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Importance and Benefits of The Project Charter

What is the Project Charter:PMBOK® Defines Project Charter as a document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project, and provides a project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to the project.PMI® gives a lot of importance to project charter. Project Charter will state the high-level requirements to satisfy the stakeholders’ needs and it also defines the authority of the Project Manager.Business Case and Project statement of work are the documents that are necessary to create a project charter. The purpose of a business case is to understand the business need for the project and determine whether it is worth investing in. Business needs or demands include market demands, organizational need, customers’ requests, technological advance, legal requirements, ecological impacts, and social needs.“According to the PMBOK® Guide, the business case is an economic feasibility study. It is used to track progress and compare project results against the success factors identified in the business case”.A project isn’t a project until the project charter is approved, and the project charter cannot be started until the business case is approved.The Project Charter highlights high-level initiation draft defined as below:Let's look at why the project charter is so important!The main purpose of the project charter is the formal authorization of the project and the go-ahead to commit organizational resources to it; without a project charter, the project can be canceled anytime and for any reason and can be subject to an audit as an unauthorized project.Let us imagine a project without a project charter. If there is no project charter, projects will have no direction. The Project Managers will lack authority. There will be no expectations for the projects undertaken. The scope of the projects will not be clearly defined.Let's consider a project has started for 2-3 months. A Project Manager is already authorized, and the project is moving well. Due to certain circumstances, current Project Manager resigns from the company and the project is assigned to another Project Manager. The initial task of every Project Manager authorized should be to go through the Project Charter to understand its business need and objective. The Project Charter project describes goals, scope, stakeholders and a high-level deliverable at high levels. Imagine project having no project charter then Project Manager would have been like a “Fish Out of Water”.What is included in the Project Charter?A Charter is a document that elucidates the project in succinct wording without a lot of details. It’s written for high-level management needs. Charter doesn’t provide detailed end goals, schedule, and cost.A Project Charter template may include some or all the following:Components of the Project CharterDo We Really Require Project Charter?Project Charter is important for the success of a project. The Project charter builds a foundation for any projects undertaken. It is a great communication tool for the stakeholders and provides a direction to the project.Following are few of the benefits of a project charter:It gives an authority to the project manager to complete the projectExplains the business importance and existence of project.Demonstrates Management support for the project.Defines outcome for the project.Aligns project with the organization objectives.Provides a team with a clear concise reporting system.Protects team members from scope creep.Helps in avoiding disagreements between stakeholders.Authorizes the existence of the project or establishes the project.Defines the parameters within which the project manager is authorized to operate.Gives the project manager authority to spend money and procure resources.Provides the high-level requirements for the project.Links the project to the ongoing operations of the organization.Process of project charter:The project charter is an important document and a project should not be started without one. The success of the project cannot be measured without a project charter.A project charter is important in the Project Management, because-It ensures that the project manager understands the sponsor’s needs and requirements.It provides vital information needed to get the projects started.It acts as a reference document to make sure everyone (i.e. Project Manager, Stakeholder, Higher Management etc.) are on the same page.It authorizes and protects the project manager by describing what are the benefits of the Projects that need to be achieved.* Remember According to the PMBOK® Guide, a project benefit is the result of actions or behaviors, and/or the value of the product, service, or result from the project brings to the organization and the project stakeholders.
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Importance and Benefits of The Project Charter

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 Importance and Benefits of The Project Charter

What is the Project Charter:

PMBOK® Defines Project Charter as a document issued by the project initiator or sponsor that formally authorizes the existence of a project, and provides a project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to the project.

PMI® gives a lot of importance to project charter. Project Charter will state the high-level requirements to satisfy the stakeholders’ needs and it also defines the authority of the Project Manager.

Business Case and Project statement of work are the documents that are necessary to create a project charter. The purpose of a business case is to understand the business need for the project and determine whether it is worth investing in. Business needs or demands include market demands, organizational need, customers’ requests, technological advance, legal requirements, ecological impacts, and social needs.

“According to the PMBOK® Guide, the business case is an economic feasibility study. It is used to track progress and compare project results against the success factors identified in the business case”.

A project isn’t a project until the project charter is approved, and the project charter cannot be started until the business case is approved.

The Project Charter highlights high-level initiation draft defined as below:
Project Charter initiation draft
Project Charter quote

Let's look at why the project charter is so important!

The main purpose of the project charter is the formal authorization of the project and the go-ahead to commit organizational resources to it; without a project charter, the project can be canceled anytime and for any reason and can be subject to an audit as an unauthorized project.


Let us imagine a project without a project charter. If there is no project charter, projects will have no direction. The Project Managers will lack authority. There will be no expectations for the projects undertaken. The scope of the projects will not be clearly defined.

Let's consider a project has started for 2-3 months. A Project Manager is already authorized, and the project is moving well. Due to certain circumstances, current Project Manager resigns from the company and the project is assigned to another Project Manager. The initial task of every Project Manager authorized should be to go through the Project Charter to understand its business need and objective. The Project Charter project describes goals, scope, stakeholders and a high-level deliverable at high levels. Imagine project having no project charter then Project Manager would have been like a “Fish Out of Water”.


Project Charter importance


What is included in the Project Charter?

A Charter is a document that elucidates the project in succinct wording without a lot of details. It’s written for high-level management needs. Charter doesn’t provide detailed end goals, schedule, and cost.

A Project Charter template may include some or all the following:
Project Charter template


Components of the Project Charter

Project Charter

Do We Really Require Project Charter?

Project Charter is important for the success of a project. The Project charter builds a foundation for any projects undertaken. It is a great communication tool for the stakeholders and provides a direction to the project.
Following are few of the benefits of a project charter:

  1. It gives an authority to the project manager to complete the project
  2. Explains the business importance and existence of project.
  3. Demonstrates Management support for the project.
  4. Defines outcome for the project.
  5. Aligns project with the organization objectives.
  6. Provides a team with a clear concise reporting system.
  7. Protects team members from scope creep.
  8. Helps in avoiding disagreements between stakeholders.
  9. Authorizes the existence of the project or establishes the project.
  10. Defines the parameters within which the project manager is authorized to operate.
  11. Gives the project manager authority to spend money and procure resources.
  12. Provides the high-level requirements for the project.
  13. Links the project to the ongoing operations of the organization.

    Process of project charter:

    Process of Project Charter

The project charter is an important document and a project should not be started without one. The success of the project cannot be measured without a project charter.

A project charter is important in the Project Management, because-

  1. It ensures that the project manager understands the sponsor’s needs and requirements.
  2. It provides vital information needed to get the projects started.
  3. It acts as a reference document to make sure everyone (i.e. Project Manager, Stakeholder, Higher Management etc.) are on the same page.

It authorizes and protects the project manager by describing what are the benefits of the Projects that need to be achieved.

* Remember According to the PMBOK® Guide, a project benefit is the result of actions or behaviors, and/or the value of the product, service, or result from the project brings to the organization and the project stakeholders.




Rajesh

Rajesh Bhagia

Blog Author

Rajesh Bhagia is experienced campaigner in Lamp technologies and has 10 years of experience in Project Management. He has worked in Multinational companies and has handled small to very complex projects single-handedly. He started his career as Junior Programmer and has evolved in different positions including Project Manager of Projects in E-commerce Portals. Currently, he is handling one of the largest project in E-commerce Domain in MNC company which deals in nearly 9.5 million SKU's.

In his role as Project Manager at MNC company, Rajesh fosters an environment of teamwork and ensures that strategy is clearly defined while overseeing performance and maintaining morale. His strong communication and client service skills enhance his process-driven management philosophy.

Rajesh is a certified Zend Professional and has developed a flair for implementing PMP Knowledge Areas in daily work schedules. He has well understood the importance of these process and considers that using the knowledge Areas efficiently and correctly can turn projects to success. He also writes articles/blogs on Technology and Management

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Am I Eligible to Get PMP® Certified? - A Complete Checklist of PMP Exam Prerequisites

Doesn’t this question sound familiar? Your quest for PMP® certification begins with this question and it is also an important piece of information for every PMP® aspirant. The Project Management Professional (PMP)® is the most important certification for project managers across all industries. It is a truly global certification which allows you to lead projects almost in every country. Further, it enables you to work in any industry by deploying any methodology in any location.But before you begin your PMP® journey you need to meet certain education and experience requirements to meet the standards set by PMI in order to appear for your PMP® exam. The experience requirement shows your soft skills to sit for the PMP® exam and the educational requirements show that you have enough theoretical background to manage a project. However, your experience requirement for PMP® changes depending on the educational requirement which you satisfy. This blog will answer all your queries about the eligibility requirement for PMP® certification.The eligibility requirements for PMP®A salary survey conducted by the Project Management Institute (PMI) shows that PMP® certified project managers tend to earn more compared to their non-certified counterparts. PMP® certification warrants a certain level of knowledge on the project management area. The reason that companies and organisations give high credit to PMP® certification compared to other certificates in the industry because PMI has a very strict application and audit process for relevant education and experience requirements that one needs to be PMP® certified.As the employer has high regards for the certification, once you show a PMP® certification in your resume he or she will that you have met the strict PMP® certification requirements which proves a certain level of practice and knowledge on project management. It is not easy for someone to sit and pass the PMP® certification exam.If you are wondering about where can you check for these requirements then you will find all the criteria set by PMI for taking the PMP®  exam in the PMP® Credential Handbook. You can download the free version of this handbook from PMI’s website. It will help you to know everything about PMP® certification, who is eligible to apply, and how to go about applying. The eligibility requirements for taking the exam are as follows:You should hold a bachelor’s degree or the global equivalent with at least three years of project management experience. The three years of experience is expected to be comprised of 4,500 hours which you have spent directing and leading projects and 35 hours of project management education.In case, you don’t have a four-year degree, you need to have a secondary diploma (high school or global equivalent) with at least project management experience of 5 years. The five years of experience should comprise of 7,500 hours which you have spent directing and leading projects and project management education of around 5 hours.Need more clarity on the eligibility criteria? Then the following chart will surely help you to clarify your doubts.Eligibility RequirementFour-year degree or global equivalentSecondary degree or global equivalentYears of Project Management Experience3 Years (36 months)5 Years (60 months)Hours Leading & Directing Projects4,500 Hours7,500 HoursHours of Project Management Education35 Hours35 HoursMeet the 35 contact hours Project Management Education Requirement for PMP®You need to match one of the eligibility requirements which is required for you to appear for your PMP® certification exam. But it is also important for you to complete 35 hours of Project Management Education in order to fulfill the eligibility requirement to sit for the PMP® exam.You must be wondering about how can you earn the 35 hours of Project Management education requirement. You can enroll in a PMP® certification training to earn the same. These training also help you to prepare for your PMP® exam and get proper support from the experts to clear your PMP® exam at one shot.Acceptable experiences to be eligible for PMP® examThe experiences mentioned by you in your application should cover all the five processes as mentioned in the PMBOK® Guide. But you should keep in mind that it is not necessary for all of these processes to be in one single project. You can find a full list of acceptable tasks, knowledge, and skills in PMI’s PMP® Examination Content Outline. Few of the tasks that you might be performing and which would be acceptable are as follows:You should define the high-level scope of the project based on the requirements of business and compliance to meet the customer project expectations.Obtain approval to execute the project by presenting the project plan to the key stakeholders (if required).Achieve the project deliverables within the schedule and budget by executing the tasks as defined in the project plan.Get feedback from the stakeholders by communicating the project status to ensure that the business needs are aligned to the project aligns.Work with the customer and the sponsor to obtain final acceptance of the project deliverables to confirm that project deliverables and scope were met.Ways to gather the required experienceYou need to meet the PMP® experience requirement to be eligible in order to gain PMP® certification. But how can you gather enough experience? As discussed, you need to earn experience of 4,500 to 7,500 hours of directing and leading projects depending on your educational qualification.The following ideas can help you to overcome this obstacle:Full-time Project ManagersIf you are working as a Project Manager or in a similar position which gives you a full-time opportunity to lead and direct projects, then it’s easy. If you don’t have enough hours then you can go ahead with what you are doing and with time you will gather the required number of hours. If you are not a full-time Project ManagerDon’t have enough hours to meet the required experience eligibility? It even gets trickier when you are not in a role which gives you an opportunity to direct or lead projects. If you are not managing projects at all or managing projects part-time, you are collecting hours of experience at a slower rate compared to a full-time project manager. You can increase the rate in the following ways:By changing your roleYou can increase the amount of time spent on managing projects using the most effective solution, i.e. by changing your role. You can go for a wider discussion about your career development with your employer by stating clearly that you would like to provide more value to your employer by directing and leading projects.If you get an opportunity to become a full-time project manager then you are on your way to collect the required hours as soon as possible. By changing your companyIn case you are not getting an opportunity to shift to a different kind of responsibility in your current company then you should change the company you are working for. You might find a suitable opportunity to negotiate better terms and conditions than you are having in your current company. This will surely allow you to speed up the process of earning the required hours of experience in order to meet the PMI eligibility requirement.VolunteeringYou can always check for volunteering opportunity with your local PMI chapter which would also expose you to additional benefits. This will also provide you with more and better networking opportunities at the same time. You can earn the required experience hours through volunteering.Is PMI Membership Mandatory for me to get PMP®  certified?This is another question that you tend to ask while beginning your PMP® journey. You don’t have to be a PMI member in order to appear for your PMP® certification exam. But there are surely a few benefits which you can reap from your PMI membership. The benefits are as follows:As a PMI member, you can receive a significant discount on your PMP® exam application fee. Once you become a PMI member, you will realise that the cost of membership is comparatively lesser than the discounts which you get.You get access to a free PDF copy of the PMBOK Guide as a PMI member which is an important resource to prepare and pass your exam.Moreover, many local PMI chapters offer discounts on their PMP® exam preparation workshops to PMI members.PMP® certification costApart from the above-mentioned information about the eligibility requirements, there are certain costs related to PMP® exam. We can divide the cost of PMP® certification into the cost of PMP® certification training and the PMP® exam fee. But there is another hidden cost related to it which you should be aware of. This is the cost of the time which you will spend while studying for the PMP® certification exam. Let’s try to understand these costs in detail.Cost of 35 hours of Project Management TrainingYou are expected to meet certain eligibility criteria before appearing for the PMP Certification exam. Apart from other eligibilities, it is necessary for you to attend at least 35 hours of project management course. So, the major question which arises here is that how much do these certification courses cost?The cost of PMP® certification training varies based on the type of training which you are willing to take. Mostly, you need to make a choice between PMP® certification classroom training and online PMP® certification training. Also, the cost of your training depends on the country you are located. Usually, the cost of PMP® certification training ranges between $500 to $2,000.  The following chart will give you a clear idea about the cost of PMP® certification classroom training across other countries:CountriesPrice of classroom trainingAmerica, Canada, Australia$1,500South America (Brazil, Chile etc.)$600China, India$500European Countries$1,200Arabian Countries$2,000Exam Preparation TimeAs a busy professional, the time you spend for your project management education might cost you your precious leisure time. But you can save your time by opting for a self-paced online PMP certification training cost. For instance, you can plan to spend 5 to 6 hours a week to study in order to pass your PMP® exam. The duration of your training will certainly depend on your dedication, professional experiences, and your background in project management.  PMP®  Exam FeeOnce you are done with your 35 hours of project management education, you need to take your PMP® exam in a Prometric test center. You need to schedule your exam date in the nearest Prometric test center after PMI accepts your application. The PMP® certification exam fee can be brought down by becoming a PMI member.You can also get a free copy of PMBOK® by becoming a PMI member. Other than that, there are numerous other benefits which you can reap from your PMI membership.To sum up, the cost of PMP® certification depends on the course you decide to take. Your total PMP® certification cost will be nearly $750 if you choose to get your project management education through an online course. You can also continue preparing with a PMP® certification classroom training by spending around $1,700 including the exam fee.ConclusionThis blog will surely help you to understand the eligibility requirements to sit for your PMP® certification exam and the ways to attain them. This information will help you to prepare to begin your PMP® certification journey by fulfilling the required educational qualification and work experience. Further, the PMP® certification cost is a really essential piece of information when you plan to begin your PMP® certification journey.Earn the required experience hours by changing your role or volunteering with your local PMI chapter. Wish you all the best for your PMP® journey!
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Reap The Benefits Of Your PMP® Certification

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Having this certification under your belt exposes you to benefits like high market value, increased credibility, and most often, a higher pay. But is it worth getting a PMP® certification? This is the most common question that arises in your mind when you prepare yourself for a costly and complicated journey to get PMP® certified. The following benefits will surely help you to find the answer to your quest:Beef up your resume with PMP® CertificationYou can add more value to your profile by adding a PMP® certification to your resume. Employers hiring Project Managers prefer PMP® certified professionals over non-certified professionals.PMP® certification validates your project management experiencePMI (Project Management Institute) has set certain standards in regards to applying for the PMP exam. You need to acquire a certain amount of experience in directing and leading projects. Also, PMI has an audit process to ensure that you are truthful about your project history.Get networking and potential job opportunities as a PMP® certified professional The PMI chapters frequently organise meetings and workshops where project management professionals come together to learn the theories related to project management. These events also help you to earn PDUs which are valuable for renewing your PMP® certification when it expires in three years.These events expose you to discussions regarding fresh career opportunities from members who appreciate the importance of PMP® certification.PMP® certification proves your commitment towards the profession of project managementAs a PMP® certified professional, you spent your effort and time to attain your PMP® certification. This clearly shows your commitment to project management.Enhance your skillsYou need to undergo rigorous training in order to get PMP® certified. This also includes a significant amount of coursework. You get the opportunity to get trained and educated in five project management processes which include initiating, planning, implementing, controlling, and monitoring.To be precise, PMP® certification teaches you each and everything about project management which you can implement in your company for better project execution.Increase your earningYou tend to earn more as a PMP® certified project managers than the non-certified ones. You can increase your salary as a PMP® certified professional and expect an immediate hike as soon as you get PMP® certified. Surveys show that PMP® certified project managers earn 20% more than the non-certified project managers. Further, PMP® certified professionals have the capability to earn a six-figure income.  Other benefits There are numerous benefits of PMP® certification apart from the above-mentioned ones. Whatever field you belong to; finance, commerce, telecom, research, business, or technology, a PMP® credential will upskill your project managerial skills and allow you to step to new markets, new industries, and new countries.Although, you might feel demotivated for taking up the lengthy exam process and course fee, your money, time, and effort is worth as it returns you the benefit beyond you can imagine. Should I get a PMP® certification?If you are someone who’s passionate about Project Management and working in the project management field then you should definitely begin your journey for PMP® certification. It is a well renowned and respected certification with an excellent scope. It is mandatory in many organisations for a Project Manager to hold a PMP® or an equivalent certification.Once you are PMP® certified, you begin to progress both in terms of career and salary. According to PMI’s Salary Survey 9th edition, the salary of professionals with PMP® certification is 20% more on average than their non-certified counterparts. You need to fulfill the following requirements to appear for your PMP® certification exam:Project Management Experience (36 months for a 4-year degree holder and 60 months for a high school diploma or equivalent holder)35 hours of Project Management EducationIf you hold a bachelor's degree or global equivalent, then you need to have 4500 hours of Project Management experience.If you hold a high school diploma or global equivalent then you need to have 7500 hours of Project Management experience. Why do employers want you to be PMP®  Certified?Requiters looking for project managers divide the resumes into two piles: those with PMP® certification and those without. The following points will help you to understand why a PMP® certified professional is desired by the employers:Demand from customersAccording to Tim Wasserman, Program Director of Stanford’s Advanced Project Management Program, ‘Highly regulated industries (e.g., financial services, pharmaceuticals, defense, and aerospace) wouldn’t consider anyone without the PMP® certification’.If you are working in a company who has bid on a government project then you are likely to encounter a requirement for PMP® certification. But this requirement is not limited to government entities. The business approach for certain types of firms requires adherence to strictly-defined processes for which PMP is a must.PMP ensures your ability to speak the common language As a project manager, you are likely to spend the majority of time communicating with your team members who might differ from project to project. Therefore, your ability to speak the common business language ensures that you are on the same page with your team members, program manager, sponsor, etc.Although you can’t be sure that you will eliminate all kinds of possible miscommunications by having a team full of PMPs, this will surely reduce the chances of such scenarios as the entire team will have the common understanding of what each process and technique seeks to achieve.PMP shows that you can manage projects in a structured and repeatable fashionThe project management experts around the world use a set of repeatable and standardized processes to tackle the value of every unique process. PMI addressed the increased need for standardization of processes in its 2013 Pulse of the Profession™ Study. The tools, processes, and documents endorsed by PMI enable you to confidently and effectively manage the risk in any project. Moreover, you can ensure that the partner organisation and your team members are on the same page in regards to the management approach and risk identification.How does your PMP® certification benefit your employer? Adding a PMP® certification to your profile automatically opens up many beneficial doors for you as well as your employer. PMP® certified professionals are the leaders of some of the world’s top projects in renowned organisations. If you are imagining that how can a PMP® certification benefit your organisation, then these are the various benefits which your organisation can reap out of your PMP® certification:International recognitionAdd value to your companyCreate a healthy business cultureHaving organisational adaptabilityInternational recognitionPMI earned the ISO/IEC 17024 accreditation in the year 2007 for PMP® certification program. Since then, PMP® certification is an internationally recognised qualification which has the credibility in more than 85 countries which have endorsed and adopted ISO standardization practices. This clearly means that it is a certification recognized by the global community for its value and standardize the experience and qualification which a non-certified individual doesn’t hold. Once you get PMP® certified, you become a valuable commodity for your organisation if it intends to have a strong global presence and influence.Add value to your companyOnce you are PMP® certified, you start adding more value and a great benefit to your organisation. You are looked upon as a person who truly knows what he or she is doing.Your PMP® certification proves to be beneficial for your company in the following ways:Your organisation knows that the employees are getting led by someone who has the knowledge and experience to ensure that they work to the best of their ability.As a certified project manager, you have extensive knowledge about risk management and your company is assured that you will avoid any unnecessary mistakes that would lead to monetary loss.Your clients will be assured that they are getting the best service possible.Create a healthy business culture According to PMI, organisations are formulating their visions by integrating project management into it to create a healthy business culture. It further acknowledges that the most effective organisations recognize the need for a formal program and project management in their initiatives to change the business. The following factors play a pivotal role in an organisation while creating a culture that embraces project management and increases the business value:Understand the value of project managementActive engagement with executive sponsors on programs and projectsGetting projects and programs aligned with the organisation’s strategyHaving a highly matured program, project, and portfolio managementHave organisational adaptabilityPMI’s research shows that the skills demonstrated by PMP® certified project manager contribute towards the preparedness of a business or company for the market and environment change.ConclusionAs we have discussed all the benefits that your PMP® certification can bring to you and your organisation, we can sum it up as; PMP® certification improves your opportunities and skill set at the individual level and helps to manage the challenges and risks at an organisation level. It adds all the skills and knowledge which you need to expertly handle projects and teams in a variety of industries.So, if you want to get a PMP® certification and still worried about if it would help you then you should keep aside your worries and get onboard for an opportunity to give your career a new direction by getting PMP® certified.
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7 Basic Quality Tools for Efficient Project Management

Quality is one of the modern project constraints which leads the project management processes and activates. There are 3 processes of quality management throughout the project lifecycle. These are- Plan quality management  Perform quality assurance  Control quality  Each of the 3 processes have their own tools, but there are some tools that can be used in all the 3 processes. These 7 basic quality tools are examples of shareable tools : 1- Flow Chart :- It is a graphical description of workflow steps. So it can describe the steps of any process through graphical symbols which are connected to each other by paths that represent the direction of the workflow. The symbols can be circles, rectangles, diamonds or any other shapes which must be predefined to make the flowchart easy for understanding.We begin the flowchart by the start node, which is often represented as a circle shape. Then we represent each action or step we do by rectangle shape. When we want to make a decision  or a test that will give more than one result, each result will direct us to a different path with a different action. Flowcharts are very useful when we want to make a correction for any process. It helps us eliminate the redundancy and unuseful work steps. Also, it is very useful when we use it for creating the project statement of work. 2- Pareto Diagram :- It is a special vertical chart that is divided into categories which show all possible probabilities or events that can occur. Categories are ordered by the frequency of each category from high frequency on the left side of the vertical axis to low frequency on the right side of it. Pareto depends on the rule of 80/20, which proves that 80/100 of problems comes from 20/100 of causes. So when we know that 20/100 of causes and give more attention and resources to avoid them, we will solve 80/100 of errors and problems. So Pareto Diagram is very useful when we use it with cause and effect diagram (also called Ishikawa or fishbone). The below example shows Pareto Diagram for the reasons that lead to delay in a software project.  3- Histogram : It is a tool for showing the central tendency, statistical distribution and dispersion of a given set of measurements that will be shown on a vertical bar chart  . it is very useful when we want to know which categories have a larger frequency. We can use it in many applications such as- defining the resources that will perform the project work by using Resource Histogram which shown below  We can do the same thing with one resource in a timely manner such as dividing the categories by months and defining the number of one resource such as senior developer via each month of the project lifecycle.  4- Cause and Effect Diagram (Ishikawa or Fishbone): It is a diagram that represents the cause and effect as a fishbone. Its head represents the problem or objective and the body represents the causes of the problem or the actions that should be performed to reach the goal or objective at the head of the fishbone. When we find a problem with any process such as a process variation or an increasing number of defects, we can use the fishbone to find the source of problem. Each resource can also be divided into a number of resources, till we reach the original resources of the problem. The Fishbone problem statement often comes from the Control Chart when its measurements point to a problem in the process stability. The following diagram shows the cause and effect diagram for the delay of software projects  5- Checksheets (Tally sheets) :- Check sheet is a sheet that contains items of inspections and tests and the attribute that each test can result in. The acceptance criteria of each test must be listed on the sheet to be a guide for determining if the inspected item of the sample such as- a piece of code in the software project has passed a test item (such as a unit test). Then we gather the frequencies of each defect and represent it in Pareto Chart.  6-  Scatter Diagram : Scatter diagram (called also Correlation Diagram) is a diagram represented by two axes  X and Y. So any measurement or data shown in Scatter Diagram is represented by a pair of (X,Y). The correlation between x and y shown is based on the rule that Y is dependent on X but X is not dependent on Y. So there are many types of correlations such as- positive correlation (proportional), negative correlation (Inverse) or pattern of no correlation (Zero Correlation). An example of positive correlation is- the weight of the human and its relation to his age (between one year and 40 ). We find that the weight of the human depends on and is affected by age (increase in age will lead to increase in weight but the  reverse is incorrect). So we will consider the age is X axis and the weight is Y axis. In a negative correlation, when X is increased, Y decreases.   7- Control Chart: When we want to determine if a process is stable or not, we use a control chart. It consists of-  Upper Specification Limits (USL) and Lower Specification Limits (LSL) which come from specification  Upper Control Limits(UCL) and Lower Control Limits (LCL) which come from statistical calculation +_3 standard deviation above and below mean   Mean which equals UCL+LCL/2 The process is considered unstable if one point exceeds the UCL or LCL or seven consecutive points are above or below the mean.  When we ensure that the process is unstable, we perform a corrective action and monitor the result of these actions to measure its effect on the process stability.  So these 7 tools are very useful and can be used  throughout the project lifecycle to plan and maintain the quality associated activities.   
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7 Basic Quality Tools for Efficient Project Manage...

Quality is one of the modern project constraints w... Read More