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The Underlying Idea Behind PRINCE2® Methodology

PRINCE2® stands for Projects in-Controlled Environment. PRINCE2® is a process-based project management methodology that means PRINCE2® certified project management experts are not just projecting implementers but serious planners and contributors whom even the top management of an organization can trust with a whole new project. The original version of PRINCE methodology was updated in 1996-97; so, the new version becomes PRINCE2®. The methodology provides ways to simplify any types of project in several sub-modules so that the project management team can organize and control the whole project systematically.PRINCE2® methodology starts with some basic questionsAs said before, PRINCE2® methodology tries to simplify the project by segregating it into several parts and then integrating each part setting proper logic. The PRINCE2® methodology starts with some basic questions. These questions help to include all visible and invisible matters together:What we have planned to do?What is the expected date of starting the project?What arrangement does this project need?Is it possible to accomplish everything with the current availability of in-house resources or some external help is necessary?How much time the whole project can take?If more time is required, then how much further can it be stretched?What will be the maximum cost of the whole project?These questions form the foundation of a project. Many unknown or primarily suppressed aspects come out one by one while answering these questions. Hence, in the PRINCE2® methodology, a project always starts with these questions. The PRINCE2® methodology attributes a proper structure for every project. It defines it step by step so that everyone involved understands their roles, responsibilities, and limitations. PRINCE2® makes everything logical and organized.The pillars of PRINCE2® FrameworkIt is obvious that an unstructured, uncontrolled project goes nowhere. It destroys an organization’s precious resources and money. These types of unstructured, uncontrolled projects do not finish in time or within the assigned budget. Thus, PRINCE2® methodology provides a framework to channelize the resources, ideas, energy, money, and time. There are three pillars of the PRINCE2® framework:A project should have a planned and controlled start – A project should be well-planned with all the above-mentioned questions answered before starting it.A project should have a planned and controlled middle – While work-in-progress, the project should follow a predetermined path.A project should have a planned and controlled end – When the mission is accomplished it is necessary to reconcile everything systematically.Principles of the PRINCE2® methodologyThe entire PRINCE2® methodology is based on the following principles:Project undertaken should have proper justification with respect to the business: The project should be properly justified at any point in time. The project manager should be optimistic about its benefits and risk ensuring that benefits are always higher than the cost involved.Roles and Responsibilities of every member should be well-defined: All members of the project should know what the project wants from them and how to relate their responsibilities with others.Project is a systematic accumulation of several parts: PRINCE2® methodology breaks a project into several parts and then integrates them as the project demands. Thus, it helps the units to evaluate their success at each stage.Decentralized management: PRINCE2® methodology asked to form a project management board with senior-most managers that would determine the project cost, time, and resources. It then asks to provide the responsibility of the project to the project manager who will manage the project management teams. Each team would have team heads who will report to the project manager.Tailored to meet the project needs: PRINCE2® can be tailored depending on the importance of the project, the budget allocated, resource availability, and time.Project Management Roles in the PRINCE2® methodologyIn a PRINCE2® environment, the project management team needs to work in perfect cohesion. In fact, human resource planning and allocation take a different dimension here. PRINCE2® methodology induces teamwork culture in every part. The greater project management team is segregated into smaller units and each unit remains responsible for only their share of jobs. Again each unit remains linked with several other units that together accomplish the whole job. Some key roles in a PRINCE2® environment are given below:Project board: This remains at the helm of the entire project. The project board comprises of executive, senior user, and senior supplier. The programme or corporate management appoints the executive. This executive bears the responsibility of the project. They get technical support and advice from the senior user and senior supplier. Normally, the executive remains responsible for the development of the project management team. They also develop the Business case and performs a regular audit to ensure the feasibility of the project. The senior user is the representative of all the users who will use the project product. The senior supplier represents those designing, facilitating, and developing the actual project products.The project manager interacts with the project board whenever any important decision is taken or any unanticipated matter arises like the current budget may not be sufficient or a few resources may need some changes, etc. The project manager needs the approval of the project board in all major decisions that are not included in the actual project plan.Project Manager: The project manager organizes and controls the project management team. They develop smaller units as required and appoint unit heads. The project manager draws the whole working plan and delivers responsibilities to the units and individuals. They also provide deadlinesThe Customer: The customer is an individual, group, or corporate body that actually pays for the projectThe User: the user is an individual, group, or corporate body who will use the project products. In some situations, the customer and the user become the same individual, group, or corporate bodyThe Supplier: This is actually a group of professionals whose skills and experience are required to materialize the projectPRINCE2® Project ProcessPRINCE2® strongly advocates planning a project structure and adhering to it unless and until any crisis arises. Following are the essential steps in the PRINCE2® project process:Step 1: The first step in structuring the whole project that includes designing, directing and starting the project. At first, a project mandate is created that narrates the necessity of the project in brief. Once the mandate is established, the project is briefed. The project board is developed and the board members discuss the project on the basis of the brief they receive. They then approve or amend the brief and give their consent. At this point, a project manager is appointed to whom the project board delegates the project responsibility. The project manager designs the blueprint on the basis of a number of parameters such as deadline, the risk involved, budget, scope, quality, and benefits.Step 2: the second step includes control and management. The project manager develops the project team, segregates it in smaller units, assigns responsibility to each unit, and assigns budgets and deadlines. This step is the most important one in the sense that it actually materializes the project and shows the results, i.e. project products are developed in this step. Project manager gives regular updates to the project board that then review the feasibility of the project. As every stage completes, the project manager and project board undertake a feasibility check on the basis of several parameters.Step 3: This is the closing of a project. As the project products are developed, the project manager closes the project by reconciling every single aspect from finance to human resources. The final report is submitted to the project board that then ends the project.PRINCE2® project management supportManaging administrative works is important in any PRINCE2® project management. The project manager needs to deal with several types of documents and they also need to arrange meetings with the team or units as also with the project board. Besides, keeping files updated, arranging computerized files in proper order, data management, reviewing the team’s performance and problems, etc. are important administrative jobs. Project manager generally deals with all these responsibilities single-handed; in some situations, especially when the project is a large one or several projects are taking place simultaneously, the administrative office is established to handle these jobs.Scope of the PRINCE2® methodologyProjects have different levels. Some are extremely complicated with multidimensional aspects, some are multidisciplinary but not so complicated, and some are simple. PRINCE2® is suitable for all as it provides a common language for all stakeholders. PRINCE2® simplifies a complicated project by segregating it as per the requirement and then integrating the segregated parts to obtain the required outcome.Project assurance in the PRINCE2® methodologyIn PRINCE2® environment project assurance is the assessment of a project from independent perspectives. There are three different and independent project assurance views: business’ view, user’s view, and supplier’s view. It is evident that these views represent the independent views of project board members.Business assurance checks the viability of project cost, quality, and deadlines. The user assurance checks whether the users’ requirements and quality are maintained or not. Supplier assurance also called technical assurance checks whether the project is progressing as per the assigned framework. If the project is really big or taking place in more than one place at a time, a project assurance team is formed to obtain independent views of the above-mentioned personnel; otherwise, the responsibility is given to the project board.So, PRINCE2® methodology is designed to manage a project in an organized way. It attributes project structure at the very initial phase of a project and ensures that everyone involved in the project adheres to that structure. PRINCE2® methodology uses common language in every level that enables even novice project members to communicate with others effortlessly or understand their responsibility without much intervention of the unit manager or project manager.
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The Underlying Idea Behind PRINCE2® Methodology

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The Underlying Idea Behind PRINCE2® Methodology

PRINCE2® stands for Projects in-Controlled Environment. PRINCE2® is a process-based project management methodology that means PRINCE2® certified project management experts are not just projecting implementers but serious planners and contributors whom even the top management of an organization can trust with a whole new project. The original version of PRINCE methodology was updated in 1996-97; so, the new version becomes PRINCE2®. The methodology provides ways to simplify any types of project in several sub-modules so that the project management team can organize and control the whole project systematically.

PRINCE2® methodology starts with some basic questions

some basic questions

As said before, PRINCE2® methodology tries to simplify the project by segregating it into several parts and then integrating each part setting proper logic. The PRINCE2® methodology starts with some basic questions. These questions help to include all visible and invisible matters together:

  • What we have planned to do?
  • What is the expected date of starting the project?
  • What arrangement does this project need?
  • Is it possible to accomplish everything with the current availability of in-house resources or some external help is necessary?
  • How much time the whole project can take?
  • If more time is required, then how much further can it be stretched?
  • What will be the maximum cost of the whole project?

These questions form the foundation of a project. Many unknown or primarily suppressed aspects come out one by one while answering these questions. Hence, in the PRINCE2® methodology, a project always starts with these questions. The PRINCE2® methodology attributes a proper structure for every project. It defines it step by step so that everyone involved understands their roles, responsibilities, and limitations. PRINCE2® makes everything logical and organized.

The pillars of PRINCE2® Framework

It is obvious that an unstructured, uncontrolled project goes nowhere. It destroys an organization’s precious resources and money. These types of unstructured, uncontrolled projects do not finish in time or within the assigned budget. Thus, PRINCE2® methodology provides a framework to channelize the resources, ideas, energy, money, and time. There are three pillars of the PRINCE2® framework:

  1. A project should have a planned and controlled start – A project should be well-planned with all the above-mentioned questions answered before starting it.
  2. A project should have a planned and controlled middle – While work-in-progress, the project should follow a predetermined path.
  3. A project should have a planned and controlled end – When the mission is accomplished it is necessary to reconcile everything systematically.

Principles of the PRINCE2® methodology

The entire PRINCE2® methodology is based on the following principles:

  • Project undertaken should have proper justification with respect to the business: The project should be properly justified at any point in time. The project manager should be optimistic about its benefits and risk ensuring that benefits are always higher than the cost involved.
  • Roles and Responsibilities of every member should be well-defined: All members of the project should know what the project wants from them and how to relate their responsibilities with others.
  • Project is a systematic accumulation of several parts: PRINCE2® methodology breaks a project into several parts and then integrates them as the project demands. Thus, it helps the units to evaluate their success at each stage.
  • Decentralized management: PRINCE2® methodology asked to form a project management board with senior-most managers that would determine the project cost, time, and resources. It then asks to provide the responsibility of the project to the project manager who will manage the project management teams. Each team would have team heads who will report to the project manager.
  • Tailored to meet the project needs: PRINCE2® can be tailored depending on the importance of the project, the budget allocated, resource availability, and time.

Project Management Roles in the PRINCE2® methodology

Roles in the PRINCE2® methodology

In a PRINCE2® environment, the project management team needs to work in perfect cohesion. In fact, human resource planning and allocation take a different dimension here. PRINCE2® methodology induces teamwork culture in every part. The greater project management team is segregated into smaller units and each unit remains responsible for only their share of jobs. Again each unit remains linked with several other units that together accomplish the whole job. Some key roles in a PRINCE2® environment are given below:

  • Project board: This remains at the helm of the entire project. The project board comprises of executive, senior user, and senior supplier. The programme or corporate management appoints the executive. This executive bears the responsibility of the project. They get technical support and advice from the senior user and senior supplier. Normally, the executive remains responsible for the development of the project management team. They also develop the Business case and performs a regular audit to ensure the feasibility of the project. The senior user is the representative of all the users who will use the project product. The senior supplier represents those designing, facilitating, and developing the actual project products.

The project manager interacts with the project board whenever any important decision is taken or any unanticipated matter arises like the current budget may not be sufficient or a few resources may need some changes, etc. The project manager needs the approval of the project board in all major decisions that are not included in the actual project plan.

  • Project Manager: The project manager organizes and controls the project management team. They develop smaller units as required and appoint unit heads. The project manager draws the whole working plan and delivers responsibilities to the units and individuals. They also provide deadlines
  • The Customer: The customer is an individual, group, or corporate body that actually pays for the project
  • The User: the user is an individual, group, or corporate body who will use the project products. In some situations, the customer and the user become the same individual, group, or corporate body
  • The Supplier: This is actually a group of professionals whose skills and experience are required to materialize the project

PRINCE2® Project Process

PRINCE2® Project Process

PRINCE2® strongly advocates planning a project structure and adhering to it unless and until any crisis arises. Following are the essential steps in the PRINCE2® project process:

  • Step 1: The first step in structuring the whole project that includes designing, directing and starting the project. At first, a project mandate is created that narrates the necessity of the project in brief. Once the mandate is established, the project is briefed. The project board is developed and the board members discuss the project on the basis of the brief they receive. They then approve or amend the brief and give their consent. At this point, a project manager is appointed to whom the project board delegates the project responsibility. The project manager designs the blueprint on the basis of a number of parameters such as deadline, the risk involved, budget, scope, quality, and benefits.
  • Step 2: the second step includes control and management. The project manager develops the project team, segregates it in smaller units, assigns responsibility to each unit, and assigns budgets and deadlines. This step is the most important one in the sense that it actually materializes the project and shows the results, i.e. project products are developed in this step. Project manager gives regular updates to the project board that then review the feasibility of the project. As every stage completes, the project manager and project board undertake a feasibility check on the basis of several parameters.
  • Step 3: This is the closing of a project. As the project products are developed, the project manager closes the project by reconciling every single aspect from finance to human resources. The final report is submitted to the project board that then ends the project.

PRINCE2® project management support

Managing administrative works is important in any PRINCE2® project management. The project manager needs to deal with several types of documents and they also need to arrange meetings with the team or units as also with the project board. Besides, keeping files updated, arranging computerized files in proper order, data management, reviewing the team’s performance and problems, etc. are important administrative jobs. Project manager generally deals with all these responsibilities single-handed; in some situations, especially when the project is a large one or several projects are taking place simultaneously, the administrative office is established to handle these jobs.

Scope of the PRINCE2® methodology

Projects have different levels. Some are extremely complicated with multidimensional aspects, some are multidisciplinary but not so complicated, and some are simple. PRINCE2® is suitable for all as it provides a common language for all stakeholders. PRINCE2® simplifies a complicated project by segregating it as per the requirement and then integrating the segregated parts to obtain the required outcome.

Project assurance in the PRINCE2® methodology

In PRINCE2® environment project assurance is the assessment of a project from independent perspectives. There are three different and independent project assurance views: business’ view, user’s view, and supplier’s view. It is evident that these views represent the independent views of project board members.

Business assurance checks the viability of project cost, quality, and deadlines. The user assurance checks whether the users’ requirements and quality are maintained or not. Supplier assurance also called technical assurance checks whether the project is progressing as per the assigned framework. If the project is really big or taking place in more than one place at a time, a project assurance team is formed to obtain independent views of the above-mentioned personnel; otherwise, the responsibility is given to the project board.

So, PRINCE2® methodology is designed to manage a project in an organized way. It attributes project structure at the very initial phase of a project and ensures that everyone involved in the project adheres to that structure. PRINCE2® methodology uses common language in every level that enables even novice project members to communicate with others effortlessly or understand their responsibility without much intervention of the unit manager or project manager.

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The 7 Principles of PRINCE2®

There is a wide range of project management methodologies available in the market, but PRINCE2® is one of the most widely used project management methods that has been used by the enterprises and businesses in more than 150 countries. One of the sheer benefits of the PRINCE2® method is that it can be applied to different projects, irrespective of their sizes and business verticals. It is noticeable that the PRINCE2® project management method can be used in IT as well as non-IT projects too. It is a comprehensive project management method that can be applied to any project irrespective of their geographical location, industry sector and project size.  The PRINCE2® course covers basic four elements: themes, processes, principles and project management. There are some impeccable benefits of a PRINCE2® certification for candidates. There are two major types of certification available in the PRINCE2® project method: PRINCE2® Foundation qualification PRINCE2® Practitioner qualification The foundation program is a basic course that covers basic principles and themes for supporting individuals who work in a project environment supported by PRINCE2®. Candidates who belong to engineering and technology can go for this Foundation qualification course.  The PRINCE2® Practitioner qualification course is an advanced course that covers all the aspects of the PRINCE2® method including themes, processes, principles and project management. You will get a comprehensive introduction to the PRINCE2® project management method. There are some institutes that also train candidates for PRINCE2® management roles that are essential when the project is very big and complex. Here, the managers will be able to complete the project by assigning roles and responsibilities to the team members effectively and will be able to complete the project in a coordinated, consistent and superior manner. These courses are designed by experienced trainers who have years of experience and expertise in the domain and have a proven track record in the PRINCE2® project management. All you need to do is hire the best institute that offers the best PRINCE2® course and also helps in the placement activities too. There are businesses and enterprises that ask for candidates with a PRINCE2® certification; either foundation or practitioner certification. If you have this credential in your resume, it will improve your chance to get a job. All you need to do is to search for the right institute on the internet or your local business directory and that is all.  What is PRINCE2® and why it is so popular amongst businesses? Projects in Controlled Environments, PRINCE2® is a high-quality project management method that has carved a niche for itself by offering superior project management processes, no matter how big or small your project is. It adds streamlined, controlled project management principles and themes that help managers to manage and control projects easily and effectively.  You might still wonder whether PRINCE2® is the right tool for project management. What are the benefits of it? Why should you implement it on your current project management tools? To make things easier, we will discuss 7 principles of PRINCE2® method in details here. It is a process-based method that helps businesses to manage the project from start to finish. As we all know, before starting a project, it is important to plan it to avoid last-minute hurdles and hindrances. With the help of the PRINCE2® method, all the stages of the project are clearly described, roles and responsibilities are assigned to the teams and control and management of the project are easier to track. 7 principles of the PRINCE2® 1. Continued business justification: No matter which project you are working on, your project must have a clear justification including a clear requirement, a defined customer, feasible and scalable benefits and a complete cost assessment. This is the primary principle of the PRINCE2®. It helps you to stay focused on the project and you will be able to drive all your efforts to the common goal of the project- the desired goals and outcomes. 2. Learn from experience: Also, it is important that all the experiences are recorded for the future course of actions. Furthermore, it will help teams to learn from their mistakes and they will be able to finish projects with more dedication and expertise as they have learned lessons. All the stages and their outcomes are recorded in the PRINCE2® environment to make consistent and reliable learning.  3. Defined roles and responsibilities: When the team members have a clear understanding of their roles and responsibilities, it becomes easy for them to work with dedication and it also improves their productivity and performance too. With a PRINCE2® management method implementation, you would be able to define the roles and responsibilities of each team member to work more efficiently and effectively with unparalleled outcomes. 4. Manage by stages: Also, projects are completely broken in different sections and stages to manage them more effectively and accurately. Once the stage is over, it is reviewed by the superiors and learning will be recorded for the future course. This further helps management to ensure that the project is on its track and there are no loopholes involved in it. 5. Manage by exception: Board members are senior executives who have major roles and responsibilities in the organization and they cannot allocate time for the project on a daily basis. What they will be able to do is to define baseline requirements and assign them to the project manager. Some of the measurable elements of the project are time, cost, risk assessment, scopes, and others. If there are any issues such as project running late or is not on the track or goes out of budget, the project manager will take appropriate actions. However, there are some issues that might impact the establishment. Such issues are exceptions and here, board members intervene and make decisions. 6. Focus on the product: Also, teams are there to ensure that the deliverables are measured accurately and precisely and meet the project objectives. Superior quality control is the main thing that is always checked and compared with the requirements. 7. Tailor to suit the project: Different projects have different tailored requirements and with the PRINCE2® environment, tailored approach for each project is possible. The PRINCE2® method will be able to cater to your custom needs by adjusting different aspects of the method such as a number of team members, the amount of oversight and stage planning. Why PRINCE2®? What 2 stands for? There are chances that you might wonder what 2 stands for the PRINCE2® method. Well, the original PRINCE version was developed and introduced in the late 1980s specifically to manage IT projects. However, in 1996, the approach was reviewed and updated as per the latest issues and hindrances faced by the project management teams across the globe. A team of experienced project management specialists of more than 150 public and private organisations worked and updated the version and developed a new version that is more effective, efficient and accurate. The latest version is more improved and precise that addresses almost all the issues in a very defining manner. This latest version is called PRINCE2®. The number of roles in PRINCE2® PRINCE2® There are a total of three core roles: the project board, the project manager and the team. However, there are additional supplemental roles defined to make the project management more streamlined and linear.  We will discuss the total of 7 roles in PRINCE2® The customer The customer is the one who owns the project and is paying the organization for the project to be completed.  The user The user is one who will use the deliverables of the project or one who will be impacted by the outcome of the project. Sometimes, the user and the customer are the same people. The supplier A supplier is a person who possesses the expertise to complete the project and is responsible for delivering the best outcomes decided by the customer. He offers the knowledge and skills to complete the project. The project manager A project manager is a person who will monitor and control the complete project. The project manager is a very special person who is responsible for completing the project successfully. From planning, organising and controlling the work, everything will be done by the project manager. Also, the project manager will be responsible for forming the team and assigning roles and responsibilities to the team members and overseeing the work assigned to them. The project manager will also ensure that the project gets completed in the required timeframe and the outcomes are measurable and accurate as per the customer’s requirements. The project team and team managers The project teams are the ones who will perform the duties and tasks assigned to them effectively and efficiently. There might be one team or multiple teams to perform various tasks and actions. Teams might have a separate team leader who is responsible to ensure that the given tasks are completed in time. The administrator If the project size is small, the project manager will take responsibility of the administrator. However, in big and complex projects, the administrator is required. The administrator will be responsible for the setting up of meetings, tracking of the daily deliverables, updating everyone involved with the projects about important instructions and specifications about the project. A separate project support office is established to ensure that the project runs smoothly and completes in a given timeframe. The project board includes multiple people such as the customer, the end user and the supplier. There are three perspectives that are checked by the project board: The viability of the project is defined and checked by the customer to ensure that the project is important and should continue. The user ensures that all the needs are being met to complete the project on time. The supplier has a major responsibility. They will ensure that the project is running in the right direction and is offering a practical solution to the issue. The 7 phase process for the PRINCE2® project management method. Here, we will break the complete project management process in 7 parts to understand it more clearly.  1.Starting up a project Here, a customer submits a project requirement called the project mandate. It is a brief introduction to the needs and objectives of the project. The organization will access the project requirements and will make sure whether the company is able to complete the project or not. Once the project is approved, the customer will give a more detailed brief including actions, resources and other crucial information to complete the project.  2. Project direction Now the organization managers will check out the viability and justification of the project by reviewing and evaluating the project brief. They will assign a project manager and other necessities to complete the project. 3. Project initiation The project initiation document will be prepared by the project manager. The document will cover a comprehensive plan and six different factors including cost, quality, scope, time, risk and advantages.  The documents will be sent to the project board for approval and once the board approves the plan, the project will start.  4. Stage controlling The whole project will be broken into different stages and to complete these, teams will be formed and assigned responsibilities.  The project manager will map the process for each project stage and will take actions when any hindrances and loopholes arise.  5. Product delivery management The main responsibility of the project manager is to compare the deliverables and expectations from the project board. They will ensure that the deliverables meet the expectations.  Once the project is completed, the board will review it and ask for revisions and changes if needed.  6. Stage boundaries management The manager and the board will evaluate and review the deliverables at each project stage to ensure that the project is going in the right direction. 7. Project closing Once the project is completed, the project manager will close threads such as documentation, outcomes and reporting. The PRINCE2® is a very effective and superior project management method as it offers impeccable opportunities to the project board and the project manager to track the success of the project at each stage of the project.
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The 7 Principles of PRINCE2®

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Risk vs Issues [ Based on Various Factors ]

Can you guess a reason behind project failure? Here’s a hint. A poor risk or issue management can lead to project failure. According to PMBOK, risk can be defined as an uncertain event or condition that results in a positive or negative effect on a project’s objectives. Whereas, an issue can be defined as an event or condition that has already happened and has impacted or currently impacting the project objectives. There are certain grounds on which we can differentiate issues from risks. Let’s take a look at the differences. Difference between Risk & Issues Before moving to the core differences, let’s take a look at the comparisons between examples of risk and issues through the following chart: Risks Issues A critical resource might leave the project A team member resigns Team members of the project might take vacations during the critical time of the project. No one can be confirmed when team members would take vacations. There may be unanticipated requirement changes. New functionality has been found that needs to be added to the scope of the project. Something new might come up after impact analysis that may push the project dates. Two new changes which are the outcome of Impact analysis resulted in pushing the project deadline by a week. First of all, let’s look at the high-level difference between “Issues” & Risks”: Now let’s see how risks & issues play an integral role in a project: In general, if a project manager identifies all the possible negative risks and their respective response plans within the project, then the possibility of issues can be drastically reduced.  (i.e. prevention is better than cure). However, certain unforeseen situations may still arise which turn out to be issues. They could be certain potential risks which were unidentified in the past. They could also be risks which have been already identified, where the risk response plans are inadequate- and those events turn into issues and impact the project. If a project manager pays inadequate attention to risk management, there is a greater possibility of his spending his valuable time & efforts later in managing the issues that arise! Now, when it comes to issue management the project manager will document the issues in the “issue register” and will perform an issue analysis to identify the possible “work-arounds” to fix the issue. For example: Let us suppose there is a FIRE in the room. If we consider this in the context of issue & work-around, we say that there has been an occurrence of a fire, and we need to put it off by using a fire extinguisher. Since issues are present focused, there is a very limited time available to identify the work-arounds required to fix the issue. Once the work-arounds are identified, it’s also equally important that such issues should not get repeated in the future. There should also not be any possibility of re-occurrences in a different form, in order to bring it to a permanent closure.  In case of a re-occurrence then such events will be treated as “risks” because risks are future focused. They will be documented in the “risk register” and then sufficient risk response plans should be identified to cover those possible future risks. What are the types of risks in Project Management? Risks in projects are inclusive of both internal risks that are associated with the successful completion of each project as well as the risks that are beyond the project team’s control. The following are a few of the most common project risks: Cost risk: This refers to the escalation of project costs as a result of poor cost estimating accuracy and scope creep. Schedule risk: This refers to the risk of activities taking longer than expected. Drifting away from the schedule typically increase costs which leads to a delay of receiving project benefits and possible loss of competitive advantage. Performance risk: This refers to the risk of failure to produce consistent results with project specifications. There are some other risks which result in cost, schedule, or performance problems and create other types of adverse consequences for the organisation. They are as follows: Governance risk: This risk relates to the board and management performance with regard to ethics, community stewardship, and company reputation. Strategic risks: These risks are the result of the errors in strategy like choosing a technology that can’t be made to work. Operational risk: These risks comprise of risks from poor implementation and process problems like production, procurement, and distribution. Market risks: These risks comprise of risks related to foreign exchange, competition, interest rate, and commodity markets. This also includes liquidity and credit risks. Legal risks: These risks arise because of legal and regulatory obligations which include contract risks and litigation brought against the organisation. External hazards risks: These risks are incurred due to storms, floods, and earthquakes. Other than these, vandalism, sabotage, terrorism, labor strikes, and civil unrest are responsible for such type of risks. What is the importance of risk identification? The most important step in risk management is identifying risks. It involves generating a comprehensive list of threats and opportunities which are based on events that might prevent, enhance, accelerate, degrade, or delay the achievement of your objectives. You can’t manage risk without identifying it. But how to identify risks? One of the key steps in a proactive risk management process is to identify risks. You must look at the following sources in order to identify your project risk: Sources Description Risk registers and risk reports Provide a foundation for the evaluation of existing risks and their potential risk to an objective. Issues log It comprises of the issues and the actions considered to resolve them. Analyze the issues that were formally identified as risks. Audit reports These are the independent view of adherence to regulatory guidelines which include a review of compliance preparations, access controls, security policies, and risk management. Business Impact Analysis (BIA) It is a detailed risk analysis that is done in order to examine the nature and extent of disruptions and the likelihood of resulting consequences. Internal & external reviews These reviews are undertaken in order to evaluate the adequacy, suitability, and effectiveness of the department’s systems, and to plan for the scope of improvement. Perspectives for Risk Management It is important to realise the perspectives for risk management and evaluate them during a program’s life continuously in order to anticipate risks at an early stage and tackle issues appropriately. Few of the risk management perspectives are as follows: Strategic level: The interdependencies of the program with other initiatives, its outcomes, and benefits realisation are affected by the strategic level changes. These changes are driven by: External factors like political, economic, social, legislative, environmental, and technical Internal political pressure Inter-program dependencies Working with third-party suppliers along with other cross-organisational initiatives can be grouped under this level. Program level: The focus of a program is to deliver benefits to an organisation that positively or negatively affects both internal and external stakeholders. Risk Management for a program must be designed to work across organisational boundaries to ensure effective engagement of stakeholders and accommodation of different interests. The principal areas of risk and issues within a program are driven by: Aggregating project threats Lack of direction from the group of leaders Lack of clarity about expected benefits and buy-in from stakeholders Complexity of outcomes You should also consider the compilations associated with working across the organisational boundaries as another factor Availability of resource Lack of certainty about funding This also includes unrealistic timelines that increase program delivery risks. Project level: Project outputs help in delivering the outcomes and benefits within a program. Focusing on the risk and issue management on project perspective is important Areas leading to the rise of project risks and issues, resource constraints, scheduling issues, and scope creep It may lead to issues and risks if the project is unsure of what it is delivering. Operational level: The transition of a project to new ways of working and new systems can lead to further sources of risk as projects deliver the outputs. The following areas can be included in the operational level perspectives: The quality of the benefit-enabling outputs from projects within program Cultural and organisational issues Output transfer to operations and the ability to cope with new ways of working The risks can further be identified in stakeholder support Industrial relations Availability of resources to support changes. Early warning indicators for risks in project management The early warning indicators for project management can be defined as follows: In order to anticipate potential problems, there needs to be proactive risk management. These indicators offer advance warning about trends or events that can affect the outcomes of the program adversely. The sensitive risks can be tracked with the help of these indicators. Few of the early warning indicators are delays in delivery of expected or planned benefits, requests to change key program information, increase in aggregated risks, changes to organisational services, structure, and processes. Further, these indicators should be able to measure valid indicators, reviewed on a regular basis, and they should use accurate information. This ensures the effective functioning of the early warning indicators. The other methods which can be deployed to evaluate risks are as follows: Record the weighted average of the anticipated impact through the calculation of estimated monetary value. Calculate the accepted discount rate through the net present value calculation. Aggregate the risks together using a simulation technique through risk model. To conclude An experienced and certified project manager knows that every project involves identifying and managing project risks and project issues. Further, they are aware of the fact these risks and issues can be responsible for knocking a project off its track and divert the focus of the team away from fulfilling their responsibilities and goal achievements. This blog will help you to differentiate between project risk and project issues along with the key steps for identifying the risks. You will also understand the importance of risk identification and the perspectives of risk management. The blog also throws light on the early warning indicators to realise the risks in project management. This information will surely help you to realise the upcoming risk and avoid it for a smooth continuation of your project.
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Risk vs Issues [ Based on Various Factors ]

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PMI-ACP® Agile Certification Requirements and Processes

So. you want to get your PMI-ACP®  certification and are wondering what the PMI-ACP®  Certification course requirements and processes are! You are in the right place and this post will hopefully be beneficial in guiding you with regard to all the optional and mandatory steps required to apply for the certification. It’s obvious, whenever someone start a process (Certification Education) or anything new, the first question that comes to mind is, where should I start , and what are the requirements. The PMI-ACP® certification has been recently launched by PMI® . Here we have compiled a list of all the PMI-ACP® certification requirements and processes step by step in detail.   PMI-ACP® Certification Requirements and Processes There are basically seven steps required for PMI-ACP® certification; some are optional while others are mandatory. Step #1: User ID: This is optional. Go to PMI.org and create a User ID. This is not mandatory but there are benefits and I will mention a few of them: Free. You will be able to create a profile and your mode of payment, which makes later access easy. You will get up to date information from PMI®.   Step #2: Eligibility: This is the tricky part and most people get confused. (You can also go to PMI.org and perform the following steps to get updated information as PMI® may change their rules from time to time. Go to PMI.org —> select Certification —>select PMI-ACP. The eligibility is listed. Diploma: · High school. · One year of General Project Management experience with 2,000 hours of work with project teams. · Eight months of Agile Project Management experience with 1,500 hours of work with project teams using agile methodologies. · 21 hours of Agile Project Management Training.   If you think you are eligible, move to step 3. Step #3: Membership: This is optional and is different than your user id. PMI® has a membership service, which offers some benefits. There are several types of membership and the fee is different for each type. Please do check PMI® Membership and Types, PMI® Membership Fee and PMI® Membership Benefits. Also please visit PMI.org for updated information on membership, types, and benefits in details and check whether the membership suits your needs or not. We are mentioning a few benefits of membership here: Free access to PMI® library and a free copy of PMBOK Access to Local PMI® chapter, useful for getting PDUs and networking Waiver in PMI®-ACP fee and re-certification fee   Step #4: Application: Refer to Step #2, mentioning the education and project hours. Now you have to submit an application to PMI® showing proof of your education, the project hours and project management training that you have undergone. Previously, you had to do it online but now PMI® offers a downloadable pdf as well. You have to fill in the required details covering all processes and the hours you spend on each process. Step #5: Fee: When you submit your application, you will be contacted within a few working days and will be asked to deposit the fee for certification. Now as was mentioned previously, the fee is different for both members and non-members. Step #6: [one_half] A: Application accepted: You will be asked to proceed and schedule your exam at a Prometric center. B: Audit: PMI® randomly selects some applicants for an audit process.[/one_half] Step 6 has two parts as you can see; either your application will be accepted or put a hold for an audit. If you are one of the unlucky ones that are caught in the audit process then you have to show written confirmation from the bodies who authorize the education, experience and project management training. Step #7: Schedule exam: Once you are done with the above steps, the last step is to schedule your exam according to your convenience at prometric.com. However, before you schedule your exam, I would encourage you to read this article to familiarize yourself with the PMI®-ACP Exam Format.
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PMI-ACP® Agile Certification Requirements and Pro...

So. you want to get your PMI-ACP®  certification... Read More