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Am I Eligible to Get PMP® Certified? - A Complete Checklist of PMP Exam Prerequisites

Doesn’t this question sound familiar? Your quest for PMP® certification begins with this question and it is also an important piece of information for every PMP® aspirant. The Project Management Professional (PMP)® is the most important certification for project managers across all industries. It is a truly global certification which allows you to lead projects almost in every country. Further, it enables you to work in any industry by deploying any methodology in any location.But before you begin your PMP® journey you need to meet certain education and experience requirements to meet the standards set by PMI in order to appear for your PMP® exam. The experience requirement shows your soft skills to sit for the PMP® exam and the educational requirements show that you have enough theoretical background to manage a project. However, your experience requirement for PMP® changes depending on the educational requirement which you satisfy. This blog will answer all your queries about the eligibility requirement for PMP® certification.The eligibility requirements for PMP®A salary survey conducted by the Project Management Institute (PMI) shows that PMP® certified project managers tend to earn more compared to their non-certified counterparts. PMP® certification warrants a certain level of knowledge on the project management area. The reason that companies and organisations give high credit to PMP® certification compared to other certificates in the industry because PMI has a very strict application and audit process for relevant education and experience requirements that one needs to be PMP® certified.As the employer has high regards for the certification, once you show a PMP® certification in your resume he or she will that you have met the strict PMP® certification requirements which proves a certain level of practice and knowledge on project management. It is not easy for someone to sit and pass the PMP® certification exam.If you are wondering about where can you check for these requirements then you will find all the criteria set by PMI for taking the PMP®  exam in the PMP® Credential Handbook. You can download the free version of this handbook from PMI's Website. It will help you to know everything about PMP® certification, who is eligible to apply, and how to go about applying. The eligibility requirements for taking the exam are as follows:You should hold a bachelor’s degree or the global equivalent with at least three years of project management experience. The three years of experience is expected to be comprised of 4,500 hours which you have spent directing and leading projects and 35 hours of project management education.In case, you don’t have a four-year degree, you need to have a secondary diploma (high school or global equivalent) with at least project management experience of 5 years. The five years of experience should comprise of 7,500 hours which you have spent directing and leading projects and project management education of around 5 hours.Need more clarity on the eligibility criteria? Then the following chart will surely help you to clarify your doubts.Eligibility RequirementFour-year degree or global equivalentSecondary degree or global equivalentYears of Project Management Experience3 Years (36 months)5 Years (60 months)Hours Leading & Directing Projects4,500 Hours7,500 HoursHours of Project Management Education35 Hours35 HoursMeet the 35 contact hours Project Management Education Requirement for PMP®You need to match one of the eligibility requirements which is required for you to appear for your PMP® certification exam. But it is also important for you to complete 35 hours of Project Management Education in order to fulfill the eligibility requirement to sit for the PMP® exam.You must be wondering about how can you earn the 35 hours of Project Management education requirement. You can enroll in a PMP® certification training to earn the same. These training also help you to prepare for your PMP® exam and get proper support from the experts to clear your PMP® exam at one shot.Acceptable experiences to be eligible for PMP® examThe experiences mentioned by you in your application should cover all the five processes as mentioned in the PMBOK® Guide. But you should keep in mind that it is not necessary for all of these processes to be in one single project. You can find a full list of acceptable tasks, knowledge, and skills in PMI’s PMP® Examination Content Outline. Few of the tasks that you might be performing and which would be acceptable are as follows:You should define the high-level scope of the project based on the requirements of business and compliance to meet the customer project expectations.Obtain approval to execute the project by presenting the project plan to the key stakeholders (if required).Achieve the project deliverable within the schedule and budget by executing the tasks as defined in the project plan.Get feedback from the stakeholders by communicating the project status to ensure that the business needs are aligned to the project aligns.Work with the customer and the sponsor to obtain final acceptance of the project deliverable to confirm that project deliverables and scope were met.Ways to gather the required experienceYou need to meet the PMP® experience requirement to be eligible in order to gain PMP® certification. But how can you gather enough experience? As discussed, you need to earn experience of 4,500 to 7,500 hours of directing and leading projects depending on your educational qualification.The following ideas can help you to overcome this obstacle:Full-time Project ManagersIf you are working as a Project Manager or in a similar position which gives you a full-time opportunity to lead and direct projects, then it’s easy. If you don’t have enough hours then you can go ahead with what you are doing and with time you will gather the required number of hours. If you are not a full-time Project ManagerDon’t have enough hours to meet the required experience eligibility? It even gets trickier when you are not in a role which gives you an opportunity to direct or lead projects. If you are not managing projects at all or managing projects part-time, you are collecting hours of experience at a slower rate compared to a full-time project manager. You can increase the rate in the following ways:By changing your roleYou can increase the amount of time spent on managing projects using the most effective solution, i.e. by changing your role. You can go for a wider discussion about your career development with your employer by stating clearly that you would like to provide more value to your employer by directing and leading projects.If you get an opportunity to become a full-time project manager then you are on your way to collect the required hours as soon as possible. By changing your companyIn case you are not getting an opportunity to shift to a different kind of responsibility in your current company then you should change the company you are working for. You might find a suitable opportunity to negotiate better terms and conditions than you are having in your current company. This will surely allow you to speed up the process of earning the required hours of experience in order to meet the PMI eligibility requirement.VolunteeringYou can always check for volunteering opportunity with your local PMI chapter which would also expose you to additional benefits. This will also provide you with more and better networking opportunities at the same time. You can earn the required experience hours through volunteering.Is PMI Membership Mandatory for me to get PMP®  certified?This is another question that you tend to ask while beginning your PMP® journey. You don’t have to be a PMI member in order to appear for your PMP® certification exam. But there are surely a few benefits which you can reap from your PMI membership. The benefits are as follows:As a PMI member, you can receive a significant discount on your PMP® exam application fee. Once you become a PMI member, you will realise that the cost of membership is comparatively lesser than the discounts which you get.You get access to a free PDF copy of the PMBOK Guide as a PMI member which is an important resource to prepare and pass your exam.Moreover, many local PMI chapters offer discounts on their PMP® exam preparation workshops to PMI members.PMP® certification costApart from the above-mentioned information about the eligibility requirements, there are certain costs related to PMP® exam. We can divide the cost of PMP® certification into the cost of PMP® certification training and the PMP® exam fee. But there is another hidden cost related to it which you should be aware of. This is the cost of the time which you will spend while studying for the PMP® certification exam. Let’s try to understand these costs in detail.Cost of 35 hours of Project Management TrainingYou are expected to meet certain eligibility criteria before appearing for the PMP Certification exam. Apart from other eligibilities, it is necessary for you to attend at least 35 hours of project management course. So, the major question which arises here is that how much do these certification courses cost?The cost of PMP® certification training varies based on the type of training which you are willing to take. Mostly, you need to make a choice between PMP® certification classroom training and online PMP® certification training. Also, the cost of your training depends on the country you are located. Usually, the cost of PMP® certification training ranges between $500 to $2,000.  The following chart will give you a clear idea about the cost of PMP® certification classroom training across other countries:CountriesPrice of classroom trainingAmerica, Canada, Australia$1,500South America (Brazil, Chile etc.)$600China, India$500European Countries$1,200Arabian Countries$2,000Exam Preparation TimeAs a busy professional, the time you spend for your project management education might cost you your precious leisure time. But you can save your time by opting for a self-paced online PMP certification training cost. For instance, you can plan to spend 5 to 6 hours a week to study in order to pass your PMP® exam. The duration of your training will certainly depend on your dedication, professional experiences, and your background in project management.  PMP®  Exam FeeOnce you are done with your 35 hours of project management education, you need to take your PMP® exam in a Prometric test center. You need to schedule your exam date in the nearest Prometric test center after PMI accepts your application. The PMP® certification exam fee can be brought down by becoming a PMI member.You can also get a free copy of PMBOK® by becoming a PMI member. Other than that, there are numerous other benefits which you can reap from your PMI membership.To sum up, the cost of PMP® certification depends on the course you decide to take. Your total PMP® certification cost will be nearly $750 if you choose to get your project management education through an online course. You can also continue preparing with a PMP® certification classroom training by spending around $1,700 including the exam fee.ConclusionThis blog will surely help you to understand the eligibility requirements to sit for your PMP® certification exam and the ways to attain them. This information will help you to prepare to begin your PMP® certification journey by fulfilling the required educational qualification and work experience. Further, the PMP® certification cost is a really essential piece of information when you plan to begin your PMP® certification journey.Earn the required experience hours by changing your role or volunteering with your local PMI chapter. Wish you all the best for your PMP® journey!

Am I Eligible to Get PMP® Certified? - A Complete Checklist of PMP Exam Prerequisites

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Am I Eligible to Get PMP® Certified? - A Complete Checklist of PMP Exam Prerequisites

Doesn’t this question sound familiar? Your quest for PMP® certification begins with this question and it is also an important piece of information for every PMP® aspirant. The Project Management Professional (PMP)® is the most important certification for project managers across all industries. It is a truly global certification which allows you to lead projects almost in every country. Further, it enables you to work in any industry by deploying any methodology in any location.

But before you begin your PMP® journey you need to meet certain education and experience requirements to meet the standards set by PMI in order to appear for your PMP® exam. The experience requirement shows your soft skills to sit for the PMP® exam and the educational requirements show that you have enough theoretical background to manage a project. However, your experience requirement for PMP® changes depending on the educational requirement which you satisfy. 

This blog will answer all your queries about the eligibility requirement for PMP® certification.

The eligibility requirements for PMP®

A salary survey conducted by the Project Management Institute (PMI) shows that PMP® certified project managers tend to earn more compared to their non-certified counterparts. PMP® certification warrants a certain level of knowledge on the project management area. The reason that companies and organisations give high credit to PMP® certification compared to other certificates in the industry because PMI has a very strict application and audit process for relevant education and experience requirements that one needs to be PMP® certified.

As the employer has high regards for the certification, once you show a PMP® certification in your resume he or she will that you have met the strict PMP® certification requirements which proves a certain level of practice and knowledge on project management. It is not easy for someone to sit and pass the PMP® certification exam.

PMP eligibility requirements


If you are wondering about where can you check for these requirements then you will find all the criteria set by PMI for taking the PMP®  exam in the PMP® Credential Handbook. You can download the free version of this handbook from PMI's Website. It will help you to know everything about PMP® certification, who is eligible to apply, and how to go about applying. The eligibility requirements for taking the exam are as follows:

  • You should hold a bachelor’s degree or the global equivalent with at least three years of project management experience. The three years of experience is expected to be comprised of 4,500 hours which you have spent directing and leading projects and 35 hours of project management education.
  • In case, you don’t have a four-year degree, you need to have a secondary diploma (high school or global equivalent) with at least project management experience of 5 years. The five years of experience should comprise of 7,500 hours which you have spent directing and leading projects and project management education of around 5 hours.

Need more clarity on the eligibility criteria? Then the following chart will surely help you to clarify your doubts.

Eligibility Requirement

Four-year degree or global equivalent

Secondary degree or global equivalent

Years of Project Management Experience

3 Years (36 months)

5 Years (60 months)

Hours Leading & Directing Projects

4,500 Hours

7,500 Hours

Hours of Project Management Education

35 Hours

35 Hours

Meet the 35 contact hours Project Management Education Requirement for PMP®

You need to match one of the eligibility requirements which is required for you to appear for your PMP® certification exam. But it is also important for you to complete 35 hours of Project Management Education in order to fulfill the eligibility requirement to sit for the PMP® exam.

You must be wondering about how can you earn the 35 hours of Project Management education requirement. You can enroll in a PMP® certification training to earn the same. These training also help you to prepare for your PMP® exam and get proper support from the experts to clear your PMP® exam at one shot.

Acceptable experiences to be eligible for PMP® exam

The experiences mentioned by you in your application should cover all the five processes as mentioned in the PMBOK® Guide. But you should keep in mind that it is not necessary for all of these processes to be in one single project. You can find a full list of acceptable tasks, knowledge, and skills in PMI’s PMP® Examination Content Outline

Few of the tasks that you might be performing and which would be acceptable are as follows:

  • You should define the high-level scope of the project based on the requirements of business and compliance to meet the customer project expectations.
  • Obtain approval to execute the project by presenting the project plan to the key stakeholders (if required).
  • Achieve the project deliverable within the schedule and budget by executing the tasks as defined in the project plan.
  • Get feedback from the stakeholders by communicating the project status to ensure that the business needs are aligned to the project aligns.
  • Work with the customer and the sponsor to obtain final acceptance of the project deliverable to confirm that project deliverables and scope were met.

Ways to gather the required experience

Full time Project Manager vs part time Project Manager

You need to meet the PMP® experience requirement to be eligible in order to gain PMP® certification. But how can you gather enough experience? As discussed, you need to earn experience of 4,500 to 7,500 hours of directing and leading projects depending on your educational qualification.

The following ideas can help you to overcome this obstacle:

  • Full-time Project Managers

If you are working as a Project Manager or in a similar position which gives you a full-time opportunity to lead and direct projects, then it’s easy. If you don’t have enough hours then you can go ahead with what you are doing and with time you will gather the required number of hours. 

  • If you are not a full-time Project Manager

Don’t have enough hours to meet the required experience eligibility? It even gets trickier when you are not in a role which gives you an opportunity to direct or lead projects. If you are not managing projects at all or managing projects part-time, you are collecting hours of experience at a slower rate compared to a full-time project manager. You can increase the rate in the following ways:

  • By changing your role

You can increase the amount of time spent on managing projects using the most effective solution, i.e. by changing your role. You can go for a wider discussion about your career development with your employer by stating clearly that you would like to provide more value to your employer by directing and leading projects.

If you get an opportunity to become a full-time project manager then you are on your way to collect the required hours as soon as possible. 

  • By changing your company

In case you are not getting an opportunity to shift to a different kind of responsibility in your current company then you should change the company you are working for. You might find a suitable opportunity to negotiate better terms and conditions than you are having in your current company. This will surely allow you to speed up the process of earning the required hours of experience in order to meet the PMI eligibility requirement.

  • Volunteering

You can always check for volunteering opportunity with your local PMI chapter which would also expose you to additional benefits. This will also provide you with more and better networking opportunities at the same time. You can earn the required experience hours through volunteering.

Is PMI Membership Mandatory for me to get PMP®  certified?

PMI Membership

This is another question that you tend to ask while beginning your PMP® journey. You don’t have to be a PMI member in order to appear for your PMP® certification exam. But there are surely a few benefits which you can reap from your PMI membership. The benefits are as follows:

  • As a PMI member, you can receive a significant discount on your PMP® exam application fee. Once you become a PMI member, you will realise that the cost of membership is comparatively lesser than the discounts which you get.
  • You get access to a free PDF copy of the PMBOK Guide as a PMI member which is an important resource to prepare and pass your exam.
  • Moreover, many local PMI chapters offer discounts on their PMP® exam preparation workshops to PMI members.

PMP® certification cost

PMP Certification CostApart from the above-mentioned information about the eligibility requirements, there are certain costs related to PMP® exam. We can divide the cost of PMP® certification into the cost of PMP® certification training and the PMP® exam fee. But there is another hidden cost related to it which you should be aware of. This is the cost of the time which you will spend while studying for the PMP® certification exam. Let’s try to understand these costs in detail.

  • Cost of 35 hours of Project Management Training

You are expected to meet certain eligibility criteria before appearing for the PMP Certification exam. Apart from other eligibilities, it is necessary for you to attend at least 35 hours of project management course. So, the major question which arises here is that how much do these certification courses cost?

The cost of PMP® certification training varies based on the type of training which you are willing to take. Mostly, you need to make a choice between PMP® certification classroom training and online PMP® certification training. Also, the cost of your training depends on the country you are located. Usually, the cost of PMP® certification training ranges between $500 to $2,000.  

The following chart will give you a clear idea about the cost of PMP® certification classroom training across other countries:

CountriesPrice of classroom training
America, Canada, Australia$1,500
South America (Brazil, Chile etc.)$600
China, India$500
European Countries$1,200
Arabian Countries$2,000
  • Exam Preparation Time

As a busy professional, the time you spend for your project management education might cost you your precious leisure time. But you can save your time by opting for a self-paced online PMP certification training cost. 

For instance, you can plan to spend 5 to 6 hours a week to study in order to pass your PMP® exam. The duration of your training will certainly depend on your dedication, professional experiences, and your background in project management.  

  • PMP®  Exam Fee

Once you are done with your 35 hours of project management education, you need to take your PMP® exam in a Prometric test center. You need to schedule your exam date in the nearest Prometric test center after PMI accepts your application. The PMP® certification exam fee can be brought down by becoming a PMI member.

You can also get a free copy of PMBOK® by becoming a PMI member. Other than that, there are numerous other benefits which you can reap from your PMI membership.

To sum up, the cost of PMP® certification depends on the course you decide to take. Your total PMP® certification cost will be nearly $750 if you choose to get your project management education through an online course. You can also continue preparing with a PMP® certification classroom training by spending around $1,700 including the exam fee.

Conclusion

This blog will surely help you to understand the eligibility requirements to sit for your PMP® certification exam and the ways to attain them. This information will help you to prepare to begin your PMP® certification journey by fulfilling the required educational qualification and work experience. Further, the PMP® certification cost is a really essential piece of information when you plan to begin your PMP® certification journey.

Earn the required experience hours by changing your role or volunteering with your local PMI chapter. Wish you all the best for your PMP® journey!

KnowledgeHut

KnowledgeHut

Author

KnowledgeHut is an outcome-focused global ed-tech company. We help organizations and professionals unlock excellence through skills development. We offer training solutions under the people and process, data science, full-stack development, cybersecurity, future technologies and digital transformation verticals.
Website : https://www.knowledgehut.com

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How are Changeless Principles Responsible For Project success In Software Industry?

IntroductionNo other industry perhaps is characterized by a change as much as the software industry. While every segment of society and more so the industry, goes through change, the pace and magnitude of change in the software industry are leaps and bounds ahead of all other segments.This magnitude of change can be unsettling as just when one thinks that one has cracked the secret of success, the rug is pulled from under the feet by the change and success formulae have to be reinvented all over again. In such turbulent scenarios, how do leaders respond to the changes and succeed? What is their recipe for success?This article is about how leaders don’t get swept away by the changes but respond smartly to the changes in a thoughtful manner. They hold the bull by the horn, so to say, and rule the changes rather than being dictated by the changes. One of their secrets to success is that they anchor themselves in constant principles that don’t change and respond to changes based on these changeless principles.What are these changeless principles of the software industry? This article highlights 5 most impactful principles that don’t change and have lead to proven success in software delivery.What are the changeless principles?The changes in the software industry happen in almost all facets, be it technology, software development methodologies, and life cycle models, business model, contract types, you name the facet and you can see changes.Specifically, 5 types of changes impact software project success significantly and they are requirement changes, the life cycle model changes, estimation methods becoming obsolete, project scheduling methods becoming ineffective and the emergence of new risks.Every change brings along with it new challenges and simply embracing the change can potentially create new problems while solving some old problems. Slogans such as “Don’t resist the change, embrace it instead!” or considering being open to changes as a virtue aren’t enough to succeed amidst the change.For instance, when an estimation methodology becomes obsolete because of a new technology, what does one mean by not resisting the change or embracing the change?Teams simply become technically competent in the new technology but regress back to raw, unstructured estimation method rather than creating a new estimation method. However, leaders respond to changes differently. They step back and look at the change from a meta-level, realize that the meta-principle that hasn’t changed and re-apply that meta-principle to the changed situation and remain effective.Coming back to the estimation example, when an existing estimation method becomes obsolete with the change of technology, they look at the meta-procedure of creating estimation method itself (Which doesn’t change) and create a new deliverable-based estimation methodology for the new technology rather than regressing back to raw, unstructured estimation methods.Thus they maintain estimation accuracy and project success in spite of the change. On these lines, the following are the 5 principles that don’t change in the software industry:1) The Principle of requirement change: Encourage changes occurring due to external factors but discourage or eliminate changes occurring due to the  internal factors. This principle doesn’t change irrespective of the emergence of new ways of managing requirements.2) The Principle of life cycle models: The 5 phases of any life cycle don’t change and you should create your own life cycle model when faced with a new situation. In spite of new life cycle methods emerging, the 5 phases namely, requirements, solution specification, a design of the solution, implementation of solution and testing of solution don’t change. One can always tailor-make these 5 phases to create a new life cycle.3) The Principle of estimation methodologies: The procedure to create deliverable based estimation methodologies does not change; create a new deliverable-based estimation method when technology changes. Established estimation methodologies become obsolete when technology changes but the meta-method of creating a new estimation methodologies doesn’t change. Hence, creating new estimation methodology using this meta-method is essential to maintain estimation accuracy.4) The Principle of schedule management: Project schedules are effective when the work breakdown is aligned with the life cycle model and contains at least 90% of the tasks performed by the team on the ground.  As life cycle models change, old methods of drawing up project schedules become ineffective and teams either give up drawing an effective schedule or draw schedules that are not used. However, aligning the schedules to the new life cycle models ensures that schedules are effective and results in optimum resource utilization.5) The Principle of risk management: It is essential to prioritize identified risks and plan mitigation and contingencies irrespective of size and complexity of the project. The types of risks may vary as project environment changes, but the basic principle of risk prioritization, mitigation ,and contingency planning does not change. As contract types, business models, life cycle models and technologies change, the types of risks may change, but the basic principle of risk management do not change and this has to be implemented completely to increase chances of project success.Why only these 5 principles? Are there not other principles that are important? Well, there could be many principles that don’t change and have to be applied for project success, but these 5 are the most important principles critical to project success and the most challenging too.There are principles related to the stakeholder management, product design, testing, team management and so on, but dealing with all of them would perhaps be apt for a complete user manual on changeless principle and not for an article. Hence 5 most important principles have been chosen for illustration in this article.Illustration of the 5 principles1) The Principle of requirement change:Encourage changes occurring due to external factors but discourage or eliminate changes occurring due to internal factors.Well, requirement changes are the order of the day in software projects and the way requirement changes are managed differs with software development methodologies and life cycle models. While the earlier CMMi based school of thought insisted on defining and signing off on requirements early in the lifecycle and keeping the changes to a minimum subsequently, the Agile school of thought went to another extreme saying that they encourage requirement changes and both are right in their own perspective.While minimum requirement changes are good for the stability of the project in terms of conformance to plan, encouragement for requirement changes could be good for business success as business scenarios can be dynamic and IT should keep pace with business dynamics.So, it is clear that there is an Agile wave now and it is altering the way that we look at the requirement changes. And, let’s see how the mass goes with this change and how leaders respond. Those who simply “Embrace” the change, go with Agile methodologies at face value, accept that requirements can keep changing and suffer the consequences.For instance, some IT vendors enter into fixed-price contracts for Agile projects based on some initial understanding of scope, and because of progressive elaboration of scope, the customer keeps giving requirements at every release which bloats the scope so much that the project easily gets into schedule overruns and cost overruns. This could result in losses for the vendor and if not handled well, it could result in dissatisfaction of the customer and loss of business as well. However, thought leaders take a step back and look at why requirements change and come up with responses that keep both customer interest and their own interest in mind. Leffingwell et. al.[1] have researched into why requirements changes and classify the causes into two sets called internal factors and external factors.Internal factors have to do with who we elicit requirements from, and how we elicit requirements. If requirements are not elicited from the right stakeholders and if the right elicitation techniques are not used, then it results in unclear and incomplete requirements leading to subsequent changes. Such changes are avoidable through the appropriate usage of elicitation techniques and documentation.This is why the BABoK (Business Analysis Body of Knowledge)[2] lists more than 30 techniques to elicit, analyze and document requirements. These techniques have to be used effectively to eliminate changes occurring because of internal factors.The external factors, on the other hand, have to do with changes to market conditions, competitive landscape, and legal compliance needs. The changes are needed for the business success of the projects and can’t be easily foreseen.Postponing such changes may have serious, adverse impact on business objectives and hence such changes must be accommodated into the present release as quickly as possible. Leaders who succeed with Agile projects follow this principle, insist on upfront clarity in scope at a high level and then allow progressive elaboration of scope over the releases for more details.That is, they use a multitude of apt techniques to elicit and document requirements from the right stakeholders upfront so that their get clear and complete requirements and hence eliminate changes occurring due to internal factors.However, they would not insist on “Freezing” the requirements but allow progressive elaboration of details of these requirements to accommodate changes happening due to external factors. Thus they achieve both interests – proper estimation and planning for efficient delivery and cost-effectiveness through upfront clarity and completeness of high-level requirements and also ensure quick alignment with changing business scenario through a progressive elaboration of detailed requirements.2) The Principle of life cycle models:The 5 phases of any life cycle don’t change and you should create your own life cycle model when faced with a new situation.Lifecycle models keep emerging and every time there is a new lifecycle model, it impacts the project schedules, communication reports, team ramp up and ramp down plans, and quality plans mainly. However, as some industry experts such as Karl Wiegers [3] suggest, these life cycle models have little difference and the masses may get swept away by the hype involved in the new lifecycle model but leaders respond differently.Leaders understand that every new life cycle model brings with it solution to some existing problem but also a new set of problems. Hence, they accept the new models selectively and often adapt with the new lifecycle model by tailor-making it to their advantage. They can do this tailoring based on the understanding that the 5 phases of a lifecycle model are changeless.Software development models have emerged under many names beginning from waterfall, V, RAD, evolutionary methods, iterative, incremental, spiral, RUP and finally fully Agile methods such as Scrum, XP, and Kanban. The life cycle models mainly define how the 5 phases such as requirements, functional specification, design, implementation and testing are woven. The fact that any development project, not just the software projects involve all the 5 phases is a changeless principle as established below:Problem definition:This phase can be alternately called Scoping, Requirements Specification etc., and defines what the customer needs are that should be translated into deliverables. Any project exists because there are customer needs and hence this phase cannot be done away with.Solution specification:Alternately called functional specification, analysis phase, feature specification etc., this phase defines what the proposed solution is for the customer need. Any project is an implementation of solution to a customer need and solution definition cannot be done away with.Solution design:Alternatively called design, low-level design etc., this phase defines “HOW” the solution will be implemented. Any nontrivial solution needs to be designed and in that sense, this phase is indispensable too.Solution implementation:Alternatively called implementation phase, construction phase, the coding phase, this phase implements the designed solution. It is this phase that produces the actual deliverables and hence indispensable.Testing:This phase involves multiple types of testing and tests the implemented solution against the specified requirements. No product can be released without testing and this phase is indispensable too.Given that these phases are indispensable, let’s see how different life cycle models weave them. The waterfall model involves a tight sequence among the 5 phases. That is, you cannot skip any phase and work on a phase without completing the previous one. The incremental model breaks down the scope into multiple increments but maintains the tight sequence among the phases within each increment.However, Scrum not only breaks the scope into multiple increments called “Sprints”, but also removes the tight sequence among the 5 phases. For instance, one can do coding for a feature without an approved design for the same.Hence, the Agile model provides more freedom and flexibility to developers compared to the incremental model or the full-fledged waterfall model. While this freedom sounds attractive, if the team is not multi-skilled and seasoned enough, the resulting product may contain spaghetti code and become unmaintainable. Also, if the team is not multi-skilled, the Agile model may not result in optimum resource utilization.Given this backdrop, while the masses embrace the Agile model mechanically and suffer the consequences of chaos and underutilization (while also realizing some benefits), the leaders respond differently. They may adopt Agile fully if suitable, but if not, they create tailor-made hybrid models.Most of the recent successful megaprojects showcased at PMI conferences implemented hybrid models that involved elements of agility but imposed certain discipline as well. The latest version of PMBoK lists hybrid life cycle models as a trend in project management [4].To illustrate a hybrid model, factory model that was one of the many hybrid models implemented in Wipro Technologies and published as a case study at Harvard [5] can be taken as an example.Factory model is a software service delivery model and software development life cycle is only a part of it and this article illustrates only the life cycle part of the factory model. As illustrated in diagram 1, factory model involves frequent releases that are pre-scheduled and requirements are accepted even after the requirements document is signed off and subsequent phases are in progress.However, there is a cutoff date for requirements inflow after which the incoming requirements would be allocated to the next release. As the releases are shorter and the customers have a look ahead, usually they would be willing to wait for the next release rather than pressing for inclusion of requirements into the current release.This is a hybrid model, which has Agile features namely shorter releases and openness to accept requirements even after signing off RS. But, it also has traditional features such as tight binding of life cycle phases within a single release and freezing the requirements beyond the requirement window. There are many such hybrid models used effectively by industry leaders.3) Principle of estimation methodologies:The procedure to create deliverable based estimation methodologies does not change; create a new deliverable-based estimation method when technology changes.As new technologies emerge, one of the consequences is that established estimation methodologies become obsolete. For instance, when the Function Points estimation method was created for COBOL applications, it became quite widely used. The units into which the functionality of an application is broken down into, such as “Internal logical files”, “Record types” etc., was natural to COBOL applications.However, with the emergence of GUI based client-server applications, this model became a force-fit and estimators regressed back to carrying out unstructured raw estimates. This phenomenon happens every time there is a technology change. The masses follow raw, unstructured estimation method but the leaders develop new methodologies themselves.We have carried out research into the accuracy of estimates by asking the groups of people to estimate for the same specification using both raw method and structured methods and the results show stark differences in accuracy. Diagram 2 below contrasts estimates performed using unstructured, semi-structured and formal (completely structured) methodologies:As the above diagram compares estimation results performed by same people on the same specification with estimation method being the only variant, it can be concluded that estimation method plays a major role in determining the accuracy of estimates. Use of semi-structured and fully structured estimation methods improves the estimation accuracy significantly.Hence, the leaders use the changeless procedure to design new estimation methods and come up with a new estimation method themselves when technology changes. This procedure is as follows:Define the measure of application size.Define the units into which the specification is broken into.Define the factors to classify the complexity of the broken down unitsDefine the formula to arrive at size based on the number and complexity of broken down unitsDefine the method to determine effort from the size using productivity norms.This author explains in one of the previous papers [6] how different methodologies can be compared along the lines of the common procedure defined above and compares Function Points, Use case Points, MVC Points and structured WBS methods in a common format as shown in diagram 3 below:The author and colleagues have created two such deliverable-based open estimation methodologies namely MVC Points [6] and Interface points [7] intended to estimate web applications and enterprise application integration projects. We have also seen many unpublished methodologies to estimate data warehousing applications, ERP applications used in-house in leading IT organizations and usage of these methods greatly improve estimation accuracy.4) The Principle of schedule management:Project schedules are effective when the work breakdown is aligned with the life cycle model and contains at least 90% of the tasks performed by the team on the ground.  When life cycle models change, the way work is broken down also changes. It has been illustrated in earlier articles of this author [8][9] that alignment of work breakdown structure to the life cycle model is a critical factor that determines whether the schedule will be used in the project or not. When life cycle models change and the older ways of WBS doesn’t work, the masses give up scheduling practices but the leaders change the WBS and continue scheduling practices to ensure optimum resource utilization.Specifically, the arrival of Agile methodologies has rendered old ways of WBS obsolete. As shown in diagram 4, Agile methods view project progress in terms of completely usable features whereas traditional methods view project progress in terms of work done.Accordingly, the WBS also changes. A WBS of a traditional project would like table 1 belowTask IDMile stoneSummary tasksSub tasksDuration Resource.......1RS302Feature 1Elicit requirementsDocument requirement.......Feature 2....................FSFeature 1GUIBusiness logic.......Feature 2............Design........As can be seen in table 1, the WBS is organized along life cycle phases. As this does not work with Agile models, the common tendency is to give up schedules and execute work in ad hoc manner. However, leaders transpose the WBS to align with an Agile view of project progress as shown in table 2 and continue to use project schedules to optimize resource utilization.Task IDMile stoneSummary tasksSub tasksDurationResource1Release 1......2Feature 1RS related tasksOther task from sprint backlogOther task from sprint backlogFeature 2..................Release 2Feature 3GUIBusiness logicOther task from sprint backlogFeature 4............Release 3......5) Principle of risk management:It is essential to prioritize identified risks and plan mitigation and contingencies irrespective of size and complexity of the project.As changes occur in all facets of project execution, very new risks emerge and a common tendency is not to identify the risks but stick with the old risks and suffer the consequences. However, leaders stick to the constant principle of risk management and use that to identify and manage new risks. The risk management process that doesn’t change is indicated in the following diagram 5:To illustrate, when the outsourcing model changes from tactical outsourcing to strategic outsourcing, new, critical stakeholder risks emerge. When life cycle model changes to Agile, new cost-related risks emerge. However, the leaders stick on to the process of risk identification, risk prioritization, risk response planning and risk monitoring and control to stay on top of risks and maximize project success probability.ConclusionAs changes occur ever more frequently in all facets of software delivery, it is not adequate to respond with rhetoric such as “Embrace the change” or “Be open to change” although they are well-meaning phrases. It is important to respond to the change thoughtfully and taking a step back from the change and identifying the changeless principle behind the change helps in responding thoughtfully.This article has identified constant principles that don’t change in 5 facets of project delivery and anchoring in these changeless principles helps to respond to changes smartly and increase project success chances by leaps and bounds.
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How are Changeless Principles Responsible For Proj...

IntroductionNo other industry perhaps is character... Read More

Project Manager Salary Guide 2021

Project management skills and expertise are in demand globally, and earning potential remains promising. The Project Management Institute (PMI)regularly runs a salary survey to find out what kind of salary project managers draw across industries and across geographies. This is probably one of the most comprehensive salary surveys conducted for any job type. Earning Power: Project Management Salary Survey—Eleventh Edition (2020), the latest salary survey from the Project Management Institute (PMI) equips practitioners with the most comprehensive view of project managers’ earnings from 42 countries around the world.  Greater awareness of how skill level, experience and certifications impact salary can give practitioners considerable earning power in a dynamic job market. And this critical data can help recruiters, human resources and compensation professionals establish fair and equitable salaries for project management roles within their organizations. Some of the data you will discover in this PMI report might surprise you. In this article, we give you the complete lowdown on the findings of the survey.Data gathered The scale of the PMI salary survey is vast: over 32,000+ project managers across industries and verticals, across the globe. This sample size is a good representative of the population and provides a realistic representation of salary figures. Quite a wide variety of information is collected by PMI’s team – position, years of PM experience, highest formal education, degree in project management, PMP® status, training per year, type of project, avg team size, project budget, and many more – from the sample size from each of the 42 countries. The report is of about 360 pages long, with quite a detailed information segregated by countries.One can thus slice and dice the figures to extract an amazing amount of insights into how project management in general and PMP certification can impact the salary of employees across industries, verticals, positions, and geographies. The top3 countries The top 3 countries on median salary figures were: Switzerland ($132,086) United States ($116,000) Australia ($101,381)The verdict “There’s never been a better time to be a project manager”, states the PMI Salary Survey, Eleventh Edition (2020).But what the report truly indicates is that there has never been a better time to be a PMP® certified project manager. The final verdict? Here it is: Respondents with PMP® certification report 22% higher median salaries than those without PMP® certification. Project Manager salary ranges Candidates with a PMP certification are prioritized over non-certified candidates. They are also more likely to get better compensation. However, the median salary depends on several factors such as their country of residence, years of experience, position or role and the average size of projects managed, including average project budget and average project team size. Project Manager salaries by countryCountriesMedian SalaryUSA$116,000India$28,750Singapore$71,279Hong Kong$76,607United Arab Emirates$81,665Project Manager salaries by years of experienceYearsUSAIndiaSingaporeHong KongUnited Arab Emirates
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Project Manager Salary Guide 2021

Project management skills and expertise are in dem... Read More

Project Management: What’s Trending in 2021

Project management is the practice that is used to initiate, design, execute, control, and close a team's work in order to reach specific objectives and fulfil specific success criteria at the specified time. The main challenge of project management is to achieve all project objectives within the given limits.A decade ago, managing projects was difficult and challenging. It was difficult to set clear goals with less project management tools and projects were being managed by smaller teams with simpler projects.Fast forwarding to 2020, the scenario is completely different as Project Management seems like a phoenix rising from the ashes. The teams are no longer small, nor are the tasks, and the goals are defined with a proper system.The project management industry is quickly evolving, keeping pace with advanced technologies, tools, and the latest trends.Today, we will discuss the top 5 Project Management global trends in 2020.1. Artificial Intelligence (AI) & Automation Will Impact ProjectsArtificial Intelligence has had a very positive impact on projects. According to a PMI report, software development, aerospace, healthcare and financing all implement Artificial Intelligence in their way of managing projects.The first thing project managers need to do is take AI into account in project management and then learn how to utilize it for successfully completing projects.Using AI in automating data will make it easier to handle projects than before. Moreover, you can form positive business relationships with your team members and clients, resulting in proper coordination and transparency.It’s quite common to witness poor estimates and unknown external factors pushing the deadline. Artificial intelligence can calculate the duration, cost and progress of a project properly and predict realistic project schedules.2. More Project Managers Will Incorporate Hybrid Project ManagementEvery project is created differently and differs in methodology and execution. No wonder the concept of hybrid project management is becoming increasingly popular and with every passing day, many Project managers and Scrum masters are combining more than one methodology.According to PMI reports, Hybrid project management aims to combine standard project management techniques with the agile methodology.When the hybrid model, such as combining a traditional approach is implemented with an Agile process, team members from different points of view and work styles will collaborate and achieve more flexibility, dedication, and productivity in their own way.Project managers are inclining to this flexible approach of projects in the current year. A combination of agile and traditional methodologies is best suited in a multi-project environment, where complex parts are executed using agile, and a traditional method is used for the simpler parts.3. Managing Projects Will Become Easier with Emotional Intelligence (EI)It seems strange, but project success is related to humans understanding and realizing emotions. How? According to PMI.org emotional intelligence can strongly predict performance no matter what job you do. It allows clients, team members, sponsors and management to interact with each other with clarity, handle challenges efficiently and make committed choices to act strategically and swiftly. EI is now an essential technology for a successful business outcome.Understanding the emotions of the team members and dealing with different personalities ensures that the project keeps progressing at a smooth and constant pace. This is an invaluable leadership ability for project managers around the world.Therefore, it becomes more important than ever to learn about emotional intelligence and what drives people to predict future project success.4. Remote Working is on the RiseThe trend of working remotely is now extremely common and this will go on in future too. There are a lot of advantages when people work remotely. It offers more flexibility and saves a lot of time as you don’t need to travel to your workplace. The costs to the project and company get further reduced leading to the development of talent. According to the results of a survey by Wrike, 83% of respondents work remotely every day for at least one to two hours. 43% of them reported that they work remotely now, more than they did a couple of years ago.When working remotely, projects will be managed by:Setting up daily, stand-up meetings and calls to stay updated on the progressHaving your team members keep you updated on any project changes or updatesUsing online collaboration tools such as Microsoft Planner to collaborate with team members and never miss out on any changes or updatesDoing quarterly individual assessments in a yearThe future of project management will witness a steep rise in next-gen project managers, project management offices, and more focus stepping up cybersecurity. Project managers should pay attention to these trends to successfully lead their teams.5. More Jobs Will be Available for Project ManagersProject managers are involved in every possible industry. According to ‘The Project Management Institute (PMI) report’ last year, the project management labour force is predicted to grow by 33 percent in over 11 countries by 2027. There will be a wide range of jobs for project management and these are estimated to grow over the next 10 years. Some of them are in industries like: Management and Professional ServicesManufacturingFinance and InsuranceInformation Services and PublishingConstructionUtilitiesOil and GasBy 2027, nearly 88 million professionals will be required in project management-oriented roles. The first in the race to hiring are China and India forming more than 75 percent of the total project management-oriented employment.The report further stresses that project managers are key in delivering successful projects and products. Acting otherwise can potentially create loss of nearly US$208 billion in GDP over the 10 years in the 11 countries examined.With the new trends of 2020, project management will be playing a major role in fastening product development with its new technologies, and in turn, increasing workflow efficiency. Owing to its exponential growth, multiple job opportunities will be created and staying on top of the latest trends will give one the leverage to make the most of such changes.
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Project Management: What’s Trending in 2021

Project management is the practice that is used to... Read More