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How to Stand Out in a Python Coding Interview - Functions, Data Structures & Libraries

Any coding interview is a test which primarily focuses on your technical skills and algorithm knowledge. However, if you want to stand out among the hundreds of interviewees, you should know how to use the common functionalities of Python in a convenient manner.The type of interview you might face can be a remote coding challenge, a whiteboard challenge or a full day on-site interview. So if you can prove your coding skills at that moment, the job letter will reach you in no time. You may go through some of the top Python interview questions and answers provided by experts which are divided into three levels- beginner, intermediate and advanced. A thorough practice of these questions and answers on Python will definitely help you achieve your dream job as a Python Developer, Full Stack engineer, and other top profiles.A Python coding interview is basically a technical interview. They are not just about solving problems, they are more about how technically sound you are and how you can write clean productive Python code. This will show your depth of knowledge about Python and how you can use Python’s built-in functions and libraries to implement your code. Go through our Python Tutorials to learn more about  concepts related to Python. Let us look into some of the built-in functions provided by Python and how to select the correct one, learn about the effective use of data structures, how standard libraries in Python can be utilized and so on.How to Select the Correct Built-in Function?Python’s library of built-in functions is small as compared to the standard library. The built-in functions are always available and are not needed to be imported. It is suggested to learn each function before sitting for the interview. Till then, let us learn a few built-in functions and how to use them and also what alternatives can be used.Perform iteration with enumerate() instead of range() Consider a situation during a coding interview: You have a list of elements and you have to iterate over the list with the access to both the indices and values. To differentiate between iteration with enumerate()  and iteration with range(), let us take a look at the classic coding interview question FizzBuzz. It can be solved by iterating over both indices and values. You will be given a list of integers and your task will be as follows:Replace all integers that are evenly distributed by 3 with “fizz”.Replace all integers divisible by 5 with “buzz”.Replace all integers divisible by 3 and 5 with “fizzbuzz”.Developers make use of range() in these situations which can access the elements by index:>>> list_num = [30, 29, 10, 65, 95, 99] >>> for i in range(len(list_num)):       if list_num[i] % 3 == 0 and list_num[i] % 5 == 0:           list_num[i] = 'fizzbuzz'       elif list_num[i] % 3 == 0:           list_num[i] = 'fizz'       elif list_num[i] % 5 == 0:           list_num[i] = 'buzz'   >>> list_num ['fizzbuzz', 22, 14, 'buzz', 97, 'fizz']Though range() can be used in a lot of iterative methods, it is better to use enumerate() in this case since it can access the element’s index and value at the same time:>>> list_num = [30, 29, 10, 65, 95, 99] >>> for i,num in enumerate(list_num):       if list_num[i] % 3 == 0 and list_num[i] % 5 == 0:           list_num[i] = 'fizzbuzz'       elif list_num[i] % 3 == 0:           list_num[i] = 'fizz'       elif list_num[i] % 5 == 0:           list_num[i] = 'buzz' >>> list_num ['fizzbuzz', 22, 14, 'buzz', 97, 'fizz']The enumerate() function returns a counter and the element value for each element. The counter is set to 0 by default which is also the element’s index.  However, if you are not willing to start your counter from 0, you can set an offset using the start parameter:>>> list_num = [30, 29, 10, 65, 95, 99] >>> for i, num in enumerate(list_num, start=11):       print(i, num) 11 30 12 29 13 10 14 65 14 95 16 99You can access all of the same elements using the start parameter. However, the count will start from the specified integer value.Using List Comprehensions in place of map() and filter()Python supports list comprehensions which are easier to read and are analogous in functionality as map() and filter(). This is one of the reasons why Guido van Rossum, the creator of Python felt that dropping map() and filter() was quite uncontroversial.An example to show  map() along with this equivalent list comprehension:>>> list_num = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6] >>> def square_num(z): ...    return z*z ... >>> list(map(square_num, list_num)) [1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36] >>> [square_num(z) for z in numbers] [1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36]Though map() and list comprehension returns the same values but the list comprehension part is easier to read and understand.An example to show  filter() and its equivalent list comprehension:>>> def odd_num_check(z):       return bool(z % 2)   >>> list(filter(odd_num_check, num_list)) [1, 3, 5] >>> [z for z in numbers if odd_num_check(z)] [1, 3, 5]It is the same with filter()as it was with map(). The return values are the same but the list comprehension is easier to follow.List comprehensions are easier to read and beginners are able to catch it more intuitively.Though other programming language developers might argue to the fact but if you make use of list comprehensions during your coding interview, it is more likely to communicate your knowledge about the common functionalities to the recruiter.Debugging With breakpoint() instead of print() Debugging is an essential part of writing software and it shows your knowledge of Python tools which will be useful in developing quickly in your job in the long run. However, using print() to debug a small problem might be good initially but your code will become clumsy. On the other hand, if you use a debugger like breakpoint(), it will always act faster than print().If you’re using Python 3.7, you can simply call breakpoint() at the point in your code where you want to debug without the need of importing anything:# Complicated Code With Bugs ... ... ... breakpoint()Whenever you call breakpoint(), you will be put into The Python Debugger - pdb. However, if you’re using Python 3.6 or older, you can perform an explicit importing which will be exactly like calling breakpoint():import pdb; pdb.set_trace()In this example, you’re being put into the pdb by the pdb.set_trace().  Since it’s a bit difficult to remember, it is recommended to use breakpoint() whenever a debugger is needed. There are also other debuggers that you can try. Getting used to debuggers before your interview would be a great advantage but you can always come back to pdb since it’s a part of the Python Standard Library and is always available. Formatting Strings with the help of f-StringsIt can be confusing to know what type of string formatting should we use since Python consists of a number of different string formatting techniques. However, it is a good approach and is suggested to use Python’s f-strings during a coding interview for Python 3.6 or greater.Literal String Interpolation or f-strings is a powerful string formatting technique that is more readable, more concise, faster and less prone to error than other formatting techniques. It supports the string formatting mini-language which makes string interpolation simpler. You also have the option of adding new variables and Python expressions and they can be evaluated before run-time:>>> def name_and_age(name, age):       return f"My name is {name} and I'm {age / 10:.5f} years old."   >>> name_and_age("Alex", 21) My name is Alex and I'm 2.10000 years old.The f-string allows you to add the name Alex into the string and his corresponding age with the type of formatting you want in one single operation.Note that it is suggested to use Template Strings if the output consists of user-generated values.Sorting Complex Lists with sorted()There are a lot of interview questions that are mostly based on sorting and it is one of the most important concepts you should be clear about before you sit for a coding interview. However, it is always a better option to use sorted() unless you are asked to make your own sorting algorithm by the interviewer.Example code to illustrate simple uses of sorting like sorting numbers or strings:>>> sorted([6,5,3,7,2,4,1]) [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7] >>> sorted(['IronMan', 'Batman', 'Thor', 'CaptainAmerica', 'DoctorStrange'], reverse=False) ['Batman', 'CaptainAmerica', 'DoctorStrange', 'IronMan', 'Thor']sorted() performs sorting in ascending order by default and also when the reverse argument is set to False. If you sorting complex data types, you might want to add a function which allows custom sorting rules:>>> animal_list = [ ...    {'type': 'bear', 'name': 'Stephan', 'age': 9}, ...    {'type': 'elephant', 'name': 'Devory', 'age': 5}, ...    {'type': 'jaguar', 'name': 'Moana', 'age': 7}, ... ] >>> sorted(animal_list, key=lambda animal: animal['age']) [     {'type': 'elephant', 'name': 'Devory', 'age': 5},     {'type': 'jaguar', 'name': 'Moana', 'age': 7},     {'type': 'bear, 'name': 'Stephan, 'age': 9}, ]You can easily sort a list of dictionaries using the lambda keyword. In the example above, the lambda returns each element’s age and the dictionary is sorted in ascending order by age.Effective Use of Data StructuresData Structures are one of the most important concepts you should know before getting into an interview and if you choose the perfect data structure during an interviewing context, it will certainly impact your performance. Python’s standard data structure implementations are incredibly powerful and give a lot of default functionalities which will surely be helpful in coding interviews.Storing Values with SetsMake use of sets instead of lists whenever you want to remove duplicate elements from an existing dataset.Consider a function random_word that always returns a random word from a set of words:>>> import random >>> words = "all the words in the world".split() >>> def random_word():       return random.choice(words)In the example above, you need to call random_word repeatedly to get 1000 random selections and then return a data structure that will contain every unique word.Let us look at three approaches to execute this – two suboptimal approaches and one good approach.Bad Approach An example to store values in a list and then convert into a set:>>> def unique_words():       words = []       for _ in range(1000):           words.append(random_word())       return set(words) >>> unique_words() {'planet', 'earth', 'to', 'words'}In this example, creating a list and then converting it into a set is an unnecessary approach. Interviewers notice this type of design and questions about it generally.Worse ApproachYou can store values into a list to avoid the conversion from list to a set. You can then check for the uniqueness by comparing new values with all current elements in the list:>>> def unique_words():       words = []       for _ in range(1000):     word = unique_words()     if word not in words:     words.append(word)       return words >>> unique_words() {'planet', 'earth', 'to', 'words'}This approach is much worse than the previous one since you have to compare every word to every other word already present in the list. In simple terms, the time complexity is much greater in this case than the earlier example.Good ApproachIn this example, you can skip the lists and use sets altogether from the beginning:>>> def unique_words():       words = set()       for _ in range(1000):           words.add(random_word())       return words >>> unique_words() {'planet', 'earth', 'to', 'words'}This approach differs from the second approach as the storing of elements in this approach allows near-constant-time-checks whether a value is present in the set or not whereas linear time-lookups were required when lists were used. The time complexity for this approach is O(N) which is much better than the second approach whose time complexity grew at the rate of O(N²).Saving Memory with GeneratorsThough lists comprehensions are convenient tools, it may lead to excessive use of memory.Consider a situation where you need to find the sum of the first 1000 squares starting with 1 using list comprehensions:>>> sum([z * z for z in range(1, 1001)])333833500Your solution returns the correct answer by making a list of every perfect square and then sums the values. However, the interviewer asks you to increase the number of perfect squares. Initially, your program might work well but it will gradually slow down and the process will be changed completely.  However, you can resolve this memory issue just by replacing the brackets with parentheses:>>> sum((z * z for z in range(1, 1001)))333833500When you make the change from brackets to parentheses, the list comprehension changes to generator expressions. It returns a generator object. The object calculates the next value only when asked. Generators are mainly used on massive sequences of data and in situations when you want to retrieve data from a sequence but don’t want to access all of it at the same time.Defining Default Values in Dictionaries with .get() and .setdefault()Adding, modifying or retrieving an item from a dictionary is one of the most primitive tasks of programming and it is easy to perform with Python functionalities. However, developers often check explicitly for values even its not necessary.Consider a situation where a dictionary named shepherd exists and you want to get that cowboy’s name by explicitly checking for the key with a conditional:>>> shepherd = {'age': 20, 'sheep': 'yorkie', 'size_of_hat': 'large'} >>> if 'name' in shepherd:       name = shepherd['name']     else:       name = 'The Man with No Name'   >>> nameIn this example, the key name is searched in the dictionary and the corresponding value is returned otherwise a default value is returned.You can use .get() in a single line instead of checking keys explicitly:>>> name = shepherd.get('name', 'The Man with No Name')The get() performs the same operation as the first approach does, but they are now handled automatically. However, .get() function does not help in situations where you need to update the dictionary with a default value while still accessing the same key. In such a case, you again need to use explicit checking:>>> if 'name' not in shepherd:       shepherd['name'] = 'The Man with No Name'   >>> name = shepherd['name']However, Python still offers a more elegant way of performing this approach using .setdefault():>>> name = shepherd.setdefault('name', 'The Man with No Name')The .setdefault() function performs the same operation as the previous approach did. If name exists in shepherd, it returns a value otherwise it sets shepherd[‘name’]  to The Man with No Name and returns a new value.Taking Advantage of the Python Standard LibraryPython’s functionalities are powerful on its own and all the things can be accessed just by using the import statement. If you know how to make good use of the standard library, it will boost your coding interview skills.How to handle missing dictionaries?You can use .get() and .setdefault() when you want to set a default for a single key. However, there will be situations where you will need to set a default value for all possible unset keys, especially during the context of a coding interview.Consider you have a  group of students and your task is to keep track of their grades on assignments. The input value is a tuple with student_name and grade. You want to look upon all the grades for a single student without iterating over the whole list. An example to store grade data using a dictionary:>>> grades_of_students = {} >>> grades = [       ('alex', 89),       ('bob', 95),       ('charles', 81),       ('alex', 94),       ] >>> for name, grade in grades:       if name not in grades_of_student:           grades_of_student[name] = []       grades_of_student[name].append(grade) >>> student_grades{'alex': [89, 94], 'bob': [95], 'charles': [81]}In the example above, you iterate over the list and check if the names are already present in the dictionary or not. If it isn’t, then you add them to the dictionary with an empty list and then append their actual grades to the student’s list of grades.However, the previous approach is good but there is a cleaner approach for such cases using the defaultdict:>>> from collections import defaultdict >>> student_grades = defaultdict(list) >>> for name, grade in grades:       student_grades[name].append(grade)In this approach, a defaultdict is created that uses the list() with no arguments. The list()returns an empty list. defaultdict calls the list() if the name does not exist and then appends the grade.Using the defaultdict, you can handle all the common default values at once and need not worry about default values at the key level. Moreover, it generates a much cleaner application code.How to Count Hashable Objects?Pretend you have a long string of words with no punctuation or capital letters and you are asked to count the number of the appearance of each word. In this case, you can use collections.Counter that uses 0 as the default value for any missing element and makes it easier and cleaner to count the occurrence of different objects:>>> from collections import Counter >>> words = "if I am there but if \ ... he was not there then I was not".split() >>> counts = Counter(words) >>> countsCounter({'if': 2, 'there': 2, 'was': 1, 'not': 2, 'but': 1, ‘I’: 2, ‘am’: 1, }When the list is passed to Counter, it stores each word and also the number of occurrences of that word in the list.If you want to know the two most common words in a list of strings like above, you can use .most_common() which simply returns the n most frequently inputs by count:>>> counts.most_common(2)[('if': 2), ('there': 2), ('not': 2), (‘I’: 2)] How to Access Common String Groups?If you want to check whether ‘A’ > ‘a’ or not, you have to do it using the ASCII chart. The answer will be false since the ASCII value for A is 65 and a is 97, which is clearly greater. However, it would be a difficult task to remember the ASCII code when it comes to lowercase and uppercase ASCII characters and also this method is a bit clumsy. You can use the much easier and convenient constants which are a part of the string module. An example to check whether all the characters in a string are uppercase or not:>>> import string >>> def check_if_upper(word):       for letter in word:           if letter not in string.ascii_uppercase:               return False       return True   >>> check_if_upper('Thanks Alex') False >>> check_if_upper('ROFL') TrueThe function check_if_upper iterates over the letters in words, and checks whether the letters are part of string.ascii_uppercase. It is set to the literal ‘ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ’.There are a number of string constants that are frequently used for referencing string values that are easy to read and use. Some of which are as follows:string.ascii_lettersstring.ascii_upercasestring.ascii_lowercasestring.ascii_digitsstring.ascii_hexdigitsstring.ascii_octdigitsstring.ascii_punctuationstring.ascii_printablestring.ascii_whitespaceConclusionClearing interview with confidence and panache is a skill. You might be a good programmer but it’s only a small part of the picture. You might fail to clear a few interviews, but if you follow a good process, it will certainly help you in the long run. Being enthusiastic is an important factor that will have a huge impact on your interview results. In addition to that is practice. Practice always helps. Brush up on all the common interview concepts and then head off to practicing different interview questions. Interviewers also help during interviews if you can communicate properly and interact. Ask questions and always talk through a brute-force and optimized solution.Let us now sum up what we have learned in this article so far:To use enumerate() to iterate over both indices and values.To debug problematic code with breakpoint().To format strings effectively with f-strings.To sort lists with custom arguments.To use generators instead of list comprehensions to save memory.To define default values when looking up dictionary keys.To count hashable objects with collections.Counter class.Hope you have learned about most of the powerful Python’s built-in functions, data structures, and standard library packages that will help you in writing better, faster and cleaner code. Though there are a lot of other things to learn about the language, join our Python certification course to gain more skills and knowledge.

How to Stand Out in a Python Coding Interview - Functions, Data Structures & Libraries

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How to Stand Out in a Python Coding Interview - Functions, Data Structures & Libraries

Any coding interview is a test which primarily focuses on your technical skills and algorithm knowledge. However, if you want to stand out among the hundreds of interviewees, you should know how to use the common functionalities of Python in a convenient manner.

The type of interview you might face can be a remote coding challenge, a whiteboard challenge or a full day on-site interview. So if you can prove your coding skills at that moment, the job letter will reach you in no time. You may go through some of the top Python interview questions and answers provided by experts which are divided into three levels- beginner, intermediate and advanced. A thorough practice of these questions and answers on Python will definitely help you achieve your dream job as a Python Developer, Full Stack engineer, and other top profiles.

A Python coding interview is basically a technical interview. They are not just about solving problems, they are more about how technically sound you are and how you can write clean productive Python code. This will show your depth of knowledge about Python and how you can use Python’s built-in functions and libraries to implement your code. Go through our Python Tutorials to learn more about  concepts related to Python. Let us look into some of the built-in functions provided by Python and how to select the correct one, learn about the effective use of data structures, how standard libraries in Python can be utilized and so on.

How to Select the Correct Built-in Function?

Python’s library of built-in functions is small as compared to the standard library. The built-in functions are always available and are not needed to be imported. It is suggested to learn each function before sitting for the interview. Till then, let us learn a few built-in functions and how to use them and also what alternatives can be used.

Perform iteration with enumerate() instead of range() 

Consider a situation during a coding interview: You have a list of elements and you have to iterate over the list with the access to both the indices and values. 

To differentiate between iteration with enumerate()  and iteration with range(), let us take a look at the classic coding interview question FizzBuzz. It can be solved by iterating over both indices and values. You will be given a list of integers and your task will be as follows:

  1. Replace all integers that are evenly distributed by 3 with “fizz”.
  2. Replace all integers divisible by 5 with “buzz”.
  3. Replace all integers divisible by 3 and 5 with “fizzbuzz”.

Developers make use of range() in these situations which can access the elements by index:

>>> list_num = [30, 29, 10, 65, 95, 99]
>>> for i in range(len(list_num)):
      if list_num[i] % 3 == 0 and list_num[i] % 5 == 0:
          list_num[i] = 'fizzbuzz'
      elif list_num[i] % 3 == 0:
          list_num[i] = 'fizz'
      elif list_num[i] % 5 == 0:
          list_num[i] = 'buzz'
 
>>> list_num
['fizzbuzz', 22, 14, 'buzz', 97, 'fizz']

Though range() can be used in a lot of iterative methods, it is better to use enumerate() in this case since it can access the element’s index and value at the same time:

>>> list_num = [30, 29, 10, 65, 95, 99]
>>> for i,num in enumerate(list_num):
      if list_num[i] % 3 == 0 and list_num[i] % 5 == 0:
          list_num[i] = 'fizzbuzz'
      elif list_num[i] % 3 == 0:
          list_num[i] = 'fizz'
      elif list_num[i] % 5 == 0:
          list_num[i] = 'buzz'

>>> list_num
['fizzbuzz', 22, 14, 'buzz', 97, 'fizz']

The enumerate() function returns a counter and the element value for each element. The counter is set to 0 by default which is also the element’s index.  

However, if you are not willing to start your counter from 0, you can set an offset using the start parameter:

>>> list_num = [30, 29, 10, 65, 95, 99]
>>> for i, num in enumerate(list_num, start=11):
      print(i, num) 
11 30
12 29
13 10
14 65
14 95
16 99

You can access all of the same elements using the start parameter. However, the count will start from the specified integer value.

Using List Comprehensions in place of map() and filter()

Python supports list comprehensions which are easier to read and are analogous in functionality as map() and filter(). This is one of the reasons why Guido van Rossum, the creator of Python felt that dropping map() and filter() was quite uncontroversial.

An example to show  map() along with this equivalent list comprehension:

>>> list_num = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]
>>> def square_num(z):
...    return z*z
...
>>> list(map(square_num, list_num))
[1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36]

>>> [square_num(z) for z in numbers]
[1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36]

Though map() and list comprehension returns the same values but the list comprehension part is easier to read and understand.

An example to show  filter() and its equivalent list comprehension:

>>> def odd_num_check(z):
      return bool(z % 2)
 
>>> list(filter(odd_num_check, num_list))
[1, 3, 5]

>>> [z for z in numbers if odd_num_check(z)]
[1, 3, 5]

It is the same with filter()as it was with map(). The return values are the same but the list comprehension is easier to follow.

List comprehensions are easier to read and beginners are able to catch it more intuitively.

Though other programming language developers might argue to the fact but if you make use of list comprehensions during your coding interview, it is more likely to communicate your knowledge about the common functionalities to the recruiter.

Debugging With breakpoint() instead of print() 

Debugging is an essential part of writing software and it shows your knowledge of Python tools which will be useful in developing quickly in your job in the long run. However, using print() to debug a small problem might be good initially but your code will become clumsy. On the other hand, if you use a debugger like breakpoint(), it will always act faster than print().

If you’re using Python 3.7, you can simply call breakpoint() at the point in your code where you want to debug without the need of importing anything:

# Complicated Code With Bugs
...
...
...
breakpoint()

Whenever you call breakpoint(), you will be put into The Python Debugger - pdb. However, if you’re using Python 3.6 or older, you can perform an explicit importing which will be exactly like calling breakpoint():

import pdb; pdb.set_trace()

In this example, you’re being put into the pdb by the pdb.set_trace().  Since it’s a bit difficult to remember, it is recommended to use breakpoint() whenever a debugger is needed. There are also other debuggers that you can try. Getting used to debuggers before your interview would be a great advantage but you can always come back to pdb since it’s a part of the Python Standard Library and is always available. 

Formatting Strings with the help of f-Strings

It can be confusing to know what type of string formatting should we use since Python consists of a number of different string formatting techniques. However, it is a good approach and is suggested to use Python’s f-strings during a coding interview for Python 3.6 or greater.

Literal String Interpolation or f-strings is a powerful string formatting technique that is more readable, more concise, faster and less prone to error than other formatting techniques. It supports the string formatting mini-language which makes string interpolation simpler. You also have the option of adding new variables and Python expressions and they can be evaluated before run-time:

>>> def name_and_age(name, age):
      return f"My name is {name} and I'm {age / 10:.5f} years old."
 
>>> name_and_age("Alex", 21)
My name is Alex and I'm 2.10000 years old.

The f-string allows you to add the name Alex into the string and his corresponding age with the type of formatting you want in one single operation.

Note that it is suggested to use Template Strings if the output consists of user-generated values.

Sorting Complex Lists with sorted()

There are a lot of interview questions that are mostly based on sorting and it is one of the most important concepts you should be clear about before you sit for a coding interview. However, it is always a better option to use sorted() unless you are asked to make your own sorting algorithm by the interviewer.

Example code to illustrate simple uses of sorting like sorting numbers or strings:

>>> sorted([6,5,3,7,2,4,1])
[1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7]

>>> sorted(['IronMan', 'Batman', 'Thor', 'CaptainAmerica', 'DoctorStrange'], reverse=False)
['Batman', 'CaptainAmerica', 'DoctorStrange', 'IronMan', 'Thor']

sorted() performs sorting in ascending order by default and also when the reverse argument is set to False. 

If you sorting complex data types, you might want to add a function which allows custom sorting rules:

>>> animal_list = [
...    {'type': 'bear', 'name': 'Stephan', 'age': 9},
...    {'type': 'elephant', 'name': 'Devory', 'age': 5},
...    {'type': 'jaguar', 'name': 'Moana', 'age': 7},
... ]
>>> sorted(animal_list, key=lambda animal: animal['age'])
[
    {'type': 'elephant', 'name': 'Devory', 'age': 5},
    {'type': 'jaguar', 'name': 'Moana', 'age': 7},
    {'type': 'bear, 'name': 'Stephan, 'age': 9},
]

You can easily sort a list of dictionaries using the lambda keyword. In the example above, the lambda returns each element’s age and the dictionary is sorted in ascending order by age.

Effective Use of Data Structures

Data Structures are one of the most important concepts you should know before getting into an interview and if you choose the perfect data structure during an interviewing context, it will certainly impact your performance. 

Python’s standard data structure implementations are incredibly powerful and give a lot of default functionalities which will surely be helpful in coding interviews.

Storing Values with Sets

Make use of sets instead of lists whenever you want to remove duplicate elements from an existing dataset.

Consider a function random_word that always returns a random word from a set of words:

>>> import random
>>> words = "all the words in the world".split()
>>> def random_word():
      return random.choice(words)

In the example above, you need to call random_word repeatedly to get 1000 random selections and then return a data structure that will contain every unique word.

Let us look at three approaches to execute this – two suboptimal approaches and one good approach.

Bad Approach 

An example to store values in a list and then convert into a set:

>>> def unique_words():
      words = []
      for _ in range(1000):
          words.append(random_word())
      return set(words)
>>> unique_words()
{'planet', 'earth', 'to', 'words'}

In this example, creating a list and then converting it into a set is an unnecessary approach. Interviewers notice this type of design and questions about it generally.

Worse Approach

You can store values into a list to avoid the conversion from list to a set. You can then check for the uniqueness by comparing new values with all current elements in the list:

>>> def unique_words():
      words = []
      for _ in range(1000):
    word = unique_words()
    if word not in words:
    words.append(word)
      return words
>>> unique_words()
{'planet', 'earth', 'to', 'words'}

This approach is much worse than the previous one since you have to compare every word to every other word already present in the list. In simple terms, the time complexity is much greater in this case than the earlier example.

Good Approach

In this example, you can skip the lists and use sets altogether from the beginning:

>>> def unique_words():
      words = set()
      for _ in range(1000):
          words.add(random_word())
      return words
>>> unique_words()
{'planet', 'earth', 'to', 'words'}

This approach differs from the second approach as the storing of elements in this approach allows near-constant-time-checks whether a value is present in the set or not whereas linear time-lookups were required when lists were used. The time complexity for this approach is O(N) which is much better than the second approach whose time complexity grew at the rate of O(N²).

Saving Memory with Generators

Though lists comprehensions are convenient tools, it may lead to excessive use of memory.

Consider a situation where you need to find the sum of the first 1000 squares starting with 1 using list comprehensions:

>>> sum([z * z for z in range(1, 1001)])
333833500

Your solution returns the correct answer by making a list of every perfect square and then sums the values. However, the interviewer asks you to increase the number of perfect squares. 

Initially, your program might work well but it will gradually slow down and the process will be changed completely.  

However, you can resolve this memory issue just by replacing the brackets with parentheses:

>>> sum((z * z for z in range(1, 1001)))
333833500

When you make the change from brackets to parentheses, the list comprehension changes to generator expressions. It returns a generator object. The object calculates the next value only when asked. 

Generators are mainly used on massive sequences of data and in situations when you want to retrieve data from a sequence but don’t want to access all of it at the same time.

Defining Default Values in Dictionaries with .get() and .setdefault()

Adding, modifying or retrieving an item from a dictionary is one of the most primitive tasks of programming and it is easy to perform with Python functionalities. However, developers often check explicitly for values even its not necessary.

Consider a situation where a dictionary named shepherd exists and you want to get that cowboy’s name by explicitly checking for the key with a conditional:

>>> shepherd = {'age': 20, 'sheep': 'yorkie', 'size_of_hat': 'large'}
>>> if 'name' in shepherd:
      name = shepherd['name']
    else:
      name = 'The Man with No Name'
 
>>> name

In this example, the key name is searched in the dictionary and the corresponding value is returned otherwise a default value is returned.

You can use .get() in a single line instead of checking keys explicitly:

>>> name = shepherd.get('name', 'The Man with No Name')

The get() performs the same operation as the first approach does, but they are now handled automatically. 

However, .get() function does not help in situations where you need to update the dictionary with a default value while still accessing the same key. In such a case, you again need to use explicit checking:

>>> if 'name' not in shepherd:
      shepherd['name'] = 'The Man with No Name'
 
>>> name = shepherd['name']

However, Python still offers a more elegant way of performing this approach using .setdefault():

>>> name = shepherd.setdefault('name', 'The Man with No Name')

The .setdefault() function performs the same operation as the previous approach did. If name exists in shepherd, it returns a value otherwise it sets shepherd[‘name’]  to The Man with No Name and returns a new value.

Taking Advantage of the Python Standard Library

Python’s functionalities are powerful on its own and all the things can be accessed just by using the import statement. If you know how to make good use of the standard library, it will boost your coding interview skills.

How to handle missing dictionaries?

You can use .get() and .setdefault() when you want to set a default for a single key. However, there will be situations where you will need to set a default value for all possible unset keys, especially during the context of a coding interview.

Consider you have a  group of students and your task is to keep track of their grades on assignments. The input value is a tuple with student_name and grade. You want to look upon all the grades for a single student without iterating over the whole list. 

An example to store grade data using a dictionary:

>>> grades_of_students = {}
>>> grades = [
      ('alex', 89),
      ('bob', 95),
      ('charles', 81),
      ('alex', 94),
      ]
>>> for name, grade in grades:
      if name not in grades_of_student:
          grades_of_student[name] = []
      grades_of_student[name].append(grade)

>>> student_grades
{'alex': [89, 94], 'bob': [95], 'charles': [81]}

In the example above, you iterate over the list and check if the names are already present in the dictionary or not. If it isn’t, then you add them to the dictionary with an empty list and then append their actual grades to the student’s list of grades.

However, the previous approach is good but there is a cleaner approach for such cases using the defaultdict:

>>> from collections import defaultdict
>>> student_grades = defaultdict(list)
>>> for name, grade in grades:
      student_grades[name].append(grade)

In this approach, a defaultdict is created that uses the list() with no arguments. The list()returns an empty list. defaultdict calls the list() if the name does not exist and then appends the grade.

Using the defaultdict, you can handle all the common default values at once and need not worry about default values at the key level. Moreover, it generates a much cleaner application code.

How to Count Hashable Objects?

Pretend you have a long string of words with no punctuation or capital letters and you are asked to count the number of the appearance of each word. In this case, you can use collections.Counter that uses 0 as the default value for any missing element and makes it easier and cleaner to count the occurrence of different objects:

>>> from collections import Counter
>>> words = "if I am there but if \
... he was not there then I was not".split()
>>> counts = Counter(words)
>>> counts
Counter({'if': 2, 'there': 2, 'was': 1, 'not': 2, 'but': 1, ‘I’: 2, ‘am’: 1, }

When the list is passed to Counter, it stores each word and also the number of occurrences of that word in the list.

If you want to know the two most common words in a list of strings like above, you can use .most_common() which simply returns the n most frequently inputs by count:

>>> counts.most_common(2)
[('if': 2), ('there': 2), ('not': 2), (‘I’: 2)]
How to Access Common String Groups?

If you want to check whether ‘A’ > ‘a’ or not, you have to do it using the ASCII chart. The answer will be false since the ASCII value for A is 65 and a is 97, which is clearly greater. 

However, it would be a difficult task to remember the ASCII code when it comes to lowercase and uppercase ASCII characters and also this method is a bit clumsy. You can use the much easier and convenient constants which are a part of the string module

An example to check whether all the characters in a string are uppercase or not:

>>> import string
>>> def check_if_upper(word):
      for letter in word:
          if letter not in string.ascii_uppercase:
              return False
      return True
 
>>> check_if_upper('Thanks Alex')
False
>>> check_if_upper('ROFL')
True

The function check_if_upper iterates over the letters in words, and checks whether the letters are part of string.ascii_uppercase. It is set to the literal ‘ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ’.

There are a number of string constants that are frequently used for referencing string values that are easy to read and use. Some of which are as follows:

  • string.ascii_letters
  • string.ascii_upercase
  • string.ascii_lowercase
  • string.ascii_digits
  • string.ascii_hexdigits
  • string.ascii_octdigits
  • string.ascii_punctuation
  • string.ascii_printable
  • string.ascii_whitespace

Conclusion

Clearing interview with confidence and panache is a skill. You might be a good programmer but it’s only a small part of the picture. You might fail to clear a few interviews, but if you follow a good process, it will certainly help you in the long run. Being enthusiastic is an important factor that will have a huge impact on your interview results. In addition to that is practice. Practice always helps. Brush up on all the common interview concepts and then head off to practicing different interview questions. Interviewers also help during interviews if you can communicate properly and interact. Ask questions and always talk through a brute-force and optimized solution.

Let us now sum up what we have learned in this article so far:

  • To use enumerate() to iterate over both indices and values.
  • To debug problematic code with breakpoint().
  • To format strings effectively with f-strings.
  • To sort lists with custom arguments.
  • To use generators instead of list comprehensions to save memory.
  • To define default values when looking up dictionary keys.
  • To count hashable objects with collections.Counter class.

Hope you have learned about most of the powerful Python’s built-in functions, data structures, and standard library packages that will help you in writing better, faster and cleaner code. Though there are a lot of other things to learn about the language, join our Python certification course to gain more skills and knowledge.

Priyankur

Priyankur Sarkar

Data Science Enthusiast

Priyankur Sarkar loves to play with data and get insightful results out of it, then turn those data insights and results in business growth. He is an electronics engineer with a versatile experience as an individual contributor and leading teams, and has actively worked towards building Machine Learning capabilities for organizations.

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Top-Paying Programming Certifications for 2021

Programming is at the core of software development, which is why there is a huge demand for programmers—a demand that is growing exponentially and is expected to rise at a steady rate even in the future. In today’s world, just about everything is getting automated and digitization has become the new normal.Recruiters are on the lookout for professionals who have solid programming and full-stack development skills. Every recruiting agency and organizational HR recruiting team has put in place a thorough screening process, and this active hiring in startups, SMEs, and multinational companies has raised the bar for many aspiring programmers. Having a software development, web development, or programming certification will give you an upper hand at the time of recruitment. A certification from a reputed accreditation body will validate your skills and make you stand out among your peers.Having an extra certification apart from your UG or PG degree makes you a better fit for the job role in which you have an interest. But before you opt for any certification, you need to understand which programming language will take you where; and the potential benefits of pursuing a certification course of that particular programming language.In this article, you will get to know about the top programming certifications of 2021 and how to achieve them.What are Programming certifications?Programming certifications are exam-oriented, and verify your skill and expertise in that field. Different organizations provide different programming certification exams that define your level, skills, and abilities vis `a vis that programming language. Having a programming certification will give you an edge over other peers and will highlight your coding skills.Most Popular Programming CertificationsC & C++ CertificationsOracle Certified Associate Java Programmer OCAJPCertified Associate in Python Programming (PCAP)MongoDB Certified Developer Associate ExamR Programming CertificationOracle MySQL Database Administration Training and Certification (CMDBA)CCA Spark and Hadoop Developer1. C & C++ CertificationsRegardless of your specialization in your UG or PG courses, clearing a developer-rated certification will not only make your resume stand out from others but also enhance your skills and boost your confidence. We have curated the top-most and popularly available certifications with descriptions that can help you decide which one is appropriate for your career path.C & C++ Certifications: C and C++ are often called the mother of Procedure-oriented and Object-oriented programming languages, which is absolutely true. These two programming languages have been around for many decades. Colleges and universities all over the world teach these as the base language. To get global recognition for the C and C++ certification, C++ Institute and Pearson VUE decided to carve a niche in this part of the certification landscape by offering the world's first international C/C++ certifications.Aspirants and professionals can choose either C or C++ as a career option/path and climb the certification ladder from associate to professional to senior. The C Programming Language Certified Associate (CLA) and C++ Certified Associate Programmer (CPA) are the core and first-level C and C++ certifications.CLA comprises of topics likeIntroduction to compiling and software development;Basic scalar data types and their operators;Flow control;Complex data types: arrays, structures and pointers;Memory management;Files and streams;Structuring the code: functions and modules;Preprocessor directives and complex declarations.CPA comprises of topics likeIntroduction to compiling and software development;Basic scalar data types, operators, flow control, streamed input/output, conversions;Declaring, defining and invoking functions, function overloading;Data aggregates;String processing, exceptions handling, dealing with namespaces;Object-oriented approach and its vocabulary;Dealing with classes and objects, class hierarchy and inheritance;Defining overloaded operators, user-defined operators, exceptions;Demand and Benefits: Having a CLA certification verifies that the programmer or the aspirant has an understanding of all the necessary and essential universal concepts of computer programming and developer tools. The course also covers all the syntax and semantics of different C constructs plus the data types offered by the language. This course brings crisp knowledge on writing programs using standard language infrastructure regardless of the hardware or software platform.A C++ Certified Associate Programmer (CPA) certification will give you an upper hand because it comprises syntax and semantics of the C++ language plus basic C++ data types. Apart from that, it contains principles of the object-oriented model and C++ implementation. Also, you will get to know about the various C++ standard libraries through this certification process. The average entry-level salary of a C/C++ developer with this certification will be $ 7,415 per annum. With two to three years of experience, the average salary hikes to $ 10,593 annually.Top companies and industries hiring CLA and CPA are Philips, Calsoft Pvt. Ltd., Cognizant, Synopsys Inc., private universities, Mphasis, etc.Where to take Training for Certification: CPP Institute has all the study resources you need to prepare for this examination. Apart from that, you can study from YouTube free resources.Who should take the Training (roles) for Certification: Any programmer or computer science aspirant - who wants to expand their knowledge of C/C++ or start their career as a C/C++ programmer or developer can opt for this certification course. There is no other prerequisite to appear for this exam.Course fees for Certification:CLA Certification: $ 147.50 (50% discount voucher)CPA Certification: $ 147.50 (50% discount voucher)Exam fee for certification:CLA Certification: $ 295CPA Certification: $ 295Retake fee for certification: Aspirants who have paid the complete exam price (USD 295) or have completed a course aligned with certification in the self-study mode (50% discount voucher) can have a free retake of the CPA or CLA exam. 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It helps gain fundamental understanding of Java programming and builds a foundation in Java and other general programming concepts. The certification encompasses two subcategories –OCAJP Java Standard Edition 8 (OCAJP 8) and  OCAJP Java Standard Edition 11 (OCAJP 11)It comprises of topics likeJava BasicsWorking with Java Data TypesUsing Operators and Decision ConstructsCreating and Using ArraysUsing Loop ConstructsWorking with Methods and EncapsulationWorking with InheritanceHandling ExceptionsClass Methods and EncapsulationDescribing and Using Objects and ClassesHandling ExceptionsJava Technology and the Java Development EnvironmentInheritance and InterfacesUnderstanding ModulesUsing Operators and Decision ConstructsWorking with Java ArraysWorking with Selected classes, Java Primitive Data Types and String APIsDemand and Benefits: Having an OCAJP certification verifies that the aspirant has all the necessary and essential skills to become an expert Java developer. This certification also helps in getting an internship or entry-level jobs in different organizations. The entry-level salary of a junior Java developer with this certification is $ 3670 per annum; when the candidate gathers two to three years of experience, the average salary hikes to $ 5430 annually.Top companies and industries hiring Oracle Certified Associate Java Programmers are Smart Monitor Pvt. Ltd., Fiserv, Micron Semiconductor Asia Pvt. Ltd., private universities and many others.Where to take Training for Certification: KnowledgeHut has a fascinating course opportunity for beginners in Java programming. It has workshops with hands-on learning and 40 hours of instructor-led online lectures. Apart from that, Oracle also provides exam vouchers for this certification course.Who should take the Training (roles) for Certification: Any programmer or computer science aspirant - who wants to settle as a Java developer or start his/her career as a Java programmer can opt for this certification course. There is no other prerequisite to appear for this exam.Course fee for Certification: $ 245Application fee for certification:OCAJP8: $ 245OCAJP11: $ 249Exam fee for certification:OCAJP8: $ 245OCAJP11: $ 255Retake fee for certification: Aspirants can retake the exam if the exam voucher has a free retake option. If the exam retake option is available, one can opt for the exam after 14 days.3. Certified Associate in Python Programming (PCAP)Python is an interpreted, general-purpose, and high-level programming language developed by Guido Van Rossum. Python released in 1991 and within 5 to 6 years, this programming language become the most popular and widely used programming language in various disciplines. Today, companies use Python for GUI and CLI-based software development, web development (server-side), data science, machine learning, AI, robotics, drone systems, developing cyber-security tools, mathematics, system scripting, etc. PCAP is a professional Python certification credential that measures your competency in using the Python language to create code and your fundamental understanding of object-oriented programming.It comprises of topics likeBasic concepts of PythonOperators & data typesControl and EvaluationsModules and PackagesData AggregatesException HandlingStringsFunctions and ModulesObject-Oriented ProgrammingList Comprehensions, Lambdas, Closures, and I/O OperationsClasses, Objects, and ExceptionsDemand and Benefits: Having a Python certification verifies that the programmer or the aspirant has all the necessary and essential skills needed to become an expert Python developer. 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The average salary for a software developer with MongoDB skills starts from $ 8200 per annum.Top companies and organizations hiring certified MongoDB developers are Accenture, Collabera, Leoforce LLC., Adobe, Trigent Software, Lyft, etc.Where to take Training for Certification: KnowledgeHut has a comprehensive course structure for those who want to learn MongoDB & Mongodb Administrator. It has 24+ hours of instructor-led online lectures and 80+ hours of hands-on with cloud labs. This self-paced course also includes capstone projects to give participants a feel of real world working.  Who should take the Training (roles) for Certification: Any programmer, graduate, post graduate student, experienced developer or computer science aspirant - who wants to embark on a career as a MongoDB developer or start his/her career as a NoSQL database expert or do better in their current role as a MongoDB developer can opt for this certification course. There is no other prerequisite to appear for this exam.Course fees for Certification:  $ 150Exam fee for certification: $ 150Retake fee for certification: MongoDB University is no longer allowing a free retake with the exam fee. The candidate has to pay an additional $10 to reschedule or retake the exam.5. R Programming CertificationIt is a part of the data science specialization from Johns Hopkins University under Coursera. This course teaches R programming for efficient data analysis. It covers different R programming concepts like building blocks of R, datatypes, reading data into R from external files, accessing packages, writing functions, debugging techniques, profiling R code, and performing analysis.It comprises of topics like:Basic building blocks in RData types in RControl StructuresScoping Rules - OptimizationCoding StandardsDates and TimesFunctionsLoopingDebugging toolsSimulating data in RR ProfilerDemand and Benefits: Having an R Programming certification verifies that the programmer or the aspirant has all the necessary and essential skills require to get a job role as data analyst. This certification also helps in getting an internship or entry-level jobs in different organizations and firms. The average salary of a certified R programmer with this certification is ₹ 508,224 per annum.Top companies and industries hiring certified R programmers are Technovatrix, CGI Group Inc., Amazon, Sparx IT Solutions, Accenture, Uber, etc.Where to take Training for Certification: KnowledgeHut has a fascinating training course for those who wants to become a R programmer. It has 22+ hours of instructor-led live training and three self-paced live projects.Who should take the Training (roles) for Certification: Any data analyst, graduate, post graduate student, experienced data analyst or computer science aspirant - who wants to settle as a R programmer or data analyst can opt for this certification course. There is no other prerequisite to appear for this exam. Course fees for Certification: FreeFee for certification: $ 60 (Coursera Plus Monthly)Retake fee for certification: Free6. Oracle MySQL Database Administration Training and Certification (CMDBA)It is another course offered by Oracle for SQL developers. Oracle University designed this course for database administrators who want to validate their skills with developing performance, blending business processes, and accomplishing data processing work. Structured Query Language (SQL) is one of the top database management query languages that allows us to access and manipulate databases. If you want to verify your database skills during a job interview or impress your peers at your workplace then this certification is worth getting. This certification path includes Professional, Specialist, and Developer levels. The candidate should pass the MySQL Database Administrator Certified Professional Exam Part 1 & Part 2 to earn the certification.It comprises of topics likeInstalling MySQLMySQL ArchitectureConfiguring MySQLUser ManagementMySQL SecurityMaintaining a Stable SystemOptimizing Query PerformanceBackup StrategiesConfiguring a Replication TopologyDemand and Benefits: Having an CMDBA certification verifies that the programmer or the aspirant has all the necessary and essential skills required to get a job role as SQL developer. This certification also helps in getting an internship or entry-level jobs in different organizations and firms. The average salary of a certified MySQL DBA or backend developer with this certification is $ 66,470 per annum.Top companies and industries hiring Certified MySQL database administrators are Fiserv, IBM, HCL, Adobe, Microsoft, Apple, Accenture, Collabera, and more.Where to take Training for Certification: KnowledgeHut has a cutting-edge curriculum for those who want to become  MySQL database administrators. It has 16+ hours of instructor-led online lectures and 80+ hours of hands-on lab. Apart from that, this self-paced course has Capstone projects.Who should take the Training (roles) for Certification: Any developer, graduate, post graduate student, experienced developer or computer science aspirant - who wants to pursue a career as a DBA or backend developer or start his/her career in database management or backend software development can opt for this certification course. There is no other prerequisite to appear for this exam or course.Course fees for Certification: $ 255Exam fee for certification: $ 255Retake fee for certification: Aspirants can retake the exam if the exam voucher has a free retake option. If the exam retake option is available, one can opt for the exam after 14 days after the initial attempt.7. CCA Spark and Hadoop DeveloperWith the exponential growth in data, IT firms and organizations have to manage this tremendous amount of data generated. So, many companies are actively looking for Big data and Spark developers who can optimize performance. Big Data is the term used to describe enormous volumes of data. Apache Spark supports data management as it is an open-source centralized analytics engine that handles large-scale data processing.It requires prerequisite knowledge of Scala and Python. This certification also verifies and showcases your skills through Spark and Hadoop projects. Passing this certification course gives you a logo and a license to authenticate your CCA status.It comprises of topics likeLoad data from HDFS for use in Spark applicationsWrite the results back into HDFS using SparkRead and write files in a variety of file formatsPerform standard extract, transform, load (ETL) processes on data using the Spark APIUse metastore tables as an input source or an output sink for Spark applicationsUnderstand the fundamentals of querying datasets in SparkFilter data using SparkWrite queries that calculate aggregate statisticsJoin disparate datasets using SparkProduce ranked or sorted dataSupply command-line options to change your application configuration, such as increasing available memoryDemand and Benefits: Passing the CCA Spark and Hadoop Developer Exam (CCA175) by Cloudera verifies that you have all the essential skills required to get a job as a Hadoop developer and handle Big data projects. The average salary of a certified CCA Spark and Hadoop Developer with this certification is $ 74,200 per annum.Top companies and industries hiring Certified Spark and Hadoop Developers are Primus Global, IBM, Collabera, CorroHealth, Genpact, Xerox, Accenture, and more.Where to take Training for Certification: KnowledgeHut has extensive courses for those who want to become Big Data experts and want to work as Hadoop developers. It has different courses on Big Data Analytics, Apache Storm, Hadoop Administration, Apache Spark & Scala, Big Data with Hadoop, and more.Who should take the Training (roles) for Certification: Any Big Data developer, graduate & post graduate students, Hadoop developer or computer science aspirant - who wants to make a career in Big data development or start his/her career as a Big Data or Hadoop project developer can opt for this certification course. There is no other prerequisite to appear for this exam.Course fees for Certification: $ 295Application fee for certification: $ 295Exam fee for certification: $ 295Retake fee for certification: Within 30 to 60 minutes of exam completion, Cloudera will send a scorecard mail with a pass or fail status. If the candidate fails the exam, then they have to wait for 30 days for another try.  Cloudera gives additional discounts on retakes.ConclusionWhether you are starting your career as a coder or are an experienced programmer looking to grow in the industry, having a certification and proper knowledge of any popular programming language is one of the most proven ways to elevate your programming career.  We trust that this article will help you to understand your area of interest. Choose the programming language you wish to make a career in, wisely. This would also depend on your pre-existing knowledge. If you aren't sure which resource will be more informative for doing your certification as per your area of interest, KnowledgeHut (https://www.knowledgehut.com/) has all the support and expert trainers who can guide you, from start to finish—that is in clearing the exam and helping you gain sound knowledge of your preferred subject.Receiving a programming certification is an added bonus which will make you stand out from the rest. Proper training from an institute such as KnowledgeHut will help you gain skills that are relevant and in demand in the industry.
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Top-Paying Programming Certifications for 2021

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Top IT Certifications for Java Developers in 2021

Programming languages are at the heart of computer science and software development. They help developers write efficient code for developing digital solutions through applications and websites. Programming helps in automating, maintaining, assembling, and measuring the processed data.  Java is one such popular programming language. It is a robust, high-level, general-purpose, pure object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems (now part of Oracle). James Gosling is the creator of Java which was earlier named Oak. Java ranks high in the top programming languages list and is one of the most extensively used software development platforms. It is well suited to developing software solutions and other innovative projects and simulations.  Since Oracle acquired Sun Microsystems in January 2010, they have been responsible for the further development of the Java platform. All the mentioned top Java certifications verify a specific expertise level and knowledge of the Java platform highlighting particular domains. Without further due, let us now dig into the top 5 Java certifications and their details. About Oracle’s Java CertificationsOrganizations and industries consider certifications as proof of knowledge, especially when the certifications are from a recognized body or firm. Aspirants and professionals looking for possibilities in the Java development domain can avail of a plethora of benefits through the certifications mentioned in this article. There are six levels of Oracle Java Certification based on job roles, skills, and responsibilities: Oracle Certified Junior Associate (OCJA) Oracle Certified Associate (OCA) Oracle Certified Professional (OCP) Oracle Certified Specialist (OCS) Oracle Certified Expert (OCE) Oracle Certified Master (OCM) Among them, the top five Java certifications that are in demand for the year 2021 are – 1. Oracle Certified Associate Java Programmer OCAJPIt is the preliminary and most basic certification provided by Oracle for Java. It helps you gain fundamental understanding of Java programming and build a foundation in Java and other general programming concepts. There are two subcategories in this certification – OCAJP Java Standard Edition 8 (OCAJP 8) and  OCAJP Java Standard Edition 11 (OCAJP 11) OCAJP8 comprises of topics like  Creating and Using Arrays Handling Exceptions Java Basics Using Loop Constructs Using Operators and Decision Constructs Working with Inheritance Working with Java Data Types Working with Methods and Encapsulation Working with Selected classes from the Java API OCAJP11 comprises of topics like Applying Encapsulation Creating and Using Methods Creating Simple Java Programs Describing and Using Objects and Classes Handling Exceptions Java Technology and the Java Development Environment Programming Abstractly Through Interfaces Reusing Implementations Through Inheritance Understanding Modules Using Operators and Decision Constructs Working with Java Arrays Working with Java Primitive Data Types and String APIs Demand and Benefits: Having an OCAJP certification verifies that the programmer or the aspirant has all the necessary and essential skills to become an expert Java developer. This certification also helps in getting an internship or entry-level jobs in different organizations. The entry-level salary of a junior Java developer with this certification is $ 3670 per annum; when the candidate gathers two to three years of experience, the average salary hikes to $ 5430 annually.   (Source: Glassdoor) Top companies and industries hiring Oracle Certified Associate Java Programmers are Smart Monitor Pvt. Ltd., Fiserv, Micron Semiconductor Asia Pvt. Ltd., and more. Where to take Training for Certification: KnowledgeHut has a fascinating course, designed for beginners in Java programming. It offers hands-on learning with 40 hours of instructor-led online lectures. Apart from that, Oracle also provides exam vouchers for this certification course. Who should take the Training (roles) for Certification: Any programmer or computer science aspirant - who wants to be a Java developer or start his/her career as a Java programmer can opt for this certification course. There is no other prerequisite to appear for this exam. Course fees for Certification:  $ 245 Application fee for certification: $ 245 Exam fee for certification: $ 245 Retake fee for certification: Aspirants can retake the exam if the exam voucher has a free retake option. If the exam retake option is available, one can opt for the exam after 14 days. 2) Oracle Certified Professional Java Programmer OCPJPIt is a professional-level certification program provided by Oracle for Java developers. It verifies the candidates' knowledge and professional expertise. Using this certification, aspirants and other hard-core Java programmers can distinguish themselves from those Java professionals who are not certified. It comes in the second level of Oracle's Java Certification list. There are two subcategories of this certification – OCPJP Java Standard Edition 8 (OCPJP 8) and  OCPJP Java Standard Edition 11 (OCPJP 11) This certification is preferable if someone has professional experience with Java or has already worked for some years in Java technology.  OCPJP8 comprises of topics like: Advanced Class Design Building Database Applications with JDBC Concurrency Exceptions and Assertions Generics and Collections Java Class Design Java File I/O (NIO.2) Java I/O Fundamentals Java Stream API Lambda Built-in Functional Interfaces Localization Use Java SE 8 Date/Time API OCPJP11 comprises of topics like: Annotations Built-in Functional Interfaces Concurrency Database Applications with JDBC Exception Handling and Assertions Functional Interface and Lambda Expressions Generics and Collections I/O (Fundamentals and NIO.2) Java Fundamentals Java Interfaces Java Stream API Lambda Operations on Streams Localization Migration to a Modular Application Parallel Systems Secure Coding in Java SE Application Services in a Modular ApplicationDemand and Benefits: Once you are a certified Professional Java Programmer (OCPJP), you can switch to better salary slabs and organizations that hire senior Java developers. This certification also helps in getting internal promotions as Java developers in different organizations and firms. The average salary of a certified professional Java developer is $ 5300 - $ 8610 per annum. Top companies and industries hiring Oracle Certified Professional Java Programmers are Oracle, Capgemini, Morgan Stanley, Chetu, Mphasis, etc. Where to take Training for Certification: KnowledgeHut has a fascinating course opportunity for Java developers and professionals for learning intermediate Java topics. It has hands-on learning with 32 hours of instructor-led online lectures. Apart from that, Oracle also provides exam vouchers for this certification course. Who should take the Training (roles) for Certification: Any Java programmer who wants to apply for a senior Java developer's role or start his/her career as a Java programmer can opt for this professional certification course. There is no other prerequisite to appear for this exam. Course fees for Certification: $ 245 Application fee for certification: $ 245 Exam fee for certification: $ 245 Retake fee for certification: Aspirants can retake the exam if the exam voucher has a free retake option. If the exam retake option is available, one can opt for the exam after 14 days.3. Oracle Certified Expert - Web Component Developer OCEWCDIt is an intermediate-level course offered by Oracle for Java web developers. The Oracle Certified Expert Web Component Developer is for web developers who want to write web applications using Java. Through this course, they can prove their expertise in developing web apps using JSP and Servlet technologies. It verifies your expertise in Servlet 3.0 and helps in creating dynamic Web content and Web services.  It comprises of topics like Understanding Java EE Architecture Managing Persistence using JPA entities and Bean Validation Implementing business logic using EJBs Using Java Message Service API Implement SOAP Services using JAX-WS and JAXB APIs Creating Java Web Applications using Servlets and JSPs Implementing REST Services using JAX-RS API Creating Java Applications using WebSockets Developing Web Applications using JSFs Securing Java EE 7 Applications Using CDI Beans Demand and Benefits: You can opt for this course once you are a certified Professional Java Programmer (OCPJP) or certified associated Java programmer. This certification course will help you get a job in organizations having rigorous work in Servlet, Java Server Page, JSF, and web microservices. The average salary of a certified professional Java developer is $ 8,850 - $ 11,930 per annum. Top companies and industries hiring Oracle Certified Web Component Developers are Amdocs, IBM, Oracle, Capgemini, SAP, Shine, Byjus, etc. Where to take Training for Certification: KnowledgeHut has a fascinating course opportunity for Java web developers (. It has hands-on learning with instructor-led online lectures and live projects. Apart from this, you can get online training from Oracle University as wellWho should take the Training (roles) for Certification: Any programmer or computer science aspirant who wants to settle as a Java web developer or start his/her career as a Java web content and web service developer can opt for this certification course. As a prerequisite, you have to pass the OCPJP to opt for this certification.  Course fees for Certification:  $ 245 Application fee for certification: $ 245 Exam fee for certification: $ 245 Retake fee for certification: Aspirants can retake the exam if the exam voucher has a free retake option. If the exam retake option is available, one can opt for the exam after 14 days. 4. Oracle Certified Professional Java Application Developer (OCPJAD)It is an advanced-level course offered by Oracle for Java application developers. The Oracle Certified Professional Java Application Developer (OCPJAD) is for software developers who want to write different applications and automation tools using Java. Through this course, developers can prove their expertise and abilities to develop and deploy applications through Java Enterprise Edition 7. OCPJAD is ideal for desktop application developers, frontend + backend app developers, software engineers, and application architects. It comprises of topics like Creating Batch API Developing CDI Beans Concepts of Concurrency Creating Java Applications with Web-Sockets Creating Java Web Applications with JSPs Developing Java Web Applications with Servlets Developing Web Applications with JSFs Implementing Business Logic with EJBs Performing REST Services with JAX-RS API Implementing SOAP Services with JAX-WS and JAXB APIs Java EE 7 system architecture Java EE 7 Security Techniques Java Message Service API Managing Persistence with JPA Entities and Bean-ValidationDemand and Benefits: Once you pass the Certified Professional Java Application Developer (OCPJAD), you can seek employment in organizations that work on critical application development and command higher salaries. This professional certification will give you exposure to develop APIs, implementing business logic using EJBs, create message services, and apply security systems. The average salary of a certified professional application developer is $ 9,800 - $ 13,910 per annum. Top companies and industries hiring Oracle Certified Professional Java Programmers are Oracle, Capgemini, NetSuite Inc., SAP, Cognizant, etc. Where to take Training for Certification: KnowledgeHut has a fascinating course opportunity with hands-on learning exposure and live projects. Apart from this, you can get online training from Oracle University as well. Who should take the Training (roles) for Certification: Any Java developer or full-stack application developer who wants to become a certified Java application developer or move to the specialized sector of API development using REST, security architect or software engineer can opt for this certification course. As a prerequisite, you should have passed the OCAJP certification.  Course fees for Certification:  $ 245 Application fee for certification: $ 245 Exam fee for certification: $ 245 Retake fee for certification: Aspirants can retake the exam if the exam voucher has a free retake option. If the exam retake option is available, one can opt for the exam after 14 days.5. Oracle Certified Master Java Enterprise Architect (OCMJEA)Large-scale development and service firms have different critical applications and systems to develop, manage, and maintain. Such systems require full-stack developers and specialized professionals with proven skills. Such organizations and MNCs hire only highly experienced professionals and specialists who can supervise the extensive operation, architect the defects, and define & develop systems as per requirements. The Oracle Certified Master Java Enterprise Architect (OCMJEA) is one of the most prestigious Java certifications a Java developer can achieve.  It comprises of topics like Architect Enterprise Applications through Java EE Developing Applications for the Java EE 6 Developing Applications for the Java EE 7 Developing Applications with Java EE 6 on WebLogic Server 12c Java Design Patterns Java EE 6: Develop Business Components with JMS & EJBs Java EE 6: Develop Database Applications with JPA Java EE 6: Develop Web Services with JAX-WS & JAX-RS Java EE 7: New Features Java SE 7: Develop Rich Client Applications Java SE 8: Programming Java SE 8 Fundamentals Object-Oriented Analysis and Design Using UML, etc. Demand and Benefits: Once you pass the Certified Master Java Enterprise Architect course, you get the essential skills and understanding of how to execute application development on an enterprise level. Such an experienced professional gains full-stack Java development skills. They get hired with the responsibility of undertaking Java projects from the very start to their final delivery. Many Certified Master Java Enterprise Architects work as managers or senior managerial roles in industries and firms. The average salary of a certified professional application developer is $ 14,000 - $ 19,210 per annum. Top companies and industries hiring Oracle Certified Professional Java Programmers are IBM, Oracle, Microsoft, HCL, Capgemini, NetSuite Inc., SAP, Cognizant, Atlassian, etc. Where to take Training for Certification: KnowledgeHut has a fascinating Java course  with hands-on learning exposure and a live project. Apart from that, a professional can train himself through ILT (Instructor-Led-in-Class), Learning Subscription, TOD (Training on Demand), LVC (Live Virtual Class), or classes delivered by Oracle Authorized Education Center . Other Oracle Authorized Partner Oracle Academy, Oracle University Training Center, or Oracle Workforce Development Program can also benefit and train you in this course.  Who should take the Training (roles) for Certification: Any Java developer or full-stack application developer who wants to move to a senior role in the enterprise-level or want to become a manager or team lead can opt for this certification course. As a prerequisite, you need to have passed the OCPJP certification.  Course fees for Certification:  $248 Application fee for certification: $ 248 Exam fee for certification: $ 248 Retake fee for certification: Aspirants can retake the exam if the exam voucher has a free retake option. If the exam retake option is available, one can opt for the exam after 14 days. Java is an evergreen programming language and is here to stay, at least for the next couple of decades. A vast community of professionals and entry-level aspirants enjoy the benefit of this pure object-oriented, class-based, multi-paradigm, high-level programming language. Java Certification requires proper training.KnowledgeHut has the required infrastructure and quality education faculty, both online and offline, to train aspirants for these Oracle Certifications. It caters to well-structured, industry-oriented Java certification training, explicitly designed to serve the candidates according to the latest industry needs. Getting proper training from KnowledgeHut will help aspirants master core knowledge of Java plus equip themselves with the industry standards to manage large projects. 
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Top IT Certifications for Java Developers in 2021

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Best Python Certifications of 2021

Programming is always at the core of computer science and Information Technology. Every year millions of programmers graduate with a degree and look for opportunities in the job market. The demand for programmers is growing exponentially, and this demand is not going anytime soon. Python was released by Python Software Foundation in 1991, and in just a few years, has become the most popular and widely used programming language in various disciplines.Python is an interpreted, general-purpose, and high-level programming language developed by Guido Van Rossum. Today, companies use Python for GUI and CLI-based software development, web development (server-side), data science, machine learning, AI, robotics, drone systems, developing cyber-security tools, mathematics, system scripting, etc.According to TIOBE index, Python ranks second among all other programming languages. KnowledgeHut has some fascinating advanced-level courses on Python, such as Machine Learning using Python and Artificial Intelligence using Python.Once you gain expertise in writing Python programs, candidates can start learning advanced-level Python libraries and modules such as Pandas, SciPy, NumPy, Matplotlib, etc. There are different options one can explore after learning Python. These are data analysis, machine learning, cybersecurity, automation, web scraping, etc.Top Python Certifications of 2021Certified Entry-Level Python Programmer (PCEP) Certified Associate in Python Programmer (PCAP) Introduction to Programming Using Python by Microsoft Certified Professional in Python Programming 1 & 2 (PCPP 1 & 2) Certified Expert in Python Programming (PEPP) During the course of your Python certification training and exam preparation, you will develop different real-world projects and get familiar with case studies. Also, there will be hands-on lab experiences in Python programming. In this article, you will get to know the top five Python certifications of 2021 that can give you the launchpad you need to embark on a successful career.   1. Certified Entry-Level Python Programmer (PCEP): The PCEP is an entry-level Python certification. To enroll in this course, you need to have a basic understanding of how procedural programming works. Also, some knowledge of flowcharts and algorithm creation will benefit you. Through this certification, an aspirant can gain the core and fundamental understanding of Python. This certification from the Python Institute will make you proficient in Python programming and help you become a Python certified professional. Aspirants and professionals can choose Python as a career option/path and climb the Python Institute’s certification ladder from associate to professional.PCEP comprises of topics like Basic formatting and outputting methods Handling Boolean values Compilation vs. interpretation Constants, Variables and Variable naming conventions Defining user-defined functions Fundamentals of computer programming Inputting and converting Data Logical vs. bitwise operations in Python Looping and control statements Lists New data aggregates: Tuples and Dictionaries The assignment operator Primary kinds of data and numerical operators Rules governing the building of expressions Working with multi-dimensional arrays Different slicing operations Demand and Benefits: Having a PCEP certification verifies that the programmer or the aspirant has knowledge of all the necessary and fundamental Python concepts. The course also covers all the syntax and semantics of different Python constructs & data types offered by the language. This course brings crisp knowledge on general coding techniques using standard language infrastructure and basic programming skills using Python. The average entry-level salary of a Python programmer with this certification will be $ 5660 per annum. Top companies and industries hiring PCEP are Philips, Cataleya Pvt. Ltd., Deloitte, Zynga, Mphasis, VMware, etc.Where to take Training for Certification: Python Institute has all the study resources you need to prepare for this examination. Apart from that, you can join the Python course offered by KnowledgeHut  that has 24 hours of instructor-led training covering the core programming concepts like operators, control flow, functions, syntax & indentations. Who should take the Training (roles) for Certification: Any programmer or computer science aspirant, who wants to learn Python or start an internship or entry-level job as Python programmer can opt for this certification course. There is no other prerequisite to appear for this exam. Course fees for Certification: $ 295 Application fee for certification: $ 295 Exam fee for certification: $ 295 Retake fee for certification: If a candidate fails the exam, he/she can wait 15 days before being allowed to retake the exam for free. There is no limit on the number of times a candidate may retake the exam.2. Certified Associate in Python Programmer (PCAP):PCAP is another important second-level or associate-level certification exam for Python. This course and certification will give you the confidence to measure your skill and complete the Python-based coding tasks. It also facilitates competing for competitive coding sessions. This course also comprises the essential notions and concepts related to object-oriented programming. With this associated-level certification, you can stand unique in the competitive job market. PCAP comprises of topics like Basic formatting and outputting methods Python basics Using Boolean values Compilation vs. interpretation Variables and variable naming conventions Defining and using functions Fundamentals of computer programming Fundamentals of OOP  How to use OOPs in the Python programming language Generators and closures Inputting and converting of data Logical vs. bitwise operations Looping and control statements File processing for Python developers Name scope issues New data aggregates: tuples and dictionaries Primary kinds of data and numerical operators Python modules Inheritance in Python Rules for creating expressions Working with multi-dimensional arrays Strings, lists, and other Python data structures The assignment operator The concept of exceptions and implementation Demand and Benefits: Having a PCAP certification verifies that the programmer or the aspirant has all the necessary and essential concepts of intermediate-level Python programming. The course also covers all the fundamental concepts of different Python constructs & fundamentals of OOP. This course brings crisp knowledge on general coding techniques using standard language infrastructure and basic programming skills using Python. The approximate salary of a Python programmer with this certification will be $7000 to $11,262 per annum. Top companies and industries hiring PCAP are CareCentrix, Accenture, Deutsche Bank, Collabera, NetApp, Capgemini, Tech Mahindra, Myntra, etc. Where to take Training for Certification: Python Institute (https://pythoninstitute.org/free-python-courses/) has all the study resources you need to prepare for this examination. You can also get a comprehensive training by enrolling for the Python course offered by KnowledgeHut (https://www.knowledgehut.com/programming/python-programming-certification-training) that has 24 hours of instructor-led training covering the core programming concepts like operators, control flow, functions, syntax & indentations. Who should take the Training (roles) for Certification: Any programmer or computer science aspirant, who wants to build a career in Python or pursue an associate-level job as a Python programmer or developer, can opt for this certification course. There is no other prerequisite to appear for this exam. Course fees for Certification: $ 295 Application fee for certification: $ 295 Exam fee for certification: $ 295 Retake fee for certification: If a candidate fails the exam, he/she can wait 15 days before being allowed to retake the exam for free. There is no limit to the number of times a candidate may retake an exam. 3. Introduction to Programming Using Python by MicrosoftIt is another popular entry-level Python certification by Microsoft (https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/learn/certifications/exams/98-381). This certification covers all the syntax, data types, and basic understanding of Python. It also teaches how to logically solve any problem using Python constructs. Candidates wanting to enroll for this course are expected to have had some instruction or hands-on experience of approximately 100 hours with the Python programming language, including debugging skills, logic development, understanding conditional & decision-making statements, and maintaining well-formed well documented Python code. Microsoft’s Introduction to Programming Using Python comprises of topics like Basics of Python Using Boolean values Fundamentals of computer programming Interpretations Variables and variable naming conventions Defining and using functions Indexing and slicing operations Type conversions Basic formatting and outputting Data Types and Operators Control Flow with Decisions and Loops Construct Data structures Jump Statements Perform Input and Output Operations Document and Structure Code Comments and white-spaces Perform Operations Using Modules and Tools Demand and Benefits: Having a Microsoft certification verifies that the Python programmer or the aspirant has all the necessary and fundamental Python concepts. The course also covers all the syntax and semantics of different Python constructs & data types offered by the language. Anyone with this certification will have a better understanding of core Python, and the candidate can stand out in the competitive exams from the rest. The average entry-level salary of a Python programmer with this certification will be $ 5660 per annum. Top companies and industries hiring Python professionals with this credential are Cataleya Pvt. Ltd., Zynga, VMware, Mphasis, Deloitte, Capgemini, etc. Where to take Training for Certification: Microsoft has a paid five-day instructor-led course to prepare for this examination. Apart from that, you can join the Python course offered by KnowledgeHut that has 24 hours of instructor-led training covering the core programming concepts like operators, control flow, functions, syntax & indentations. Who should take the Training (roles) for Certification: Any programmer or computer science aspirant, who wants to learn Python or start an internship or entry-level job as Python programmer, can opt for this certification course. There is no other prerequisite to appear for this exam. Course fees for Certification: $ 127 Application fee for certification: $ 127 Exam fee for certification: $ 127 Retake fee for certification: Exam retake is free. If the candidate fails to achieve a passing score on the first attempt, he/she must wait 24 hours before retaking the exam. 4. Certified Professional in Python Programming 1 & 2 (PCPP 1 & 2):Once you sound knowledge of the core concepts of Python or have 3 to 5 years of experience in Python programming, you may prepare for professional Python certification. Certified Professional in Python Programming 1 certifications will reflect your experience and programming skills in the following areas: Text File Handling GUI-based Programming Encapsulation Inheritance Advanced Object-Oriented Programming PEP conventions Metaprogramming Communicating with a program's environment Using Libraries and Modules Importing math, science, and engineering modules Having this globally recognized credential will make you stand out in a competitive job market. Many recruiting agencies and firms are looking for professional Python programmers who can develop and deploy applications. Certified Professional in Python Programming 2 (PCPP2) is another advanced-level professional certification course offering proficiency in Python-MySQL database handling. Certified Professional in Python Programming 2 certification will reflect your experience and programming skills in the following areas: Basic directory structure CRUD operations Design patterns Observer and Proxy Singleton and State Design Template Method Model-View-Controller using Python Multiprocessing, threading, subprocess, and multiprocessor synchronization Relational database management using Python MySQL and SQL commands Sharing, storing and installing packages Network programming in Python Application testing techniques and principles Demand and Benefits: Having a PCPP certification verifies that the Python developer has all the necessary and essential skills of a professional Python programmer. The course covers all the advanced object-oriented programming concepts, GUI programming, etc. This course brings crisp knowledge for experienced professionals to make them stand out in the software development industry. The approximate salary of a Python programmer with this certification will be $ 12,053 to $ 14,700 per annum. Top companies and industries hiring PCPP certified professionals are Dell, Accenture, SG Analytics, HCL, Oracle, Capgemini, Tech Mahindra, Flipkart, etc. Where to take Training for Certification: Python Institute has all the study resources you need to prepare for this examination. Apart from that, you can join the Python course offered by KnowledgeHut that has 32 hours of instructor-led training covering the advanced programming concepts like database handling, OOPs, logical layout, data visualization, etc. Who should take the Training (roles) for Certification: Any professional, programmer, or experienced Python developer - who wants to settle as a senior Python developer or pursue an experienced-level job as a Python programmer or developer can opt for this certification course. The candidate should have the Certified Associate in Python Programmer (PCAP) certification or few years of work experience in Python. Course fees for Certification: $ 195 Application fee for certification: $ 195 Exam fee for certification: $ 195  Retake fee for certification: If a candidate fails the exam, he/she can wait 15 days before being allowed to retake the exam for free. There is no limit to the number of times a candidate may retake an exam. 5. Certified Expert in Python Programming (CEPP):This Python certification tag is for experts who complete all the OpenEDG Python Institute's Programming certification program (PCAP-31-xx, PCPP-32-1-xx, and PCPP-32-2-xx exams). It is the most advanced credential a Python developer can achieve from the Python Institute. Having this globally recognized credential will verify your expertise in Python programming. It highlights expertise in the universal concepts of Python programming. Also, this certification showcases the skills in resolving typical implementation challenges on different verticals of Python. Demand and Benefits: Having a CEPP certification verifies that the Python developer has industry level expertise in Python. This certification designates that the candidate has covered all the topics from basics to advance object-oriented programming concepts, GUI programming, etc. Using this certification, one can apply for a senior software development role, Python developer’s role, team lead, agile project management lead, and other senior job roles. Many professionals switch their careers to Big Data, Data Analytics, Machine learning, and deep learning after completing this certification. The approximate salary of a Python programmer with this certification will be $ 17,350 to $ 39,945 per annum. Top companies and industries hiring CEPPs are Amazon, Tesla, HSBC, Google, HCL, Oracle, Capgemini, Qualcomm, 6sense, Vitrana, and other top service-based companies. Where to take Training for Certification: Python Institute has all the study resources you need to prepare for PCAP-31-xx, PCPP-32-1-xx, and PCPP-32-2-xx examination. Once a candidate has passed all the certifications, he/she becomes recognized as an Open EDG Python Institute Certified Expert in Python Programming (CEPP). Who should take the Training (roles) for Certification: Any professional, Python expert, or senior Python developer, who wants to settle as a team lead or pursue an experienced-level job profile can opt for these certifications to reach at this level.  Course fees for Certification: $ 295 + $ 295 + $ 195 Application fee for certification: $ 295 + $ 295 + $ 195 Exam fee for certification: $ 295 + $ 295 + $ 195  Retake fee for certification: There is no retake fee Conclusion We trust this article gave you a better insight into different Python certifications! Whether you are starting out as a coder, or are an experienced Python programmer looking at making a splash in the industry, having a Python certification and proper knowledge of Python will elevate your programming career. Python is one of the top programming languages that can help you land different jobs in web development, app development, data science, cybersecurity, networking, web scraping, robotics, IoT, etc. If you aren't sure which online resource will be more informative for your Python certification, KnowledgeHut (https://www.knowledgehut.com/) has all the study materials and expert trainers who will help you reach the pinnacle of Python expertise. Receiving a Python certification, apart from academics and degrees, will make you stand out from the rest. So, start preparing for one today! 
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Best Python Certifications of 2021

Programming is always at the core of computer scie... Read More

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