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What is pip, Getting Started with Python pip

Pip is a package manager for Python that allows you to install additional libraries and packages that are not part of the standard Python library such as the ones found in the Python Package Index. It is a replacement for easy install. If your version of Python is 2.7.9 (or greater) or Python 3.4 (or greater), then PIP comes pre-installed with Python, in other cases you will have to install it separately. PIP is a recursive acronym for “Preferred Installer Program” or “PIP Installs Packages”. It is a command-line utility that installs, reinstalls, or uninstalls PyPI packages with one simple command: pip. You may be familiar with the term package manager if you have used other languages like Ruby uses Gem, JavaScript uses npm for package management, and .NET uses NuGet. Pip has become the standard package manager for Python. The Python installer installs pip automatically, so it is ready for you to use, unless you have installed an older version of Python. You can also verify if pip is available on your Python version by running the command below:On running the command mentioned above, a similar output should be displayed which will show the pip version, along with the location and version of Python. If you are using an older version of Python, the pip version will not be displayed. Then you can install it separately. You can download pip from the following link: https://pypi.org/project/pip/ Installing pip in PythonFor WindowsFollow the instructions to install pip in Python on Windows 7, Windows 8.1, and Windows 10: Download get-pip.py installer script from https://bootstrap.pypa.io/get-pip.py. For Python 3.2, download from https://bootstrap.pypa.io/3.2/get-pip.py. After that, right-click on the link and select Save As and save it to any safe location on your computer. Open Command Prompt and navigate to the get-pip.py file where you saved it previously. Run the command: python get-pip.py For Mac Modern Mac systems have Python and pip pre-installed but the version of Python tends to be outdated and not the best choice for serious programming in Python. So, it’s highly recommended that you install a more updated version of Python and PIP. If you want to use the pre-installed Python application but don’t have PIP available, you can install PIP with the following commands in Terminal:sudo easy_install pipIf you want to install an updated version of Python, then you can use Homebrew. Installing Python with Homebrew requires a single command:brew install pythonInstalling Python with Homebrew will give you the latest version which should come packaged with PIP but if PIP is unavailable, you can re-link Python using the following commands in Terminal:brew unlink python && brew link pythonFor Linux If your Linux distribution came with Python pre-installed, using your system’s package manager you will be able to install PIP. This is preferable since pre-installed versions of Python do not work well with the get-pip.py script used on Windows and Mac. Given below are the commands you should run in order to install pip in your system depending on the version of Python you are using:Advanced Package Tool (Python 2.x):sudo apt-get install python-pip pacman Package Manager (Python 2.x):sudo pacman -S python2-pip Yum Package Manager (Python 2.x):sudo yum upgrade python-setuptools  sudo yum install python-pip python-wheel Dandified Yum (Python 2.x):sudo dnf upgrade python-setuptools  sudo dnf install python-pip python-wheel Zypper Package Manager (Python 2.x):sudo zypper install python-pip python-setuptools python-wheel Advanced Package Tool (Python 3.x): sudo apt-get install python3-pip pacman Package Manager (Python 3.x): sudo pacman -S python-pip Yum Package Manager (Python 3.x): sudo yum install python3 python3-wheel Dandified Yum (Python 3.x): sudo dnf install python3 python3-wheel Zypper Package Manager (Python 3.x): sudo zypper install python3-pip python3-setuptools python3-wheel For Raspberry Pi You are most likely running Raspbian if you are a Raspberry Pi user as it is the official operating system designated and provided by the Raspberry Pi Foundation. PIP comes pre-installed on with Raspbian Jessie. It is one of the biggest reasons to upgrade to Raspbian Jessie instead of using Raspbian Wheezy or Raspbian Jessie Lite. If you are using an older version of Raspbian, you can still manually install PIP. Given below are the commands you should run in order to install pip on your system depending on the version of Python you are using: On Python 2.x:sudo apt-get install python-pipOn Python 3.x:sudo apt-get install python3-pipRaspbian users, working with Python 2.x must use pip while Python 3.x users must use pip3 while running PIP commands.For Ubuntusudo apt-get install python-pipFor Fedorasudo yum install python-pipHow to use PIP and PyPI? PyPI - the Python Package Index After PIP is installed, we need to find a package to install. Packages are usually installed from the repository of software for the Python programming language which is the Python Package Index.Set environment variable for PIP:You won’t have to reference the pip install directory again and again if you set an environment variable.Set: (default = C:\Python27\Scripts) in your Windows/Linux “PATH” environment variable.Getting Started with PIP Now that we know what PIP is and have successfully installed it on our computer, let's get started on how to use it: Commands in PIP Enter pip in the command terminal and it will show the following output on the screen. Usage:pip [options] Commands:InstallInstall packagesDownloadDownload packagesuninstallUninstall packagesunzipUnzip individual packagesbundleCreate pybundleshelpShow help for commandsconfigManage local and global configurationfreezeOutput installed packages in required formatlistList installed packageswheelBuild wheels from your requirementshashCompute hashes of package archivescompletionA helper command used for command completioncheckVerify installed packages have compatible dependenciesshowShow information about installed packagessearchSearch PyPI for packageszipZip individual packagesCommonly used commands in pip are install, upgrade or uninstall. General Options: -h, --help: Shows help. --isolated: To run pip in an isolated mode by ignoring environment variables and user configuration. -v, --verbose: Give more output. Option is additive, and can be used up to 3 times. -V, --version: Show version and exit. -q, --quiet: Give less output. Option is additive, and can be used up to 3 times (corresponding to WARNING, ERROR, and CRITICAL logging levels). --proxy: Specify a proxy in the form [user:passwd@]proxy.server:port. --trusted-host: Mark this host as trusted, even though it does not have valid or any HTTPS. --cert: Path to alternate CA bundle. --client-cert: Path to SSL client certificate, a single file containing the private key and the certificate in PEM format. --retries: Maximum number of retries each connection should attempt(5 times by default). --timeout: Set the socket timeout(15 seconds by default). --exists-action: Default action when a path already exists: (s)witch,(i)gnore, (w)ipe, (b)ackup, (a)bort). --cache-dir: Store the cache data in <dir>.--no-cache-dir: Disable the cache. --disable-pip-version-check: Don't periodically check PyPI to determine whether a new version of pip is available for download. Implied with --no-index. Finding required packages:To search any package, i.e. Flask command will be as shown below: pip search Flask The following output will be displayed with all packages and description: Flask-Cache - Adds cache support to your Flask applicationFlask-SeaSurf - An update CSRF extension for FlaskFlask-Admin - Simple and extensible admin interface framework for FlaskFlask-Security - Simple security for Flask appsFlask - A microframework based on Werkzeug, Jinja2 and good intentions Installing a package: To install the required package, in our case it is Flask, enter the following command : pip install Flask Pip – Show information To check information about the newly installed packages enter: pip show Flask  --- Name: Flask  Version: 0.10.1  Location: /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages  Requires: Werkzeug, Jinja2, itsdangerousUninstalling a package:To uninstall any package installed by PIP, enter the command given below. pip uninstall Flask Uninstalling Flask: ... ..... Proceed (y/n)?  Successfully uninstalled Flask That’s all. The PIP application has been uninstalled. How to Upgrade PIP for Python Although PIP application doesn’t receive updates very often, it’s still important to keep the application up to date with the newer versions because there may be important fixes to bugs, compatibility, and security holes. Fortunately, upgrading to the latest versions of PIP is very fast and simple. On Windows python -m pip install -U pip On Mac, Linux, or Raspberry Pi pip install -U pip Certain versions of Linux and Raspberry Pi, pip3 needs to be entered instead of pip. Using Requirement FilesThe pip install command always installs the latest published version of a package, but you should install the particular version that suits your code. You would want to create a specification of the dependencies and versions that you have used while developing and running your application, so that there are no surprises when you use the application in production. Requirement files allow you to specify exactly the packages and versions that should be installed on your system. Executing pip help shows that there is a freeze command that displays the installed packages in requirements format. This command can be used to redirect the output to a file to generate a requirements file: The freeze command is used to dump all the packages and their versions to a standard output, so as to redirect the output to a file that can be used to install the exact requirements into another system. The general convention is to name this file requirements.txt, but it is completely up to you to name it whatever you want. If you want to replicate the environment in another system, run pip install specifying the requirements file using the -r switch:The versions listed in requirements.txt will match those of the packages: $ pip list Package    Version  ----------        ----------  certifi2018.11.29  chardet3.0.4  idna   2.8  pip    19.0.1  requests     2.21.0  setuptools  40.6.2  urllib31.24.1 You may submit the requirements.txt file to source control and can use it to create the exact environment in other machines. Fine-Tuning Requirements The problem with hardcoding the versions of your packages and their dependencies is that the packages receive frequent updates with bug and security fixes, and you probably want to update to them as soon as they are published. The requirements file format gives you a bit of flexibility to ensure that the packages are up to date by allowing you to enter dependency versions using logical operators, although specifying the base versions of a package. Make the following changes by opening the requirements.txt file in your editor: certifi>=2018.11.29  chardet>=3.0.4  idna>=2.8  requests>=2.21.0  urllib3>=1.24.1 Change the logical operator to >= to install an exact or greater version that has been published. While you set a new environment using the requirments.txt file, pip searches for the latest version that supports the requirement and installs it. The packages in your requirements file can be updated by running the install command with the --upgrade switch: In this case nothing was upgraded because latest versions have already been installed, but if a new version was published for a listed package, then the package would’ve been upgraded. New versions can introduce changes that fix bugs and will make or break your application. In order to fine-tune your requirements, the requirements file syntax supports additional version specifiers. Let us assume that a new version 3.0 of requests is published but it breaks your application as it introduces an incompatible change. In such a case, the requirements file can be modified to prevent 3.0 or higher versions from being installed: certifi>=2018.11.29 chardet>=3.0.4 idna>=2.8 requests>=2.21.0, <3.0 urllib3>=1.24.1Changing the version specifier for the requests package ensures that only the versions which are less than 3.0 get installed. Production vs Development DependenciesAll packages which are installed during the development of your applications are not going to be application dependencies. During the development process, there are certain packages published to PyPI that are development tools or libraries that can be useful to you. For example, you would require a unit test framework in order to unit test your application. Pytest is a popular framework for unit testing. You would want to install the unit testing framework in your development environment, but not in your production environment because it is not an application dependency. To set up a development environment, you need to create a second requirements file (requirements_file.txt) to list additional tools: # In requirements_file.txt  pytest>=4.2.0 To do this, you need to install both requirement files using pip: requirements.txt and requirements_file.txt. Pip allows for specifying additional parameters within a single requirements file. The requirements_file.txt can also be modified to install the requirements from the production requirements.txt file: # In requirements_file.txt  -r requirements.txt  pytest>=4.2.0 Notice that the exact same -r switch is being used in order to install the production requirements.txt file. The file format of the requirements file allows you to specify additional arguments right on a requirements file. Alternatives to pipPip is an essential tool for all Pythonistas which is used in developing many applications and projects for package management. This article gives you the basics of Pip for Python but the Python community is very active in providing great tools and libraries for developers using other applications as well. These include alternatives to pip that try to improve and simplify package management. Here are some package management tools other than pip which are available for Python: CondaPoetryPipenvSummaryBy now you know that pip is a package manager for Python that is used in many projects to manage dependencies. It is included with the Python installer, hence it is essential for all Python programmers to know how to use it. Although Python provides a wide range of standard libraries which are suitable for developing all types of applications, the active Python community provides more sets of tools and libraries that speed up the development process of a Python application. In this article, we have covered: The process of installing pip in Python Setting an environment variable for pip Commonly used commands in pip and their functions Finding and installing new packages using pip with requirement files in the command line and getting information about the newly installed package How to uninstall a package in pip? In addition to the above topics we have also covered the importance of keeping dependencies updated and a few alternatives to pip that can help managing those dependencies. To gain more knowledge about Python tips and tricks, check our Python tutorial and get a good hold over coding in Python by joining the Python certification course. 
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What is pip, Getting Started with Python pip

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What is pip, Getting Started with Python pip

Pip is a package manager for Python that allows you to install additional libraries and packages that are not part of the standard Python library such as the ones found in the Python Package Index. It is a replacement for easy install. If your version of Python is 2.7.9 (or greater) or Python 3.4 (or greater), then PIP comes pre-installed with Python, in other cases you will have to install it separately. 

PIP is a recursive acronym for “Preferred Installer Program” or “PIP Installs Packages”. It is a command-line utility that installs, reinstalls, or uninstalls PyPI packages with one simple command: pip. You may be familiar with the term package manager if you have used other languages like Ruby uses Gem, JavaScript uses npm for package management, and .NET uses NuGet. Pip has become the standard package manager for Python. 

The Python installer installs pip automatically, so it is ready for you to use, unless you have installed an older version of Python. You can also verify if pip is available on your Python version by running the command below:

PIP in Python

On running the command mentioned above, a similar output should be displayed which will show the pip version, along with the location and version of Python. If you are using an older version of Python, the pip version will not be displayed. Then you can install it separately. 

You can download pip from the following link:
https://pypi.org/project/pip/ 

Installing pip in Python

For Windows

Follow the instructions to install pip in Python on Windows 7, Windows 8.1, and Windows 10: 

For Mac 

Modern Mac systems have Python and pip pre-installed but the version of Python tends to be outdated and not the best choice for serious programming in Python. So, it’s highly recommended that you install a more updated version of Python and PIP. 

If you want to use the pre-installed Python application but don’t have PIP available, you can install PIP with the following commands in Terminal:

sudo easy_install pip

If you want to install an updated version of Python, then you can use Homebrew. Installing Python with Homebrew requires a single command:

brew install python

Installing Python with Homebrew will give you the latest version which should come packaged with PIP but if PIP is unavailable, you can re-link Python using the following commands in Terminal:

brew unlink python && brew link python

For Linux 

If your Linux distribution came with Python pre-installed, using your system’s package manager you will be able to install PIP. This is preferable since pre-installed versions of Python do not work well with the get-pip.py script used on Windows and Mac. Given below are the commands you should run in order to install pip in your system depending on the version of Python you are using:

Advanced Package Tool (Python 2.x):

sudo apt-get install python-pip 

pacman Package Manager (Python 2.x):

sudo pacman -S python2-pip 

Yum Package Manager (Python 2.x):

sudo yum upgrade python-setuptools 
sudo yum install python-pip python-wheel 

Dandified Yum (Python 2.x):

sudo dnf upgrade python-setuptools 
sudo dnf install python-pip python-wheel 

Zypper Package Manager (Python 2.x):

sudo zypper install python-pip python-setuptools python-wheel 

Advanced Package Tool (Python 3.x): 

sudo apt-get install python3-pip 

pacman Package Manager (Python 3.x): 

sudo pacman -S python-pip 

Yum Package Manager (Python 3.x): 

sudo yum install python3 python3-wheel 

Dandified Yum (Python 3.x): 

sudo dnf install python3 python3-wheel 

Zypper Package Manager (Python 3.x): 

sudo zypper install python3-pip python3-setuptools python3-wheel 

For Raspberry Pi 

You are most likely running Raspbian if you are a Raspberry Pi user as it is the official operating system designated and provided by the Raspberry Pi Foundation. PIP comes pre-installed on with Raspbian Jessie. It is one of the biggest reasons to upgrade to Raspbian Jessie instead of using Raspbian Wheezy or Raspbian Jessie Lite. If you are using an older version of Raspbian, you can still manually install PIP. Given below are the commands you should run in order to install pip on your system depending on the version of Python you are using: 

On Python 2.x:

sudo apt-get install python-pip

On Python 3.x:

sudo apt-get install python3-pip

Raspbian users, working with Python 2.x must use pip while Python 3.x users must use pip3 while running PIP commands.

For Ubuntu

sudo apt-get install python-pip

For Fedora

sudo yum install python-pip

How to use PIP and PyPI? 

PyPI - the Python Package Index 

After PIP is installed, we need to find a package to install. Packages are usually installed from the repository of software for the Python programming language which is the Python Package Index.

Set environment variable for PIP:

You won’t have to reference the pip install directory again and again if you set an environment variable.

Set: (default = C:\Python27\Scripts) in your Windows/Linux “PATH” environment variable.

Getting Started with PIP 

Now that we know what PIP is and have successfully installed it on our computer, let's get started on how to use it: 

Commands in PIP 

Enter pip in the command terminal and it will show the following output on the screen. 

Usage:
pip [options] 

Commands:

InstallInstall packages
DownloadDownload packages
uninstallUninstall packages
unzipUnzip individual packages
bundleCreate pybundles
helpShow help for commands
configManage local and global configuration
freeze
Output installed packages in required format
listList installed packages
wheelBuild wheels from your requirements
hashCompute hashes of package archives
completionA helper command used for command completion
checkVerify installed packages have compatible dependencies
showShow information about installed packages
searchSearch PyPI for packages
zipZip individual packages

Commonly used commands in pip are install, upgrade or uninstall. 

General Options: 

-h, --help: Shows help. 

--isolated: To run pip in an isolated mode by ignoring environment variables and user configuration. 

-v, --verbose: Give more output. Option is additive, and can be used up to 3 times. 

-V, --version: Show version and exit. 

-q, --quiet: Give less output. Option is additive, and can be used up to 3 times (corresponding to WARNING, ERROR, and CRITICAL logging levels). 

--proxy: Specify a proxy in the form [user:passwd@]proxy.server:port. 

--trusted-host: Mark this host as trusted, even though it does not have valid or any HTTPS. 

--certPath to alternate CA bundle. 

--client-cert: Path to SSL client certificate, a single file containing the private key and the certificate in PEM format. 

--retries: Maximum number of retries each connection should attempt(5 times by default). 

--timeout: Set the socket timeout(15 seconds by default). 

--exists-action: Default action when a path already exists: (s)witch,(i)gnore, (w)ipe, (b)ackup, (a)bort). 

--cache-dir: Store the cache data in <dir>.

--no-cache-dir: Disable the cache. 

--disable-pip-version-check: Don't periodically check PyPI to determine whether a new version of pip is available for download. Implied with --no-index. 

Finding required packages:

To search any package, i.e. Flask command will be as shown below: pip search Flask 

The following output will be displayed with all packages and description: 

Flask-Cache - Adds cache support to your Flask application
Flask-SeaSurf - An update CSRF extension for Flask
Flask-Admin - Simple and extensible admin interface framework for Flask
Flask-Security - Simple security for Flask apps
Flask - A microframework based on Werkzeug, Jinja2 and good intentions 

Installing a package: 

To install the required package, in our case it is Flask, enter the following command : 

pip install Flask 

Pip – Show information 

To check information about the newly installed packages enter: 

pip show Flask 
--- 
Name: Flask 
Version: 0.10.1 
Location: /usr/local/lib/python2.7/dist-packages 
Requires: Werkzeug, Jinja2, itsdangerous

Uninstalling a package:

To uninstall any package installed by PIP, enter the command given below. 

pip uninstall Flask
Uninstalling Flask:
...
.....
Proceed (y/n)? 
Successfully uninstalled Flask 

That’s all. The PIP application has been uninstalled. 

How to Upgrade PIP for Python 

Although PIP application doesn’t receive updates very often, it’s still important to keep the application up to date with the newer versions because there may be important fixes to bugs, compatibility, and security holes. Fortunately, upgrading to the latest versions of PIP is very fast and simple. 

On Windows 

python -m pip install -U pip 

On Mac, Linux, or Raspberry Pi 

pip install -U pip 

Certain versions of Linux and Raspberry Pi, pip3 needs to be entered instead of pip. 

Using Requirement Files

The pip install command always installs the latest published version of a package, but you should install the particular version that suits your code. 

You would want to create a specification of the dependencies and versions that you have used while developing and running your application, so that there are no surprises when you use the application in production. 

Requirement files allow you to specify exactly the packages and versions that should be installed on your system. Executing pip help shows that there is a freeze command that displays the installed packages in requirements format. This command can be used to redirect the output to a file to generate a requirements file: 

pip install Requirements in Python

The freeze command is used to dump all the packages and their versions to a standard output, so as to redirect the output to a file that can be used to install the exact requirements into another system. The general convention is to name this file requirements.txt, but it is completely up to you to name it whatever you want. 

If you want to replicate the environment in another system, run pip install specifying the requirements file using the -r switch:

The versions listed in requirements.txt will match those of the packages: 

$ pip list 

Package    Version 
----------        ---------- 
certifi2018.11.29 
chardet3.0.4 
idna   2.8 
pip    19.0.1 
requests     2.21.0 
setuptools  40.6.2 
urllib31.24.1 

You may submit the requirements.txt file to source control and can use it to create the exact environment in other machines. 

Fine-Tuning Requirements 

The problem with hardcoding the versions of your packages and their dependencies is that the packages receive frequent updates with bug and security fixes, and you probably want to update to them as soon as they are published. 

The requirements file format gives you a bit of flexibility to ensure that the packages are up to date by allowing you to enter dependency versions using logical operators, although specifying the base versions of a package. 

Make the following changes by opening the requirements.txt file in your editor: 

certifi>=2018.11.29 
chardet>=3.0.4 
idna>=2.8 
requests>=2.21.0 
urllib3>=1.24.1 

Change the logical operator to >= to install an exact or greater version that has been published. While you set a new environment using the requirments.txt file, pip searches for the latest version that supports the requirement and installs it. The packages in your requirements file can be updated by running the install command with the --upgrade switch: 

Fine-Tuning Requirements in Python

In this case nothing was upgraded because latest versions have already been installed, but if a new version was published for a listed package, then the package would’ve been upgraded. 

New versions can introduce changes that fix bugs and will make or break your application. In order to fine-tune your requirements, the requirements file syntax supports additional version specifiers. 

Let us assume that a new version 3.0 of requests is published but it breaks your application as it introduces an incompatible change. In such a case, the requirements file can be modified to prevent 3.0 or higher versions from being installed: 

certifi>=2018.11.29
chardet>=3.0.4
idna>=2.8
requests>=2.21.0, <3.0
urllib3>=1.24.1

Changing the version specifier for the requests package ensures that only the versions which are less than 3.0 get installed. 

Production vs Development Dependencies

All packages which are installed during the development of your applications are not going to be application dependencies. During the development process, there are certain packages published to PyPI that are development tools or libraries that can be useful to you. 

For example, you would require a unit test framework in order to unit test your application. Pytest is a popular framework for unit testing. You would want to install the unit testing framework in your development environment, but not in your production environment because it is not an application dependency. 

To set up a development environment, you need to create a second requirements file (requirements_file.txt) to list additional tools: 

# In requirements_file.txt 
pytest>=4.2.0 

To do this, you need to install both requirement files using pip: requirements.txt and requirements_file.txt. Pip allows for specifying additional parameters within a single requirements file. The requirements_file.txt can also be modified to install the requirements from the production requirements.txt file: 

# In requirements_file.txt 
-r requirements.txt 
pytest>=4.2.0 

Notice that the exact same -r switch is being used in order to install the production requirements.txt file. The file format of the requirements file allows you to specify additional arguments right on a requirements file. 

Alternatives to pip

Pip is an essential tool for all Pythonistas which is used in developing many applications and projects for package management. This article gives you the basics of Pip for Python but the Python community is very active in providing great tools and libraries for developers using other applications as well. These include alternatives to pip that try to improve and simplify package management. 

Here are some package management tools other than pip which are available for Python: 

  • Conda
  • Poetry
  • Pipenv

Summary

By now you know that pip is a package manager for Python that is used in many projects to manage dependencies. It is included with the Python installer, hence it is essential for all Python programmers to know how to use it. 

Although Python provides a wide range of standard libraries which are suitable for developing all types of applications, the active Python community provides more sets of tools and libraries that speed up the development process of a Python application. 

In this article, we have covered: 

  • The process of installing pip in Python 
  • Setting an environment variable for pip 
  • Commonly used commands in pip and their functions 
  • Finding and installing new packages using pip with requirement files in the command line and getting information about the newly installed package 
  • How to uninstall a package in pip? 

In addition to the above topics we have also covered the importance of keeping dependencies updated and a few alternatives to pip that can help managing those dependencies. To gain more knowledge about Python tips and tricks, check our Python tutorial and get a good hold over coding in Python by joining the Python certification course

Priyankur

Priyankur Sarkar

Data Science Enthusiast

Priyankur Sarkar loves to play with data and get insightful results out of it, then turn those data insights and results in business growth. He is an electronics engineer with a versatile experience as an individual contributor and leading teams, and has actively worked towards building Machine Learning capabilities for organizations.

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We will briefly talk about Scala and Kotlin separately and talk about their application before moving forward to looking at the differences, advantages, and disadvantages of both and finally have you decide which one of these two suits your requirements. User’s requirement Before we begin, here is a question for the readers, ‘What are you looking for in the next programming language that you will use?’ It is an obvious question because the programming purposes drive the actual basis and need of developing a language. Do you need a language that strives to better Java or use a language that lets you do things that aren’t possible in Java? If it is the first reason, then Scala might be the best one for you, otherwise, it is a simplified programming language like Kotlin. Now let us first briefly discuss Scala and Kotlin individually. ScalaDeveloped by Martin Odersky, the first version of Scala was launched in the year 2003 and is a classic example of a  general-purpose, object-oriented computer language, offering a wide range of functional programming language features and a strong static type system. Inspired from Java itself, Scala, as the name suggests, is highly scalable and this very feature sets Scala apart from other programming languages. When we say that Scala is inspired from Java, that means developers can code Scala in the same way they do for Java. Additionally, Scala makes it possible to use numerous Java and libraries within itself as well. It is designed to be able to use an elegant, concise and type-safe method to express common programming patterns. Scala is a very popular programming language amongst developers and rising up its ranks in the world of technology. Although Scala comes with a number of plus points, there are some which make it a bit ineffective. Here are the strengths and weaknesses of Scala. Strengths: Full Support for Pattern Matching, Macros, and Higher-Kinded Types Has a very flexible code syntax Gets a bigger Community Support Enables overloading operators Weaknesses: Slow in compilation Challenging Binary Compilation Not so proficient in the Management of Null SafetyKotlin Developed by JetBrains, Kotlin was released on February 2012 as an open-source language. Until now, there have been two released versions with the latest one being Kotlin 1.2, the most stable version that was released on November 28, 2017. Since Kotlin is extremely compatible with Java 6 the latest version of Java on Android, it has gained critical acclaim on Android worldwide and additionally, it offers various key features that are prepared only for Java 8 and not even Java 6 developers have access to that. Kotlin provides seamless and flawless interoperability with Java. That means, developers can easily call Java codes from Kotlin and same goes the other way around. The built-in null safety feature avoids showing the NullPointerException (NPE) that makes developing android apps easy and joyful, something every android programmer wants. Below mentioned are the key pointers on the strengths and weaknesses of Kotlin. Strengths Takes a Functional Programming Approach and Object-Oriented Programming style(OOP) Style  Has Higher-Order Functions Short, Neat, and Verbose-Free Expression  Supported by JetBrains and Google. Weaknesses: More limited Pattern Matching Additional Runtime Size Initial Readability of Code Shortage of Official Support Smaller Support Community. Ease of learning: Scala vs Kotlin Scala is a powerful programming language packed with superior features and possesses a flexible syntax. It is not an easy language to learn and is a nightmare for newcomers. Kotlin, on the other hand, has been reported to have been an easy-to-learn language for many Java developers as getting started with Kotlin is relatively easy and so is writing codes. Even though it is a comparatively easier language to learn and code with, Kotlin lacks the solid set of features that is common in Scala. It might take less time to learn a programming language, but the most important thing to look for is a comprehensive array of features. Scala, even though a very difficult language to learn, is cherished by the developers as it lets them do things that cannot be done in Kotlin Here are the major differences between Scala and Kotlin: ScalaKotlinType inferenceEfficientImmutabilityExtension FunctionsSingleton objectMassive InteroperabilityConcurrency controlLessens Crashes at RuntimeString interpolationSmart Cast FunctionHigher-order functionSafe and ReliableCase classes and Pattern matching Lazy computationLow adoption costRich collection setMaking the appropriate choice of languageNow, whether you may like a programming language or not, if that very language helps you get the best out of your job, then you will have to live with it. These are the facts about getting the best results. The outcome is the main factor in you deciding the appropriate language for your job. Kotlin is the only option for Android development as Android doesn’t use JVM, so any old JVM-compatible language will not work in Android. Kotlin has it all what it takes to compile, debug, and run the software on Android because of which it is in-built into Android Studio. However, Kotlin is not so usable outside Android development. If you are one of the developers who like working with Eclipse for your IDE, then Scala IDE is better than the Kotlin Plugin even if you can make Eclipse work with both the languages with limitations. Scala IDE is more advanced than the Kotlin plugin and is easier to set up. Some developers found it quite difficult to make the Kotlin plugin work. This case is quite the same with NetBeans. Kotlin is still getting there but is already popular amongst Java developers as it offers an easier transition than Scala. Kotlin is still maturing, but many Java people find adopting it is an easier transition than Scala is.  Scala, however, is for developers who are focused more on discovering new ideas while Kotlin is for those who want to get results. Kotlin stresses fast compilation but is more restrictive while Scala gives a lot of flexibility. Go for Scala if you breathe functional programming! It has more appropriate features for this type of programming than Kotlin does. Scala supports currying and partial application, the methods of breaking down functions requiring multiple arguments offering more flexibility. Go for the one that is the most appropriate one for your work, style of working and what you are aiming at. Think before you leap. The Outcome At the end of the day, all that matters is what you want to use the language for. While Scala goes well for the projects that require a combination of functional, OOP style programming languages, and where programmers need to handle lots of data or complex modelling, Kotlin becomes the best choice when you want something less frustrating than Java while developing apps because using Kotlin makes app development less cumbersome and a great thing to work on. It is just like a better-looking version of Java with less lengthy codes. 
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Scala Vs Kotlin

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Xcode vs Swift

Xcode and Swift are two different products developed by Apple for macOS, iOS, iPadOS, watchOS, and tvOS. While Xcode is an integrated development environment (IDE) for macOS containing a suite of software development tools to develop software for macOS, iOS, iPadOS, watchOS, and tvOS, Swift is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm, compiled programming language developed iOS, macOS, watchOS, tvOS, Linux, and z/OS. So it is clear that they can not be compared with each other. On the contrary, Swift is compatible with Xcode as Swift v 5.1, the default version of Swift is included in Xcode v 11. In this article, we will go through what Xcode and Swift are in general and cover their features strengths and weaknesses followed by how Swift is compatible with Xcode. XcodeIt was first released in 2003 as version 1 with the latest stable one being version 10.2.1 released on 17 April 2019. It can be downloaded from the Mac App Store and is free to use for macOS Mojave users. Registered developers may download the preview releases and previous versions of the suite using via the Apple Developer website.  Overview of the major featuresSupport: Programming languages such as C, C++, Objective-C, Objective-C++, Java, AppleScript, Python, Ruby, ResEdit (Rez), and Swift are supported by Xcode with source code along with support for a variety of programming models including Cocoa, Carbo, and Java. Not only that, there is additional support via third parties for GNU Pascal, Free Pascal, Ada, C#, Perl, and D Capability: Xcode can build fat binary files that include the code for various architectures in the Mach-O executable format. Known as universal binary files, these allow the application to run on both PowerPC and Intel-based (x86) platforms including both 32-bit and 64-bit codes Compiling and debugging: Xcode uses the iOS SDK to compile and debug applications for iOS that run on ARM architecture processors GUI tool: Xcode comprises of the GUI tool, Instruments that runs dynamic tracing framework on the top of DTrace, a dynamic tracing framework designed by Sun Microsystems and released as a part of OpenSolaris. Advantages and disadvantages of Xcode: Xcode is designed by Apple and will only work with Apple operating systems: macOS, iOS, iPadOS, watchOS, and tvOS. Since its release in 2003, Xcode has made significant improvements and the latest version, Xcode 10.2.1 has all the features that are needed to perform continuous integration. Let us have a look at the pros of using Xcode: Equipped with a well designed and easy to use UI creator Excellent for code completion Using Xcode, a developer can learn profiling and heap analysis in a natural way Xcode’s simulator lets you easily test your app while you build it in an environment that simulates your iPhone The app store has a wide range of audience who are willing to pay for apps. Now, the cons: Clunky and outdated Objective C makes it more frustrating if you are habituated to use a modern language No support for tabbed work environments makes it difficult to work with multiple windows Hardly any information can be found online to solve problems due to a previous Apple NDA on Xcode development It is a complicated process to export your app onto a device Will only work with Apple operating systems The App Store approval process can be annoyingly lengthy.SwiftSwift was launched at Apple's 2014 Worldwide Developers Conference as a general-purpose, multi-paradigm, compiled programming language for iOS, macOS, watchOS, tvOS, Linux, and z/OS Being a new entry these operating systems, Swift accelerates on the best parts of C and Objective C without being held back by its compatibility. It utilises safe patterns for programming, adding more features to it, thus making programming easier and more flexible. By developing their existing debugger, compiler and framework infrastructure, it took quite some time to create the base for Swift. Furthermore, Automatic Reference Counting was used to simplify the memory management part. The framework stack which was once built upon a solid framework of Cocoa and Foundation has undergone significant changes and is now completely regulated and refurbished. Developers who have worked with Objective-C do find Swift quite similar. Objective-C’s dynamic object model and its comprehensively named parameters provide a lot of control to Swift.  Developers can use Swift to have access to the existing Cocoa framework in addition to the mix and match interoperability with an objective C code. Swift uses this common rule to offer multiple new features in combination with object-oriented and procedural portions of the language. The idea is to create the best possible language for a wide range of uses, varying from desktop and mobile apps, systems programming, and scaling up to cloud services. The designing of Swift was done to make sure that developers find it easy to maintain and write correct programs. Coding done in Xcode is safe, fast and expressive. Swift offers a host of features that give developers the control needed to make the code easy to read and write. Furthermore, Apple made Swift to be easily understandable to help developers avoid making mistakes while coding and make the code look organised, along with the modules that give namespaces and eliminate headers. Since Swift uses some features present in other languages, one of them being named parameters written with clean syntax that makes the APIs much easier to maintain and read. Here are some of the additional features of Swift: Multiple return values and Tuples Generics Short and quick iterations over a collection or range Structs that support extensions, methods and protocols Functional programming patterns Advanced control flow Powerful error handling. These features are systematically designed to make them work together resulting in creating a powerful but fun-to-use language. Advantages and disadvantages of Swift: Pros of using the Swift Programming language: Easy to read and maintain: The Swift program codes are based on natural English as it has borrowed syntaxes from other programming languages. This makes the language more expressive Scalable: Users can add more features to Swift, making it a scalable programming language. In the future, Swift is what Apple is relying on and not Objective C Concise: Swift does not include long lines of code and that favours the developers who want a concise syntax, thus increasing the development and testing rate of the program Safety and improved performance: It is almost 40% better than the Objective-C when speed and performance are taken into consideration as it is easy to tackle the bugs which lead to safer programming Cross-device support: This language is capable of handling a wide range of Apple platforms such as iOS, iOS X, macOS, tvOS, and watchOS. Automatic Memory Management: This feature present in Swift prevents memory leaks and helps in optimizing the application’s performance that is done by using Automatic Reference Counting. Cons of Swift: Compatibility issues: The updated versions Swift is found to a bit unstable with the newer versions of Apple leading to a few issues. Switching to a newer version of Swift is the fix but that is costly Speed Issues: This is relevant to the earlier versions of the Swift programming language Less in number: The number of Swift developers is limited as Swift is a new programming language Delay in uploading apps: Developers will be facing delays over their apps written in Swift to be uploaded to the App Store only after iOS 8 and Xcode 6 are released. The estimated time for release is reported to be September-October, 2014. Conclusion So as we discussed both Xcode and Swift, it is clear that they cannot be compared to each other. In fact, they both complement each other to deliver impressive results without any headaches. Apple relies on both quite a lot and it is certain to have Swift and Xcode the perfect combination of a robust application and a user-friendly programming language.
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Xcode vs Swift

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ASP.NET VS PHP

ASP.NET and PHP are pretty popular languages in the programming world used by a huge number of developers and this makes it difficult for the new developers to choose either one of them. The comparison between these two has been in debate in recent times. Both of these languages are used in large web-based applications. Some successful companies like Google, Facebook, and Twitter, etc, also use these languages. In this article, we will understand the differences between PHP and ASP.Net also, will discuss which is better ASP.NET or PHP.Before we learn more about the differences between the two languages, we must first understand some basics of the two technologies:PHPPHP stands for Hypertext Preprocessor. It is an open-source programming language that is used for web development and can be embedded into HTML. The best part of PMP is that it’s free and possesses a  ton of frameworks which simplifies web development and also great for beginners since it allows simple and easy coding techniques. PHP is great for professionals as well because of its advanced features.Why use a PHP framework?A PHP framework provides a basic structure for streamlining the development of web apps. The applications and websites built using PHP frameworks will help the businesses to improve their performance needs.The best PHP frameworks available:LaravelCodeIgniterSymfonyZendPhalconCakePHPYiiFuelPHPPros and Cons of PHP frameworkPros:Rapid Development                                              Centralized DatabaseStronger TeamworkMakes your application more secure               Cons:Slower ExecutionPHP is unsecuredPoor error handling methodLimited Visibility and ControlDemand for PHP Developer:In today’s web development market, most of the websites are developed using PHP development tools which indicates a huge demand for PHP developers. If you are looking to make an entry to the IT world as a developer, then PHP programming will be an easy entry point.Taking up a PHP training from an authentic and reliable training provider will be a great platform to hone your skills.ASP.NETASP.NET is an open-source server-side web development tool developed by Microsoft for easy building of web applications and web pages. It can be written using any .Net supported language which makes it more popular among .NET developers. High speed and low cost are the main reasons to use it. Websites built ASP.NET is faster and more efficient than a website built with PHP.Pros and Cons of ASP.NET frameworkPros:Less coding timeWorld class toolboxConsistencyCustomizability and ExtensibilityCons:Limited Object-Relational (OR) supportBit expensiveSlower than Native CodeDemand for ASP.NET Developer:If you are a .NET developer, you will find yourself demanded by several asp.net development companies as your programming skills are extremely valuable in today’s market. There are many companies hunting for developers who can do programming with .NET. Therefore, it is advisable that you brush up your skills with ASP.NET Certification Training which will increase your value many times and have an edge over others. The ASP.NET Certification Training program will definitely make your future bright and offer you heaps of career opportunities. Whether you are a fresher or a working professional, you can take up the certification course.Comparison Between ASP.NET and PHPBoth ASP.NET and PHP frameworks are effective frameworks to work with, however, one may have few advantages over the other. Let’s dive deeper and compare these frameworks to understand which one is better than the other.1. Market Share:According to the report, BuiltWith data source PHP is the most used programming language which has 73% of market share, ASP.NET has 23% of market share. PHP also has a market share of 58% in top 100K websites and market share of PHP in 10K websites is 52%.Statistics for websites using Programming Language technologies:2. WebsitesHere are two lists to compare ASP.NET vs PHP websites:Websites built using PHPWebsites built using ASP.NETWikipediaFacebookYahooWordPress.comiStockPhotoMicrosoftDellGoDaddy3. Inbuilt featuresPHP has many unique in-built features that can help web developers. On the other hand, ASP.NET doesn’t have any such features.4. Speed and PerformanceWhen you compare PHP vs. ASP.NET for speed, PHP will be the winner. ASP.NET is a bit slow compared to PHP as it is built on the COM-based system whereas, PHP program runs on its own memory space.5. Community SupportCompared to ASP.NET, learning support is great in the PHP framework and has a large support community. It will be difficult for you to get hold of #C language of ASP.NET as it is difficult to understand.Key differences between ASP.NET vs PHPPHPASP.NETPHP was launched by Rasmus Lerdorf in the year 1995.ASP.NET was launched by Microsoft in the year 2002.PHP is a scripting languageASP.NET is a paid Microsoft provided web application framework.PHP suits for small sized organizationsASP.NET suits for a large and medium-sized organization.PHP has a decent market share in the  marketASP.NET has a higher market sharePHP works slow for desktop applicationsASP.NET is well equipped to assist and create desktop applications.PHP suits best for applications that contain a prime focus on UIASP.NET suits better for applications where the key concern is security.Easy to learnQuite challenging to learn.Coding using PHP is easy when compared to all other languagesCoding with ASP.NET is complicatedPHP execution is faster since it uses in-built memory spaceCoding with ASP.NET is complicatedPHP can run in Linux Operating System which is available for freeASP.NET requires a Windows platform which is not freeConclusionBoth PHP and ASP.NET come with their pros and cons. PHP is secure, fast, reliable, and inexpensive and ASP.NET is easier to use and maintain because of its class library system. Since both programming languages are similar and accomplish the same results so the company can make a choice based on the needs and requirements of the app they are about to develop.
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ASP.NET VS PHP

ASP.NET and PHP are pretty popular languages in th... Read More

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