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How To Run Your Python Scripts

If you are planning to enter the world of Python programming, the first and the most essential skill you should learn is knowing how to run Python scripts and code. Once you grab a seat in the show, it will be easier for you to understand whether the code will actually work or not.Python, being one of the leading programming languages, has relatively easy syntax which makes it even easier for the ones who are in their initial stage of learning the language. Also, it is the language of choice for working with large datasets and data science projects. Get certified and learn more about Python Programming and apply those skills and knowledge in the real world.What is the difference between Code, Script and Modules?In computing, the code is a language that is converted from a human language into a set of ‘words’ which the computer can understand. It is also referred to as a piece of statements together which forms a program. A simple function or a statement can also be considered a code.On the other hand, a script is a file consisting of a logical sequence of instructions or a batch processing file that is interpreted by another program instead of the computer processor.In simple terms, a script is a simple program, stored in a plain file text which contains Python code. The code can be directly executed by the user. A script is also called a top-level-program-file. A module is an object in Python with random attributes that you can bind and reference.Is Python a Programming Language or a Scripting Language?Basically, all scripting languages are considered to be programming languages. The main difference between the two is that programming languages are compiled, whereas scripting languages are interpreted. Scripting languages are slower than programming languages and usually sit behind them. Since they only run on a subset of the programming language, they have less access to a computer’s local abilities. Python can be called a scripting language as well as a programming language since it works both as a compiler and an interpreter. A standard Python can compile Python code into bytecodes and then interpret it just like Java and C.However, considering the historical relationship between the general purpose programming language and the scripting language, it will be more appropriate to say that Python is a general-purpose programming language which works nicely as a scripting language too.The Python InterpreterThe Interpreter is a layer of software that works as a bridge between the program and the system hardware to keep the code running. A Python interpreter is an application which is responsible for running Python scripts.The Python Interpreter works on the Read-Eval-Print-Loop (REPL) environment.Reads the command.Evaluates the command.Prints the result.Loops back and process gets repeated.The interpreter terminates when we use the exit() or quit() command otherwise the execution keeps on going.A Python Interpreter runs code in two ways— In the form of a script or module.In the form of a piece of code written in an interactive session.Starting the Python InterpreterThe simplest way to start the interpreter is to open the terminal and then use the interpreter from the command-line.To open the command-line interpreter:On Windows, the command-line is called the command prompt or MS-DOS console. A quicker way to access it is to go to Start menu → Run and type cmd.On GNU/Linux, the command-line can be accessed by several applications like xterm, Gnome Terminal or Konsole.On MAC OS X, the system terminal is accessed through Applications → Utilities → Terminal. Running Python Code InteractivelyRunning Python code through an interactive session is an extensively used way. An interactive session is an excellent development tool to venture with the language and allows you to test every piece of Python code on the go.To initiate a Python interactive session, type python in the command-line or terminal and hit the ENTER key from the keyboard.An example of how to do this on Windows:C:\users>python Python 3.7.2 (tags/v3.7.2:9a3ffc0492, Dec 23 2018, 23:09:28) [MSC v.1916 64 bit (AMD64)] on win32 Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license()" for more information. >>>The >>> on the terminal represents the standard prompt for the interactive mode. If you do not see these characters, you need to re-install Python on your system.The statements you write when working with an interactive session are evaluated and executed immediately:print('HELLO WORLD!') HELLO WORLD! 2 + 3 5 print('Welcome to the world of PYTHON') Welcome to the world of PYTHON The only disadvantage is when you close the interactive session, the code no longer exists.Running Python Scripts by the InterpreterThe term Python Execution Model is given to the entire multi-step process to run Python scripts.At first, the statements or expressions of your script are processed in a sequential manner by the interpreter. Then the code is compiled into a form of instruction set called the bytecode.Basically, the code is converted into a low-level language known as the bytecode. It is an intermediate, machine-independent code which optimizes the process of code execution. So, the interpreter ignores the compilation step when executing the code for the next time.Finally, the interpreter transfers the code for execution.The Python Virtual Machine (PVM) is the ultimate step of the Python interpreter process. It is a part of the Python environment installed in your system. The PVM loads the bytecode in the Python runtime and reads each operation and executes them as indicated. It is the component which actually runs your scripts.Running Python Scripts using Command-LineThe most sought after way of writing a Python program is by using a plain text editor. The code written in the Python interactive session is lost once the session is closed, though it allows the user to write a lot of lines of code. On Windows, the files use the .py extension.  If you are at the beginning of working with Python, you can use editors like Sublime or Notepad++ which are easy-to-use or any other text editors.Now you need to create a test script. In order to do that, open your most suited text editor and write the following code:print('Hello World!')Then save the file in your desktop with the name first_script.py or anything you like. Remember you need to give the .py extension only.Using python commandThe most basic and the easy way to run Python scripts is by using the python command. You need to open a command-line and type the word python followed by the path to your script file, like this:python first_script.py Hello World!Then you hit the ENTER button from the keyboard and that's it. You can see the phrase Hello World! on the screen. Congrats! You just ran your first Python script. However, if you do not get the output, you might want to check your system PATH and the place where you saved your file. If it still doesn’t work, re-install Python in your system and try again.Redirecting outputWindows and Unix-like systems have a process called stream redirection. You can redirect the output of your stream to some other file format instead of the standard system output. It is useful to save the output in a different file for later analysis.An example of how you can do this:python first_script.py > output.txtWhat happens is your Python script is redirected to the output.txt file. If the file doesn’t exist, it is systematically created. However, if it already exists, the contents are replaced.Running modules with the -m optionA module is a file which contains the Python code. It allows you to arrange your Python code in a logical manner. It defines functions, classes, and variables and can also include runnable code.If you want to run a Python module, there are a lot of command-line options which Python offers according to the needs of the user. One of which is the command  python -m <module-name>. It searches the module name in the sys.path and runs the content as __main__:python -m first_script Hello World!Note that the module-name is a module object and not any string.Using Script FilenameWindows makes use of the system registers and file association to run Python scripts. It determines the program needed to run that particular file. You need to simply enter the file-name containing the code.An example on how to do this using command prompt:C:\Users\Local\Python\Python37> first_script.py Hello World!On GNU/Linux systems, you need to add a line before the text— #!/usr/bin/env python. Python considers this line nothing but the operating system considers it everything. It helps the system to decide what program should it use to run the file.The character combination #! known as hashbang or shebang is what the line starts with, which is then followed by the interpreter path.Finally, to run scripts, assign execution permissions and configure the hashbang line and then simply type the filename in the command line:#Assign the execution permissions chmod +x first_script.py #Run script using its filename ./first_script.py Hello World!However, if it doesn’t work, you might want to check if the script is located in your currentworking directory or not. Otherwise, you can use the path of the file for this method. Running Python Scripts InteractivelyAs we have discussed earlier, running Python scripts in an interactive session is the most common way of writing scripts and also offers a wide range of possibilities.Using importImporting a module means loading its contents so that it can be later accessed and used. It is the most usual way of invoking the import machinery. It is analogous to #include in C or C++. Using import, the Python code in one module gets access to the code in another module. An implementation of the import:import first_script Hello World!You can see its execution only when the module contains calls to functions, methods or other statements which generate visible output.One important thing to note is that the import option works only once per session. This is because these operations are expensive.For this method to work efficiently, you should keep the file containing the Python code in your current working directory and also the file should be in the Python Module Search Path (PMSP). The PMSP is the place where the modules and packages are imported.You can run the code below to know what’s in your current PSMP:import sys for path in sys.path: print(path)\Users\Local\Python37\Lib\idlelib \Users\Local\Python37\python37.zip \Users\Local\Python37\DLLs \Users\Local\Python37\lib \Users\Local\Python37 \Users\Local\Python37\lib\site-packagesYou’ll get the list of directories and .zip files where your modules and packages are imported.Using importlibimportlib is a module which is an implementation of the import statement in the Python code. It contains the import_module whose work is to execute any module or script by imitating the import operation.An example to perform this:import importlib importlib.import_module('first_script') Hello World! <module 'first_script' from '\Users\Local\Python37\first_script.py'>importlib.reload() is used to re-import the module since you cannot use import to run it for the second time. Even if you use import after the first time, it will do nothing. importlib.reload() is useful when you want to modify and test your changes without exiting the current session.The following code shows that:import first_script #First import Hello World! import first_script import importlib #Second import does nothing importlib.reload(first_script) Hello World! <module 'first_script' from '\Users\Local\Python37\\first_script.py'>However, you can only use a module object and not any string as the argument of reload(). If you use a string as an argument, it will show a TypeError as follows:importlib.reload(first_script)Traceback (most recent call last): ... ...   raise TypeError("reload() argument must be a module") TypeError: reload() argument must be a moduleUsing runpy.run_module() and runpy.run_path()The Python Standard Library has a module named runpy. run_module() is a function in runpy whose work is to execute modules without importing them in the first place. The module is located using import and then executed. The first argument of the run_module() must contain a string:import runpy runpy.run_module(mod_name='first_script') Hello World! {'__name__': 'first_script',     ... '_': None}}Similarly, runpy contains another function run_path() which allows you to run a module by providing a location.An example of such is as follows:import runpy runpy.run_path(file_path='first_script.py') Hello World! {'__name__': '<run_path>',     ... '_': None}}Both the functions return the globals dictionary of the executed module.Using exec()Other than the most commonly used ways to run Python scripts, there are other alternative ways. One such way is by using the built-in function exec(). It is used for the dynamic execution of Python code, be it a string or an object code.An example of exec() is:exec(open('first_script.py').read()) Hello World!Using py_compilepy_compile is a module which behaves like the import statement. It generates two functions— one to generate the bytecode from the source file and another when the source file is invoked as a script.You can compile your Python script using this module:import py_compile py_compile.compile('first_script.py'  '__pycache__\\first_script.cpython-37.pyc' The py_compile generates a new subdirectory named "__pycache__" if it doesn’t already exist. Inside the subdirectory, a Compiled Python File (.pyc) version of the script file is created. When you open the .pyc file, you can see the output of your Python script.Running Python Scripts using an IDE or a Text EditorAn Integrated Development Environment (IDE) is an application that allows a developer to build software within an integrated environment in addition to the required tools.You can use the Python IDLE, a default IDE of the standard Python Distribution to write, debug, modify, and run your modules and scripts. You can use other IDEs like Spyder, PyCharm, Eclipse, and Jupyter Notebook which also allow you to run your scripts inside its environment.You can also use popular text editors like Sublime and Atom to run Python scripts.If you want to run a Python script from your IDE or text editor, you need to create a project first. Once it is created, add your .py file to it or you can just simply create one using the IDE. Finally, run it and you can see the output in your screen.Running Python Scripts from a File ManagerIf you want to run your Python script in a file manager, all you need to do is just double-click on the file icon. This option is mainly used in the production stage after you have released the source code.However, to achieve this, some conditions must be met:On Windows, to run your script by double-clicking on them, you need to save your script file with extension .py for python.exe and .pyw for pythonw.exe.If you are using the command-line for running your script, you might likely come  through a situation where you’ll see a flash of a black window on the screen. To avert this, include a statement at the tail of the script — input(‘Enter’). This will exit the program only when you hit the ENTER key. Note that the input() function will work only if your code is free of errors.On GNU/Linux and other Unix-like systems, your Python script must contain the hashbang line and execution permissions. Otherwise, the double-click trick won’t work in a file manager.Though it is easy to execute a script by just double-clicking on the file, it isn’t considered a feasible option because of the limitations and dependency factors it comes with, like the operating system, the file manager, execution permissions, and also the file associations.So it is suggested to use this option only after the code is debugged and ready to be in the production market.ConclusionWorking with scripts has its own advantages like they are easy to learn and use, faster edit and run, interactivity, functionality and so on. They are also used to automate complex tasks in a simplified manner.In this article, you have learned to run your Python scripts using:The terminal or the command-line of the operating system.The Python Interactive session.Your favorite IDE or text editor.The system file manager.Here, you have gathered the knowledge and skills of how to run your scripts using various techniques.You will feel more comfortable working with larger and more complex Python environments which in turn will enhance the development process and increase efficiency. You can learn more about such techniques as KnowledgeHut offers Python Certification Course.

How To Run Your Python Scripts

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How To Run Your Python Scripts

If you are planning to enter the world of Python programming, the first and the most essential skill you should learn is knowing how to run Python scripts and code. Once you grab a seat in the show, it will be easier for you to understand whether the code will actually work or not.

Python, being one of the leading programming languages, has relatively easy syntax which makes it even easier for the ones who are in their initial stage of learning the language. Also, it is the language of choice for working with large datasets and data science projects. Get certified and learn more about Python Programming and apply those skills and knowledge in the real world.

What is the difference between Code, Script and Modules?

In computing, the code is a language that is converted from a human language into a set of ‘words’ which the computer can understand. It is also referred to as a piece of statements together which forms a program. A simple function or a statement can also be considered a code.

On the other hand, a script is a file consisting of a logical sequence of instructions or a batch processing file that is interpreted by another program instead of the computer processor.

In simple terms, a script is a simple program, stored in a plain file text which contains Python code. The code can be directly executed by the user. A script is also called a top-level-program-file

A module is an object in Python with random attributes that you can bind and reference.

Is Python a Programming Language or a Scripting Language?

Is Python a Programming Language or a Scripting Language?

Basically, all scripting languages are considered to be programming languages. The main difference between the two is that programming languages are compiled, whereas scripting languages are interpreted

Scripting languages are slower than programming languages and usually sit behind them. Since they only run on a subset of the programming language, they have less access to a computer’s local abilities. 

Python can be called a scripting language as well as a programming language since it works both as a compiler and an interpreter. A standard Python can compile Python code into bytecodes and then interpret it just like Java and C.

However, considering the historical relationship between the general purpose programming language and the scripting language, it will be more appropriate to say that Python is a general-purpose programming language which works nicely as a scripting language too.

The Python Interpreter

The Interpreter is a layer of software that works as a bridge between the program and the system hardware to keep the code running. A Python interpreter is an application which is responsible for running Python scripts.

The Python Interpreter works on the Read-Eval-Print-Loop (REPL) environment.

  • Reads the command.
  • Evaluates the command.
  • Prints the result.
  • Loops back and process gets repeated.

The interpreter terminates when we use the exit() or quit() command otherwise the execution keeps on going.

A Python Interpreter runs code in two ways— 

  • In the form of a script or module.
  • In the form of a piece of code written in an interactive session.

Starting the Python Interpreter

The simplest way to start the interpreter is to open the terminal and then use the interpreter from the command-line.

To open the command-line interpreter:

  • On Windows, the command-line is called the command prompt or MS-DOS console. A quicker way to access it is to go to Start menu  Run and type cmd.
  • On GNU/Linux, the command-line can be accessed by several applications like xterm, Gnome Terminal or Konsole.
  • On MAC OS X, the system terminal is accessed through Applications → Utilities → Terminal

Running Python Code Interactively

Running Python code through an interactive session is an extensively used way. An interactive session is an excellent development tool to venture with the language and allows you to test every piece of Python code on the go.

To initiate a Python interactive session, type python in the command-line or terminal and hit the ENTER key from the keyboard.

An example of how to do this on Windows:

C:\users>python
Python 3.7.2 (tags/v3.7.2:9a3ffc0492, Dec 23 2018, 23:09:28) [MSC v.1916 64 bit (AMD64)] on win32
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license()" for more information.
>>>

The >>> on the terminal represents the standard prompt for the interactive mode. If you do not see these characters, you need to re-install Python on your system.

The statements you write when working with an interactive session are evaluated and executed immediately:

print('HELLO WORLD!')
HELLO WORLD!
2 + 3
5
print('Welcome to the world of PYTHON')
Welcome to the world of PYTHON 

The only disadvantage is when you close the interactive session, the code no longer exists.

Running Python Scripts by the Interpreter

The term Python Execution Model is given to the entire multi-step process to run Python scripts.

  1. At first, the statements or expressions of your script are processed in a sequential manner by the interpreter. 
  2. Then the code is compiled into a form of instruction set called the bytecode.
    Basically, the code is converted into a low-level language known as the bytecode. It is an intermediate, machine-independent code which optimizes the process of code execution. So, the interpreter ignores the compilation step when executing the code for the next time.
  3. Finally, the interpreter transfers the code for execution.
    The Python Virtual Machine (PVM) is the ultimate step of the Python interpreter process. It is a part of the Python environment installed in your system. The PVM loads the bytecode in the Python runtime and reads each operation and executes them as indicated. It is the component which actually runs your scripts.

Running Python Scripts using Command-Line

The most sought after way of writing a Python program is by using a plain text editor. The code written in the Python interactive session is lost once the session is closed, though it allows the user to write a lot of lines of code. On Windows, the files use the .py extension.  

If you are at the beginning of working with Python, you can use editors like Sublime or Notepad++ which are easy-to-use or any other text editors.

Now you need to create a test script. In order to do that, open your most suited text editor and write the following code:

print('Hello World!')

Then save the file in your desktop with the name first_script.py or anything you like. Remember you need to give the .py extension only.

Using python command

The most basic and the easy way to run Python scripts is by using the python command. You need to open a command-line and type the word python followed by the path to your script file, like this:

python first_script.py
Hello World!

Then you hit the ENTER button from the keyboard and that's it. You can see the phrase Hello World! on the screen. Congrats! You just ran your first Python script. 

However, if you do not get the output, you might want to check your system PATH and the place where you saved your file. If it still doesn’t work, re-install Python in your system and try again.

Redirecting output

Windows and Unix-like systems have a process called stream redirection. You can redirect the output of your stream to some other file format instead of the standard system output. It is useful to save the output in a different file for later analysis.

An example of how you can do this:

python first_script.py > output.txt

What happens is your Python script is redirected to the output.txt file. If the file doesn’t exist, it is systematically created. However, if it already exists, the contents are replaced.

Running modules with the -m option

A module is a file which contains the Python code. It allows you to arrange your Python code in a logical manner. It defines functions, classes, and variables and can also include runnable code.

If you want to run a Python module, there are a lot of command-line options which Python offers according to the needs of the user. One of which is the command 

 python -m <module-name>. 

It searches the module name in the sys.path and runs the content as

 __main__:
python -m first_script
Hello World!

Note that the module-name is a module object and not any string.

Using Script Filename

Windows makes use of the system registers and file association to run Python scripts. It determines the program needed to run that particular file. You need to simply enter the file-name containing the code.

An example on how to do this using command prompt:

C:\Users\Local\Python\Python37> first_script.py
Hello World!

On GNU/Linux systems, you need to add a line before the text— #!/usr/bin/env python. Python considers this line nothing but the operating system considers it everything. It helps the system to decide what program should it use to run the file.

The character combination #! known as hashbang or shebang is what the line starts with, which is then followed by the interpreter path.

Finally, to run scripts, assign execution permissions and configure the hashbang line and then simply type the filename in the command line:

#Assign the execution permissions
chmod +x first_script.py
#Run script using its filename
./first_script.py
Hello World!

However, if it doesn’t work, you might want to check if the script is located in your current

working directory or not. Otherwise, you can use the path of the file for this method. 

Running Python Scripts Interactively

As we have discussed earlier, running Python scripts in an interactive session is the most common way of writing scripts and also offers a wide range of possibilities.

Using import

Importing a module means loading its contents so that it can be later accessed and used. It is the most usual way of invoking the import machinery. It is analogous to #include in C or C++. Using import, the Python code in one module gets access to the code in another module. 

An implementation of the import:

import first_script
Hello World!

You can see its execution only when the module contains calls to functions, methods or other statements which generate visible output.

One important thing to note is that the import option works only once per session. This is because these operations are expensive.

For this method to work efficiently, you should keep the file containing the Python code in your current working directory and also the file should be in the Python Module Search Path (PMSP). The PMSP is the place where the modules and packages are imported.

You can run the code below to know what’s in your current PSMP:

import sys
for path in sys.path:
print(path)
\Users\Local\Python37\Lib\idlelib
\Users\Local\Python37\python37.zip
\Users\Local\Python37\DLLs
\Users\Local\Python37\lib
\Users\Local\Python37
\Users\Local\Python37\lib\site-packages

You’ll get the list of directories and .zip files where your modules and packages are imported.

Using importlib

importlib is a module which is an implementation of the import statement in the Python code. It contains the import_module whose work is to execute any module or script by imitating the import operation.

An example to perform this:

import importlib
importlib.import_module('first_script')
Hello World!
<module 'first_script' from '\Users\Local\Python37\first_script.py'>

importlib.reload() is used to re-import the module since you cannot use import to run it for the second time. Even if you use import after the first time, it will do nothing. importlib.reload() is useful when you want to modify and test your changes without exiting the current session.

The following code shows that:

import first_script #First import
Hello World!
import first_script
import importlib #Second import does nothing
importlib.reload(first_script)
Hello World!
<module 'first_script' from '\Users\Local\Python37\\first_script.py'>

However, you can only use a module object and not any string as the argument of reload(). If you use a string as an argument, it will show a TypeError as follows:

importlib.reload(first_script)
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
...
  raise TypeError("reload() argument must be a module")
TypeError: reload() argument must be a module

Using runpy.run_module() and runpy.run_path()

The Python Standard Library has a module named runpy. run_module() is a function in runpy whose work is to execute modules without importing them in the first place. 

The module is located using import and then executed. The first argument of the run_module() must contain a string:

import runpy
runpy.run_module(mod_name='first_script')
Hello World!
{'__name__': 'first_script',
    ...
'_': None}}

Similarly, runpy contains another function run_path() which allows you to run a module by providing a location.

An example of such is as follows:

import runpy
runpy.run_path(file_path='first_script.py')
Hello World!
{'__name__': '<run_path>',
    ...
'_': None}}

Both the functions return the globals dictionary of the executed module.

Using exec()

Other than the most commonly used ways to run Python scripts, there are other alternative ways. One such way is by using the built-in function exec(). It is used for the dynamic execution of Python code, be it a string or an object code.

An example of exec() is:

exec(open('first_script.py').read())
Hello World!

Using py_compile

py_compile is a module which behaves like the import statement. It generates two functions— one to generate the bytecode from the source file and another when the source file is invoked as a script.

You can compile your Python script using this module:

import py_compile
py_compile.compile('first_script.py' 
'__pycache__\\first_script.cpython-37.pyc' 

The py_compile generates a new subdirectory named "__pycache__" if it doesn’t already exist. Inside the subdirectory, a Compiled Python File (.pyc) version of the script file is created. When you open the .pyc file, you can see the output of your Python script.

Running Python Scripts using an IDE or a Text Editor

An Integrated Development Environment (IDE) is an application that allows a developer to build software within an integrated environment in addition to the required tools.

You can use the Python IDLE, a default IDE of the standard Python Distribution to write, debug, modify, and run your modules and scripts. You can use other IDEs like Spyder, PyCharm, Eclipse, and Jupyter Notebook which also allow you to run your scripts inside its environment.

You can also use popular text editors like Sublime and Atom to run Python scripts.

If you want to run a Python script from your IDE or text editor, you need to create a project first. Once it is created, add your .py file to it or you can just simply create one using the IDE. Finally, run it and you can see the output in your screen.

Running Python Scripts from a File Manager

If you want to run your Python script in a file manager, all you need to do is just double-click on the file icon. This option is mainly used in the production stage after you have released the source code.

However, to achieve this, some conditions must be met:

  • On Windows, to run your script by double-clicking on them, you need to save your script file with extension .py for python.exe and .pyw for pythonw.exe.

If you are using the command-line for running your script, you might likely come  through a situation where you’ll see a flash of a black window on the screen. To avert this, include a statement at the tail of the script — input(‘Enter’). This will exit the program only when you hit the ENTER key. Note that the input() function will work only if your code is free of errors.

  • On GNU/Linux and other Unix-like systems, your Python script must contain the hashbang line and execution permissions. Otherwise, the double-click trick won’t work in a file manager.

Though it is easy to execute a script by just double-clicking on the file, it isn’t considered a feasible option because of the limitations and dependency factors it comes with, like the operating system, the file manager, execution permissions, and also the file associations.

So it is suggested to use this option only after the code is debugged and ready to be in the production market.

Conclusion

Working with scripts has its own advantages like they are easy to learn and use, faster edit and run, interactivity, functionality and so on. They are also used to automate complex tasks in a simplified manner.

In this article, you have learned to run your Python scripts using:

  • The terminal or the command-line of the operating system.
  • The Python Interactive session.
  • Your favorite IDE or text editor.
  • The system file manager.

Here, you have gathered the knowledge and skills of how to run your scripts using various techniques.You will feel more comfortable working with larger and more complex Python environments which in turn will enhance the development process and increase efficiency. You can learn more about such techniques as KnowledgeHut offers Python Certification Course.

Priyankur

Priyankur Sarkar

Data Science Enthusiast

Priyankur Sarkar loves to play with data and get insightful results out of it, then turn those data insights and results in business growth. He is an electronics engineer with a versatile experience as an individual contributor and leading teams, and has actively worked towards building Machine Learning capabilities for organizations.

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1 comments

Grace 20 Aug 2020

i am not sure where you are getting your info, but good topic. I needs to spend some time learning much more or understanding more. Thanks for excellent info I was looking for this information for my mission.

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Top 12 Python Packages for Machine Learning

Lovers of vintage movies would have definitely heard of the Monty Python series. The programming language that it inspired continues to remain among the most popular languages. Guess why Python has consistently topped the charts of the most popular programming languages? Because of its rich environment of libraries and tools, its easy code readability and the fact that it is so easy to pick up.  You name the domain, and you will get Python libraries available, to help you out in solving problems. Right from Artificial Intelligence, Data Science, Machine Learning, Image Processing, Speech Recognition, Computer Vision and more, Python has numerous uses. These libraries and frameworks are open source and can be easily integrated with the development environment that one has.These software frameworks, the platforms which provides necessary libraries and code components, are backbones for devloping applications. Read on to see which are the top ML frameworks and libraries in Python.1. Numpy As the name implies, this is the library which supports numerical calculations and tasks. It supports array operations and basic mathematical functions on the array and other data types of Python. The basic data type of this library is ndArray object.   Numpy has many advantagesThe base data structure is N –Dimensional array. Rich functions to handle the N-dimensional array effectively. Supports integration of C, C++ and other language code fragments. Supports many functions related to linear algebra, random numbers, transforms, statistics etc. DisadvantagesNo GPU and TPU support. Cannot automatically calculate the derivatives which is required in all ML algorithms. Numpy performance goes down when high complex calculations are required. 2. PandasThis is the most useful library for data preprocessing and preparing the data for the Machine Learning algorithms. The data from various files like CSV, Excel, Data etc. can be easily read using Pandas. The data is available in a spreadsheet like area, which makes processing easy. There are three basic data structures at the core of Pandas library: Series - One-dimensional array like object containing data and label (or index). Dataframe - Spreadsheet-like data structure containing an order collection of columns. It has both a row and column index. Panel – Collection of dataframes but rarely used data structure. AdvantagesStructured data can be read easily. Great tool for handling of data. Strong functions for manipulation and preprocessing of data. Data Exploration functions help in better understanding data. Data preprocessing capabilities help in making data ready for the application of ML algorithms. Basic Plotting functions are provided for visualization of data.  Datasets can be easily joined or merged. The functions of Pandas are optimized for large datasets. DisadvantagesGetting to know the Pandas functionalities is time consuming. The syntax is complex when multiple operations are required. Support for 3D metrics is poor. Proper documentation is not available for study. 3. MatplotlibMatplotlib is an important Python library which helps in data visualization. Understanding the data is very important for a data scientist before devising any machine learning based model. This library helps in understanding the data in a visual way. Data can be visualized using various graphical methods like line graph, bar graph, pie chart etc. This is a 2D visualization library with numerous ways of visualizing data. Image SourceAdvantagesSimple and easy to learn for beginners. Integrated with Pandas for visualization of data in effective way. Various plots are provided for better understanding of data like Bar Chart, Stacked Bar chart, Pie chart, Scatter Plot etc. Forms a base for many advanced plotting libraries. Supports storing of the various graphs as images so that they can be integrated with other applications. Can plot timeseries data (with date) very easily. DisadvantagesComplex Syntax for plotting simple graphs. The code becomes lengthy and complex for visualizations. Support for plotting of categorial data is not provided. It is a 2D visualization library. When multiple fields are required to be plotted and visualized effectively, matplotlib code can become lengthy. Managing multiple figures is difficult. 4. Seaborn Visualizations are made simpler and more advanced with the help of Seaborn library. The base for Seaborn is Matplotlib. It is a boon for programmers as statistical visualizations are simplified. Image sourceAdvantagesBest high-level interface for drawing statistical graphics. Provides support for plotting of categorial data effectively. The library provides default themes and many visualization patterns. Multiple figures are automatically created. The syntax is very simple and compact. There are many methods to integrate with Pandas dataframe, making this library most useful for visualization. DisadvantagesMemory issues due to creation of multiple figures. Less customizable and flexible as compared to Matplotlib. Scalability issues. 5. Scipy   Scipy is a Scientific Python library based on Numpy. It has functions which are best suitable for Mathematics, Science and Engineering. Many libraries are provided for Image and Signal Processing, Fourier Transform, Linear Algebra, Integration and Optimization. The functions are useful for ML algorithms and programs. AdvantagesThe base library is Numpy. Many ML related functions are provided like Linear Algebra, Optimization, Compressed Sparce Data Structure etc. Useful Linear Algebra functions are available which are required for implementation of ML related algorithms. The functions can be applied with Pandas Dataframe directly. DisadvantagesComplex functions are available and domain knowledge is needed to understand and implement these functions. There are performance issues when data size increases. Many other effective alternative libraries are available with the needed functionality. 6. Scikit-Learn Scikit-Learn is a useful open access library for use to Python developers. It is an extensive and popular library with many Machine Learning Supervised and Unsupervised algorithms implemented. These algorithms can be fine-tuned with the help of hyperparameters. This library contains many useful functions for preprocessing of data, useful metrics to measure performance of algorithms and optimization techniques.  AdvantagesIt is a general Machine Learning library built on top of Numpy, Pandas and Matplotlib. Simple to understand and use even for novice programmers. Useful Machine Learning Algorithms, both Supervised and Unsupervised, are implemented. Popular library for doing Machine Learning related tasks. Rich in Data Preprocessing and Data Sampling functions and techniques. Plethora of evaluation measures implemented to track the performance of algorithms. Very effective for quick coding and building Machine Learning Models. DisadvantagesScikit learn, as is based on Numpy, requires additional support to run on GTP and TPU Performance is an issue with size of data. Best suitable for basic Machine Learning applications. This library may be useful if one wants to write easy code, but it’s not the best choice for more detailed learning. 7. NLTK Natural Language processing is a great field of study for developers who like to research and challenge themselves. This library provides a base for Natural Language processing by providing simple functionalities to work with and understand languages.AdvantagesVery simple to use for processing natural language data. Many basic functionalities like tokenizing the words, removal of stop words, conversion to word vectors etc. are provided which forms the basis to start with natural language processing models. It is an amazing library to play with natural language using Python. It has more than 50 trained models and lexical resources like wordnet available for use. Rich discussion forums and many examples are available to discuss how to use this library effectively. DisadvantagesIt is based on string processing, which itself has many limitations. Slower as compared to other Natural Language processing libraries like Spacy.8. Keras Keras is a library written in Python for Neural Network programming. It offers a very simple interface to code the neural network and related algorithms. It is an incredibly popular library for Deep Learning algorithms, models and applications and can also be combined with various deep learning frameworks. It provides support for GPU and TPU computation of algorithms. The API provided is simple, same as Scikit-learn. Keras is totally based on Models and Graphs. A model has Input, output and intermediate layers to perform the various tasks as per requirement. Effective functionalities and models provided to code deep learning algorithms like Neural Network, Recurrent Neural Network, Long Short-Term memory, Autoencoders etc. Allows to create products easily supporting multiple backends Supports multi-platform use. Can be used with TensorFlow, can be used in browser using web based keras and provides native ML support for iPhone app development. 9. TensorFlow TensorFlow is the talk of the town because of its capabilities suitable for Machine Learning and Deep Learning models. It is one of the best, and most popular frameworks, adopted by companies around the world for Machine Learning and Deep Learning. Its support for Web as well as Mobile application coupled with Deep Learning models has made it popular among engineers and researchers. Many giants like IBM, Dropbox, Nvidia etc. use TensorFlow for creating and deploying Machine Learning Models. This library has many applications like image recognition, video analysis, speech recognition, Natural Language Processing, Recommendation System etc. TensorFlow lite and TensorFlow JS has made it more popular for web applications and Mobile Applications. Advantages Developed by Google, it is one of the best deep learning frameworks. Simple Machine Learning tasks are also supported in TensorFlow. Supports many famous libraries like scikit learn, Keras etc. which are part of TensorFlow. The basic unit is Tensor which is an n-dimensional array. The basic derivatives are inherently computed which helps in developing many Machine learning Models easily. The models developed are supported on CPT, TPU and GPU. Tensorboard is the effective tool for data visualization. Many other supported tools are available to facilitate Web Development, App Development and IoT Applications using Machine Learning. Disadvantages Understanding Tensor and computational graphs is tedious. Computational graphs make the code complex and sometimes face performance problems. 10. Pytorch A popular Python framework, Pytorch supports machine learning and deep learning algorithms and is a scientific computing framework. This is a framework which is widely used by Twitter, Google and Facebook. The library supports complex Tensor computations and is used to construct deep neural networks. AdvantagesThe power of Pytorch lies in construction of Deep Neural Networks. Rich functions and utilities are provided to construct and use Neural Networks. Powerful when it comes to creation of production ready models. It supports GPU operations with rich math-based library functions. Unlike Numpy, it provides the functions which calculates gradient of the function, useful for the construction of the neural network. Provides support for Gradient based optimization which helps in scaling up the models easily to large data. Disadvantages It is a complex framework, so learning is difficult. Documentation support for learning is not readily available. Scalability may be an issue as compared to TensorFlow. 11. Theano Theano is a library for evaluating and optimizing the mathematical computations. It is based on NumPy but provides support for both the GPU and CPU. AdvantagesIt is a fast computation library in Python. Uses native libraries like BIAS to turn the code in faster computation. Best suited to handle computations in Deep Learning algorithms. Industry standard for Deep Learning research and development. Disadvantages It is not very popular among researchers as it is one of the older frameworks. It is not as easy to use as TensorFlow.12. CNTK CNTK is Microsoft’s Cognitive Toolkit for the development of Deep Learning based models. It is a commercial distributed deep learning tool. AdvantagesIt is a distributed open-source deep learning framework. Popular models like Deep Neural Network, Convolutional Neural Network models can be combined easily to form new models. Provides interface with C, C++ and Java to include Machine Learning models. Can be used to build reinforcement learning models as wide functions are available. Can be used to develop GAN (Generative Adversarial Networks). Provides various ways to measure the performance of the models built. High accuracy parallel computation on Multiple GPU is provided. Disadvantages Proper documentation is not available. There is inadequate community support. ConclusionPython, being one of the most popular languages for the development of Machine Learning models, has a plethora of tools and frameworks available for use. The choice of tool depends on the developer’s experience as well as the type of application to be developed. Every tool has some strong points and some weaknesses, so one has to carefully choose the tool or framework for the development of Machine Learning based applications. The documentation and support available are also important criteria to be kept in mind while choosing the most appropriate tool. 
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Top 12 Python Packages for Machine Learning

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Top-Paying Programming Certifications for 2021

Programming is at the core of software development, which is why there is a huge demand for programmers—a demand that is growing exponentially and is expected to rise at a steady rate even in the future. In today’s world, just about everything is getting automated and digitization has become the new normal.Recruiters are on the lookout for professionals who have solid programming and full-stack development skills. Every recruiting agency and organizational HR recruiting team has put in place a thorough screening process, and this active hiring in startups, SMEs, and multinational companies has raised the bar for many aspiring programmers. Having a software development, web development, or programming certification will give you an upper hand at the time of recruitment. A certification from a reputed accreditation body will validate your skills and make you stand out among your peers.Having an extra certification apart from your UG or PG degree makes you a better fit for the job role in which you have an interest. But before you opt for any certification, you need to understand which programming language will take you where; and the potential benefits of pursuing a certification course of that particular programming language.In this article, you will get to know about the top programming certifications of 2021 and how to achieve them.What are Programming certifications?Programming certifications are exam-oriented, and verify your skill and expertise in that field. Different organizations provide different programming certification exams that define your level, skills, and abilities vis `a vis that programming language. Having a programming certification will give you an edge over other peers and will highlight your coding skills.Most Popular Programming CertificationsC & C++ CertificationsOracle Certified Associate Java Programmer OCAJPCertified Associate in Python Programming (PCAP)MongoDB Certified Developer Associate ExamR Programming CertificationOracle MySQL Database Administration Training and Certification (CMDBA)CCA Spark and Hadoop Developer1. C & C++ CertificationsRegardless of your specialization in your UG or PG courses, clearing a developer-rated certification will not only make your resume stand out from others but also enhance your skills and boost your confidence. We have curated the top-most and popularly available certifications with descriptions that can help you decide which one is appropriate for your career path.C & C++ Certifications: C and C++ are often called the mother of Procedure-oriented and Object-oriented programming languages, which is absolutely true. These two programming languages have been around for many decades. Colleges and universities all over the world teach these as the base language. To get global recognition for the C and C++ certification, C++ Institute and Pearson VUE decided to carve a niche in this part of the certification landscape by offering the world's first international C/C++ certifications.Aspirants and professionals can choose either C or C++ as a career option/path and climb the certification ladder from associate to professional to senior. The C Programming Language Certified Associate (CLA) and C++ Certified Associate Programmer (CPA) are the core and first-level C and C++ certifications.CLA comprises of topics likeIntroduction to compiling and software development;Basic scalar data types and their operators;Flow control;Complex data types: arrays, structures and pointers;Memory management;Files and streams;Structuring the code: functions and modules;Preprocessor directives and complex declarations.CPA comprises of topics likeIntroduction to compiling and software development;Basic scalar data types, operators, flow control, streamed input/output, conversions;Declaring, defining and invoking functions, function overloading;Data aggregates;String processing, exceptions handling, dealing with namespaces;Object-oriented approach and its vocabulary;Dealing with classes and objects, class hierarchy and inheritance;Defining overloaded operators, user-defined operators, exceptions;Demand and Benefits: Having a CLA certification verifies that the programmer or the aspirant has an understanding of all the necessary and essential universal concepts of computer programming and developer tools. The course also covers all the syntax and semantics of different C constructs plus the data types offered by the language. This course brings crisp knowledge on writing programs using standard language infrastructure regardless of the hardware or software platform.A C++ Certified Associate Programmer (CPA) certification will give you an upper hand because it comprises syntax and semantics of the C++ language plus basic C++ data types. Apart from that, it contains principles of the object-oriented model and C++ implementation. Also, you will get to know about the various C++ standard libraries through this certification process. The average entry-level salary of a C/C++ developer with this certification will be $ 7,415 per annum. With two to three years of experience, the average salary hikes to $ 10,593 annually.Top companies and industries hiring CLA and CPA are Philips, Calsoft Pvt. Ltd., Cognizant, Synopsys Inc., private universities, Mphasis, etc.Where to take Training for Certification: CPP Institute has all the study resources you need to prepare for this examination. Apart from that, you can study from YouTube free resources.Who should take the Training (roles) for Certification: Any programmer or computer science aspirant - who wants to expand their knowledge of C/C++ or start their career as a C/C++ programmer or developer can opt for this certification course. There is no other prerequisite to appear for this exam.Course fees for Certification:CLA Certification: $ 147.50 (50% discount voucher)CPA Certification: $ 147.50 (50% discount voucher)Exam fee for certification:CLA Certification: $ 295CPA Certification: $ 295Retake fee for certification: Aspirants who have paid the complete exam price (USD 295) or have completed a course aligned with certification in the self-study mode (50% discount voucher) can have a free retake of the CPA or CLA exam. There is no limit to the number of times a candidate may retake the exam. You must wait 15 days before being allowed to re-sit that exam.2. Oracle Certified Associate Java Programmer OCAJPThis is a Java programming certification provided by Oracle. Java is among the most popular programming languages. James Gosling is the creator of Java which was earlier named Oak. It is a robust, high-level, general-purpose, pure object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems (now part of Oracle). Java consistently tops the 'most used programming languages’ list and is one of the most extensively used software development platforms. If you have the plan to get a proper training course online before appearing for the certification exam, KnowledgeHut (https://www.knowledgehut.com/programming/java-training) has that for you.It is the preliminary and most basic certification provided by Oracle for Java. It helps gain fundamental understanding of Java programming and builds a foundation in Java and other general programming concepts. The certification encompasses two subcategories –OCAJP Java Standard Edition 8 (OCAJP 8) and  OCAJP Java Standard Edition 11 (OCAJP 11)It comprises of topics likeJava BasicsWorking with Java Data TypesUsing Operators and Decision ConstructsCreating and Using ArraysUsing Loop ConstructsWorking with Methods and EncapsulationWorking with InheritanceHandling ExceptionsClass Methods and EncapsulationDescribing and Using Objects and ClassesHandling ExceptionsJava Technology and the Java Development EnvironmentInheritance and InterfacesUnderstanding ModulesUsing Operators and Decision ConstructsWorking with Java ArraysWorking with Selected classes, Java Primitive Data Types and String APIsDemand and Benefits: Having an OCAJP certification verifies that the aspirant has all the necessary and essential skills to become an expert Java developer. This certification also helps in getting an internship or entry-level jobs in different organizations. The entry-level salary of a junior Java developer with this certification is $ 3670 per annum; when the candidate gathers two to three years of experience, the average salary hikes to $ 5430 annually.Top companies and industries hiring Oracle Certified Associate Java Programmers are Smart Monitor Pvt. Ltd., Fiserv, Micron Semiconductor Asia Pvt. Ltd., private universities and many others.Where to take Training for Certification: KnowledgeHut has a fascinating course opportunity for beginners in Java programming. It has workshops with hands-on learning and 40 hours of instructor-led online lectures. Apart from that, Oracle also provides exam vouchers for this certification course.Who should take the Training (roles) for Certification: Any programmer or computer science aspirant - who wants to settle as a Java developer or start his/her career as a Java programmer can opt for this certification course. There is no other prerequisite to appear for this exam.Course fee for Certification: $ 245Application fee for certification:OCAJP8: $ 245OCAJP11: $ 249Exam fee for certification:OCAJP8: $ 245OCAJP11: $ 255Retake fee for certification: Aspirants can retake the exam if the exam voucher has a free retake option. If the exam retake option is available, one can opt for the exam after 14 days.3. Certified Associate in Python Programming (PCAP)Python is an interpreted, general-purpose, and high-level programming language developed by Guido Van Rossum. Python released in 1991 and within 5 to 6 years, this programming language become the most popular and widely used programming language in various disciplines. Today, companies use Python for GUI and CLI-based software development, web development (server-side), data science, machine learning, AI, robotics, drone systems, developing cyber-security tools, mathematics, system scripting, etc. PCAP is a professional Python certification credential that measures your competency in using the Python language to create code and your fundamental understanding of object-oriented programming.It comprises of topics likeBasic concepts of PythonOperators & data typesControl and EvaluationsModules and PackagesData AggregatesException HandlingStringsFunctions and ModulesObject-Oriented ProgrammingList Comprehensions, Lambdas, Closures, and I/O OperationsClasses, Objects, and ExceptionsDemand and Benefits: Having a Python certification verifies that the programmer or the aspirant has all the necessary and essential skills needed to become an expert Python developer. This certification also helps in getting an internship or entry-level jobs in different organizations. The average entry-level salary of a Python developer starts at around $100k per annum. With a few years of experience, the average salary hikes to $ 105k annually.Top companies and organizations hiring certified Python programmers are Bank of America, Atlassian, Google, Adobe, Apple, Cisco Systems, Intel, Lyft, IBM, etc.Where to take Training for Certification: KnowledgeHut has a fascinating course opportunity for beginners in Python programming. It has hands-on learning with 24 hours of instructor-led online lectures. Apart from that, the course has 100 hours of MCQs and three live projects.Who should take the Training (roles) for Certification: Any programmer, graduate, post graduate student, or computer science aspirant - who wants to pursue a career as a Python developer or  Python programmer can opt for this certification training. There is no other prerequisite to appear for this exam.Course fees for Certification:  $ 295Exam fee for certification: $ 295Retake fee for certification: If a candidate fails the exam, he/she has to wait for 15 days before being allowed to retake the exam for free. There is no limit to the number of times a candidate may retake an exam.4. MongoDB Certified Developer Associate ExamMongoDB is a NoSQL, document-based high-volume heterogeneous database system. Instead of having tables with rows and columns, MongoDB uses a collection of documents. It is a database development system that provides scalability and flexibility as per query requirements. Its document models are easy to implement for developers and can meet complex demands at scale.MongoDB created this MongoDB Certified Developer Associate Exam for individuals who require to verify their knowledge on fundamentals of designing and building applications using MongoDB. They recommend this certification for those who want to become software engineers and have a solid understanding of core MongoDB along with professional experience.It comprises of topics likeMongoDB BasicsCRUDIndexing and PerformanceThe MongoDB Aggregation FrameworkBasic Cluster AdministrationAggregation & ReplicationShardingMongoDB Performance  MongoDB for Python DevelopersMongoDB for Java Developers or MongoDB for JavaScript DevelopersData ModelingDemand and Benefits: Having a MongoDB Certified Developer Associate Exam certification verifies that the programmer or the aspirant has all the necessary and essential skills to become a NoSQL database expert. The MongoDB certification is inexpensive and in demand. The average salary for a software developer with MongoDB skills starts from $ 8200 per annum.Top companies and organizations hiring certified MongoDB developers are Accenture, Collabera, Leoforce LLC., Adobe, Trigent Software, Lyft, etc.Where to take Training for Certification: KnowledgeHut has a comprehensive course structure for those who want to learn MongoDB & Mongodb Administrator. It has 24+ hours of instructor-led online lectures and 80+ hours of hands-on with cloud labs. This self-paced course also includes capstone projects to give participants a feel of real world working.  Who should take the Training (roles) for Certification: Any programmer, graduate, post graduate student, experienced developer or computer science aspirant - who wants to embark on a career as a MongoDB developer or start his/her career as a NoSQL database expert or do better in their current role as a MongoDB developer can opt for this certification course. There is no other prerequisite to appear for this exam.Course fees for Certification:  $ 150Exam fee for certification: $ 150Retake fee for certification: MongoDB University is no longer allowing a free retake with the exam fee. The candidate has to pay an additional $10 to reschedule or retake the exam.5. R Programming CertificationIt is a part of the data science specialization from Johns Hopkins University under Coursera. This course teaches R programming for efficient data analysis. It covers different R programming concepts like building blocks of R, datatypes, reading data into R from external files, accessing packages, writing functions, debugging techniques, profiling R code, and performing analysis.It comprises of topics like:Basic building blocks in RData types in RControl StructuresScoping Rules - OptimizationCoding StandardsDates and TimesFunctionsLoopingDebugging toolsSimulating data in RR ProfilerDemand and Benefits: Having an R Programming certification verifies that the programmer or the aspirant has all the necessary and essential skills require to get a job role as data analyst. This certification also helps in getting an internship or entry-level jobs in different organizations and firms. The average salary of a certified R programmer with this certification is ₹ 508,224 per annum.Top companies and industries hiring certified R programmers are Technovatrix, CGI Group Inc., Amazon, Sparx IT Solutions, Accenture, Uber, etc.Where to take Training for Certification: KnowledgeHut has a fascinating training course for those who wants to become a R programmer. It has 22+ hours of instructor-led live training and three self-paced live projects.Who should take the Training (roles) for Certification: Any data analyst, graduate, post graduate student, experienced data analyst or computer science aspirant - who wants to settle as a R programmer or data analyst can opt for this certification course. There is no other prerequisite to appear for this exam. Course fees for Certification: FreeFee for certification: $ 60 (Coursera Plus Monthly)Retake fee for certification: Free6. Oracle MySQL Database Administration Training and Certification (CMDBA)It is another course offered by Oracle for SQL developers. Oracle University designed this course for database administrators who want to validate their skills with developing performance, blending business processes, and accomplishing data processing work. Structured Query Language (SQL) is one of the top database management query languages that allows us to access and manipulate databases. If you want to verify your database skills during a job interview or impress your peers at your workplace then this certification is worth getting. This certification path includes Professional, Specialist, and Developer levels. The candidate should pass the MySQL Database Administrator Certified Professional Exam Part 1 & Part 2 to earn the certification.It comprises of topics likeInstalling MySQLMySQL ArchitectureConfiguring MySQLUser ManagementMySQL SecurityMaintaining a Stable SystemOptimizing Query PerformanceBackup StrategiesConfiguring a Replication TopologyDemand and Benefits: Having an CMDBA certification verifies that the programmer or the aspirant has all the necessary and essential skills required to get a job role as SQL developer. This certification also helps in getting an internship or entry-level jobs in different organizations and firms. The average salary of a certified MySQL DBA or backend developer with this certification is $ 66,470 per annum.Top companies and industries hiring Certified MySQL database administrators are Fiserv, IBM, HCL, Adobe, Microsoft, Apple, Accenture, Collabera, and more.Where to take Training for Certification: KnowledgeHut has a cutting-edge curriculum for those who want to become  MySQL database administrators. It has 16+ hours of instructor-led online lectures and 80+ hours of hands-on lab. Apart from that, this self-paced course has Capstone projects.Who should take the Training (roles) for Certification: Any developer, graduate, post graduate student, experienced developer or computer science aspirant - who wants to pursue a career as a DBA or backend developer or start his/her career in database management or backend software development can opt for this certification course. There is no other prerequisite to appear for this exam or course.Course fees for Certification: $ 255Exam fee for certification: $ 255Retake fee for certification: Aspirants can retake the exam if the exam voucher has a free retake option. If the exam retake option is available, one can opt for the exam after 14 days after the initial attempt.7. CCA Spark and Hadoop DeveloperWith the exponential growth in data, IT firms and organizations have to manage this tremendous amount of data generated. So, many companies are actively looking for Big data and Spark developers who can optimize performance. Big Data is the term used to describe enormous volumes of data. Apache Spark supports data management as it is an open-source centralized analytics engine that handles large-scale data processing.It requires prerequisite knowledge of Scala and Python. This certification also verifies and showcases your skills through Spark and Hadoop projects. Passing this certification course gives you a logo and a license to authenticate your CCA status.It comprises of topics likeLoad data from HDFS for use in Spark applicationsWrite the results back into HDFS using SparkRead and write files in a variety of file formatsPerform standard extract, transform, load (ETL) processes on data using the Spark APIUse metastore tables as an input source or an output sink for Spark applicationsUnderstand the fundamentals of querying datasets in SparkFilter data using SparkWrite queries that calculate aggregate statisticsJoin disparate datasets using SparkProduce ranked or sorted dataSupply command-line options to change your application configuration, such as increasing available memoryDemand and Benefits: Passing the CCA Spark and Hadoop Developer Exam (CCA175) by Cloudera verifies that you have all the essential skills required to get a job as a Hadoop developer and handle Big data projects. The average salary of a certified CCA Spark and Hadoop Developer with this certification is $ 74,200 per annum.Top companies and industries hiring Certified Spark and Hadoop Developers are Primus Global, IBM, Collabera, CorroHealth, Genpact, Xerox, Accenture, and more.Where to take Training for Certification: KnowledgeHut has extensive courses for those who want to become Big Data experts and want to work as Hadoop developers. It has different courses on Big Data Analytics, Apache Storm, Hadoop Administration, Apache Spark & Scala, Big Data with Hadoop, and more.Who should take the Training (roles) for Certification: Any Big Data developer, graduate & post graduate students, Hadoop developer or computer science aspirant - who wants to make a career in Big data development or start his/her career as a Big Data or Hadoop project developer can opt for this certification course. There is no other prerequisite to appear for this exam.Course fees for Certification: $ 295Application fee for certification: $ 295Exam fee for certification: $ 295Retake fee for certification: Within 30 to 60 minutes of exam completion, Cloudera will send a scorecard mail with a pass or fail status. If the candidate fails the exam, then they have to wait for 30 days for another try.  Cloudera gives additional discounts on retakes.ConclusionWhether you are starting your career as a coder or are an experienced programmer looking to grow in the industry, having a certification and proper knowledge of any popular programming language is one of the most proven ways to elevate your programming career.  We trust that this article will help you to understand your area of interest. Choose the programming language you wish to make a career in, wisely. This would also depend on your pre-existing knowledge. If you aren't sure which resource will be more informative for doing your certification as per your area of interest, KnowledgeHut (https://www.knowledgehut.com/) has all the support and expert trainers who can guide you, from start to finish—that is in clearing the exam and helping you gain sound knowledge of your preferred subject.Receiving a programming certification is an added bonus which will make you stand out from the rest. Proper training from an institute such as KnowledgeHut will help you gain skills that are relevant and in demand in the industry.
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Top-Paying Programming Certifications for 2021

Programming is at the core of software development... Read More

Top IT Certifications for Java Developers in 2021

Programming languages are at the heart of computer science and software development. They help developers write efficient code for developing digital solutions through applications and websites. Programming helps in automating, maintaining, assembling, and measuring the processed data.  Java is one such popular programming language. It is a robust, high-level, general-purpose, pure object-oriented programming language developed by Sun Microsystems (now part of Oracle). James Gosling is the creator of Java which was earlier named Oak. Java ranks high in the top programming languages list and is one of the most extensively used software development platforms. It is well suited to developing software solutions and other innovative projects and simulations.  Since Oracle acquired Sun Microsystems in January 2010, they have been responsible for the further development of the Java platform. All the mentioned top Java certifications verify a specific expertise level and knowledge of the Java platform highlighting particular domains. Without further due, let us now dig into the top 5 Java certifications and their details. About Oracle’s Java CertificationsOrganizations and industries consider certifications as proof of knowledge, especially when the certifications are from a recognized body or firm. Aspirants and professionals looking for possibilities in the Java development domain can avail of a plethora of benefits through the certifications mentioned in this article. There are six levels of Oracle Java Certification based on job roles, skills, and responsibilities: Oracle Certified Junior Associate (OCJA) Oracle Certified Associate (OCA) Oracle Certified Professional (OCP) Oracle Certified Specialist (OCS) Oracle Certified Expert (OCE) Oracle Certified Master (OCM) Among them, the top five Java certifications that are in demand for the year 2021 are – 1. Oracle Certified Associate Java Programmer OCAJPIt is the preliminary and most basic certification provided by Oracle for Java. It helps you gain fundamental understanding of Java programming and build a foundation in Java and other general programming concepts. There are two subcategories in this certification – OCAJP Java Standard Edition 8 (OCAJP 8) and  OCAJP Java Standard Edition 11 (OCAJP 11) OCAJP8 comprises of topics like  Creating and Using Arrays Handling Exceptions Java Basics Using Loop Constructs Using Operators and Decision Constructs Working with Inheritance Working with Java Data Types Working with Methods and Encapsulation Working with Selected classes from the Java API OCAJP11 comprises of topics like Applying Encapsulation Creating and Using Methods Creating Simple Java Programs Describing and Using Objects and Classes Handling Exceptions Java Technology and the Java Development Environment Programming Abstractly Through Interfaces Reusing Implementations Through Inheritance Understanding Modules Using Operators and Decision Constructs Working with Java Arrays Working with Java Primitive Data Types and String APIs Demand and Benefits: Having an OCAJP certification verifies that the programmer or the aspirant has all the necessary and essential skills to become an expert Java developer. This certification also helps in getting an internship or entry-level jobs in different organizations. The entry-level salary of a junior Java developer with this certification is $ 3670 per annum; when the candidate gathers two to three years of experience, the average salary hikes to $ 5430 annually.   (Source: Glassdoor) Top companies and industries hiring Oracle Certified Associate Java Programmers are Smart Monitor Pvt. Ltd., Fiserv, Micron Semiconductor Asia Pvt. Ltd., and more. Where to take Training for Certification: KnowledgeHut has a fascinating course, designed for beginners in Java programming. It offers hands-on learning with 40 hours of instructor-led online lectures. Apart from that, Oracle also provides exam vouchers for this certification course. Who should take the Training (roles) for Certification: Any programmer or computer science aspirant - who wants to be a Java developer or start his/her career as a Java programmer can opt for this certification course. There is no other prerequisite to appear for this exam. Course fees for Certification:  $ 245 Application fee for certification: $ 245 Exam fee for certification: $ 245 Retake fee for certification: Aspirants can retake the exam if the exam voucher has a free retake option. If the exam retake option is available, one can opt for the exam after 14 days. 2) Oracle Certified Professional Java Programmer OCPJPIt is a professional-level certification program provided by Oracle for Java developers. It verifies the candidates' knowledge and professional expertise. Using this certification, aspirants and other hard-core Java programmers can distinguish themselves from those Java professionals who are not certified. It comes in the second level of Oracle's Java Certification list. There are two subcategories of this certification – OCPJP Java Standard Edition 8 (OCPJP 8) and  OCPJP Java Standard Edition 11 (OCPJP 11) This certification is preferable if someone has professional experience with Java or has already worked for some years in Java technology.  OCPJP8 comprises of topics like: Advanced Class Design Building Database Applications with JDBC Concurrency Exceptions and Assertions Generics and Collections Java Class Design Java File I/O (NIO.2) Java I/O Fundamentals Java Stream API Lambda Built-in Functional Interfaces Localization Use Java SE 8 Date/Time API OCPJP11 comprises of topics like: Annotations Built-in Functional Interfaces Concurrency Database Applications with JDBC Exception Handling and Assertions Functional Interface and Lambda Expressions Generics and Collections I/O (Fundamentals and NIO.2) Java Fundamentals Java Interfaces Java Stream API Lambda Operations on Streams Localization Migration to a Modular Application Parallel Systems Secure Coding in Java SE Application Services in a Modular ApplicationDemand and Benefits: Once you are a certified Professional Java Programmer (OCPJP), you can switch to better salary slabs and organizations that hire senior Java developers. This certification also helps in getting internal promotions as Java developers in different organizations and firms. The average salary of a certified professional Java developer is $ 5300 - $ 8610 per annum. Top companies and industries hiring Oracle Certified Professional Java Programmers are Oracle, Capgemini, Morgan Stanley, Chetu, Mphasis, etc. Where to take Training for Certification: KnowledgeHut has a fascinating course opportunity for Java developers and professionals for learning intermediate Java topics. It has hands-on learning with 32 hours of instructor-led online lectures. Apart from that, Oracle also provides exam vouchers for this certification course. Who should take the Training (roles) for Certification: Any Java programmer who wants to apply for a senior Java developer's role or start his/her career as a Java programmer can opt for this professional certification course. There is no other prerequisite to appear for this exam. Course fees for Certification: $ 245 Application fee for certification: $ 245 Exam fee for certification: $ 245 Retake fee for certification: Aspirants can retake the exam if the exam voucher has a free retake option. If the exam retake option is available, one can opt for the exam after 14 days.3. Oracle Certified Expert - Web Component Developer OCEWCDIt is an intermediate-level course offered by Oracle for Java web developers. The Oracle Certified Expert Web Component Developer is for web developers who want to write web applications using Java. Through this course, they can prove their expertise in developing web apps using JSP and Servlet technologies. It verifies your expertise in Servlet 3.0 and helps in creating dynamic Web content and Web services.  It comprises of topics like Understanding Java EE Architecture Managing Persistence using JPA entities and Bean Validation Implementing business logic using EJBs Using Java Message Service API Implement SOAP Services using JAX-WS and JAXB APIs Creating Java Web Applications using Servlets and JSPs Implementing REST Services using JAX-RS API Creating Java Applications using WebSockets Developing Web Applications using JSFs Securing Java EE 7 Applications Using CDI Beans Demand and Benefits: You can opt for this course once you are a certified Professional Java Programmer (OCPJP) or certified associated Java programmer. This certification course will help you get a job in organizations having rigorous work in Servlet, Java Server Page, JSF, and web microservices. The average salary of a certified professional Java developer is $ 8,850 - $ 11,930 per annum. Top companies and industries hiring Oracle Certified Web Component Developers are Amdocs, IBM, Oracle, Capgemini, SAP, Shine, Byjus, etc. Where to take Training for Certification: KnowledgeHut has a fascinating course opportunity for Java web developers (. It has hands-on learning with instructor-led online lectures and live projects. Apart from this, you can get online training from Oracle University as wellWho should take the Training (roles) for Certification: Any programmer or computer science aspirant who wants to settle as a Java web developer or start his/her career as a Java web content and web service developer can opt for this certification course. As a prerequisite, you have to pass the OCPJP to opt for this certification.  Course fees for Certification:  $ 245 Application fee for certification: $ 245 Exam fee for certification: $ 245 Retake fee for certification: Aspirants can retake the exam if the exam voucher has a free retake option. If the exam retake option is available, one can opt for the exam after 14 days. 4. Oracle Certified Professional Java Application Developer (OCPJAD)It is an advanced-level course offered by Oracle for Java application developers. The Oracle Certified Professional Java Application Developer (OCPJAD) is for software developers who want to write different applications and automation tools using Java. Through this course, developers can prove their expertise and abilities to develop and deploy applications through Java Enterprise Edition 7. OCPJAD is ideal for desktop application developers, frontend + backend app developers, software engineers, and application architects. It comprises of topics like Creating Batch API Developing CDI Beans Concepts of Concurrency Creating Java Applications with Web-Sockets Creating Java Web Applications with JSPs Developing Java Web Applications with Servlets Developing Web Applications with JSFs Implementing Business Logic with EJBs Performing REST Services with JAX-RS API Implementing SOAP Services with JAX-WS and JAXB APIs Java EE 7 system architecture Java EE 7 Security Techniques Java Message Service API Managing Persistence with JPA Entities and Bean-ValidationDemand and Benefits: Once you pass the Certified Professional Java Application Developer (OCPJAD), you can seek employment in organizations that work on critical application development and command higher salaries. This professional certification will give you exposure to develop APIs, implementing business logic using EJBs, create message services, and apply security systems. The average salary of a certified professional application developer is $ 9,800 - $ 13,910 per annum. Top companies and industries hiring Oracle Certified Professional Java Programmers are Oracle, Capgemini, NetSuite Inc., SAP, Cognizant, etc. Where to take Training for Certification: KnowledgeHut has a fascinating course opportunity with hands-on learning exposure and live projects. Apart from this, you can get online training from Oracle University as well. Who should take the Training (roles) for Certification: Any Java developer or full-stack application developer who wants to become a certified Java application developer or move to the specialized sector of API development using REST, security architect or software engineer can opt for this certification course. As a prerequisite, you should have passed the OCAJP certification.  Course fees for Certification:  $ 245 Application fee for certification: $ 245 Exam fee for certification: $ 245 Retake fee for certification: Aspirants can retake the exam if the exam voucher has a free retake option. If the exam retake option is available, one can opt for the exam after 14 days.5. Oracle Certified Master Java Enterprise Architect (OCMJEA)Large-scale development and service firms have different critical applications and systems to develop, manage, and maintain. Such systems require full-stack developers and specialized professionals with proven skills. Such organizations and MNCs hire only highly experienced professionals and specialists who can supervise the extensive operation, architect the defects, and define & develop systems as per requirements. The Oracle Certified Master Java Enterprise Architect (OCMJEA) is one of the most prestigious Java certifications a Java developer can achieve.  It comprises of topics like Architect Enterprise Applications through Java EE Developing Applications for the Java EE 6 Developing Applications for the Java EE 7 Developing Applications with Java EE 6 on WebLogic Server 12c Java Design Patterns Java EE 6: Develop Business Components with JMS & EJBs Java EE 6: Develop Database Applications with JPA Java EE 6: Develop Web Services with JAX-WS & JAX-RS Java EE 7: New Features Java SE 7: Develop Rich Client Applications Java SE 8: Programming Java SE 8 Fundamentals Object-Oriented Analysis and Design Using UML, etc. Demand and Benefits: Once you pass the Certified Master Java Enterprise Architect course, you get the essential skills and understanding of how to execute application development on an enterprise level. Such an experienced professional gains full-stack Java development skills. They get hired with the responsibility of undertaking Java projects from the very start to their final delivery. Many Certified Master Java Enterprise Architects work as managers or senior managerial roles in industries and firms. The average salary of a certified professional application developer is $ 14,000 - $ 19,210 per annum. Top companies and industries hiring Oracle Certified Professional Java Programmers are IBM, Oracle, Microsoft, HCL, Capgemini, NetSuite Inc., SAP, Cognizant, Atlassian, etc. Where to take Training for Certification: KnowledgeHut has a fascinating Java course  with hands-on learning exposure and a live project. Apart from that, a professional can train himself through ILT (Instructor-Led-in-Class), Learning Subscription, TOD (Training on Demand), LVC (Live Virtual Class), or classes delivered by Oracle Authorized Education Center . Other Oracle Authorized Partner Oracle Academy, Oracle University Training Center, or Oracle Workforce Development Program can also benefit and train you in this course.  Who should take the Training (roles) for Certification: Any Java developer or full-stack application developer who wants to move to a senior role in the enterprise-level or want to become a manager or team lead can opt for this certification course. As a prerequisite, you need to have passed the OCPJP certification.  Course fees for Certification:  $248 Application fee for certification: $ 248 Exam fee for certification: $ 248 Retake fee for certification: Aspirants can retake the exam if the exam voucher has a free retake option. If the exam retake option is available, one can opt for the exam after 14 days. Java is an evergreen programming language and is here to stay, at least for the next couple of decades. A vast community of professionals and entry-level aspirants enjoy the benefit of this pure object-oriented, class-based, multi-paradigm, high-level programming language. Java Certification requires proper training.KnowledgeHut has the required infrastructure and quality education faculty, both online and offline, to train aspirants for these Oracle Certifications. It caters to well-structured, industry-oriented Java certification training, explicitly designed to serve the candidates according to the latest industry needs. Getting proper training from KnowledgeHut will help aspirants master core knowledge of Java plus equip themselves with the industry standards to manage large projects. 
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Top IT Certifications for Java Developers in 2021

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