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9 Steps To Becoming a PMP® Certified Professional

The growing complexity of industrial challenges has led to a crisis of human resources who can meet the demands of projects across the globe. PMP® certification offered by PMI is designed on rigorous standards and ongoing research to enable you to meet the real-world challenges of organisations.Project Management Professional (PMP)® certification is the gold standard of project management certification which is developed by practitioners for practitioners. If you are getting curious about how can a certification help you to be in demand for various organisations across all industries, then you have picked the right spot to clear your doubts.Become a PMP® Certified Professional in 9 stepsIf you are planning to take up the PMP® certification exam soon then the following 9 steps will surely help you to plan your schedules to clear the exam at the first attempt: Step 1 - Begin with the PMP® Handbook The PMP® Handbook is a guide to all your queries about the procedures for applying and taking the exam. It consists of all the information that you need about the process of taking the PMP Exam and become a PMP® certified project manager. Step 2 - Fulfill the prerequisites to become a PMI certified project managerYou must fulfill the following educational and experience requirements in order to take the PMP® exam:If you have a high school diploma, an associate degree, or the global equivalent of these, then you must hold a minimum of 60 months of unique, non-overlapping project management experience. Moreover, you should have spent at least 7,500 hours of these 60 months in leading and directing project tasks.If you have a bachelors or its equivalent in your country then you must possess a minimum of 36 months of non-overlapping and unique project management experience of which you must have spent 4,500 hours in directing and leading project tasks.You must also show 35 contact hours of project management training in both cases.Step 3 - Become a Member of your local PMI Chapter Once you get a PMI membership, you realise that the discount is bigger than the membership fee. Apart from the free PDF version of PMBOK® Guide and discount on PMP® Exam, you stay updated with information related to PMP Prep Workshops once you become a PMI member.Moreover, you also get an opportunity to network and interact with the new and seasoned PMPs which increases your chance to clear your exam at the first go.Step 4 - It’s time to sign up for your PMP ExamI am sure, you will agree that exam preparations work better when there’s a deadline. Start with your PMP application procedure by visiting project management institute to register and then filling up your PMP Credential Application. You need to submit the same to PMI for approval. Once you receive your confirmation number, you can schedule your exam on the Prometric website.Step 5 - Study the PMBOK® GuideOnce you start preparing for your PMP® certification exam, you can use PMBOK® Guide as your primary reference. According to most trainers, one can find the correct answer for around 75% of the PMP® exam questions in the PMBOK® Guide. So, you must treat it as a resource and read it thoroughly.Step 6 - Get study materials for self-studyAs mentioned above, PMBOK® guide will give you a rough knowledge about the answers for your PMP® certification exam. So, apparently, you will have to use other study materials to cover up the gap. You can download the same from the internetYou can also try the self-study courses like PM PrepCast which will also help you to earn a certificate for the PMI-required 35 contact hours which you can’t earn by reading books.Step 7 - Attend a PMP® WorkshopPMP® workshops for 2 to 6 days are conducted by PMI Chapters, universities, and training companies around the world. These workshops give you an opportunity to interact with the instructors and other students to help you clear your queries about the PMP® certification exam.Step 8 - Answer Sample PMP® Exam questionsThere are numerous free sample questions which are available on the internet and you can use the same to check your learning curve. You should also keep a track of your scores to see where you are.Step 9 - Take the examAfter all the hard work, it’s time for you to appear for your PMP® certification exam. Don’t skip the short tutorial on how to use the computer and the software at the beginning of the exam to avoid a blunder.PMP®  Certification: Why should you get one?‘Professionals with a PMP® certification garner a higher salary (20% higher on average) than those without a PMP® certification’; Earning Power: Project Management Salary Survey Ninth Edition. Well, this statement might have answered one of your major queries. Having this PMI certification under your belt helps you to land up in any industry, anywhere in the world, and enable you to work with any project management methodology.    So, if you meet the following eligibility requirements as an experienced project manager then you should go ahead with adding this certification to your collar:Responsible for all aspects of the project for the life of the project and perform duties under general supervision.Deliver projects within the constraints of resources, schedule, and budgets by leading and directing cross-functional teams.Demonstrate sufficient experience and knowledge to appropriately apply a methodology to projects that have reasonably well-defined project deliverables and requirements.The PMP® certification enables you to understand and speak the global language of project management and connects you to a community of experts, organisations, and professionals worldwide to become a project hero.The Misconception About PMP® Certification Cost A common misconception prevails among all the PMP® aspirants about the PMP® Certification cost that it only consists of the exam fee. But least does anybody thinks about the other costs involved in it. The PMP® exam fee for the members and non-members of PMI are $405 and $555 respectively. Then other factors responsible for the cost of PMP® Certification are as follows:Online training cost for PMP® certificationPMP® classroom trainingPMI membership fee and joining feePMI membership renewal feePMP® Certification Exam feePMBOK Handbook cost for non-membersCost of study guides and resourcesCost of practice testsRenewal cost of PMP® certificationOnline and classroom training for PMP® certification: It gets very tricky when it comes to clearing your PMP certification exam at the first attempt. So, to be at a safer side you can choose between online or classroom PMP® training from any leading training provider in the market.The features and costs of these training might vary for every training provider. Also, this gives you the opportunity to meet the 35 hours of training requirement which you need to qualify for your PMP® certification exam.PMI Membership fee and joining fee: You need to pay a processing fee of $10 along with a membership fee to the PMI chapter to avail the PMI membership. Now, did you know that you can bring down your fee for PMP® certification exam, Re-examination, and CCR certification renewal by becoming a PMI member?Other than this, you can get free access to PMBOK® Guide, save money on globally recognized certifications and more, master new skills through free events and webinars, stay ahead of deadlines using 1,000+ free tools and templates, and make local as well as global connections.Cost of learning resources and PMBOK®: As soon as you get a PMI membership, you get access to a free version of the latest version of PMBOK® which a foundation standard for project management developed by Project Management Institute. Other than that, you require additional materials to prepare for your PMP® certification exam which costs you between $40 to $100.You can also buy practice tests for $60 to $100 which will give you a fair idea about the test format for PMP® certification.Renewal cost of PMP® certification:Once you get a PMP® certification, that’s not the end. Your credentials are valid for only three years and you need to renew it after that. You can renew your certification by paying $150 which can be brought down to $60 by getting a PMI membership.Maintain your PMP® certification with 60 PDUsGetting PMP® certified is not the end of your journey, as it is only valid for 3 years. You need to maintain your PMP® certification by earning 60 PDUs to fulfill the Continuing Certification Requirements (CCR).You can earn these PDUs by engaging yourself with various professional development activities which center around the areas of Education and Giving back to the Profession. You can also earn your 60 PDUs at one go by signing up for a 60 PDU bundle online training program offered by an established Registered Educational Provider.The way beyond PMP® CertificationGetting a PMP® certification opens your door towards a promising career. A PMP certified professional earns 20% more than a non-PMP certified professional. The following list consists of the country-wise industries along with the average salary earned by the Project Managers:CountryIndustryAverage PMP SalaryAustraliaAgriculture/Mining$166,000AustraliaFinancial services and Consulting industry$150,000United StatesPharmaceuticals$125,000United StatesAgriculture/Mining, Consulting$120,000CanadaAgriculture/Mining$115,000CanadaUtilities$110,000IndiaAgriculture/Mining, Healthcare$25,278IndiaTelecommunication, Engineering$23,874Salary of a Project Manager: Certified Vs Non-CertifiedGetting a PMP® certification apparently contributes towards increasing your annual earning. A non-certified Project Manager may earn up to $91,000 whereas, this figure can go up to $111,000 by adding a PMP® certification to your collar. However, even work experience contributes to an increase in salary for a PMP® certified professional but this growth is not uniform across the globe. Singapore tops the list where the difference between a three-year experienced and a twenty-year experienced PMP® certified professional is 177%.Your salary can also vary based on the type of job you are in. The salary of a PMP® certified professional is higher in IT. The following figures show the salary of  PMP® certified professionals by job in the United States:JobSalary RangeProject Manager  (Information Technology)$65,161 to $125,836ProjectManager (General)$57,877 to $122,485Program Manager$68,150 to $139,552Further, the size of the company also plays a key role in determining the salary of a PMP® certified professional. The following table will give you a clear idea of how the salary figures increase with the company size:Company SizeSalary Range1-9$94,72450-199$93,614600-1999$103,697>5000$111,620ConclusionIf you wish to grow in the field of Project Management, then getting a PMP® Certification is the best way to do that. Also, you can avail a lot of discounts and networking opportunities by becoming a PMI member. Further, it gives you access to the free PDF version of the latest PMBOK® Guide.  To conclude, this blog gives you a clear idea of how to begin your PMP® certification journey. Moreover, you also get a glimpse of the professional future which lies ahead of PMP® certification.
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9 Steps To Becoming a PMP® Certified Professional

7284
9 Steps To Becoming a PMP® Certified Professional

The growing complexity of industrial challenges has led to a crisis of human resources who can meet the demands of projects across the globe. PMP® certification offered by PMI is designed on rigorous standards and ongoing research to enable you to meet the real-world challenges of organisations.

Project Management Professional (PMP)® certification is the gold standard of project management certification which is developed by practitioners for practitioners. If you are getting curious about how can a certification help you to be in demand for various organisations across all industries, then you have picked the right spot to clear your doubts.

Become a PMP® Certified Professional in 9 steps

Become a PMP® Certified Professional

If you are planning to take up the PMP® certification exam soon then the following 9 steps will surely help you to plan your schedules to clear the exam at the first attempt: 

Step 1 - Begin with the PMP® Handbook 

The PMP® Handbook is a guide to all your queries about the procedures for applying and taking the exam. It consists of all the information that you need about the process of taking the PMP Exam and become a PMP® certified project manager. 

Step 2 - Fulfill the prerequisites to become a PMI certified project manager

You must fulfill the following educational and experience requirements in order to take the PMP® exam:

  • If you have a high school diploma, an associate degree, or the global equivalent of these, then you must hold a minimum of 60 months of unique, non-overlapping project management experience. Moreover, you should have spent at least 7,500 hours of these 60 months in leading and directing project tasks.
  • If you have a bachelors or its equivalent in your country then you must possess a minimum of 36 months of non-overlapping and unique project management experience of which you must have spent 4,500 hours in directing and leading project tasks.
  • You must also show 35 contact hours of project management training in both cases.

Step 3 - Become a Member of your local PMI Chapter 

Once you get a PMI membership, you realise that the discount is bigger than the membership fee. Apart from the free PDF version of PMBOK® Guide and discount on PMP® Exam, you stay updated with information related to PMP Prep Workshops once you become a PMI member.

Moreover, you also get an opportunity to network and interact with the new and seasoned PMPs which increases your chance to clear your exam at the first go.

Step 4 - It’s time to sign up for your PMP Exam

I am sure, you will agree that exam preparations work better when there’s a deadline. Start with your PMP application procedure by visiting project management institute to register and then filling up your PMP Credential Application. You need to submit the same to PMI for approval. Once you receive your confirmation number, you can schedule your exam on the Prometric website.

Step 5 - Study the PMBOK® Guide

Once you start preparing for your PMP® certification exam, you can use PMBOK® Guide as your primary reference. According to most trainers, one can find the correct answer for around 75% of the PMP® exam questions in the PMBOK® Guide. So, you must treat it as a resource and read it thoroughly.

Step 6 - Get study materials for self-study

As mentioned above, PMBOK® guide will give you a rough knowledge about the answers for your PMP® certification exam. So, apparently, you will have to use other study materials to cover up the gap. You can download the same from the internet

You can also try the self-study courses like PM PrepCast which will also help you to earn a certificate for the PMI-required 35 contact hours which you can’t earn by reading books.

Step 7 - Attend a PMP® Workshop

PMP® workshops for 2 to 6 days are conducted by PMI Chapters, universities, and training companies around the world. These workshops give you an opportunity to interact with the instructors and other students to help you clear your queries about the PMP® certification exam.

Step 8 - Answer Sample PMP® Exam questions

There are numerous free sample questions which are available on the internet and you can use the same to check your learning curve. You should also keep a track of your scores to see where you are.

Step 9 - Take the exam

After all the hard work, it’s time for you to appear for your PMP® certification exam. Don’t skip the short tutorial on how to use the computer and the software at the beginning of the exam to avoid a blunder.

PMP®  Certification: Why should you get one?

‘Professionals with a PMP® certification garner a higher salary (20% higher on average) than those without a PMP® certification’; Earning Power: Project Management Salary Survey Ninth Edition. Well, this statement might have answered one of your major queries. Having this PMI certification under your belt helps you to land up in any industry, anywhere in the world, and enable you to work with any project management methodology.    

So, if you meet the following eligibility requirements as an experienced project manager then you should go ahead with adding this certification to your collar:

  • Responsible for all aspects of the project for the life of the project and perform duties under general supervision.
  • Deliver projects within the constraints of resources, schedule, and budgets by leading and directing cross-functional teams.
  • Demonstrate sufficient experience and knowledge to appropriately apply a methodology to projects that have reasonably well-defined project deliverables and requirements.

The PMP® certification enables you to understand and speak the global language of project management and connects you to a community of experts, organisations, and professionals worldwide to become a project hero.

The Misconception About PMP® Certification Cost 

A common misconception prevails among all the PMP® aspirants about the PMP® Certification cost that it only consists of the exam fee. But least does anybody thinks about the other costs involved in it. The PMP® exam fee for the members and non-members of PMI are $405 and $555 respectively. Then other factors responsible for the cost of PMP® Certification are as follows:

  • Online training cost for PMP® certification
  • PMP® classroom training
  • PMI membership fee and joining fee
  • PMI membership renewal fee
  • PMP® Certification Exam fee
  • PMBOK Handbook cost for non-members
  • Cost of study guides and resources
  • Cost of practice tests
  • Renewal cost of PMP® certification

Online and classroom training for PMP® certification: 

It gets very tricky when it comes to clearing your PMP certification exam at the first attempt. So, to be at a safer side you can choose between online or classroom PMP® training from any leading training provider in the market.

The features and costs of these training might vary for every training provider. Also, this gives you the opportunity to meet the 35 hours of training requirement which you need to qualify for your PMP® certification exam.

PMI Membership fee and joining fee: 

You need to pay a processing fee of $10 along with a membership fee to the PMI chapter to avail the PMI membership. Now, did you know that you can bring down your fee for PMP® certification exam, Re-examination, and CCR certification renewal by becoming a PMI member?

Other than this, you can get free access to PMBOK® Guide, save money on globally recognized certifications and more, master new skills through free events and webinars, stay ahead of deadlines using 1,000+ free tools and templates, and make local as well as global connections.

Cost of learning resources and PMBOK®: 

As soon as you get a PMI membership, you get access to a free version of the latest version of PMBOK® which a foundation standard for project management developed by Project Management Institute. Other than that, you require additional materials to prepare for your PMP® certification exam which costs you between $40 to $100.

You can also buy practice tests for $60 to $100 which will give you a fair idea about the test format for PMP® certification.

Renewal cost of PMP® certification:

Once you get a PMP® certification, that’s not the end. Your credentials are valid for only three years and you need to renew it after that. You can renew your certification by paying $150 which can be brought down to $60 by getting a PMI membership.

Maintain your PMP® certification with 60 PDUs

Getting PMP® certified is not the end of your journey, as it is only valid for 3 years. You need to maintain your PMP® certification by earning 60 PDUs to fulfill the Continuing Certification Requirements (CCR).

You can earn these PDUs by engaging yourself with various professional development activities which center around the areas of Education and Giving back to the Profession. You can also earn your 60 PDUs at one go by signing up for a 60 PDU bundle online training program offered by an established Registered Educational Provider.

The way beyond PMP® Certification

Getting a PMP® certification opens your door towards a promising career. A PMP certified professional earns 20% more than a non-PMP certified professional. The following list consists of the country-wise industries along with the average salary earned by the Project Managers:

CountryIndustryAverage PMP Salary
AustraliaAgriculture/Mining$166,000
AustraliaFinancial services and Consulting industry$150,000
United StatesPharmaceuticals$125,000
United StatesAgriculture/Mining, Consulting$120,000
CanadaAgriculture/Mining$115,000
CanadaUtilities$110,000
IndiaAgriculture/Mining, Healthcare$25,278
IndiaTelecommunication, Engineering$23,874


Salary of a Project Manager: Certified Vs Non-Certified

Getting a PMP® certification apparently contributes towards increasing your annual earning. A non-certified Project Manager may earn up to $91,000 whereas, this figure can go up to $111,000 by adding a PMP® certification to your collar. However, even work experience contributes to an increase in salary for a PMP® certified professional but this growth is not uniform across the globe. Singapore tops the list where the difference between a three-year experienced and a twenty-year experienced PMP® certified professional is 177%.

Your salary can also vary based on the type of job you are in. The salary of a PMP® certified professional is higher in IT. The following figures show the salary of  PMP® certified professionals by job in the United States:

JobSalary Range
Project Manager  (Information Technology)$65,161 to $125,836
ProjectManager (General)$57,877 to $122,485
Program Manager$68,150 to $139,552


Further, the size of the company also plays a key role in determining the salary of a PMP® certified professional. The following table will give you a clear idea of how the salary figures increase with the company size:

Company SizeSalary Range
1-9$94,724
50-199$93,614
600-1999$103,697
>5000$111,620

Conclusion

If you wish to grow in the field of Project Management, then getting a PMP® Certification is the best way to do that. Also, you can avail a lot of discounts and networking opportunities by becoming a PMI member. Further, it gives you access to the free PDF version of the latest PMBOK® Guide.  

To conclude, this blog gives you a clear idea of how to begin your PMP® certification journey. Moreover, you also get a glimpse of the professional future which lies ahead of PMP® certification.

KnowledgeHut

KnowledgeHut

Author

KnowledgeHut is an outcome-focused global ed-tech company. We help organizations and professionals unlock excellence through skills development. We offer training solutions under the people and process, data science, full-stack development, cybersecurity, future technologies and digital transformation verticals.
Website : https://www.knowledgehut.com

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Organizations will need to make such decisions prudently by creating a clear justification.  Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA): What is it? Understanding Cost Benefit Analysis Conducting a cost benefit analysis (CBA) or a Benefit-Cost analysis (as may be referred alternatively) is one of the most fundamental methods used to compare the financial cost to be incurred for such new initiatives and benefits to be generated from them.  Origins of Cost Benefit Analysis To undertake new initiatives is an integral part of the evolution of mankind, at a personal level, at a social level or at a business level. On the social front, it may involve initiatives like developing new townships, new buildings, new schools, new hospitals, new monuments, new social infrastructures, and new offices. On the business front, it may involve developing new products, new services or new production capabilities. There has always been a need to make sound and clear decisions. As the accountability of leaders on financial matters continues to rise, the need for doing a cost-benefit-analysis also becomes inevitable. CBA as a practice becomes part of policy matters in government projects in the US dating back in 1936, when Corps of Engineers started doing CBA for Federal Waterway Infrastructure projects. Approach to Cost Benefit Analysis A fundamental approach to do CBA includes estimating all the costs to be incurred in doing the project and carefully evaluating and estimating all the benefits to be garnered from the project. Benefits can include both quantifiable financial benefits and non-quantifiable benefits such improvement in quality of life, ease of living, ease of doing business etc. The purpose of Cost Benefit Analysis We already discussed that every new project needs investments to be made with the expectation of returns from the investments. There are two main applications of conducting a CBA: To determine if an investment decision is sound, calculating if its benefits outweigh its costs and by how much. To provide a basis for comparing alternative investment options, comparing the total expected cost of each option with its total expected benefits, thereby creating a basis for selecting the most desirable/viable option. Costs and Benefits Estimating costs Estimating all costs to be incurred in doing a project is the first important part of CBA. It will involve carefully estimating and listing the required quantity, quality and duration of material, labor, equipment and facilities to be used for completing all the activities of project work. Then we can estimate the costs for each of the above categories of resources. There will also be a need to include cost for contingency, inflation, cost of financing (if needed) and cost of any other services (such as training, liaison etc.) which may be required to complete the project activities. Cost estimation can be done with a considerable amount of accuracy level if all the activities of the project can be identified and all resource quantities can be estimated as stated above.  Estimating benefits Estimating all benefits to be garnered is the second important part of CBA. Every project or investment done is expected to deliver benefits in future. Benefits can include financial benefits by means of increase in profit margins and increase in efficiency of doing things. Benefits can also include non-financial benefits such as increased comfort and ease of doing things, improved moral of people, increased satisfaction levels, more peace, social benefits etc. Financial benefits can be estimated with considerable amount of accuracy, while it will be somewhat challenging to estimate and quantify the non-financial benefits. Comparing costs and benefits After careful and diligent estimation of costs and benefits as stated above, we need to compare the costs to be incurred with benefits to be garnered. If the benefits outweigh the costs considerably, such proposals will be taken up for further consideration by the organizations. Organizations may lay down clear guidelines regarding minimum expected difference between benefits to cost for the projects to be selected for implementation. Organizations may also lay down clear guidelines for evaluating the social benefits (mostly non-financial as explained above) for clear decision-making after doing a CBA. How to do a Cost Benefit Analysis  To conduct cost benefit analysis, we need to estimate and enumerate all costs to be incurred and all benefits to be generated. Then one needs to compare the costs with benefits for arriving at suitable decisions and recommendation about whether the project is worthy of taking up or not. There are two broad methods for doing cost benefit analysis: Non-discounted method (does not consider the effects of interest and time period). Discounted method (considers the time period, interest, inflation etc. while calculating the costs and benefits) We can take a simple example below to illustrate some of these methods.  Analyzing using non-discounted method These are very simple methods without considering the effects of interest and time period.The below illustration shows the costs incurred and benefits over a period of six years.  Yr. 0Yr. 1Yr. 2Yr. 3Yr. 4Yr. 5Yr. 6Discount rate at 10% (0.1)Cost100000000000Benefits250002500025000250002500025000Example of CBA using Non-Discounted MethodTotal Cost = 100000; Total Benefits = 150000 Benefit Cost Ration (BCR) = Total Benefits / Total Costs = 150000/100000 = 1.5 (> than 1) Profit = Total Benefits (Revenue) – Total Costs = 150000 – 100000 = 50000 Payback Period = Time taken to recover the total cost (investments) = 4 years ROI = Return on Investment = Profit/Investment = 50000/100000 = 50%  Using the above simple non-discounted methods we can see that this project looks good with benefits being more than the cost, with positive profits and lower payback period.  But these calculations are too simplistic, and do not account for the time-value of money based on interest rates, inflation. Analyzing using discounted method In the above example, the costs are incurred in the present time, while the benefits will be received in future. These values of money are in different timelines and hence their values cannot be compared directly as it is. We need to bring down all the future values of benefits and costs to their corresponding present values and then we can do a comparison of present values of benefits and costs. The below formula can be used to understand the relationship between present value (PV) and future value (FV) of money. PV = FV/(1+r)n(where r stands for rate of discount of money, n stands for time period) In the below example, the cost and benefits value mentioned are in specific period in time. We need to bring all costs as well as all benefits to their corresponding present values (PV) using the above equation and assuming an interest (discount) rate of 10% for ease of calculation.   Yr. 0Yr. 1Yr. 2Yr. 3Yr. 4Yr. 5Yr. 6Discount rate at 10% (0.1)Cost (FV)100000000000Benefits(FV)250002500025000250002500025000Cost (PV100000000000Benefits(PV)0227272066118782170751552714112Example of CBA using Discounted MethodPV of all costs = 100000 (as it is happening in year 0 only) PV of all revenue = 25000/(1.1) + 25000/(1.1)2 + 25000/(1.1)3+ 25000/(1.1)4+ 25000/(1.1)5 +  25000/(1.1)6 = 22727+20661+18782+17075+15527+14112 =108884 Net Present Value (NPV) = Sum of PV of all benefits – Sum of PV of all costs = 108884 – 100000 = 8884 (> 0)  Hence this project investment will lead to a profit after discounting the effect of interest and any other inflationary factors which are taken as 10%) If NPV is > 0, then the project investments will lead to profit. NPV is one of the most practical methods for doing cost benefit analysis by considering the time-value of money.  IRR (Internal Rate of Return) – IRR is the rate of discount at which the sums of PV of all benefits equals sums of PV of all costs. Or in other words IRR is the rate of discount at which NPV equals 0.  Calculating IRR is a more complex affair. In simpler term IRR denotes expected rate of return from the investments. According to a general guideline, higher the IRR from an investment, the better the opportunity.  How to establish a framework As we discussed above, there are various methods for undertaking cost benefit analysis. Different financial parameters such as Benefit Cost Ratio (BCR), ROI, Payback Period, NPV, IRR etc. need to be calculated for arriving at decisions and making necessary recommendations on whether a specific project should be taken up or not. Every organization is unique in their capabilities to invest and take risk. Organizations can define their specific guidelines or framework for project selection taking into account the above financial parameters, the risks involved in doing the project and most importantly specific nature of the investors. A framework for project selection will include all above factors.  Below are some basic guidelines which are used for decision making during cost benefit analysis (CBA) NPV should more than 0. Higher the NPV, the better is the project. BCR should be more than 1. Higher the BCR, the benefits outweigh the cost more. ROI should be high. Higher the ROI, the better is the investment opportunity. IRR should be high. Higher the IRR, the better is the opportunity. Payback period should be lower. Lower the payback period, the better seems the opportunity. Challenges and considerations while doing CBA How accurate is Cost Benefit Analysis? Cost benefit analysis can be reasonably accurate if these are done by technical and financial experts. Experience and availability of real data about costs and benefits of similar projects from past can greatly enhance the accuracy of cost benefit analysis.  Are there limitations to Cost Benefit Analysis? Since cost benefit analysis requires estimating costs and quantifying future benefits accurately, it requires solid maturity in terms of knowledge and availability of past data. In the absence of experience and data availability, CBA may fall short in its accuracy.  The risks and uncertainties in Cost Benefit Analysis While doing cost and benefit analysis, it will be important to understand risks and uncertainties involved in doing the project. It will also be equally important to understand the uncertainties involved in realizing the benefits once the project is done. Cost benefits analysis need to consider the implications of uncertainties to make it realistic. It may require doing statistical simulations and modeling as well.  Cost Benefit Analysis in the real world We saw that CBA became a formal and mandatory practice as early as 1930s in the US government departments, for numerically evaluating if the benefits will outweigh (and by how much) the costs of doing the project.  Organizations have become highly knowledgeable, experienced, and matured. Availability of past data coupled with ability to process the data using modern mathematical and statistical techniques and computerized tools exists in abundance within organizations.  In today’s world the need for doing CBA has become necessary. Businesses and governments are held more and more responsible and accountable to their citizens and investors for justifying their investment decisions. They can do this only by conducting a thorough cost benefit analysis.  
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Cost Benefit Analysis for Projects: A step by step...

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