HomeBlogProject ManagementA Brief Guide on S-Curve in Project Management

A Brief Guide on S-Curve in Project Management

11th Jun, 2024
view count loader
Read it in
10 Mins
In this article
    A Brief Guide on S-Curve in Project Management

    A tool in project management that tracks progress and forecasts future trends and challenges might sound too good to be true, but that's exactly what the S-Curve offers.

    S-Curve is a graphical representation that illustrates the progress of a project over time, providing a clear picture of growth, development, and resource allocation. The true beauty of the S-Curve lies in its ability to offer predictive insights, enabling project managers to anticipate potential issues and make informed decisions.

    In this guide, I aim to help you understand the practical applications of the PMP S-Curve, illustrating how it helps us navigate the intricate world of project management, influence decision-making, and guide project strategies from start to finish. Check out PMP prep course online to learn complex project management topics for a successful project management career. 

    S-Curve in Project Management

    S-curve shape is a mathematical graphic representation that plots curves with an S shape to show the cumulative values against one another. S-curve is a loose shape rather than a true S-shape. Comparing the frequency, the amount of work completed on average, or the profit rate versus the market, shows two numbers compared to one another. 

    Factors used to determine S-curve parameters can change depending on the project's nature, cost, number of workers required, and work hours. S-curves are also referred to as progress curves as they identify and track a project's progress.

    Types of S-curves

    Numerous S-curves can be used in project management. Some of these are listed below: 

    1. Target S-curve

    The schedule in the production can be used to generate a target s-curve, which depicts the project's ideal development. The target s-curve would cross the baseline s-curve at the project's conclusion in an ideal scenario where all projects are completed on time and below budget. This S-curve depicts the project's ideal progress if all tasks are carried out according to the present timetable. 

    2. Costs Versus Time S-curve

    It is suitable for projects which have both labor-intensive and non-intensive duties. This s-curve shows all expenses incurred from the beginning to the end of a project, including paying vendors and hiring contractors. You can estimate cash flow and total project costs using this data. 

    3. Value and Percentage S-curves

    Absolute quantities, such as expenses vs time, person hours vs time, or values vs time, can be plotted as S-curves. Earned value curves can be used to determine the total amount already spent and the total labor hours required to complete the project.  

    4. Baseline S-curve

    The baseline S-curve is created before the project begins. A schedule is created defining the suggested resource allocation and the scheduling of actions required to finish the project within a predetermined time frame and budget. A previously planned and examined timetable is closely related to the Baseline S-curve. This particular S-Curve displays the project's optimal progress.  

    5. Man-Hours Versus Time S-curve

    The Man Hours versus Time S-curve is ideal for labor-intensive undertakings. The total number of hours needed to complete the task equals the man-hours. 

    6. Actual S-curve

    The production plan is regularly modified throughout a project. These revisions contain the finished work's data, which can be used to construct an actual s-curve. This s-curve displays the actual progress but can also assess performance by contrasting progress with the desired baseline s-curve. 

    Top Cities where Knowledgehut Conduct Project Management Certification Training Course Online

    Project Management Courses in LondonProject Management Courses in Singapore
    Project Management Courses in MelbourneProject Management Courses in Toronto
    Project Management Courses in SydneyProject Management Courses in Perth
    Project Management Courses in BangaloreProject Management Courses in Dubai
    Project Management Courses in MumbaiProject Management Courses in Brisbane

    Boost your team's efficiency with Agile Management. Enroll in our agile class and uncover the keys to triumph!

    Discover the leading KnowledgeHut's Project Management Courses

    PMP Certification TrainingPrince2 Certification TrainingPMI-CAPM Certification
    PgMP Certification TrainingPrince2 Foundation CertificationProject Management Masters Program
    Prince2 Agile CertificationPMI-RMP Certification TrainingPrince2 Practitioner Certification

    How does S-curve Help Managers Make Decisions?

    An s-curve can be used to compare cumulative data from multiple project aspects with anticipated data, which is useful for tracking project success. The degree of alignment between two graphs can be examined to determine whether an element is progressing. Here are some other ways S-curves can benefit a project manager in the long run. 

    1. Project Manager Can Monitor the Progress

    Knowledge of S-curve in project management has given project managers an advantage. By comparing the number of products with the timeline, they may easily track the project's development. They can then determine the project's scope and make the necessary revisions where they are needed. Various Project Management courses for beginners are available online, which can help you ace various project management exams with guidance from industry experts. 

    2. Help you Forecast when Resources are Heavily Used

    When you plot your S-curve, you can see when you expect the project to require the most resources, such as when additional funding or activity levels are at their peak. Because you can confidently and clearly express when you require a significant portion of the project budget to be released by business stakeholders or even when you need to support your core project team with contractors, budget scheduling and resource allocation will be more accurate. 

    3. Monitor Sales

    S-curves are useful for tracking product sales, allowing you to forecast future sales and alter production as necessary. Sales begin slowly as a product's marketing campaign gets underway. Still, if the product has an impact and customers start buying it, eventually, the line swings straight up, demanding an equal rise in production. 

    4. Aids in Establishing Expectations for the Team and Jobs

    The project manager can establish better goals for the team and work goals. They will depict the expected team members to work for a fictitious number of days and the project cost using an S-curve graph. 

    Reasons to Use an S-curve in Project Management

    The S-curve analysis in project management is a vital tool for tracking and forecasting various aspects of a project. Here are some key reasons to use an S-curve:

    Track Progress - The S-curve provides a clear visual representation of a project's progress over time. The project progress S-curve plots cumulative data, such as costs or man-hours, against time, allowing project managers to monitor the pace of project development. This tracking is essential for identifying whether the project is advancing according to the planned schedule or if deviations are occurring, enabling timely corrective actions.

    Allocate Resources - Effective resource allocation is a critical aspect of project management, and the S-curve in project management facilitates this by highlighting the periods of highest resource utilization. By predicting when the project will demand the most resources, managers can strategically plan and allocate necessary resources, ensuring that the project progresses smoothly without resource-related delays or bottlenecks.

    Forecast Cash Flow - The S-curve aids in forecasting the project's cash flow, providing insights into the financial requirements at different stages of the project. This foresight is crucial for financial planning, helping managers anticipate and prepare for significant expenditures, thereby maintaining the project's financial health.

    Manage Stakeholder Expectations - Managing stakeholder expectations is vital for project success, and the S-curve formula for project management serves as a powerful communication tool in this regard. It offers stakeholders a transparent view of the project's progress and potential risks, helping to set realistic expectations and maintain trust throughout the project lifecycle.

    Find Flexibility - Flexibility in project management is about adapting to changes and making informed decisions. A project S-curve template provides a framework for understanding the impact of potential changes on the project. It allows managers to assess how adjustments in one area might affect the overall timeline and resources, offering a flexible approach to project management.

    How to Create S-curve?

    Once you understand S-curve analysis in project management, you should delve further to learn more about it. So how to make an s-curve in project management? To use the S-curve of your project to analyze project progress or deficiencies that need to be fixed, you must understand how it was developed. By using the steps listed below, an S-curve can be made: 

    • You must first comprehend why you are constructing the S-curve for your project. You ought to have created a project timeline before drawing an S-curve. You could make a decision with certainty. 
    • The s-curve project management in excel is used as a visualization tool for variables. Two variables should be used with different data available in s-curve template excel. 
    • The real resources consumed are recorded during the project lifecycle. You can use this to plot your real S-curve and any variations from the defined baseline curve. The project can then be restarted by taking appropriate action. 
    • It is time to graph this total number of working hours versus the number of days. It will display the % and an S-shaped curve to indicate how well you and your team achieved the target. 
    • Growth reaches a plateau and forms the upper portion of an s-curve after reaching the inflection point. The actual work progress and the anticipated work progress will be compared. Doing this may assess where your project is now and where you need to improve. 

    Stages of S-curve Graph

    The S-curve graph in project management is a critical tool for visualizing project progress and consists of several distinct stages:

    S-curve Graph
    Initial Slow Growth - At the beginning of a project, the S-curve graph in project management typically shows a slow growth phase. This stage represents the early part of the project, where the team is forming, stakeholders are aligning, and planning activities are predominant. It's a period of groundwork laying and initial setup, where visible progress might seem minimal as the project's foundation is being established.

    Fast Growth - As the project moves forward, it enters a rapid growth phase, reflected in the steep upward slope of the S-curve. This is the point of inflection, where project activities intensify, and significant advancements are made. During this stage, resources are heavily utilized, and major project milestones are typically achieved. It's a period of high energy and activity where the bulk of the project work is executed.

    Late-stage Slow Growth or Maturity - Following the fast growth phase, the project enters a period of slower growth or maturity. This is depicted by the upper part of the S-curve starting to plateau. In this stage, the project is nearing completion, with most of the work done and only final tasks, such as finishing touches and approvals, remaining. It's a phase of consolidation and finalization, where the project's pace slows down as it approaches its end. 

    Stationary Stage - The final stage of the S-curve project management graph is the stationary phase, where the curve levels out. This indicates that the project has been completed, and no further significant progress or resource utilization exists. It's a phase of closure and completion, where the project's objectives have been met, and the team's focus shifts to finalizing and handing over the project deliverables.


    These days, project management is a highly challenging industry, and if you want your firm to flourish, you need to keep an eye on several different factors. The s-curve is exactly the right set of parameters and techniques needed to explore these issues and flourish in the business. You can check KnowledgeHut PMP prep course online for a better understanding of complex topics in project management and get comprehensive training for the latest PMP Exam Content Outline.

    Frequently Asked Questions

    1What is S curve development?

    L&D leaders can better comprehend the what and how for specific learners in a given role by using the S-curve development, which is utilized in many disciplines to illustrate the beginning, rapid growth, and maturity.

    2Which variable is used in S curve analysis?

    Building price, start date, and duration are required in S curve analysis. 

    3How are S curves used for projects?

    S-curves are frequently used in project management to track progress, assess performance, and estimate cash flow.

    4What is an S-Curve in business?

    Business project managers can use the S-curve of a project as a powerful tool. It monitors the use of a resource, such as a budget or the number of hours put into a project, and detects discrepancies immediately.

    5What is S-Curve called?

    A graph showing a resource's usage over time is called an S-curve. The time is represented on the X-axis, and the resource value or percentage is plotted on the Y-axis. 


    Kevin D.Davis

    Blog Author

    Kevin D. Davis is a seasoned and results-driven Program/Project Management Professional with a Master's Certificate in Advanced Project Management. With expertise in leading multi-million dollar projects, strategic planning, and sales operations, Kevin excels in maximizing solutions and building business cases. He possesses a deep understanding of methodologies such as PMBOK, Lean Six Sigma, and TQM to achieve business/technology alignment. With over 100 instructional training sessions and extensive experience as a PMP Exam Prep Instructor at KnowledgeHut, Kevin has a proven track record in project management training and consulting. His expertise has helped in driving successful project outcomes and fostering organizational growth.

    Share This Article
    Ready to Master the Skills that Drive Your Career?

    Avail your free 1:1 mentorship session.

    Your Message (Optional)

    Upcoming Project Management Batches & Dates

    NameDateFeeKnow more
    Course advisor icon
    Whatsapp/Chat icon