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Guide to Prince2® Foundation 6th Edition Exams in 2021

PRINCE2® Certification comprises of two certification levels—Foundation and Practitioner. You can become PRINCE2 Foundation certified by passing the Foundation exam. There are no prerequisites for attempting this exam. The second qualification in the PRINCE2 suite is the Practitioner credential. Professionals attempting to gain the Practitioner credential must hold the PRINCE2 Foundation or an equivalent credential.The certifying body for the PRINCE2 credential is Axelos, and PeopleCert conducts the PRINCE2 examinations on behalf of Axelos. Candidates can register to appear for the examination through an Accredited Training Organization (ATO) such as KnowledgeHut--a Certified Partner of AXELOS.One can attend a training course with an ATO or study privately and then book an online examination, either through the ATO or PeopleCert. The PRINCE2 project management framework is composed of four integrated elements namely:  Principles- the building blocks upon which the themes and processes are based  Themes- the knowledge areas or aspects which need to be continuously addressed throughout the life cycle of a project Processes -which tell who does what and when, and lastly  Tailoring the environment which implies sizing the project to suit the needs of the project environment.The weightage given to them in the Foundation Exam is  Principles-13% Themes-52% Processes-27%  Projects & P2 -8%.  One must master the Managing Successful Projects with PRINCE2 Manual (2017) in order to pass the Foundation exam. The Foundation exam is a stepping stone to gain the Practitioner credential and what you study here will be of relevance even in the Practitioner exam.Foundation Exam Pattern This exam comprises 60 Multiple Choice Questions to be completed in a duration of 1 hour. The pass percentage is 55%. The exam will include 5 questions on key concepts of PRINCE2 like characteristics of a project, Six aspects of project performance, Integrated elements of PRINCE2 , benefits of PRINCE2 and customer /supplier environment etc., about 8 questions on Principles, 3 to 5 questions on each theme and 2 to 3 questions on Processes. Four options will be given for each question. Make sure to read the problem statement carefully before ticking one out of the four options. There is no negative marking, so make sure to attempt all the questions.Eligibility for Foundation Examination There are no set eligibility criteria to attempt the Foundation exam. But it is recommended that you should have a basic understanding of the Principles of project management or have completed a generic management course, or you could be working in an organization in a support role.Passing the Foundation Examination Study the PRINCE2 Manual thoroughly  The Purpose of each theme or process should be clear and noted. Know key words for each section. For eg. ‘fit for purpose’ means that the question is about Quality theme, while ‘Desirable, Viable, Achievable’ relate to the Business Case theme. Read Appendices A and C as many times as possible. Practice the Sample Papers of P2 Foundation Exam of PeopleCert available online. Many other Sample papers are also available online.  Here is how the Instructions on the Foundation Paper appear Instructions You should attempt all 60 questions. Each question is worth one mark. There is only one correct answer per question.  You need to answer 33 questions correctly to pass the exam.  Mark your answers on the answer sheet provided. Use a pencil (NOT pen).  You have 1 hour to complete this exam.  This is a ‘closed book’ exam. No material other than the exam paper is allowed. A sample of the questions is as below :-  What is the first step in the recommended risk management procedure? A. Assess  B. Identify  C. Implement  D. Plan Circle the bubble fully on the answer sheet provided against the question number with a dark pencil.Suggested Method of Attempting a QP Start from Q1 and go up to Q 60. Answer as many as you know fully well.  On second reading, attempt those that required you to think a little. The balance questions for which you are not a 100% sure of the answers, can be guessed.  There is 25% chance that you will get it correct since there are only four options and one of them is correct. Also, keep in mind that there is no negative marking. Benefits of Doing PRINCE2 Certification The PRINCE2 Foundation Certification is recognized all over the world as the de facto project management methodology to drive successful projects. PRINCE2 helps you efficiently plan, initiate and control projects. The course will empower you to communicate with stakeholders and team members. You will learn to use the knowledge of 7 Principles, 7 Themes and & Processes in executing a project by breaking it into manageable stages. You will be able to manage and control Risks, Issues and Resources. Another ability that you would pick up is writing the objectives and Scope of the project. Most projects fail because the management is not clear about the objectives of the project. In addition, if the scope of the project is not well defined, the chances of failure of a project increase.  Look at the six main aspects or variables of a project which a Project Manager has to manage.  They are:  Cost Time Scope Quality Risks and  Benefits.  The first two are of top priority. The Business Case written and amplified in the pre project processes, defines the cost and timescale besides listing the Benefits, Risks and stating the Quality requirements of the product based on the Customer’s Quality Expectations and Acceptance Criteria.   The other main aspect, that is Scope is the sum total of the project’s products and the extent of their requirements. While a Business Case tells us ‘Why’ we are doing a project, the scope tells us as to what exactly the project is delivering. It is apparent that if a project has to succeed then as a Project Manager you should be able to define the scope of the project and ensure that it is not exceeded. Gold Plating, as it is termed in Project Management, leads to failure because you will keep adding to the cost.Cost of Foundation ExaminationIn AustraliaAus. Dollar 700/=IndiaRs 18000 to Rs25000/=Europe£ 450.Accredited Training Organization (ATO) KnowledgeHut is one of the reputed training providers worldwide, check out PRINCE2 Foundation Training to know more.  Conclusion Passing the PRINCE2 Foundation exam gives you the qualification of a PRINCE2 Foundation certified professional. Gaining the PRINCE2 Foundation will help you enhance your career and equip you with expertise to manage projects in your organization. You will start getting better at understanding the objectives and scope of the project. You will know how to effectively list the requirements of the project and the stake holders, so that all requirements can be met on completion of the project. You will have the capability to logically break down a project into manageable chunks (Product Breakdown Structure- see Appx D of the manual).  Above all, you will be prepared and eligible for the higher certification in the PRINCE2 suite; that is the Practitioner Credential Exam. 
Guide to Prince2® Foundation 6th Edition Exams in 2021
Captain Dinesh
Captain Dinesh

Captain Dinesh Lamba

Author

Captain Dinesh Kumar Lamba, BSc (Hons), MA(Statistics), MSc (Defence Studies) is a Navy veteran and a PRINCE2 Trainer. He was accredited P2 Trainer for The Knowledge Academy from 2014 to 2018 and People’s Cert ( Invigilator) and empanelled P2 trainer for National Institute for Smart Government , Hyderabad.   As a PRINCE2 Foundation and Practitioner Trainer, Captain Lamba has conducted various PRINCE2 Courses for the The Knowledge Academy,London & NISG, Hyderabad. He is also a qualified AGILE DSDM Atern Foundation and Practitioner.

Posts by Captain Dinesh Lamba

Guide to Prince2® Foundation 6th Edition Exams in 2021

PRINCE2® Certification comprises of two certification levels—Foundation and Practitioner. You can become PRINCE2 Foundation certified by passing the Foundation exam. There are no prerequisites for attempting this exam. The second qualification in the PRINCE2 suite is the Practitioner credential. Professionals attempting to gain the Practitioner credential must hold the PRINCE2 Foundation or an equivalent credential.The certifying body for the PRINCE2 credential is Axelos, and PeopleCert conducts the PRINCE2 examinations on behalf of Axelos. Candidates can register to appear for the examination through an Accredited Training Organization (ATO) such as KnowledgeHut--a Certified Partner of AXELOS.One can attend a training course with an ATO or study privately and then book an online examination, either through the ATO or PeopleCert. The PRINCE2 project management framework is composed of four integrated elements namely:  Principles- the building blocks upon which the themes and processes are based  Themes- the knowledge areas or aspects which need to be continuously addressed throughout the life cycle of a project Processes -which tell who does what and when, and lastly  Tailoring the environment which implies sizing the project to suit the needs of the project environment.The weightage given to them in the Foundation Exam is  Principles-13% Themes-52% Processes-27%  Projects & P2 -8%.  One must master the Managing Successful Projects with PRINCE2 Manual (2017) in order to pass the Foundation exam. The Foundation exam is a stepping stone to gain the Practitioner credential and what you study here will be of relevance even in the Practitioner exam.Foundation Exam Pattern This exam comprises 60 Multiple Choice Questions to be completed in a duration of 1 hour. The pass percentage is 55%. The exam will include 5 questions on key concepts of PRINCE2 like characteristics of a project, Six aspects of project performance, Integrated elements of PRINCE2 , benefits of PRINCE2 and customer /supplier environment etc., about 8 questions on Principles, 3 to 5 questions on each theme and 2 to 3 questions on Processes. Four options will be given for each question. Make sure to read the problem statement carefully before ticking one out of the four options. There is no negative marking, so make sure to attempt all the questions.Eligibility for Foundation Examination There are no set eligibility criteria to attempt the Foundation exam. But it is recommended that you should have a basic understanding of the Principles of project management or have completed a generic management course, or you could be working in an organization in a support role.Passing the Foundation Examination Study the PRINCE2 Manual thoroughly  The Purpose of each theme or process should be clear and noted. Know key words for each section. For eg. ‘fit for purpose’ means that the question is about Quality theme, while ‘Desirable, Viable, Achievable’ relate to the Business Case theme. Read Appendices A and C as many times as possible. Practice the Sample Papers of P2 Foundation Exam of PeopleCert available online. Many other Sample papers are also available online.  Here is how the Instructions on the Foundation Paper appear Instructions You should attempt all 60 questions. Each question is worth one mark. There is only one correct answer per question.  You need to answer 33 questions correctly to pass the exam.  Mark your answers on the answer sheet provided. Use a pencil (NOT pen).  You have 1 hour to complete this exam.  This is a ‘closed book’ exam. No material other than the exam paper is allowed. A sample of the questions is as below :-  What is the first step in the recommended risk management procedure? A. Assess  B. Identify  C. Implement  D. Plan Circle the bubble fully on the answer sheet provided against the question number with a dark pencil.Suggested Method of Attempting a QP Start from Q1 and go up to Q 60. Answer as many as you know fully well.  On second reading, attempt those that required you to think a little. The balance questions for which you are not a 100% sure of the answers, can be guessed.  There is 25% chance that you will get it correct since there are only four options and one of them is correct. Also, keep in mind that there is no negative marking. Benefits of Doing PRINCE2 Certification The PRINCE2 Foundation Certification is recognized all over the world as the de facto project management methodology to drive successful projects. PRINCE2 helps you efficiently plan, initiate and control projects. The course will empower you to communicate with stakeholders and team members. You will learn to use the knowledge of 7 Principles, 7 Themes and & Processes in executing a project by breaking it into manageable stages. You will be able to manage and control Risks, Issues and Resources. Another ability that you would pick up is writing the objectives and Scope of the project. Most projects fail because the management is not clear about the objectives of the project. In addition, if the scope of the project is not well defined, the chances of failure of a project increase.  Look at the six main aspects or variables of a project which a Project Manager has to manage.  They are:  Cost Time Scope Quality Risks and  Benefits.  The first two are of top priority. The Business Case written and amplified in the pre project processes, defines the cost and timescale besides listing the Benefits, Risks and stating the Quality requirements of the product based on the Customer’s Quality Expectations and Acceptance Criteria.   The other main aspect, that is Scope is the sum total of the project’s products and the extent of their requirements. While a Business Case tells us ‘Why’ we are doing a project, the scope tells us as to what exactly the project is delivering. It is apparent that if a project has to succeed then as a Project Manager you should be able to define the scope of the project and ensure that it is not exceeded. Gold Plating, as it is termed in Project Management, leads to failure because you will keep adding to the cost.Cost of Foundation ExaminationIn AustraliaAus. Dollar 700/=IndiaRs 18000 to Rs25000/=Europe£ 450.Accredited Training Organization (ATO) KnowledgeHut is one of the reputed training providers worldwide, check out PRINCE2 Foundation Training to know more.  Conclusion Passing the PRINCE2 Foundation exam gives you the qualification of a PRINCE2 Foundation certified professional. Gaining the PRINCE2 Foundation will help you enhance your career and equip you with expertise to manage projects in your organization. You will start getting better at understanding the objectives and scope of the project. You will know how to effectively list the requirements of the project and the stake holders, so that all requirements can be met on completion of the project. You will have the capability to logically break down a project into manageable chunks (Product Breakdown Structure- see Appx D of the manual).  Above all, you will be prepared and eligible for the higher certification in the PRINCE2 suite; that is the Practitioner Credential Exam. 
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Guide to Prince2® Foundation 6th Edition Exams...

PRINCE2® Certification comprises of two certifi... Read More

Reflective Understanding of Prince2® Principles in a Project Environment in 2021

Managing successful projects in diverse areas such as construction, IT, banking, research and product development or in the field of health and service industry requires adoption of best practices that are pan-geographical. Post-COVID, the world is slowly recovering emotionally and economically, and what is needed are robust recovery measures such as project management best practices that will hasten up this recovery and help make things normal again.  It is becoming imperative that a project, once initiated, becomes a success. That is where the methodology of PRINCE2® (P2) comes into play. Projects in a Controlled Environment viz PRINCE2 is one of the most widely accepted methodologies for managing projects world over. Thousands of project sponsors, project managers and project teams, trainers and consultants have contributed to format the P2 methodology.  To be an independent project or a programme manager, one has to be a certified P2 practitioner. There are two parts to the P2 Certification. The first is the Foundational Level, and once you gain this, you can go for the Practitioner Level examination. Gaining the P2 Foundation, or any one of a number of certifications such as the PMQ, PPQ, PMP, CAPM or IPMA Level A,B,C or D is mandatory in order to be able to appear for the P2 Practitioner exam.  The popularity of P2 is attributable to the fact that it can be applied to any type of project, it can be tailored to meet the specific needs of the project and above all, it is based on established and proven best practices and governance for project management. A certification in P2 is thus valuable to enhance one’s market value as a project manager. Structure of PRINCE2® The four integrated elements of P2 are Principles, Themes, Processes and the Project environment. P2 Principles. These are the guiding obligations and good practices which help determine whether a project is strictly being managed using P2. All the seven Principles discussed in succeeding paragraphs have to be followed if a project has to qualify as a P2 project. P2 Themes. There are seven themes namely, Business Case, Organization, Quality, Plans, Risk, Change and Progress which are the aspects of project management that need to be addressed continually and in parallel throughout the project. Themes are the knowledge areas that one must master to be a successful P2 practitioner.  BC theme tells us why we are doing a project.  Organization theme tells us who will do what. The roles of Project Board (Executive, Senior User and Supplier), the Project Manager, Team Manager, Project Assurance and Quality Assurance are listed in detail.  The Quality theme covers the quality specifications and mechanism to ensure that the product produced is ‘fit for purpose’.  The Plans theme tells us when and at what cost the activities are sequenced.  The Risk theme helps us identify, track and manage all risks. It answers the question ‘What if’.  The Change theme tells us how to handle issues and measure the impact.  The Progress theme helps us to monitor the project through reports and tolerances. It answers the question ‘where we were’ and ‘where we are now’ at any stage of the project.P2 Processes. There are seven processes that describe a progression of a project so that a project manager can proceed logically from Starting a Project to Closing a project. The processes have a check list of activities, documents and state of products at every step. The seven processes are Starting up a Project, Directing a Project, Initiating a Project, Managing a Stage Boundary, Controlling a Stage, Managing Product Delivery and Closing a Project. P2 is thus a 7X7X7 matrix that ensures that projects are managed successfully.The Project Environment. Organizations may not want to apply the themes and processes in a rigid manner to all projects. They can thus tailor their projects depending upon the size and complexity of the project. This way, they can create their own project environment. The Seven Principles Let us now have a look at the Principles of P2. All these Principles should be practiced throughout the life of a project. Remember, none of them can be omitted or tailored. Continued Business Justification: Every P2 project requires that there is justifiable reason for starting a project. This justification is recorded and approved. The validation of this justification is checked at the end of each stage throughout the life of the project. The moment it is realized that the project does not have a justifiable reason or business case, then either the direction of the project is changed, or the project is prematurely closed. Closing a project does in no way imply that the project has failed but it may be a wise decision under the circumstances. Learn From Experience: When we start a project, it is essential that we learn from the experiences of past projects. What went well, what did not go so well, are the questions a project manager has to ask. He/she may also learn from the records of organizations who have undertaken similar projects. This happens when starting a project. As the project progresses the project manager continues to learn by recording events in relevant reports and reviews. Similarly, when the project closes then we pass on lessons to future project managers by including them in the lessons report. Defined Roles and Responsibilities: Every project has a temporary team structure. The role of each and every member of the team is well defined.  This ensures that lines of communication between each of the members of the project team as well as with business sponsors, users and suppliers are open and clearly aligned with the objectives of the project. The defined roles and responsibilities provide answers to the question “What is expected of me?” Manage by Stages: This is one of the most interesting features of P2 principles. It states that the project work can be partitioned in workable chunks. These are referred to as stages. Management by stages ensures that the project has been properly initiated. The end of each stage provides us the opportunity to review the Business Case or Business Justification and seek approval of the Project Board to proceed with the next stage. The Board authorizes one stage at a time. This is done as the project progresses towards closure. The number of stages a project must have depends upon the complexity and size of the project. However, every P2 project has minimum 2 stages viz Initiating a project and Closing a project, in case it is learnt that the project is not aligned with the benefits it was supposed to achieve. Manage By Exception: The three levels of managing a P2 project are Directing a Project (Project Board), Managing a Project (Project Manager) and Delivering a Project (Team Manager). The six aspects of a project which a project Manager has to control are Cost, Time, Quality, Scope, Benefits and Risk. Each of these aspects has tolerances allotted at each level of the plan viz Project Plan, Stage Plan and Team Plan. When a Project Manager or a Team Manager realizes that a certain element of CTQSBR is going to exceed its tolerance limit he can raise an exception report at the appropriate level (Team Manager to Project Manager, Project Manager to Project Board and Project Board to Corporate).  However, if a level of management feels that they can bring the project back on track without exceeding the tolerance allotted to a particular aspect, then they make a mention of it in stage report. This is Manage by Exception and provides efficient use of senior management time. Remember that every exception has to be approved by the Project Board or corporate, if the Project Board feels it needs more money or time to complete the project.  Focus on Products:  A P2 project focuses on producing a product. A product means the output of a project which has been undertaken to bring about a change in the organization. This output can be measurable or non-measurable. In other words, tangible or intangible. The Output in P2 means a specialist product (what the project is meant to produce) or management product (records, registers etc.) There are 26 Management Products. Baselines Benefits Management Approach Business Case Change Control Approach Communication Management Approach Plan Product Description Project Brief Project Initiation Documentation Project Product Description Quality Management Approach Risk Management Approach Work Package Records                                               Daily Log    Issue Register Lessons Log Quality Register Risk Register ReportsCheckpoint Report  End Project Report  End Stage Report  Highlight Report Exception Report Issue Report  Lessons Report Both the Specialist and Management products are subject to quality testing and should be ‘fit for purpose’. The quality criteria, quality methods, composition, and derivation if any, are studied and documented in the Product Description. A PD helps determine Efforts, Estimates, Resource requirements, Dependencies and Activity schedules which aid in planning and defining a product’s purpose. In other words, the Scope remains within its boundaries. Tailor to Suit the Project:  A P2 project can be tailored according to its size and Complexity, Importance, Team Capability, Risks and Environment in which it is operating. Tailoring helps you use resources appropriately. Effort and approach in carrying out a project can be made appropriate. Tailoring ensures that one neither follows a method of project management mechanically nor chaotically where there is no method at all. The project approach that is methodical is most likely to succeed.  SummaryPRINCE2 is one of the most flexible project management methodologies evolved over the years by the Office of Commerce, UK through Axelos and has been adopted by all commonwealth nations since its Version 2 was released in 1989. A certification as a P2 Practitioner will ensure that one would be qualified to handle projects independently as a Project Manager par excellence. 
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Reflective Understanding of Prince2® Principle...

Managing successful projects in diverse areas... Read More

Managing Scope Creep: A Measurable Impact With PRINCE2®

Defining ScopePRINCE2® defines a project as “A temporary organization that is created for the purpose of delivering one or more business products according to an agreed business case.” The words “delivering one or more business products” here lead us to lay down as to what exactly we are going to deliver in this project. The boundaries within which we are going to do this will have to be drawn and ascertained whether we have the resources to achieve the above.  The boundaries are the limits within which the project will be managed and these are called the Scope of the project.  This precision and clarity with which the project team can write the Scope of a project ensure the success of a project.Triangle of Project Constraints The six main aspects or variables of a project in which a Project Manager has to manage are Cost, Time, Scope, Quality, Risks, and Benefits.  If Time, Cost, and Scope are three sides and Quality, Risks, and Benefits are three angles of an equilateral triangle then it will be apparent to the reader that changing any one of them will have an impact on the other five. The first two, Cost and Time are the top-priority ones.The Business Case written and amplified in the pre-project processes defines the cost and timescale besides listing the Benefits, Risks and stating the Quality requirements of the product based on Customer’s Quality Expectations and Acceptance Criteria.  The sixth main aspect Scope is covered for a Plan and it is the sum total of its products and the extent of their requirements. Whilst a Business Case tells us ‘Why’ we are doing a project Scope tells us as to ‘What’ exactly is the project delivering.Functional and Non-Functional RequirementsIrrespective of whether one is doing a Waterfall or an Agile Project, being absolutely certain of what the customer, as well as the stakeholders require, is essential for the success of a project. The requirements help us define the scope and capturing them right at the beginning of a project simplifies the Scope Management. Functional requirements are those which tell us what a product must do and what all the steps it will take to perform that function. Think of Functional requirements as-“This product shall- ( perform some action )-”.Non-Functional requirements, on the other hand, are related to the system. Think of them as efficiency, quality, reliability etc. As an example-“No patient shall be discharged without the issue of a discharge slip from the doctor”.This is a Functional Requirement.“Patients will be discharged within 30 minutes of receipt of discharge slip from the doctor”.This is a Non-Functional Requirement of the hospital’s system of discharging a patient. It speaks of the hospital’s efficiency. Functional requirements define the product scope. With Non-Functional requirements added, they help define the Project Scope.PRINCE2® recommends Product-based Planning. It means breaking down of the Project Product into smaller and identifiable components. The Project Product Description is broken down into Product Description of each component. Then a Product Flow diagram is created. This enables working out the Product Scope of the project besides writing Plans and Quality Management Approach based on Customer Quality Expectations and Acceptance Criteria.Prioritising RequirementsIn Agile projects, the customer may not be very clear at the start of the project as to what he wants. His requirements keep changing with each delivery. MoSCoW helps in streamlining and prioritizing the requirements. Thus essential requirements without which the customer will not accept the completed product are listed under Must Have. Some requirements which have a high priority but are not absolutely essential fall under Should Have and those of low priority but useful to have will be listed in Could Have category. Won’t Have means either the project will not provide it or it will be held over to be considered at a later date or even passed over to the next project. MoSCoW prioritization technique is a useful tool to arrive at an agreement between the Customer and the Project Manager to arrive at a requirements list which is deliverable and both the parties are very clear as to what (Scope) the project is going to deliver. MoSCoW can also be used for Waterfall projects, prioritizing Risks and most importantly define Scope Tolerances.Reasons of Scope CreepMost Projects have a tendency to exceed their original boundaries. This is called Scope Creep. One of the common cause of scope creep is the liberty given to the customers and stakeholders to Raise an Issue or Request for Change.Each RFC has to be considered for its impact on the Business Case. In order to work within the Cost and Time limits, a Project Manager should have a clear understanding as to what is in the Scope and what is not. Some Project Managers have a tendency to provide much more than the scope of the project. This is called Gold Plating and it is more relevant to software projects.The other reasons for Scope Creep could be wrong estimations of Time and Cost during the planning stage. Sometimes a project may be issued with a legal legislation forcing it to exceed the project scope. Lastly, it could be the fast-changing technology which could compel a Project manager to recommend increasing the budget or/and time. Be as it may, the Project Manager has to study and analyze the change in terms of its-Impact on Business Case (Cost and Time)BenefitsQualityRisksAnd finally, seek approval of the Project Board before implementing a change.Tips to Eliminate Scope Creepa) It is imperative for the Project Manager to be alert to all Requests for Change, Issues and Off Specifications. The aim is not to stop a change but to study its impact on all the six constraints and then take approval of the Project Board before implementing it. Issue and Change Control Procedure should be in place.b) Any good Project Manager will ensure that the project remains aligned with the project plan. This is his endeavor when he is controlling a stage on a day-to-day basis. He has to, therefore adhere to a Change Control procedure either laid down by his organization or as recommended by the PRINCE2 manual. He first ‘Captures’ the issue to determine its severity and then ‘Assesses’ its impact on the project objectives and the Business case as well on its Risk Profile. Thereafter, he identifies and evaluates options to propose the best corrective action to be taken to bring the project back on track if it is estimated that implementing the requested change might entail exceeding the tolerances of the all the project constraints especially of Cost and Time. He puts it up for the approval of the project board. The PB will ‘Decide’ whether to approve, reject or defer the option. The corrective action would then be ‘Implemented’ by the project manager or the nominated Change Authority as directed by the project board.c) A Project Manager should be absolutely clear as to what the customer wants. In fact, all stakeholders should be involved in forming the requirements list.d) The goals and objectives of the project should be clear before the project starts. The deliverables should be well understood by all members of the Project Management Team.e) Estimation Techniques used whilst making Project Plan or Stage Plan should be efficient.f) Ensure that there are minimal changes affecting critical path tasks.g) Avoid Gold PlatingThe client is not concerned about the commitment, they are worried about their business!The scope is the heart of the project that estimates whether the result is successfully achieved or not. We must at least be able to manage scope creep if we can’t find ways to avoid it completely. Doing a proper research and gathering all the essential requirements for a project can help us develop and understand a well-defined project scope that reduces scope creep. With the ability to find the signs of scope creep we will be better able to manage it proactively.
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Managing Scope Creep: A Measurable Impact With PRI...

Defining ScopePRINCE2® defines a project as “A ... Read More