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Structure of PRINCE2®

So you have finally decided to gain first-class management skills to either improve your employment opportunities or just implement it in your organization to yield better and improved results while undertaking challenging projects. Whatever the case might be, an individual who is about to engage with the PRINCE2® project management methodology must be aware of its basics and various features.PRINCE2® is basically an acronym for – Projects IN Controlled Environment, which is a structured project management methodology and the world’s most appreciated and favoured standard for project management. It is considered the most flexible and adaptable project management method. It’s so user-friendly that its controlled method of handling projects makes it easier for the practitioner to decide upon the involved members and their respective responsibilities in a project. Its versatility makes it easier to implement this methodology in numerous projects from different sectors such as IT, finance, construction, and engineering. It is also used by government agencies and other private companies which is another factor behind its emergence as a global standard in project management.The qualification offered by the PRINCE2® method is divided into two separate courses:PRINCE2® FoundationPRINCE2® Foundation is the first of the two offered courses. This is a basic course that does not require any prior qualification, but the candidate must have some knowledge of Project Management. The Foundation course focuses on furnishing the PRINCE2® principles and its jargon, when completed the candidate would be capable of acting as a well-informed member of a project management team based on a PRINCE2® environment.PRINCE2® PractitionerPRINCE2® Practitioner is the second course offered by the PRINCE2®. This is the advanced level of the Foundation course and requires suitable qualifications before availing this course. This includes either the PRINCE2® foundation course or any of the qualifications suggested by the requirements criteria. The Practitioner course focuses on the application of the PRINCE2® methodology on the operation and management of a project. After the completion of the course, the candidate will be able to use PRINCE2® methodology according to the needs of the project scenario. This course ensures the individual of a comprehensive understanding of the relationships between the PRINCE2® principles, themes, processes, and the products.  PRINCE2® METHODOLOGYAs discussed above, we know that the PRINCE2® methodology is very flexible and can be applied to any kind of project. As the name suggests, it focuses on undertaking a project under controlled environments. It describes the principle of setting up a project in PRINCE2® project management. The idea is that the method is based on processes and the division of the entire project work into several stages to simplify the work associated with it. The processes focus on maintaining a controlled environment from the preparation to the completion of the project.Key ElementsNow that we have some idea of what PRINCE2® is all about, let’s dive deep into the fundamental segments associated with this methodology and its core structure. To get started, we can identify its structure as a combination of three integrated elements that someway or the other influence each other throughout the project.The structure includes an array of seven principles: these are the rules and regulations and the collective group practices that should be adhered to in a PRINCE2® project.Another element is the collection of seven themes and the themes of seven features of project management that are a must to implement in a project.There is also a set of the processing procedure i.e. the steps to be used in the entirety of the PRINCE2® project.The PRINCE2® functions in a very structured manner as we discussed above and the skeletal framework with the above mentioned three elements ensure the proper implementation of this methodology so as to yield improved and desired results. This particular framework is actually applicable to any type of project environment and utilizing this particular structure and the underlying processes we can effectively run and manage a PRINCE2® project.7 PRINCE2® PRINCIPLESContinued Business Justification: This principle states that every project should have a justification to support itself, which would be valid throughout the entirety of the project. Factors such as cost, time, profit and reasoning should form the basis of the justification. The continuous recheck of justification is one of the major actions taken in the PRINCE2® and it must be approved by the respected authorities that are in a position to do so.Learn From Experience: It’s as simple as it sounds, it implies that every member associated with the project should learn from the experience gained in the entire process. The mistakes must not be repeated again which is easy and possible through analysis of the previous projects.Defined Roles and Responsibilities: Definite roles and responsibilities must be assigned to every member associated with the project to reduce confusion related to the work distribution and process and ultimately to save valuable time from getting wasted on trivial and unprofessional issues.Manage By Stages: According to the methodology of PRINCE2®, it encourages management of a project in the form of smaller stages. Any PRINCE2® project must have a minimum of two stages, the starting up stage and its initiation stage that follows accordingly.Manage By Exception: This principle suggests that the projects must be managed by exception. The team handling the project must have an exception plan in order to verify and determine that the project is running on the right and desired track, and any change must be forwarded to the reporting manager in a timely manner.Focus On Products: This principle, in particular, enforces the quality of the product. The quality of the product shouldn’t be compromised, through emphasis on developing products and services properly and maintaining the quality standards across all the projects and products.Tailor To Suit: This is the final principle of PRINCE2® that emphasizes on the flexibility of the PRINCE2® structure and its customization according to different situations and projects. Every project brings its own challenges and set of requirements and PRINCE2® is capable of providing liberty to mold the principles that are suitable for the project.7 PRINCE2® THEMESBusiness Case: In one way it is similar, and goes hand in hand with the first PRINCE2® principle that promotes continuous business justification. A Business Case considers the justification for undertaking a project along with defining the costs and timelines involved in the project. Another aspect of it is that the Business Case shall be valid throughout the entirety of the project at any given point of time. In case the justification seems invalid, the project shouldn’t be continued any further and should be called off immediately.Organization: It ensures that the proper stage is being followed and that every individual involved in the project has no confusion regarding their role and the assigned duties. This theme clearly aligns with the PRINCE2® principle of defined roles and responsibilities.Quality: This one aligns with the PRINCE2® principle of focus on products. It focuses on ensuring that the product or service is of a set global standard and efforts must be made to maintain such high-quality standards consistently.Plans: Planning is the most important step while undertaking any project, and PRINCE2® promotes the same. Just planning is not enough, the plan should be an ideal one with intense research and consideration towards major aspects related to the project. During the stage of planning, it should be made sure that there is a plan of processes and it should be maintained throughout the project.Risks: Everything that we do in our daily lives includes some sort of risk, for e.g. crossing a road. Similarly, every project in some way or other is susceptible to risks and requires a proper and functional risk management. PRINCE2® suggests that there should be a risk register and a risk management plan already designed and implemented to execute a project effectively and efficiently.Change: Changes are an important part of a project, as no plan is perfect and might require future adjustments and updates. PRINCE2® suggests that whenever a change is decided and requested, it should be recorded in a register and should only be sanctioned and adopted by following the rules mentioned in the plan and strategy register.Progress: This theme focuses on the regular review and analysis of a project and asserting control over it through the same. This theme aligns with the PRINCE2® principle of management by stages.PRINCE2® PROCESSESStarting up a Project: This process makes sure that there should be an existing plan and business case for starting the project. It would be impossible to start any project without a proper plan in the first place.Directing a Project: This process is heavily based on the communication between the project board and the executive, where the project plan is reviewed and analyzed in detail.Initiating a Project: This is the process where the plan is initiated and signs of actual execution of the plan are effective and evident.Controlling a Stage: This process includes making sure that the previous stage was successful and that it is verified and confirmed before proceeding further to the next stages.Managing Product Delivery: Here, the developed and finished product or service is thoroughly inspected and is compared with the desired results from the devised plan. The product should meet the expectations of the plan otherwise more efforts should be made towards its betterment.Managing a Stage Boundary: The primary objective behind this process is to assure the board that all products in the current working stage are effectively produced and approved. This process also includes reviewing and updating of the usual documents that involve the project initiation plan, business case, project plan, and risk register when necessary.Closing the Project: As indicative from its name, this process focuses on closing the project in terms of pen and paper i.e with legal documentation. This process is the final step of each and every project.PRINCE2® CERTIFICATION COSTThe primary cost elements associated with the PRINCE2® Certification are:The cost associated with the training and preparationThe cost of the actual examinationMany candidates have the misconception that the cost associated with the certification only includes the examination fee and miscalculate the expenses related to it. You should be aware that just like every qualification, PRINCE2® certification also requires intense determination to successfully pass both the offered courses. It has two training modes: Online training and Classroom training. You have the freedom to choose any of the two based on your needs.OnlineTrainingOn average, the PRINCE2® Certification costs around $900. But by opting for the online mode of training you can cut down the prices to $300. This training would provide a bundle for both the PRINCE2® Foundation and the PRINCE2® Practitioner exams for a year with the all-in-one pack. Some training providers even provide training for a cost of $60 for a month to those who have an urgency or just want to get the certification as quickly as possible.Classroom TrainingThe classroom is considered to be the better of the two training modes as it enables live human interaction and better resolution of doubts. The classroom would cost you around $1000, and this cost covers the cost of both the PRINCE2® Foundation and the PRINCE2® Practitioner exams.Henceforth, you should consider the overall certification cost while evaluating the PRINCE2® training. Additionally, you should also consider the extent of the course coverage and flexibility provided to you with the various bundled services, such as questionnaires, guide books, resource materials, etc. to save a few bucks on the PRINCE2® Certification cost.PRINCE2® ROLESThere are several roles that are pre-defined under the PRINCE2® methodology. But, the Practitioners can tailor these roles depending on the project environment and requirements, as long as they adhere to some rules. The following is the list of the defined PRINCE2® roles:Project Board: It is a group that comprises of :Executive: The individual ultimately responsible for the project.Senior User: One or more individuals that represent the requirements of the final user.Senior Supplier: One or more individuals responsible for representing the interests of the suppliers.Project Assurance: Responsible for ensuring whether the interests of the stakeholders are met.Change Authority: It decides upon some of the change requests on behalf of the Project Board.Project Manager: The individual responsible for the day to day management and supervision of the project on behalf of the Project Board.Project Support: The body that is responsible for helping the Project Manager in the Project Management activities and duties.Team Manager: One or more people that ensure the quality and other aspects of production in the various teams from various departments.BENEFITS of PRINCE2® MethodologyNow that we have briefly understood the structure of the PRINCE2® methodology and its essential components, we should focus on the various advantages of actually applying the PRINCE2® Methodology. PRINCE2® has proven itself as an established and top managerial practice. Some key benefits are :The most important is the versatility that it offers, it can be applied to almost any type of project within any environment.This methodology is acceptable and well recognized across the entire globe. Earlier only IT sector was its dominant user but now it has expanded to several other sectors also, such as finance and construction.PRINCE2® shines at identifying and distributing roles and responsibilities distinctively. Every member associated with the project should be aware of their responsibilities and tasks. It reduces confusion and enhances performance.PRINCE2® also focuses on the actual product or service that we are producing in the project and tries to maintain its highest quality of standards. It further ensures the quality of the final services with timely delivery.Another benefit is that the plans mentioned in PRINCE2® are designed to cater to the different needs and requirements depending on the different levels of management.It simplifies larger projects through its principle of dividing the project into smaller stages making them easier to handle and manage.Thus, it is crystal clear that PRINCE2® ensures that a product or service is delivered in an effective manner in every possible way. It also satisfies the reasoning behind projects and delivering products of high-quality standards on time.
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Structure of PRINCE2®

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Structure of PRINCE2®

So you have finally decided to gain first-class management skills to either improve your employment opportunities or just implement it in your organization to yield better and improved results while undertaking challenging projects. Whatever the case might be, an individual who is about to engage with the PRINCE2® project management methodology must be aware of its basics and various features.

PRINCE2® is basically an acronym for – Projects IN Controlled Environment, which is a structured project management methodology and the world’s most appreciated and favoured standard for project management. It is considered the most flexible and adaptable project management method. It’s so user-friendly that its controlled method of handling projects makes it easier for the practitioner to decide upon the involved members and their respective responsibilities in a project. Its versatility makes it easier to implement this methodology in numerous projects from different sectors such as IT, finance, construction, and engineering. It is also used by government agencies and other private companies which is another factor behind its emergence as a global standard in project management.

The qualification offered by the PRINCE2® method is divided into two separate courses:

Prince2 foundation vs Prince2 Practitioner

PRINCE2® Foundation

PRINCE2® Foundation is the first of the two offered courses. This is a basic course that does not require any prior qualification, but the candidate must have some knowledge of Project Management. The Foundation course focuses on furnishing the PRINCE2® principles and its jargon, when completed the candidate would be capable of acting as a well-informed member of a project management team based on a PRINCE2® environment.

PRINCE2® Practitioner

PRINCE2® Practitioner is the second course offered by the PRINCE2®. This is the advanced level of the Foundation course and requires suitable qualifications before availing this course. This includes either the PRINCE2® foundation course or any of the qualifications suggested by the requirements criteria. The Practitioner course focuses on the application of the PRINCE2® methodology on the operation and management of a project. After the completion of the course, the candidate will be able to use PRINCE2® methodology according to the needs of the project scenario. This course ensures the individual of a comprehensive understanding of the relationships between the PRINCE2® principles, themes, processes, and the products.  

PRINCE2® METHODOLOGY

As discussed above, we know that the PRINCE2® methodology is very flexible and can be applied to any kind of project. As the name suggests, it focuses on undertaking a project under controlled environments. It describes the principle of setting up a project in PRINCE2® project management. The idea is that the method is based on processes and the division of the entire project work into several stages to simplify the work associated with it. The processes focus on maintaining a controlled environment from the preparation to the completion of the project.

Key Elements

Now that we have some idea of what PRINCE2® is all about, let’s dive deep into the fundamental segments associated with this methodology and its core structure. To get started, we can identify its structure as a combination of three integrated elements that someway or the other influence each other throughout the project.

  • The structure includes an array of seven principles: these are the rules and regulations and the collective group practices that should be adhered to in a PRINCE2® project.
  • Another element is the collection of seven themes and the themes of seven features of project management that are a must to implement in a project.
  • There is also a set of the processing procedure i.e. the steps to be used in the entirety of the PRINCE2® project.

The PRINCE2® functions in a very structured manner as we discussed above and the skeletal framework with the above mentioned three elements ensure the proper implementation of this methodology so as to yield improved and desired results. This particular framework is actually applicable to any type of project environment and utilizing this particular structure and the underlying processes we can effectively run and manage a PRINCE2® project.

7 PRINCE2® PRINCIPLES

7 PRINCE2® PRINCIPLES

  1. Continued Business Justification: This principle states that every project should have a justification to support itself, which would be valid throughout the entirety of the project. Factors such as cost, time, profit and reasoning should form the basis of the justification. The continuous recheck of justification is one of the major actions taken in the PRINCE2® and it must be approved by the respected authorities that are in a position to do so.
  2. Learn From Experience: It’s as simple as it sounds, it implies that every member associated with the project should learn from the experience gained in the entire process. The mistakes must not be repeated again which is easy and possible through analysis of the previous projects.
  3. Defined Roles and Responsibilities: Definite roles and responsibilities must be assigned to every member associated with the project to reduce confusion related to the work distribution and process and ultimately to save valuable time from getting wasted on trivial and unprofessional issues.
  4. Manage By Stages: According to the methodology of PRINCE2®, it encourages management of a project in the form of smaller stages. Any PRINCE2® project must have a minimum of two stages, the starting up stage and its initiation stage that follows accordingly.
  5. Manage By Exception: This principle suggests that the projects must be managed by exception. The team handling the project must have an exception plan in order to verify and determine that the project is running on the right and desired track, and any change must be forwarded to the reporting manager in a timely manner.
  6. Focus On Products: This principle, in particular, enforces the quality of the product. The quality of the product shouldn’t be compromised, through emphasis on developing products and services properly and maintaining the quality standards across all the projects and products.
  7. Tailor To Suit: This is the final principle of PRINCE2® that emphasizes on the flexibility of the PRINCE2® structure and its customization according to different situations and projects. Every project brings its own challenges and set of requirements and PRINCE2® is capable of providing liberty to mold the principles that are suitable for the project.

7 PRINCE2® THEMES

  • Business Case: In one way it is similar, and goes hand in hand with the first PRINCE2® principle that promotes continuous business justification. A Business Case considers the justification for undertaking a project along with defining the costs and timelines involved in the project. Another aspect of it is that the Business Case shall be valid throughout the entirety of the project at any given point of time. In case the justification seems invalid, the project shouldn’t be continued any further and should be called off immediately.
  • Organization: It ensures that the proper stage is being followed and that every individual involved in the project has no confusion regarding their role and the assigned duties. This theme clearly aligns with the PRINCE2® principle of defined roles and responsibilities.
  • Quality: This one aligns with the PRINCE2® principle of focus on products. It focuses on ensuring that the product or service is of a set global standard and efforts must be made to maintain such high-quality standards consistently.
  • Plans: Planning is the most important step while undertaking any project, and PRINCE2® promotes the same. Just planning is not enough, the plan should be an ideal one with intense research and consideration towards major aspects related to the project. During the stage of planning, it should be made sure that there is a plan of processes and it should be maintained throughout the project.
  • Risks: Everything that we do in our daily lives includes some sort of risk, for e.g. crossing a road. Similarly, every project in some way or other is susceptible to risks and requires a proper and functional risk management. PRINCE2® suggests that there should be a risk register and a risk management plan already designed and implemented to execute a project effectively and efficiently.
  • Change: Changes are an important part of a project, as no plan is perfect and might require future adjustments and updates. PRINCE2® suggests that whenever a change is decided and requested, it should be recorded in a register and should only be sanctioned and adopted by following the rules mentioned in the plan and strategy register.
  • Progress: This theme focuses on the regular review and analysis of a project and asserting control over it through the same. This theme aligns with the PRINCE2® principle of management by stages.

PRINCE2® PROCESSES

PRINCE2® PROCESSES

  • Starting up a Project: This process makes sure that there should be an existing plan and business case for starting the project. It would be impossible to start any project without a proper plan in the first place.
  • Directing a Project: This process is heavily based on the communication between the project board and the executive, where the project plan is reviewed and analyzed in detail.
  • Initiating a Project: This is the process where the plan is initiated and signs of actual execution of the plan are effective and evident.
  • Controlling a Stage: This process includes making sure that the previous stage was successful and that it is verified and confirmed before proceeding further to the next stages.
  • Managing Product Delivery: Here, the developed and finished product or service is thoroughly inspected and is compared with the desired results from the devised plan. The product should meet the expectations of the plan otherwise more efforts should be made towards its betterment.
  • Managing a Stage Boundary: The primary objective behind this process is to assure the board that all products in the current working stage are effectively produced and approved. This process also includes reviewing and updating of the usual documents that involve the project initiation plan, business case, project plan, and risk register when necessary.
  • Closing the Project: As indicative from its name, this process focuses on closing the project in terms of pen and paper i.e with legal documentation. This process is the final step of each and every project.

PRINCE2® CERTIFICATION COST

The primary cost elements associated with the PRINCE2® Certification are:

  • The cost associated with the training and preparation
  • The cost of the actual examination

Many candidates have the misconception that the cost associated with the certification only includes the examination fee and miscalculate the expenses related to it. You should be aware that just like every qualification, PRINCE2® certification also requires intense determination to successfully pass both the offered courses. It has two training modes: Online training and Classroom training. You have the freedom to choose any of the two based on your needs.

OnlineTraining

Online Training PRINCE2

On average, the PRINCE2® Certification costs around $900. But by opting for the online mode of training you can cut down the prices to $300. This training would provide a bundle for both the PRINCE2® Foundation and the PRINCE2® Practitioner exams for a year with the all-in-one pack. Some training providers even provide training for a cost of $60 for a month to those who have an urgency or just want to get the certification as quickly as possible.

Classroom Training

classroom Training PRINCE2

The classroom is considered to be the better of the two training modes as it enables live human interaction and better resolution of doubts. The classroom would cost you around $1000, and this cost covers the cost of both the PRINCE2® Foundation and the PRINCE2® Practitioner exams.

Henceforth, you should consider the overall certification cost while evaluating the PRINCE2® training. Additionally, you should also consider the extent of the course coverage and flexibility provided to you with the various bundled services, such as questionnaires, guide books, resource materials, etc. to save a few bucks on the PRINCE2® Certification cost.

PRINCE2® ROLES

There are several roles that are pre-defined under the PRINCE2® methodology. But, the Practitioners can tailor these roles depending on the project environment and requirements, as long as they adhere to some rules. The following is the list of the defined PRINCE2® roles:

  • Project Board: It is a group that comprises of :
    • Executive: The individual ultimately responsible for the project.
    • Senior User: One or more individuals that represent the requirements of the final user.
    • Senior Supplier: One or more individuals responsible for representing the interests of the suppliers.
  • Project Assurance: Responsible for ensuring whether the interests of the stakeholders are met.
  • Change Authority: It decides upon some of the change requests on behalf of the Project Board.
  • Project Manager: The individual responsible for the day to day management and supervision of the project on behalf of the Project Board.
  • Project Support: The body that is responsible for helping the Project Manager in the Project Management activities and duties.
  • Team Manager: One or more people that ensure the quality and other aspects of production in the various teams from various departments.

BENEFITS of PRINCE2® Methodology

BENEFITS of PRINCE2® Methodology
Now that we have briefly understood the structure of the PRINCE2® methodology and its essential components, we should focus on the various advantages of actually applying the PRINCE2® Methodology. PRINCE2® has proven itself as an established and top managerial practice. Some key benefits are :

  • The most important is the versatility that it offers, it can be applied to almost any type of project within any environment.
  • This methodology is acceptable and well recognized across the entire globe. Earlier only IT sector was its dominant user but now it has expanded to several other sectors also, such as finance and construction.
  • PRINCE2® shines at identifying and distributing roles and responsibilities distinctively. Every member associated with the project should be aware of their responsibilities and tasks. It reduces confusion and enhances performance.
  • PRINCE2® also focuses on the actual product or service that we are producing in the project and tries to maintain its highest quality of standards. It further ensures the quality of the final services with timely delivery.
  • Another benefit is that the plans mentioned in PRINCE2® are designed to cater to the different needs and requirements depending on the different levels of management.
  • It simplifies larger projects through its principle of dividing the project into smaller stages making them easier to handle and manage.

Thus, it is crystal clear that PRINCE2® ensures that a product or service is delivered in an effective manner in every possible way. It also satisfies the reasoning behind projects and delivering products of high-quality standards on time.

KnowledgeHut

KnowledgeHut

Author

KnowledgeHut is a fast growing Management Consulting and Training firm that is a source of Intelligent Information support for businesses and professionals across the globe.


Website : https://www.knowledgehut.com/

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PMI-ACP® Agile Certification Requirements and Processes

So. you want to get your PMI-ACP®  certification and are wondering what the PMI-ACP®  Certification course requirements and processes are! You are in the right place and this post will hopefully be beneficial in guiding you with regard to all the optional and mandatory steps required to apply for the certification. It’s obvious, whenever someone start a process (Certification Education) or anything new, the first question that comes to mind is, where should I start , and what are the requirements. The PMI-ACP® certification has been recently launched by PMI® . Here we have compiled a list of all the PMI-ACP® certification requirements and processes step by step in detail.   PMI-ACP® Certification Requirements and Processes There are basically seven steps required for PMI-ACP® certification; some are optional while others are mandatory. Step #1: User ID: This is optional. Go to PMI.org and create a User ID. This is not mandatory but there are benefits and I will mention a few of them: Free. You will be able to create a profile and your mode of payment, which makes later access easy. You will get up to date information from PMI®.   Step #2: Eligibility: This is the tricky part and most people get confused. (You can also go to PMI.org and perform the following steps to get updated information as PMI® may change their rules from time to time. Go to PMI.org —> select Certification —>select PMI-ACP. The eligibility is listed. Diploma: · High school. · One year of General Project Management experience with 2,000 hours of work with project teams. · Eight months of Agile Project Management experience with 1,500 hours of work with project teams using agile methodologies. · 21 hours of Agile Project Management Training.   If you think you are eligible, move to step 3. Step #3: Membership: This is optional and is different than your user id. PMI® has a membership service, which offers some benefits. There are several types of membership and the fee is different for each type. Please do check PMI® Membership and Types, PMI® Membership Fee and PMI® Membership Benefits. Also please visit PMI.org for updated information on membership, types, and benefits in details and check whether the membership suits your needs or not. We are mentioning a few benefits of membership here: Free access to PMI® library and a free copy of PMBOK Access to Local PMI® chapter, useful for getting PDUs and networking Waiver in PMI®-ACP fee and re-certification fee   Step #4: Application: Refer to Step #2, mentioning the education and project hours. Now you have to submit an application to PMI® showing proof of your education, the project hours and project management training that you have undergone. Previously, you had to do it online but now PMI® offers a downloadable pdf as well. You have to fill in the required details covering all processes and the hours you spend on each process. Step #5: Fee: When you submit your application, you will be contacted within a few working days and will be asked to deposit the fee for certification. Now as was mentioned previously, the fee is different for both members and non-members. Step #6: [one_half] A: Application accepted: You will be asked to proceed and schedule your exam at a Prometric center. B: Audit: PMI® randomly selects some applicants for an audit process.[/one_half] Step 6 has two parts as you can see; either your application will be accepted or put a hold for an audit. If you are one of the unlucky ones that are caught in the audit process then you have to show written confirmation from the bodies who authorize the education, experience and project management training. Step #7: Schedule exam: Once you are done with the above steps, the last step is to schedule your exam according to your convenience at prometric.com. However, before you schedule your exam, I would encourage you to read this article to familiarize yourself with the PMI®-ACP Exam Format.
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PMI-ACP® Agile Certification Requirements and ...

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PRINCE2® Roles and Responsibilities [Major & Minor Roles explained]

A project is run by a team and without one, it won’t even begin or complete. When a team is finally formed, they would then have to formulate a plan and act on the same to complete the project. Thus, it becomes an issue of great importance that the members in the team associated with a particular project are aware of what they have to do, what they can expect from others as well as their team members, to whom they have to report their work, and who shall do the brainstorming and decision-making, and this article focuses on providing answers for these questions. Hence, this principle defines the roles and responsibilities of everyone who is associated with the project, from the very beginning till the closure of the project.PRINCE2® clearly suggests that a project should have well-defined, distributed and agreed roles and responsibilities among the entire team undertaking the project. It is important for an organization to distinctly identify these roles and responsibilities to enable its structure that deals with Business, User and Stakeholder interests to function properly and effectively.PRINCE2® ORGANIZATION THEMEThe organization theme is responsible for defining and authorizing the accountability and responsibilities, that form the structure of a project.PRINCE2® assumes that there will be a customer responsible for specifying the desired result and then purchasing the project. Similarly, a supplier will also be present to provide the resources and skills needed to deliver the desired results. Thus, it is safe to say that  PRINCE2® is based on a customer/supplier environment.One major feature of PRINCE2® is that all the projects should have a defined organizational structure that will ultimately bring together the various parties and teams for the common aspirations of the project. It further enhances the effectivity of project governance and decision making.These are the components of a successful project management team under the organization theme:1. Representation of all the three major stakeholders as listed in PRINCE2®, a project consists of three major stakeholders which are the Business Sponsors, Users, and Suppliers.Business Sponsors are responsible for ensuring that the product or service offers value for money and is of high-quality standards.Users represent the consumer aspects, they will use the final finished products and services, and are the ones receiving the benefit of those products and services.Suppliers are responsible for providing the basic material and resources, raw or tailored and supplying proper knowledge and experience to the project. They are the producers, producing the finished products according to the designed project plan.This particular principle clearly states that the three major stakeholders must be correctly represented in the Project Management Team and in the Project Board as they act as the three staunch pillars that support and drive the project further ahead. Every successful project team must have a proper Business, User, and Supplier stakeholder representation.An effective project team should have defined responsibilities for directing, managing and delivering the project. These three processes paired up with accountability are the key components of a project and thus require accurate and proper distribution of responsibilities.Another component of a successful project team is the regular and continuous reviewing of various project roles assigned to the members throughout the project.The final component is to come up with an effective strategy for properly managing the communication flows that the project team must maintain to/from the external key stakeholders.It is a common understanding that the senior management board will be under a lot of workload and cannot supervise the day-to-day development of the project. Hence, the board issues certain responsibilities to certain individuals or a group of individuals, such that the direction and management of the project is separated from the delivery of the project’s outputs and results. It is done by using the principle of Management by Exception.The structure that eventually forms comprises of four levels, where Corporate level is outside the project borderlines:Corporate: It is responsible for:Commissioning the project in the first placeAppointing the Project Executive  Defining the project level tolerances to be followed by the project boardDirecting: It is undertaken by the project board, which is responsible for:Overall direction and supervision of the projectAccountable for the project’s successThey approve all the major plansThey approve completion of each stageThey authorize the start of the next stageCommunicating with the stakeholdersAuthorizing any deviation that exceeds the project level tolerancesManaging: Project Manager comes under this level and is responsible for:The day-to-day management of the project within the parameters set by the project boardTo make sure that the products are being delivered according to the time, cost, quality, scope of risk and benefit objectivesDelivering: Team Managers come under this level and are responsible for:Delivering the project’s products with the desired quality standards and within a specified time frame and costTo summarize these components, we can conclude that each project should have direction, management, control and communication within its structure and project team for providing better and fruitful outcomes.THE PREDEFINED ROLES IN A PROJECTThe PRINCE2® methodology is based on processes and division of stages for improved performance. It also brings along a series of defined roles with specific tasks designated to them. The predefined roles in a project based on a PRINCE2® environment are:Project Board - It is a group of professionals that includes :Executive: The executive has the custody of the business case and is the person ultimately taking responsibility for the project.Senior User: This position can be held by an individual or a group of professionals. Their primary objective is to represent the demands of the final user.Senior Supplier: This position can also be assigned to one or more individuals. Their responsibility is to ensure the representation of the interests of the suppliers.Project Assurance: The primary goal of Project Assurance is to make sure that the interests of the stakeholders are met.Change Authority: They are responsible for deciding the major change requests on behalf of the Project Board.Project Manager: The person responsible for undertaking the day-to-day supervision of the project on behalf of the Project Board.Project Support: It is the body responsible for assisting the Project Manager in the Project Management tasks and duties.Team Manager: This position can be assigned to one or more professionals that ensure the quality and other elements of production in the various teams that focus on a particular skill or knowledge from various departments.1. Roles Associated with the Project BoardThe project board represents the direction level of the project and consists of the following roles : a. The Executive: The executive actually owns the business case and his role is that of a business-oriented leader who is ultimately accountable for the project. The executive also has the authority of delivering the final words and decisions that are taken in the project. Thus, the project board doesn’t demonstrate any signs of democracy and equal decision-making rights.The executive is appointed by the corporate of programme management, he is the one responsible for the project with additional support from the Senior User and Senior Supplier. The executive is also responsible for designing and appointing the project management team, including the rest of the project board and also appoints the project manager b. The Senior User: It represents the final user’s requirements in the board. It specifies the needs of the user that will use the finished product or service and also establishes communication between the project management team and the users, and ensuring that the products will cater to the needs of the users, especially the quality of the product or service and ease of use. It also supplies benefits information for the Benefit Review Plan. c. The Senior Supplier: It represents the interests of the supplier. It represents the interests of those designing, developing, facilitating and implementing the project’s product and services, they provide supply to the project and make sure that only the right tools, people, equipment and expertise are in place. They also ensure that the product meets the expected criteria including the quality criteria.   Only one person can be the executive, but both the other two roles i.e the senior user and the senior supplier can be assigned to one or multiple individuals.Associated DutiesThe project board is responsible for holding accountability for the success and the failure of the project.Another duty is to provide unified direction to the project and the respective Project Manager.The project board also provides the resources and also authorizes funds utilized in the project.They should also provide additional visible and continuous support and assistance to the Project Manager.They ensure that there is effective communication within the project team and with external stakeholders.In real life, there are many organizations that have a project board that is incapable of handling projects or is either inexperienced or not at all interested in the project itself. This is a serious issue and a major drawback that could sabotage the entire project and the team associated. Henceforth, a great project board is a must to ensure that the direction is on point and effective. 2. The Project Assurance RoleIt is the responsibility of the Project Board to ensure that the project performs well and the products/services are produced, this is known as the Project Assurance. The board usually checks it directly through the Project Manager. But in large projects, many of the board members are busy with their respective tasks. Thus, the board can delegate this responsibility to someone else. The basic method is to double-check the information and this is called Project Assurance.It monitors the performance of the project and provides assistance to the Project Manager by giving insights on corporate-related issues. That’s how the board uses its Project Assurance responsibility to ensure that everything is going according to plan and the Project Manager is up to date with corporate regulations.Different board members have their respective Project Assurance responsibilities. For example:The Executive is responsible for Business Assurance (Business Value)The Senior User is responsible for the User AssuranceThe Senior Supplier is responsible for the Supplier’s Assurance 3. The Change Authority Role The responsibilities associated with the Change Authority are as follows:This role lies under the Project Team Management.The Project Board may decide if an individual should be appointed or an entire group is required to undertake this role.The primary objective of  Change Authority is to review the requests for change or the off-specifications related to the project.The Change Authority is also capable of delegating responsibility to a number of levels depending on the intensity and the complexity of the change.Asperity of Change RequestDecided ByLevel 1Project Support / Help DeskLevel 2Project ManagerLevel 3Change AuthorityLevel 4Project BoardLevel 5Corp / Programme ManagementIf smaller changes are expected in a project then the Project Board can handle them. But when many major changes are expected then it is more efficient to use a separate Change Authority group.A separate Change Authority group simplifies the change process and saves the Project Board from all the hassle. 4. The Project Manager RoleThe Project Manager role has the following impact on the project:Their primary objective is to manage the project on a daily basis. Their main focus is on the day-to-day progress of the project.This particular position of a Project Manager can never be shared and only one is appointed for a particular project.The Project Manager runs and supervises a project on behalf of the Project Board within a few specified constraints and collaborates throughout the project with the Project Board and the Project Assurance.In the case of PRINCE2®, it is usually preferred that the Project Manager belongs to the customer side.The Project is also responsible for running all the principal processes except Directing a Project Process (DP).The Project Manager is responsible for the Project Support and assistance and also the Team Managers.In several smaller projects, where there are no Team Managers, the Project Manager can manage the team members directly. Additionally, in cases where there is project support, the support task is completely on the shoulders of the Project Manager.5. The Team Manager RoleThe role of a Team Manager is actually optional and not necessary in smaller projects. The role  of a Team Manager only comes into the scene if:The Project is quite huge and requires a lot of members. Thus, a number of Team Members would be required to manage and supervise several teams from different departments and expertise.Team Managers are usually required for a specific skill, skillset or knowledge of the products to be produced. For example, a project requires an individual with great expertise of JAVA to provide assistance in handling and developing the applications or programs or researching on a particular product.They are also the need of the hour when the project is affected by geographical reasons. The project might include remote teams that provide assistance from remote locations, then that particular remote team is managed by a Team Manager.If the project is using an external company, then it would be easier to coordinate with the Team Manager rather than all the team members directly and individually.6. The Project Support RoleThe project support role offers the following services to the project:The Project Support provides administrative services to provide assistance to the Project Manager in the form of filing, distributing documents, adding documents to an IT System, etc.Project support also advises and offers guidance regarding the use of project management tools and configuration management.The Project Support also provides additional assistance in planning and risk management. For example, keeping the planned documents up to date and also highlighting what has been completed and what aspects of the projects are delayed.The prominent responsibility of the Project Support is Configuration Management and following the guidelines under the Configuration Management Strategy Document: it is one of the four strategy documents formulated at the beginning of the project.The responsibility of the Project Support is under the authority of the Project manager. To put forward in simple words, the Project Manager is responsible for the administrative duties associated with the project. Therefore, this role is not optional, however, the Project Manager can delegate this responsibility to another person or group.In a case, where the Project Manager is unable to delegate this role to someone else, it is the responsibility of the Project Manager to assume the role of the Project Support. This is the reason why we see many Project Managers working late in the evening and doing overtime. As they are trying to catch up on their administrative tasks and keep forgetting to plan all this in their normal working hours.STAGE-WISE MANAGEMENTA great way of handling a big and chunky task or project is to divide it into smaller and manageable fragments. This is the same methodology implemented in the PRINCE2® method of project management. But, instead of chunks or fragments, in PRINCE2® a different terminology is used, i.e. stages - Management Stages. The PRINCE2® methodology focuses on running and operating a project under a planned and controlled environment through a stage by stage basis.These stages are separated and decided by the Project Board on the basis of Decision Points. After the completion of each stage, the Project Board assesses the performance of the previous stage, analyzes the plans for the next stage, and ultimately decides whether to proceed to the next stage or not. The higher the number of stages, the more control is possessed by the Project Board, but it also increases their workload. Fewer stages in a project require less amount of work from the Project Board which indicates that the Senior Management will have less control over the project.  The division of a project into stages has some advantages as mentioned below:It allows the project to be divided into smaller and simpler fragments that can be easily managed.It leads to a high-level plan for the project and a very detailed Stage Plan.It also incorporates learning from the previous stages while devising a plan for the upcoming stages.There should be a minimum of two management stages in a project under a PRINCE2® project environment:The Initiation StageThe Management StageThe Closing a Project process is the last part of the second stage in a two-stage project.In this manner a particular PRINCE2® project is controlled, managed, and monitored on a stage by stage basis.
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PRINCE2® Roles and Responsibilities [Major &am...

A project is run by a team and without one, it won... Read More