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Difference Between PRINCE2® Foundation and Practitioner

PRINCE2® is built on seven principles, themes, and processes, and is the world’s most widely-adopted project management method, used by people and organisations from a wide range of industries and sectors. Further, it is a flexible method that guides you with the essentials for managing successful projects, regardless of its type and scale.AXELOS revised the PRINCE2® guidance and certification scheme in 2017. The certification scheme comprises of two main levels, namely, Foundation and Practitioner. The PRINCE2® Foundation level introduces the PRINCE2® method, whereas, PRINCE2® Practitioner certification can be taken up by anyone who is into project management as a part of their role. This blog intends to discuss the various differences between Foundation and Practitioner levels under PRINCE2® certification.PRINCE2® Foundation Vs. PRINCE2® PractitionerThe basic differences between the key benefits of PRINCE2® Foundation and Practitioner can be listed down as follows:PRINCE2® FoundationPRINCE2® PractitionerKnow about general principlesAllows to be a part of a project teamLearn key terms and phrasesGet competent knowledge.Adapt principles as per the needs of the projectApply principles to manage projectsGet practical knowledgeAllows to run a project teamApart from these differences, both the certification levels can be differentiated based on their purposes. The PRINCE2® Foundation certification intends to confirm your knowledge and understanding the PRINCE2® method properly in order to be able to work effectively with or as a member of a project management team working within an environment supporting PRINCE2®.On the other hand, the purpose of the PRINCE2® Practitioner certification is to confirm that you have sufficient understanding of the application method and can tailor the method in a range of different project environments and scenarios. Further, it is for the people who are a part of a formal project management function or a role in which project management is an inherent part of the day-to-day work.The following chart discusses the different aspects of PRINCE2® Foundation and PRINCE2® Practitioner:DifferencePRINCE2® FoundationPRINCE2® PractitionerCost£236 (in India)£389 (in India)Key BenefitsGet more valuable skills:Get equipped with a highly-demanded Project Management certification.Get more valuable skills:Equip yourself with one of the highly-demanded certifications in Project Management.Understand the PRINCE2® method:Work effectively as a member of a team working within a PRINCE2® environment with the best practices.Apply and tailor PRINCE2®:Understand and learn to apply and tailor the PRINCE2® method in a range of different project environments and scenarios.Get set for the future:Open your doors for higher levels of Project Management certifications, like PRINCE2® Practitioner and PRINCE2 Agile®.Advance your career:A PRINCE2® Practitioner certification opens the doors in order to advance your career in Project Management.Exam info60 Exam Duration150 Exam Duration5 languages15 languages33 out of 60 marks44 out of 80 marksClosed bookOpen BookDifference between the exam formats:PRINCE2® Foundation and Practitioner can be differentiated based on the principles and terminologies as well as the exam formats. The Foundation exam aims to measure the ability of a project management team that uses the PRINCE2® method within a project environment supporting PRINCE2®. Whereas, PRINCE2® Practitioner Exam aims at measuring the ability of a candidate to apply PRINCE2® while running and managing a non-complex project within an environment supporting PRINCE2®. Before we move to the exam format, the difference between the ability that you will acquire after understanding the principles and terminology of both the levels can be listed down as follows:PRINCE2® FoundationPRINCE2® PractitionerYou will be able to describe the purpose and major content of all roles, the seven principles, the seven themes, and the seven processes.You will be able to state the management products which are inputs or outputs of the seven processes.Ability to identify the main purpose and key contents of the major management products.You will be able to state the relationships between deliverables, processes, roles, and the management dimensions of a project.You will acquire the ability to produce detailed explanations of all principles, themes, processes, and worked examples of all PRINCE2® products as you can apply them to address the particular circumstances of a given project scenario.You will be able to show your understanding of the relationships between themes, principles, and processes as well as, PRINCE2® products and application of this understanding.Demonstrate your understanding of the reasons behind the principles, themes, and processes of PRINCE2®, as well as the principles,  underpinning these elements.Demonstrate your ability to tune PRINCE2® to different project circumstances.Apart from the above understandings which you will acquire from PRINCE2® Foundation and Practitioner, both the levels have certain differences in terms of the examination format. The differences are as follows:PRINCE2® FoundationPRINCE2® PractitionerExam duration of 60 minutes60 questionsClosed book33/60 required to pass = 55% pass mark18 PDUs (online) or 21 PDUs (classroom).Exam duration of 150 minute68 questions38/68 required to pass = 55% pass markOpen book exam (Official PRINCE2® manual only)20 PDUs (online) or 21 PDUs (classroom).Further, PRINCE2® Foundation and PRINCE2® Practitioner differs from each other in terms of the prerequisites for appearing for these exams. As an entry-level, you don’t need any prior experience or knowledge to take PRINCE2® Foundation. But there are certain prerequisites which you need to fulfill in order to take PRINCE2® Practitioner. You need to provide proof of passing one of the following exams in order to sit for the PRINCE2® Practitioner exam:PRINCE2® FoundationProject Management Professional (PMP)®IPMA Level A (Certified Project Director)IPMA Level B (Certified Senior Project Manager)IPMA Level C (Certified Project Manager)IPMA Level D (Certified Project Management Associate)Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM).Syllabus - PRINCE2® Foundation Vs. PRINCE2® PractitionerBefore we dive into the differences in the syllabus of PRINCE2® Foundation and PRINCE2® Practitioner, let us understand what PRINCE2® encompasses. It is based on 7 principles, themes, processes, and project environment. The PRINCE2® method helps you to manage projects successfully, irrespective of its scale and size. It comprises of:The PRINCE2® manual - Managing Successful Projects with PRINCE2® 2017 Edition.The Certification Scheme enables you to reach either the Foundation level or Practitioner level.You get an opportunity to avail the Membership subscription facility.PRINCE2® Principles: These principles form the guiding requirements and good practices which determine the genuine management of the project using PRINCE2®. There are seven principles which should be applied to a project to be a PRINCE2® project. The seven principles are as follows:Continued business justification: A project should be closed if there is no justifiable reason for running and managing the project.Learn from experience: The lessons learned from previous work should be continuously sought and drawn on lessons by PRINCE2® project teams.Defined roles and responsibilities: There should be a clear organisational structure and involvement of the right people in the right tasks in the PRINCE2® project team.Manage by stages: A stage-by-stage planning, monitoring, and controlling must be involved in a PRINCE2® project.Manage by exception: A right amount of authority should be given to the people working within the project for effective work within the environment.Focus on products: PRINCE2® projects focus on the product definition, delivery, and quality requirements.Tailor to suit the project environment: PRINCE2® must be tailored in order to suit the project’s environment, size, complexity, importance, capability, and risk.PRINCE2® ThemesThe PRINCE2® themes describe the aspects of project management that must be addressed parallelly throughout the project. These themes explain the specific treatment required by PRINCE2® for various disciplines of project management and at the same time, explain its necessity.The seven PRINCE2® themes are as follows:Business case: create and maintain a record of the business justification of the project.Quality: the way, project will deliver quality requirements and measures.Organisation: the individual roles and responsibilities of the whole project team gets defined.Risk: identify opportunities and risks that could impact the project.Plans: the steps required to develop the plans and the PRINCE2® techniques that should be used.Progress: the ongoing viability and performance of the plans and the way the project should proceed.Change: the methods adopted by the project manager to assess and act on changes to the project.PRINCE2® ProcessesFrom the initial idea to project closure and measurement of the benefits, PRINCE2® processes describe the steps of the project lifecycle. Each process provides checklists on recommended activities, related responsibilities, and guidance about the method to tailor to a specific environment.The seven PRINCE2® processes are as follows:Starting up a projectDirecting a projectInitiating a projectControlling a stageManaging product deliveryManaging stage boundariesClosing a project.As we have learned about the 7 principles, themes, and processes that lay the foundation of PRINCE2® certification, let’s compare the differences in the syllabus of PRINCE2® Foundation and PRINCE2® Practitioner based on the learning outcomes. The differences can be listed down as:Learning outcome 1:The first learning outcome of PRINCE2® Foundation is that you would get to understand the key concepts relating to projects and PRINCE2®. On the other hand, the first learning outcome of PRINCE2® Practitioner level is that you will learn to apply the PRINCE2® principles in context.Learning outcome 2:The second learning outcome of the PRINCE2® Foundation enables you to understand the way PRINCE2® principles underpin the PRINCE2® method, whereas, the second learning outcome of the PRINCE2® Practitioner is to apply and tailor relevant aspects of PRINCE2® themes in context. The difference between PRINCE2® Foundation and PRINCE2® Practitioner can be further drawn in terms of the assessment criteria related to the second learning outcome of both the levels of PRINCE2® certification.Learning outcome 3:The third learning outcome of the PRINCE2® Foundation is to understand the PRINCE2® themes and their application throughout the project. Whereas, the learning outcome differs in PRINCE2® Practitioner, which apply and tailor relevant aspects of PRINCE2® processes in context.Learning outcome 4:The  PRINCE2® Foundation consists of a fourth learning outcome which is to understand the PRINCE2® Foundation processes and how they are carried out throughout the project. However, there is no fourth outcome under PRINCE2® Practitioner.Cost: PRINCE2® Foundation Vs. PRINCE2® PractitionerIf you want to demonstrate your understanding of PRINCE2® methodology and work efficiently as a part of a project management team within a PRINCE2® supporting environment, then you should opt for a PRINCE2® Foundation certification. You can take your PRINCE2® Foundation certification exam in India by paying £236 via PeopleCert Online Proctoring.A PRINCE2® Practitioner certification can be taken up by someone who wants to demonstrate his or her achievement of sufficient understanding of applying and tailoring of the PRINCE2® methodology in a scenario situation. You can take your PRINCE2® Practitioner certification exam in India by paying £389 via PeopleCert Online Proctoring.To concludeGet introduced to the PRINCE2® method with PRINCE2® Foundation and get sufficient knowledge and understanding of the PRINCE2® method with PRINCE2® Practitioner certification. Apart from the purposes, there are multiple differences between PRINCE2® Foundation and PRINCE2® Practitioner. The differences discussed in this blog will surely help you realise the importance of both certifications as well as their market worth and relevance.
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Difference Between PRINCE2® Foundation and Practitioner

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Difference Between PRINCE2®  Foundation and Practitioner

PRINCE2® is built on seven principles, themes, and processes, and is the world’s most widely-adopted project management method, used by people and organisations from a wide range of industries and sectors. Further, it is a flexible method that guides you with the essentials for managing successful projects, regardless of its type and scale.

AXELOS revised the PRINCE2® guidance and certification scheme in 2017. The certification scheme comprises of two main levels, namely, Foundation and Practitioner. The PRINCE2® Foundation level introduces the PRINCE2® method, whereas, PRINCE2® Practitioner certification can be taken up by anyone who is into project management as a part of their role. This blog intends to discuss the various differences between Foundation and Practitioner levels under PRINCE2® certification.

PRINCE2® Foundation Vs. PRINCE2® Practitioner

The basic differences between the key benefits of PRINCE2® Foundation and Practitioner can be listed down as follows:

PRINCE2® FoundationPRINCE2® Practitioner
  • Know about general principles
  • Allows to be a part of a project team
  • Learn key terms and phrases
  • Get competent knowledge.
  • Adapt principles as per the needs of the project
  • Apply principles to manage projects
  • Get practical knowledge
  • Allows to run a project team

Apart from these differences, both the certification levels can be differentiated based on their purposes. The PRINCE2® Foundation certification intends to confirm your knowledge and understanding the PRINCE2® method properly in order to be able to work effectively with or as a member of a project management team working within an environment supporting PRINCE2®.

On the other hand, the purpose of the PRINCE2® Practitioner certification is to confirm that you have sufficient understanding of the application method and can tailor the method in a range of different project environments and scenarios. Further, it is for the people who are a part of a formal project management function or a role in which project management is an inherent part of the day-to-day work.

The following chart discusses the different aspects of PRINCE2® Foundation and PRINCE2® Practitioner:

different aspects of prince 2 foundation and prince 2 practitioner

DifferencePRINCE2® FoundationPRINCE2® Practitioner
Cost£236 (in India)£389 (in India)
Key Benefits

Get more valuable skills:

Get equipped with a highly-demanded Project Management certification.

Get more valuable skills:

Equip yourself with one of the highly-demanded certifications in Project Management.

Understand the PRINCE2® method:

Work effectively as a member of a team working within a PRINCE2® environment with the best practices.

Apply and tailor PRINCE2®:

Understand and learn to apply and tailor the PRINCE2® method in a range of different project environments and scenarios.

Get set for the future:

Open your doors for higher levels of Project Management certifications, like PRINCE2® Practitioner and PRINCE2 Agile®.

Advance your career:

A PRINCE2® Practitioner certification opens the doors in order to advance your career in Project Management.

Exam info60 Exam Duration150 Exam Duration
5 languages15 languages
33 out of 60 marks44 out of 80 marks
Closed bookOpen Book

Difference between the exam formats:

PRINCE2® Foundation and Practitioner can be differentiated based on the principles and terminologies as well as the exam formats. The Foundation exam aims to measure the ability of a project management team that uses the PRINCE2® method within a project environment supporting PRINCE2®. Whereas, PRINCE2® Practitioner Exam aims at measuring the ability of a candidate to apply PRINCE2® while running and managing a non-complex project within an environment supporting PRINCE2®. Before we move to the exam format, the difference between the ability that you will acquire after understanding the principles and terminology of both the levels can be listed down as follows:

PRINCE2® FoundationPRINCE2® Practitioner
  • You will be able to describe the purpose and major content of all roles, the seven principles, the seven themes, and the seven processes.
  • You will be able to state the management products which are inputs or outputs of the seven processes.
  • Ability to identify the main purpose and key contents of the major management products.
  • You will be able to state the relationships between deliverables, processes, roles, and the management dimensions of a project.
  • You will acquire the ability to produce detailed explanations of all principles, themes, processes, and worked examples of all PRINCE2® products as you can apply them to address the particular circumstances of a given project scenario.
  • You will be able to show your understanding of the relationships between themes, principles, and processes as well as, PRINCE2® products and application of this understanding.
  • Demonstrate your understanding of the reasons behind the principles, themes, and processes of PRINCE2®, as well as the principles,  underpinning these elements.
  • Demonstrate your ability to tune PRINCE2® to different project circumstances.

Apart from the above understandings which you will acquire from PRINCE2® Foundation and Practitioner, both the levels have certain differences in terms of the examination format. The differences are as follows:

PRINCE2® FoundationPRINCE2® Practitioner
  • Exam duration of 60 minutes
  • 60 questions
  • Closed book
  • 33/60 required to pass = 55% pass mark
  • 18 PDUs (online) or 21 PDUs (classroom).
  • Exam duration of 150 minute
  • 68 questions
  • 38/68 required to pass = 55% pass mark
  • Open book exam (Official PRINCE2® manual only)
  • 20 PDUs (online) or 21 PDUs (classroom).

Further, PRINCE2® Foundation and PRINCE2® Practitioner differs from each other in terms of the prerequisites for appearing for these exams. As an entry-level, you don’t need any prior experience or knowledge to take PRINCE2® Foundation. But there are certain prerequisites which you need to fulfill in order to take PRINCE2® Practitioner. You need to provide proof of passing one of the following exams in order to sit for the PRINCE2® Practitioner exam:

  • PRINCE2® Foundation
  • Project Management Professional (PMP)®
  • IPMA Level A (Certified Project Director)
  • IPMA Level B (Certified Senior Project Manager)
  • IPMA Level C (Certified Project Manager)
  • IPMA Level D (Certified Project Management Associate)
  • Certified Associate in Project Management (CAPM).

Syllabus - PRINCE2® Foundation Vs. PRINCE2® Practitioner

Before we dive into the differences in the syllabus of PRINCE2® Foundation and PRINCE2® Practitioner, let us understand what PRINCE2® encompasses. It is based on 7 principles, themes, processes, and project environment. The PRINCE2® method helps you to manage projects successfully, irrespective of its scale and size. It comprises of:

  • The PRINCE2® manual - Managing Successful Projects with PRINCE2® 2017 Edition.
  • The Certification Scheme enables you to reach either the Foundation level or Practitioner level.
  • You get an opportunity to avail the Membership subscription facility.

PRINCE2® Principles: 

Prince2 Principes

These principles form the guiding requirements and good practices which determine the genuine management of the project using PRINCE2®. There are seven principles which should be applied to a project to be a PRINCE2® project. The seven principles are as follows:

  1. Continued business justification: A project should be closed if there is no justifiable reason for running and managing the project.
  2. Learn from experience: The lessons learned from previous work should be continuously sought and drawn on lessons by PRINCE2® project teams.
  3. Defined roles and responsibilities: There should be a clear organisational structure and involvement of the right people in the right tasks in the PRINCE2® project team.
  4. Manage by stages: A stage-by-stage planning, monitoring, and controlling must be involved in a PRINCE2® project.
  5. Manage by exception: A right amount of authority should be given to the people working within the project for effective work within the environment.
  6. Focus on products: PRINCE2® projects focus on the product definition, delivery, and quality requirements.
  7. Tailor to suit the project environment: PRINCE2® must be tailored in order to suit the project’s environment, size, complexity, importance, capability, and risk.

PRINCE2® Themes

The PRINCE2® themes describe the aspects of project management that must be addressed parallelly throughout the project. These themes explain the specific treatment required by PRINCE2® for various disciplines of project management and at the same time, explain its necessity.

The seven PRINCE2® themes are as follows:

  1. Business case: create and maintain a record of the business justification of the project.
  2. Quality: the way, project will deliver quality requirements and measures.
  3. Organisation: the individual roles and responsibilities of the whole project team gets defined.
  4. Risk: identify opportunities and risks that could impact the project.
  5. Plans: the steps required to develop the plans and the PRINCE2® techniques that should be used.
  6. Progress: the ongoing viability and performance of the plans and the way the project should proceed.
  7. Change: the methods adopted by the project manager to assess and act on changes to the project.

PRINCE2® Processes

From the initial idea to project closure and measurement of the benefits, PRINCE2® processes describe the steps of the project lifecycle. Each process provides checklists on recommended activities, related responsibilities, and guidance about the method to tailor to a specific environment.

The seven PRINCE2® processes are as follows:

Prince2 Process steps

  1. Starting up a project
  2. Directing a project
  3. Initiating a project
  4. Controlling a stage
  5. Managing product delivery
  6. Managing stage boundaries
  7. Closing a project.

As we have learned about the 7 principles, themes, and processes that lay the foundation of PRINCE2® certification, let’s compare the differences in the syllabus of PRINCE2® Foundation and PRINCE2® Practitioner based on the learning outcomes. The differences can be listed down as:

Learning outcome 1:

The first learning outcome of PRINCE2® Foundation is that you would get to understand the key concepts relating to projects and PRINCE2®. On the other hand, the first learning outcome of PRINCE2® Practitioner level is that you will learn to apply the PRINCE2® principles in context.

Learning outcome 2:

The second learning outcome of the PRINCE2® Foundation enables you to understand the way PRINCE2® principles underpin the PRINCE2® method, whereas, the second learning outcome of the PRINCE2® Practitioner is to apply and tailor relevant aspects of PRINCE2® themes in context. The difference between PRINCE2® Foundation and PRINCE2® Practitioner can be further drawn in terms of the assessment criteria related to the second learning outcome of both the levels of PRINCE2® certification.

Learning outcome 3:

The third learning outcome of the PRINCE2® Foundation is to understand the PRINCE2® themes and their application throughout the project. Whereas, the learning outcome differs in PRINCE2® Practitioner, which apply and tailor relevant aspects of PRINCE2® processes in context.

Learning outcome 4:

The  PRINCE2® Foundation consists of a fourth learning outcome which is to understand the PRINCE2® Foundation processes and how they are carried out throughout the project. However, there is no fourth outcome under PRINCE2® Practitioner.

Cost: PRINCE2® Foundation Vs. PRINCE2® Practitioner

If you want to demonstrate your understanding of PRINCE2® methodology and work efficiently as a part of a project management team within a PRINCE2® supporting environment, then you should opt for a PRINCE2® Foundation certification. You can take your PRINCE2® Foundation certification exam in India by paying £236 via PeopleCert Online Proctoring.

A PRINCE2® Practitioner certification can be taken up by someone who wants to demonstrate his or her achievement of sufficient understanding of applying and tailoring of the PRINCE2® methodology in a scenario situation. You can take your PRINCE2® Practitioner certification exam in India by paying £389 via PeopleCert Online Proctoring.

To conclude

Get introduced to the PRINCE2® method with PRINCE2® Foundation and get sufficient knowledge and understanding of the PRINCE2® method with PRINCE2® Practitioner certification. Apart from the purposes, there are multiple differences between PRINCE2® Foundation and PRINCE2® Practitioner. The differences discussed in this blog will surely help you realise the importance of both certifications as well as their market worth and relevance.

KnowledgeHut

KnowledgeHut

Author

KnowledgeHut is a fast growing Management Consulting and Training firm that is a source of Intelligent Information support for businesses and professionals across the globe.


Website : https://www.knowledgehut.com/

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2 comments

kalpana 06 Aug 2019

Form this article I learned the difference between prince2 foundation Vs. prince2 practitioner nice article thanks

hanmanth k 06 Aug 2019

a beautiful way of explaining the difference between prince2 foundation Vs prince2 practitioner. I learned prince2 process steps and total cost details. It will be helpful for my future. Thanks for this blog!

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PMI-ACP® Agile Certification Requirements and Processes

So. you want to get your PMI-ACP®  certification and are wondering what the PMI-ACP®  Certification course requirements and processes are! You are in the right place and this post will hopefully be beneficial in guiding you with regard to all the optional and mandatory steps required to apply for the certification. It’s obvious, whenever someone start a process (Certification Education) or anything new, the first question that comes to mind is, where should I start , and what are the requirements. The PMI-ACP® certification has been recently launched by PMI® . Here we have compiled a list of all the PMI-ACP® certification requirements and processes step by step in detail.   PMI-ACP® Certification Requirements and Processes There are basically seven steps required for PMI-ACP® certification; some are optional while others are mandatory. Step #1: User ID: This is optional. Go to PMI.org and create a User ID. This is not mandatory but there are benefits and I will mention a few of them: Free. You will be able to create a profile and your mode of payment, which makes later access easy. You will get up to date information from PMI®.   Step #2: Eligibility: This is the tricky part and most people get confused. (You can also go to PMI.org and perform the following steps to get updated information as PMI® may change their rules from time to time. Go to PMI.org —> select Certification —>select PMI-ACP. The eligibility is listed. Diploma: · High school. · One year of General Project Management experience with 2,000 hours of work with project teams. · Eight months of Agile Project Management experience with 1,500 hours of work with project teams using agile methodologies. · 21 hours of Agile Project Management Training.   If you think you are eligible, move to step 3. Step #3: Membership: This is optional and is different than your user id. PMI® has a membership service, which offers some benefits. There are several types of membership and the fee is different for each type. Please do check PMI® Membership and Types, PMI® Membership Fee and PMI® Membership Benefits. Also please visit PMI.org for updated information on membership, types, and benefits in details and check whether the membership suits your needs or not. We are mentioning a few benefits of membership here: Free access to PMI® library and a free copy of PMBOK Access to Local PMI® chapter, useful for getting PDUs and networking Waiver in PMI®-ACP fee and re-certification fee   Step #4: Application: Refer to Step #2, mentioning the education and project hours. Now you have to submit an application to PMI® showing proof of your education, the project hours and project management training that you have undergone. Previously, you had to do it online but now PMI® offers a downloadable pdf as well. You have to fill in the required details covering all processes and the hours you spend on each process. Step #5: Fee: When you submit your application, you will be contacted within a few working days and will be asked to deposit the fee for certification. Now as was mentioned previously, the fee is different for both members and non-members. Step #6: [one_half] A: Application accepted: You will be asked to proceed and schedule your exam at a Prometric center. B: Audit: PMI® randomly selects some applicants for an audit process.[/one_half] Step 6 has two parts as you can see; either your application will be accepted or put a hold for an audit. If you are one of the unlucky ones that are caught in the audit process then you have to show written confirmation from the bodies who authorize the education, experience and project management training. Step #7: Schedule exam: Once you are done with the above steps, the last step is to schedule your exam according to your convenience at prometric.com. However, before you schedule your exam, I would encourage you to read this article to familiarize yourself with the PMI®-ACP Exam Format.
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PMI-ACP® Agile Certification Requirements and ...

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PRINCE2® Roles and Responsibilities [Major & Minor Roles explained]

A project is run by a team and without one, it won’t even begin or complete. When a team is finally formed, they would then have to formulate a plan and act on the same to complete the project. Thus, it becomes an issue of great importance that the members in the team associated with a particular project are aware of what they have to do, what they can expect from others as well as their team members, to whom they have to report their work, and who shall do the brainstorming and decision-making, and this article focuses on providing answers for these questions. Hence, this principle defines the roles and responsibilities of everyone who is associated with the project, from the very beginning till the closure of the project.PRINCE2® clearly suggests that a project should have well-defined, distributed and agreed roles and responsibilities among the entire team undertaking the project. It is important for an organization to distinctly identify these roles and responsibilities to enable its structure that deals with Business, User and Stakeholder interests to function properly and effectively.PRINCE2® ORGANIZATION THEMEThe organization theme is responsible for defining and authorizing the accountability and responsibilities, that form the structure of a project.PRINCE2® assumes that there will be a customer responsible for specifying the desired result and then purchasing the project. Similarly, a supplier will also be present to provide the resources and skills needed to deliver the desired results. Thus, it is safe to say that  PRINCE2® is based on a customer/supplier environment.One major feature of PRINCE2® is that all the projects should have a defined organizational structure that will ultimately bring together the various parties and teams for the common aspirations of the project. It further enhances the effectivity of project governance and decision making.These are the components of a successful project management team under the organization theme:1. Representation of all the three major stakeholders as listed in PRINCE2®, a project consists of three major stakeholders which are the Business Sponsors, Users, and Suppliers.Business Sponsors are responsible for ensuring that the product or service offers value for money and is of high-quality standards.Users represent the consumer aspects, they will use the final finished products and services, and are the ones receiving the benefit of those products and services.Suppliers are responsible for providing the basic material and resources, raw or tailored and supplying proper knowledge and experience to the project. They are the producers, producing the finished products according to the designed project plan.This particular principle clearly states that the three major stakeholders must be correctly represented in the Project Management Team and in the Project Board as they act as the three staunch pillars that support and drive the project further ahead. Every successful project team must have a proper Business, User, and Supplier stakeholder representation.An effective project team should have defined responsibilities for directing, managing and delivering the project. These three processes paired up with accountability are the key components of a project and thus require accurate and proper distribution of responsibilities.Another component of a successful project team is the regular and continuous reviewing of various project roles assigned to the members throughout the project.The final component is to come up with an effective strategy for properly managing the communication flows that the project team must maintain to/from the external key stakeholders.It is a common understanding that the senior management board will be under a lot of workload and cannot supervise the day-to-day development of the project. Hence, the board issues certain responsibilities to certain individuals or a group of individuals, such that the direction and management of the project is separated from the delivery of the project’s outputs and results. It is done by using the principle of Management by Exception.The structure that eventually forms comprises of four levels, where Corporate level is outside the project borderlines:Corporate: It is responsible for:Commissioning the project in the first placeAppointing the Project Executive  Defining the project level tolerances to be followed by the project boardDirecting: It is undertaken by the project board, which is responsible for:Overall direction and supervision of the projectAccountable for the project’s successThey approve all the major plansThey approve completion of each stageThey authorize the start of the next stageCommunicating with the stakeholdersAuthorizing any deviation that exceeds the project level tolerancesManaging: Project Manager comes under this level and is responsible for:The day-to-day management of the project within the parameters set by the project boardTo make sure that the products are being delivered according to the time, cost, quality, scope of risk and benefit objectivesDelivering: Team Managers come under this level and are responsible for:Delivering the project’s products with the desired quality standards and within a specified time frame and costTo summarize these components, we can conclude that each project should have direction, management, control and communication within its structure and project team for providing better and fruitful outcomes.THE PREDEFINED ROLES IN A PROJECTThe PRINCE2® methodology is based on processes and division of stages for improved performance. It also brings along a series of defined roles with specific tasks designated to them. The predefined roles in a project based on a PRINCE2® environment are:Project Board - It is a group of professionals that includes :Executive: The executive has the custody of the business case and is the person ultimately taking responsibility for the project.Senior User: This position can be held by an individual or a group of professionals. Their primary objective is to represent the demands of the final user.Senior Supplier: This position can also be assigned to one or more individuals. Their responsibility is to ensure the representation of the interests of the suppliers.Project Assurance: The primary goal of Project Assurance is to make sure that the interests of the stakeholders are met.Change Authority: They are responsible for deciding the major change requests on behalf of the Project Board.Project Manager: The person responsible for undertaking the day-to-day supervision of the project on behalf of the Project Board.Project Support: It is the body responsible for assisting the Project Manager in the Project Management tasks and duties.Team Manager: This position can be assigned to one or more professionals that ensure the quality and other elements of production in the various teams that focus on a particular skill or knowledge from various departments.1. Roles Associated with the Project BoardThe project board represents the direction level of the project and consists of the following roles : a. The Executive: The executive actually owns the business case and his role is that of a business-oriented leader who is ultimately accountable for the project. The executive also has the authority of delivering the final words and decisions that are taken in the project. Thus, the project board doesn’t demonstrate any signs of democracy and equal decision-making rights.The executive is appointed by the corporate of programme management, he is the one responsible for the project with additional support from the Senior User and Senior Supplier. The executive is also responsible for designing and appointing the project management team, including the rest of the project board and also appoints the project manager b. The Senior User: It represents the final user’s requirements in the board. It specifies the needs of the user that will use the finished product or service and also establishes communication between the project management team and the users, and ensuring that the products will cater to the needs of the users, especially the quality of the product or service and ease of use. It also supplies benefits information for the Benefit Review Plan. c. The Senior Supplier: It represents the interests of the supplier. It represents the interests of those designing, developing, facilitating and implementing the project’s product and services, they provide supply to the project and make sure that only the right tools, people, equipment and expertise are in place. They also ensure that the product meets the expected criteria including the quality criteria.   Only one person can be the executive, but both the other two roles i.e the senior user and the senior supplier can be assigned to one or multiple individuals.Associated DutiesThe project board is responsible for holding accountability for the success and the failure of the project.Another duty is to provide unified direction to the project and the respective Project Manager.The project board also provides the resources and also authorizes funds utilized in the project.They should also provide additional visible and continuous support and assistance to the Project Manager.They ensure that there is effective communication within the project team and with external stakeholders.In real life, there are many organizations that have a project board that is incapable of handling projects or is either inexperienced or not at all interested in the project itself. This is a serious issue and a major drawback that could sabotage the entire project and the team associated. Henceforth, a great project board is a must to ensure that the direction is on point and effective. 2. The Project Assurance RoleIt is the responsibility of the Project Board to ensure that the project performs well and the products/services are produced, this is known as the Project Assurance. The board usually checks it directly through the Project Manager. But in large projects, many of the board members are busy with their respective tasks. Thus, the board can delegate this responsibility to someone else. The basic method is to double-check the information and this is called Project Assurance.It monitors the performance of the project and provides assistance to the Project Manager by giving insights on corporate-related issues. That’s how the board uses its Project Assurance responsibility to ensure that everything is going according to plan and the Project Manager is up to date with corporate regulations.Different board members have their respective Project Assurance responsibilities. For example:The Executive is responsible for Business Assurance (Business Value)The Senior User is responsible for the User AssuranceThe Senior Supplier is responsible for the Supplier’s Assurance 3. The Change Authority Role The responsibilities associated with the Change Authority are as follows:This role lies under the Project Team Management.The Project Board may decide if an individual should be appointed or an entire group is required to undertake this role.The primary objective of  Change Authority is to review the requests for change or the off-specifications related to the project.The Change Authority is also capable of delegating responsibility to a number of levels depending on the intensity and the complexity of the change.Asperity of Change RequestDecided ByLevel 1Project Support / Help DeskLevel 2Project ManagerLevel 3Change AuthorityLevel 4Project BoardLevel 5Corp / Programme ManagementIf smaller changes are expected in a project then the Project Board can handle them. But when many major changes are expected then it is more efficient to use a separate Change Authority group.A separate Change Authority group simplifies the change process and saves the Project Board from all the hassle. 4. The Project Manager RoleThe Project Manager role has the following impact on the project:Their primary objective is to manage the project on a daily basis. Their main focus is on the day-to-day progress of the project.This particular position of a Project Manager can never be shared and only one is appointed for a particular project.The Project Manager runs and supervises a project on behalf of the Project Board within a few specified constraints and collaborates throughout the project with the Project Board and the Project Assurance.In the case of PRINCE2®, it is usually preferred that the Project Manager belongs to the customer side.The Project is also responsible for running all the principal processes except Directing a Project Process (DP).The Project Manager is responsible for the Project Support and assistance and also the Team Managers.In several smaller projects, where there are no Team Managers, the Project Manager can manage the team members directly. Additionally, in cases where there is project support, the support task is completely on the shoulders of the Project Manager.5. The Team Manager RoleThe role of a Team Manager is actually optional and not necessary in smaller projects. The role  of a Team Manager only comes into the scene if:The Project is quite huge and requires a lot of members. Thus, a number of Team Members would be required to manage and supervise several teams from different departments and expertise.Team Managers are usually required for a specific skill, skillset or knowledge of the products to be produced. For example, a project requires an individual with great expertise of JAVA to provide assistance in handling and developing the applications or programs or researching on a particular product.They are also the need of the hour when the project is affected by geographical reasons. The project might include remote teams that provide assistance from remote locations, then that particular remote team is managed by a Team Manager.If the project is using an external company, then it would be easier to coordinate with the Team Manager rather than all the team members directly and individually.6. The Project Support RoleThe project support role offers the following services to the project:The Project Support provides administrative services to provide assistance to the Project Manager in the form of filing, distributing documents, adding documents to an IT System, etc.Project support also advises and offers guidance regarding the use of project management tools and configuration management.The Project Support also provides additional assistance in planning and risk management. For example, keeping the planned documents up to date and also highlighting what has been completed and what aspects of the projects are delayed.The prominent responsibility of the Project Support is Configuration Management and following the guidelines under the Configuration Management Strategy Document: it is one of the four strategy documents formulated at the beginning of the project.The responsibility of the Project Support is under the authority of the Project manager. To put forward in simple words, the Project Manager is responsible for the administrative duties associated with the project. Therefore, this role is not optional, however, the Project Manager can delegate this responsibility to another person or group.In a case, where the Project Manager is unable to delegate this role to someone else, it is the responsibility of the Project Manager to assume the role of the Project Support. This is the reason why we see many Project Managers working late in the evening and doing overtime. As they are trying to catch up on their administrative tasks and keep forgetting to plan all this in their normal working hours.STAGE-WISE MANAGEMENTA great way of handling a big and chunky task or project is to divide it into smaller and manageable fragments. This is the same methodology implemented in the PRINCE2® method of project management. But, instead of chunks or fragments, in PRINCE2® a different terminology is used, i.e. stages - Management Stages. The PRINCE2® methodology focuses on running and operating a project under a planned and controlled environment through a stage by stage basis.These stages are separated and decided by the Project Board on the basis of Decision Points. After the completion of each stage, the Project Board assesses the performance of the previous stage, analyzes the plans for the next stage, and ultimately decides whether to proceed to the next stage or not. The higher the number of stages, the more control is possessed by the Project Board, but it also increases their workload. Fewer stages in a project require less amount of work from the Project Board which indicates that the Senior Management will have less control over the project.  The division of a project into stages has some advantages as mentioned below:It allows the project to be divided into smaller and simpler fragments that can be easily managed.It leads to a high-level plan for the project and a very detailed Stage Plan.It also incorporates learning from the previous stages while devising a plan for the upcoming stages.There should be a minimum of two management stages in a project under a PRINCE2® project environment:The Initiation StageThe Management StageThe Closing a Project process is the last part of the second stage in a two-stage project.In this manner a particular PRINCE2® project is controlled, managed, and monitored on a stage by stage basis.
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PRINCE2® Roles and Responsibilities [Major &am...

A project is run by a team and without one, it won... Read More