterIP so as to access the service using the port displayed on the top of the instance page. (as shown below)You should be able to access Grafana page by clicking on “30004” port and Prometheus page by clicking on “30003”.You can check Prometheus metrics by selecting the necessary option as shown below:Under Grafana Page, you can add “Data Source” for Prometheus and ensure that the dashboard is up and running:Congratulations! You have installed Istio on Kubernetes cluster. Below listed services have been installed on K8s playground:Istio Controllers and related RBAC rulesIstio Custom Resource DefinitionsPrometheus and Grafana for MonitoringJeager for Distributed TracingIstio Sidecar Injector (we'll take a look next section)Installing IstioctlIstioctl is configuration command line utility of Istio. It helps to create, list, modify and delete configuration resources in the Istio system.Deploying the Sample BookInfo ApplicationNow Istio is installed and verified, you can deploy one of the sample applications provided with the installation- BookInfo. This is a simple mock bookstore application made up of four services that provide a web product page, book details, reviews (with several versions of the review service), and ratings - all managed using Istio.Deploying BookInfo ServicesDefining the Ingress Gateway:Verifying BookInfo ApplicationAccessing it via Web URLYou should now be able the BookInfo Sample as shown below:Hope, this Istio deployment Kubernetes tutorial helped you to successfully install Istio on Kubernetes. In the future blog post, I will deep dive into Istio Internal Architecture, traffic management, policies & telemetry in detail.We hoped this article helped you get familiar with the concept. If you want to know more about it and get certified, you can try the AWS certification course offered by KnowledgeHut.
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SSHing into Ubuntu EC2 instance post blocking port 22 with UFW - Cloud Computing

IntroductionThis blog is in reference to a troubleshooting situation in Amazon Web Services when you have configured firewall setting in your ubuntu ec2 or remote instance and is not able to login via PuTTY through SSH as the instance. Here, we will see how to insert SSH into the instance in a certain situation when you are logged out of that instance.During configuration of SSL security, we may accidentally or purposely block SSH for the instance to make the instance secure. But, what if we again want the same instance to SSH for certain changes.  Below is the highlighted configuration of the instance. Here, you can see that all the instances have all ports opened to everything.Here are the configuration changes which you have made on the login into instance:$ sudo apt-get update $ sudo apt-get install nginx $ sudo apt-get install ufw  Check UFW Status and Rules At any time, you can check the status of UFW with this command:$ sudo ufw status verbose By default, UFW will be disabled so you should see something like this:Output: Status: inactive If UFW is active, the output will say that it's active, and it will list the rules that are set. For example, if the firewall is set to allow SSH (port 22) connections from anywhere, the output might look something like this:Output: Status: active Logging: on (low) Default: deny (incoming), allow (outgoing), disabled (routed) New profiles: skip To                         Action      From --                         ------      ---- 22/tcp                     ALLOW IN Anywhere $ sudo ufw deny ssh $ sudo ufw status verbose Output: Status: active Logging: on (low) Default: deny (incoming), allow (outgoing), disabled (routed) New profiles: skip To                         Action      From --                         ------      ---- 22/tcp                     DENY    Anywhere If you kicked or logged out of the instance once the changes are done, you will be seeing the below results.On SSH into the instance with your Public DNS through PuTTY below are the results which you are seeing as an error i.e. Network error: Connection Timed Out  Below error shows that even after all ports were opened outside, the instance is not able to SSH because of firewall software of Ubuntu at the system level. Let’s see how to resolve this kind of system related issue.Solution to the issue:Step 1: Take an image of the EC2 instance by selecting the instance ->Image-Create ImageStep 2: Provide specification Image name, tick on no reboot and push the create image buttonStep 3: Then Select the image and click on launchStep 4: Go to instance type, select and click on NextStep 5: In the configuration instance, write the below commands under Advanced Details and click on next:#!/bin/bash sudo ufw allow ssh sudo ufw allow 22 sudo ufw allow 443 sudo ufw allow 8080 sudo ufw allow 80 sudo ufw status  sudo ufw enable Step 6: Click next and next tab and add security group similar as providedStep 7: Review and launch the instance and then try to SSH to the instance through PuTTY. You will be now able to add SSH inside the instance with this and you can terminate the old instance as the new instance with all the setup same as that of the old instance without any issue except the public IP and private IP change.Best Practices of Firewall Configuration & Port Blocking:Ensure that the Security Groups will allow a specific IP addresses which are within the VPN Range of the Environment.Use of NACL for allowing and blocking the IP addresses or subnets for a specific Port by using allow and deny rules. A network ACL contains a numbered list of rules that we evaluate in order, starting with the lowest numbered rule. This helps to determine whether traffic is allowed in or out of any subnet associated with the network ACL. The highest number that you can use for a rule is 32766. We recommend that you start by creating rules in increments (for example, increments of 10 or 100) so that you can insert new rules.Use of Bastion Host for accessing critical servers and environment is always a better option to increase the security of the system or environment. We hope that this article gave you a clear understanding of how AWS services work. You can understand how cloud computing works by making yourself familiar with these services. To learn more about AWS, you can check out the other blogs and the AWS certification course by KnowledgeHut.
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SSHing into Ubuntu EC2 instance post blocking port...

IntroductionThis blog is in reference to a trouble... Read More