Quality is one of the modern project constraints which lead the project management processes and activates . according to PMI's PMBOK 5th edition there are 3 processes of quality management throughout the project lifecycle . processes are :-
1-plan quality management
2- perform quality assurance
3- control quality
Now we will talk about a group of tools which can be used to manage and control quality throughout the project lifecycle these group of tools called can be " Quality Management And Control Tools " it consists of seven Tools as following :-
1-Affinity diagrams :
It divide the ideas in main categories so we can organize the ideas to do something or to solve a problem . as an example when we divide the main deliverables of the WBS into low levels of work until we reach the level of work packages
2- Process decision program charts (PdPc):
According to American Society Of Quality (ASQ) these tool links between objective and the steps to achieve these objective via using a tree of 5 level which the first is the objective , the second is the main component of the system , the third is the tasks of each component , the forth is the problems that can occur while we do the tasks of the third level and finally the fifth level is the actions that can we take to avoid each problem of the problems in the fifth level , after that we can choice the suitable actions depending on its cost and time so these tool is very useful in making contingency plans or change it .
3- Interrelationship digraphs :
A problem solving Tool used in moderately complex scenarios , It can links up to 50 relevant items of causes and effects of any problem in the system . each item is represented as a node , the relation is represented as archer from the input node ( the cause) to the output node ( the effect) .on each node we write the number of inputs and outputs of these node . the node with the largest number of outputs consider a main factor that cause the problem and by avoid it there are a big chance to solve the problem .
4- Tree diagrams:
Also known as systematic diagrams . it represent a decomposition hierarchy such as work breakdown structure (WBS) , organizational breakdown structure (OBS) or resource breakdown structure (RBS) . it represent the relationship between the parent node and the child node also we can use it on decomposing the risks to its components as in the risk breakdown structure . it can also used in decision trees .
5- Prioritization matrices :
A Prioritization Matrix is a technique that identify which problem is the most important to work on solving it or which decision is the more suitable to choose .the problems or choices are generated from brainstorming or other ideas generating techniques . then we determine the criteria which are important in measuring the problem and give it a value that show its important between other criteria's that can be used . these criteria can be time , cost , frequency , feasibility or so on then we take each problem and measure it be each weighed criteria , then determine the total score of these problem , then we reach to the most important problem which have the largest total score
From the previous table problem 2 is the most important problem so we must solve it before problem 1 and 3 .
6- Activity network diagrams:
A tool consists of two forms : Activity on Node (AON) and Activity on Arrow (AOA) .
These tool used to schedule the activists of the project by linking activities to each others . the main advantages of these method over other scheduling method such as Gantt chart is that it can determine the critical path of the project also it can show the predecessor and successor of any activity so we can use it when we want to rearrange the activity network.
According to PMBOK 5th Edition the matrix diagram is a quality control tool that used in data analysis to show the strength of relationships between factors, causes, and objectives that exist between the rows and columns that form the matrix.
There are many types of matrices that all have its own relationship between columns and rows as : L-Shaped , T-Shaped , C-shaped and Y-shaped . from these relationships we can correlate between cause and effect so we can solve the problem or control its effects .
At the end we can say that : each tool of the previous tools is very useful in some cases but all of them are used in quality management and control activates throughout all the project lifecycle .