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C# Tutorial

C# is designed for the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI), which describes executable code and runtime environment. This allows usage of multiple high-level languages on various computer platforms and architectures.Common Language Runtime (CLR) is defined in the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI). CLR is the Virtual Machine component managing the execution of programs written in languages using .NET Framework. Some of its examples include C#, F#, etc.The .NET source code is compiled to Common Language Infrastructure (CLI). The code is executed at runtime after the CIL is converted to native code. This is done using JIT (Just-In-Compiler) compiler.C# Definition? C# is a general purpose object oriented programming language with multiple paradigms. It was designed for Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) in 2000 by Microsoft.for its .NET framework and also approved by ECMA and ISO. C# was originally developed as C-Like Object Oriented Language (COOL) but this name was later changed to avoid any trademark issues. This language has been influenced by various languages such as Java, Pascal, C++, Eiffel etc.C# has multiple points that make web development solutions faster as well as easier. Some of these are garbage collection, scalability support, type safety, easier type declarations etc. Some of the major features of C# are as follows:1. Object Oriented LanguageC# is an object oriented language. This means that development is easier if there are long codes in large projects as compared to procedure oriented programming languages.2. Structured programming languageThe programs in C# can be structured by breaking them into smaller parts using functions. This makes the program easier to understand.3. Simple to useIt is quite simple to use C# as it has various features and functionalities. Moreover, it provides a structured approach that makes the program easier to understand.4. Scalable languageC# is an automatically scalable as well as updatable language. The old files are regularly updated and replaced with new ones.There are many applications that can be created using C#. Some of these are given as follows:Web applicationsWindow applicationsDatabase applicationsDistributed applicationsWeb service applications Advantages of C#C# is a general purpose object oriented programming language with multiple paradigms. This language has many advantages. Some of these are given as follows:One of the advantages of C# is that it provides automatic garbage collection.Pointers are not really required in C# but are optional and can still be used.Classes can be defined inside classes in C#.There is no need to use “.h” in header files.The programs are less error prone as non boolean variables cannot be used as conditions.C# has reflection capabilities i.e. it can examine as well as modify its structure at runtime.There is no need to declare functions and classes in C#.Classes and functions can be defined in any order in C#.The apps can be executed in a restricted sandbox in C#.All the variables in C# are automatically initialized to their default values before they are used.No global variables or functions exist in C# as all of them belong to the class.Advantages of C# compared to JavaThere are some advantages of C# over Java. Some of these are given as follows:C# is more efficient than Java in some cases and also runs faster.Operator overloading in C# is very useful sometimes.The Common Intermediate Language in C# is is a standard language whereas the bytecodes in Java are not.The multithreading in C# is quite simplified.Indexers in C# can be used to access objects as arrays which simplifies some problems immensely.Advantages of C# compared to C++C# also has some advantages over C++. Some of these are given as follows:C++ is a mixture of object oriented language and procedure oriented language while C# is a pure object oriented language. C# provides excellent support for distributed systems as compared to C++.Many functions in C# are quite easy to implement because of the diverse class library.C# is more type safe than C++.Memory leaks are not that big a problem in C# are pointers are rarely used and strictly regulated. This is quite different compared to C++.Disadvantages of C# C# is a general purpose object oriented programming language with multiple paradigms. It has multiple points that make web development solutions faster as well as easier. Some of these are garbage collection, scalability support, type safety, easier type declarations etc.  Some of the disadvantages of C# are given as follows:The code in C# needs to be compiled every time a change is made. This can lead to many errors or bugs if the code is not tested thoroughly each time.A .NET application needs a Windows platform to execute and this is also true for C# as it is a part of the .NET application. However, most of the companies Prefer a Linux server as it is cheaper.The older .NET frameworks are not supported by Microsoft after few upgrades to the operating system. Also, there are major costs associated with upgrades as they must be tested and approved before they can be deployed. There are many more advantages as compared to disadvantages in C#. This is because C# can be used for web applications, windows services etc. and is also useful for scalability.Disadvantages of C# compared to C++Some of the disadvantages of C# as compared to C++ are given as follows:There is less flexibility in C# as compared to C++. Also, anything that is not available in the .NET framework is difficult to implement in C# as it is dependent on the .NET framework.The Windows Presentation Foundation is slow in starting. This is because the C# is slower to run. But after the program is launched, the animation is very smooth.How is C# different from C? C# and C are both programming languages. C is a general purpose programming language and it supports recursion, structured programming, lexical variable scope etc. C# is a general purpose object oriented programming language with features such as garbage collection, scalability support, type safety, easier type declarations etc. In general, C and C# are quite different and have more differences than similarities.  Some of the differences between C and C# are given as follows:CC#C is a procedural language.C# is a object oriented language.C is a very light language and can be easily compiled.C# is interpreted into bytecode and then the Common Language Runtime manages the execution.Manual memory management is used in CAutomatic garbage collection is provided in C#.Almost anything can be coded in C if the syntax is correct.Anything that is not available in the .NET framework is difficult to implement in C# as it is dependent on the .NET framework.C provides a low level of abstraction.C# provides a high level of abstraction.C provides quite a fast performance.Performance in C# is slower as compared to C.Code in C can be created for any platform.Code in C# is only targeted towards the Windows operating system.C is good for using in system level code as well as embedded devices.C# is good for creating mobile, desktop, web applications.Is C# better than Java? C# and Java are both general purpose programming languages. There are a lot of similarities as well as differences between these two languages and so choosing the correct language depends on individual discretion.However, details about the similarities and differences of C# and Java are provided to give a better picture of these languages.Similarities between C# and JavaSome of the similarities between C# are Java are given as follows:Multiple inheritance is not supported by C# or Java. So there is only one path from the base class to the inherited class. So no complications arise such as the diamond pattern problem.C# and Java are both type safe. This means that illegal type casting is not allowed and is caught at compile time.Automatic garbage collection is provided in both C# and Java. Because of this, there are less chances of memory leaks occurring. Interfaces are provided in both C# and Java. These are abstract classes and all methods contained in them are abstract as well.Differences between C# and JavaSome of the differences between C# are Java are given as follows:C# is a part of the Microsoft .NET framework and is used to develop for Microsoft platforms. Java is designed by Sun Microsystems and is widely used in open-source projects.Polymorphism is implemented in C# by using the virtual and override keywords in base class and derived class. Java implements polymorphism by default.Generics are implemented in the CLI in C# and the type information is available at runtime. Java implements generics using erasures.The enum is a list of named constants in C#. In Java, enum is the named instance of a typeIs C# harder to learn than C++? C# and C++ are both object oriented programming languages. C# is a general purpose object oriented programming language with features such as garbage collection, scalability support, type safety, easier type declarations etc. C++ is a general purpose object oriented programming language with generic programming features and low-level memory manipulation.Since C# and C++ are two different languages, it cannot be easily said which is harder or easier to learn. Some of the differences between C++ and C# which help to make this judgement are given as follows:C++C#C++ is an object oriented language.C# is an object oriented language.C++ provides quite a fast performance.Performance in C# is slower as compared to C++.Code in C++ can be created for any platformCode in C# is only targeted towards the Windows operating system.C++ provides a low level of abstraction.C# provides a high level of abstraction.Almost anything can be coded in C++ if the syntax is correct.Anything that is not available in the .NET framework is difficult to implement in C# as it is dependent on the .NET framework.Manual memory management is used in C++.Automatic garbage collection is provided in C#.C++ is good for using in networking, server-side applications, gaming etc.C# is good for creating mobile, desktop, web applicationsC++ is a light language and can be easily compiled.C# is interpreted into bytecode and then the Common Language Runtime manages the execution.How much do C# programmers make?C# programmers and developers work with C# in an application and development capacity. They work in a variety of companies for different types of employers and earn accordinglySome of the tasks that C# programmers have are coding, designing, testing etc. They also handle different projects in various development phases. Some of the C# programmer salaries on average according to indeed.com are given as follows:Job DescriptionAverage Salary (per year).NET Developer$ 91,581Application Developer$ 84,981Full Stack Developer$ 113,652Web Developer$ 76,633Software Engineer$ 107,27Developer$ 96,417Senior Software Engineer$ 120,883Senior .NET Developer$ 107,403Source: Indeed.com         What is the scope of C# C# is a general purpose object oriented programming language with multiple paradigms. It was designed for Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) in 2000 by Microsoft.for its .NET framework and also approved by ECMA and ISO. C# has immense scope especially since its .NET version was made open source recently. Moreover, C# is quite easy to learn which contributes immensely to its popularity. Moreover, it has multiple features that allow the creation of durable system components. Some of these features are:1. Object Oriented LanguageC# is an object oriented language. This means that development is easier if there are long codes in large projects as compared to procedure oriented programming languages.2. Structured programming languageThe programs in C# can be structured by breaking them into smaller parts using functions. This makes the program easier to understand.3. Scalable languageC# is an automatically scalable as well as updatable language. The old files are regularly updated and replaced with new ones.C# is quite a popular language as it is used for web development, mobile development etc. Also WPF, UWP, WinForms etc. can be used to create various Windows applications. Android, iOS apps can be built using the C# mobile development. In short, C# can be used to create any type of software. Some of the streams in which C# can be utilized are artificial intelligence, cloud applications, machine learning, data science etc.Why C#? C# is a general purpose object oriented programming language with multiple paradigms. It has multiple points that make web development solutions faster as well as easier. Some of these are garbage collection, scalability support, type safety, easier type declarations etc. There are various reasons to utilize C#. Some of these are given as follows:1. PopularityC# is arguably one of the most popular languages in modern times. It is used for web development, mobile development etc. Also WPF, UWP, WinForms etc. can be used to create various Windows applications. Android, iOS apps can be built using the C# mobile development. In short, C# can be used to create any type of software. Some of the streams in which C# can be utilized are artificial intelligence, cloud applications, machine learning, data science etc.2. Ease of LearningC# is quite easy to learn and can be easily understood. It can be mastered in a relatively short time, especially for those who already have some experience with programming languages. Also, C# and Java are quite similar syntactically and those who are well versed in Java can easily understand C#.3. Pay ScaleC# programmers and developers work with C# in an application and development capacity. They work in a variety of companies with tasks such as coding, designing, testing etc. and earn accordinglySome of the C# programmer salaries on average according to indeed.com are given as follows:Job DescriptionAverage Salary (per year).NET Developer$ 91,581Application Developer$ 84,981Full Stack Developer$ 113,652Web Developer$ 76,633Software Engineer$ 107,271Developer$ 96,417Source: Indeed.com              How long does it take to learn C# from scratch? C# is a general purpose object oriented programming language. The time taken to learn this language is entirely subjective and depends on the individual learner. If the person wishing to learn C# has no prior experience with object oriented programming concepts, then around 2 to 4 weeks are required to learn OOP concepts and then the C# language in particular.If the person wishing to learn C# has prior experience in object oriented programming languages or C type syntax programming languages, than C# is quite easy to learn and basics can be picked up within a week. If the person wishing to learn C# has no prior experience with programming languages at all, then anywhere from 3 months to 1 year is required to learn C#. A beginner will need to understand all the basics before venturing into the complexities of C#. In general, any programming language cannot be totally learned as it has many nuances. So, learning a language is a lifelong process that continues as the language continues to grow.A bit about .NET Framework .NET framework is developed by Microsoft and it is a software framework. It runs mainly on Microsoft Windows. This framework also helped in the creation of various platforms that handled embedded devices, mobile computing, web browser plug-ins etc. Some of the objectives that are handled by the .NET framework are given as follows:The .NET framework provides an environment that removes the various problems that arise due to interpreted or scripted environments.An object oriented programming environment is provided by the .NET framework. In this environment, the object code can be stored and executed locally. Alternatively, the code can be executed remotely.The .NET framework also provides an environment that leads to a consistent developer experience across various types of apps that may be quite different such as Web-based apps, Windows-based apps etc.There are minimal software deployment as well as versioning conflicts as a result of the execution environment provided by the .NET framework.The .NET framework is created totally based on the industry standards so that the .NET framework based code can be integrated with any other code.The .NET environment ensures the code is safely executed. This includes the code that is created by unknown parties.Some of the applications and services that can be created using the .NET framework are given as follows:Windows Presentation Foundation apps (WPF apps)Console AppsService Oriented Apps (using WCF)Windows GUI AppsWindows ServicesASP.NET AppsWorkflow-Enabled Apps (using WF)Is Python better than C#? Python is a general purpose programming language that is famous for its clean syntax and readable code. C# is a general purpose object oriented programming language that is type safe as well. It is similar to C language family such as C, C++, Java etc.It is quite difficult to say which language between Python  and C# is better and choosing the correct language depends on individual discretion and current user requirements. Some of the differences between Python and C# are provided below to help the user choose the language required.C#PythonSupportThere is ample help and emergency support available in C# by paying a premium as C# operates in microsoft ecosystem.Python developers can only avail support from the Python community which is quite helpful but not as professionally supportive as in C#.ToolsSpecialized tools are required for C# such as Redgate, Visual Studio .NET, Far, .NET Reflector etc.Python developers don’t use many tools apart from Vim/Emacs and standard Unix tools.CostC# is handled by Microsoft and provides a premium experience after some payment.Python is open source and so can be used for free.Easy usageC# is quite complicated and more difficult as a lot of knowledge is required before starting coding in C#.Python can be easier to learn iteratively as more and more features can learned as they go on.PerformanceC# is slightly better in performance than Python, however this is balances out as it is not open source.Writing and deploying code is faster in Python and it has a rapid development process.In essence, Python is the optimal choice if high speed and performance is required in the project. It also provides smooth cross-platform development. C# is the better choice if great Microsoft integration and best performance is required.Is C# difficult to learn? C# is a general purpose object oriented programming language with multiple paradigms. The difficulty and the learning curve of C# depends entirely on individuals. This can broadly be classified into 3 categories which are given below:If a person has no prior experience with object oriented programming concepts, then around 2 to 4 weeks are required to learn OOP concepts and the C# language.If a person has prior experience in object oriented programming languages then C# is quite easy to learn and basics can be picked up within a week. If a person has no prior experience with programming languages at all, then anywhere from 3 months to 1 year is required to learn C#.  Some of the advantages and disadvantages of C# are given below which help to make an informed decision on the difficulty of C#.Advantages of C#Some of the advantages of C# are:One of the functionalities of C# is that it provides automatic garbage collection.Classes can be defined inside classes in C#.There is no need to declare functions and classes in C#.Classes and functions can be defined in any order in C#.All the variables in C# are automatically initialized to their default values before they are used.Disadvantages of C#Some of the disadvantages of C# are:The code in C# needs to be compiled every time a change is made. This can lead to many errors or bugs if the code is not tested thoroughly each time.A .NET application needs a Windows platform to execute and this is also true for C# as it is a part of the .NET application. However, most of the companies Prefer a Linux server as it is cheaper.The older .NET frameworks are not supported by Microsoft after few upgrades to the operating system. Also, there are major costs associated with upgrades as they must be tested and approved before they can be deployed.What are the Top companies hiring C# Programmers in India & US?Some of the top companies hiring C# programmers are given as follows:Company NameCompany DetailsMicrosoftMicrosoft Corporation is a multinational technology company based in America with their headquarters in Washington. This company deals with the development, manufacture and sale of personal computers, computer related software and other services.WiproWipro Limited is a information technology company based in India, It provides consulting as well as business process services. The headquarters of Wipro are situated in Bengaluru, India.TCSTata Consultancy Services Limited is an Information technology services and consulting company that headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra. TCS is a part of the Tata Group and is also one of the largest Indian companies going by market capitalization.CognizantCognizant is an American multinational corporation. This company provides IT services as well as consulting and technology services. The headquarters of Cognizant are in New Jersey, United StatesQuant SystemsQuant Systems is an IT solutions as well as a software company. It main focus points are Insurance, Telecom, Banking, Airlines etc.HCLHCL Technologies Limited is an Indian multinational technology company. Its headquarters are located in Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India. HCL is a subsidiary of HCL Enterprise.InfosysInfosys Limited is an Indian multinational corporation with headquarters in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. This company handles information technology services, business consulting, outsourcing services etcBeginning with C# programmingC# is a general purpose object oriented programming language with multiple paradigms. It was originally developed as C-Like Object Oriented Language (COOL) but this name was later changed to avoid any trademark issues. This language has been influenced by various languages such as Java, Pascal, C++, Eiffel etc.The different features of C# should be kept in mind before beginning C# programming. Some of these features are as follows:1. Object Oriented LanguageC# is an object oriented language. This means that development is easier if there are long codes in large projects as compared to procedure oriented programming languages.2. Scalable languageC# is an automatically scalable as well as updatable language. The old files are regularly updated and replaced with new ones.3. Structured programming languageThe programs in C# can be structured by breaking them into smaller parts using functions. This makes the program easier to understand.The basic steps that need to be followed before starting C# programming are given as follows:First a development environment needs to be set up with C#.Basic knowledge of data types, literals, expressions, variables etc. is required.Then the usage of different data types with variables is considered.After doing all this, basic and advanced mathematical computations need to be performed.Finally, the creation of programs in C# is done.What is the purpose of C#? C# is a general purpose object oriented programming language with multiple paradigms. It has multiple points that make web development solutions faster as well as easier. Some of these are garbage collection, scalability support, type safety, easier type declarations etc. There are various reasons to utilize C# as it has multiple applications. Some of these are given as follows:Client ApplicationsThere are various Windows Client applications that are run on the Operating System. Some of the properties of these Windows Client applications are given as follows:There is a user interface available for the Widows applications. This includes buttons, forms, menus, dialogs etc.The Microsoft Windows Operating System runs the Windows applications.All the resources for the Windows Applications are obtained from the local machine as they run on the PC.Normally executables and dynamic link libraries are there in Windows Applications. Web ApplicationsThere are many web applications that can built using ASP.NET. Some of the properties of these web applications are given as follows:The web applications, whether public or private, contain an URL.A web server is used to run the web applications.There is user interface with windows controls in web applications such as text boxes, buttons etc.Normally an ASP.NET or HTML page hosts the web applications.A remote internet connection and a browser an be used to access the web applications from the outside by users.Components and ControlsThere are multiple libraries that are used to create easily shareable and distributable components. These libraries are known as components and controls. Most of the components and controls that are used in Microsoft are built using C#.C# History and VersionsC# is a powerful object-oriented programming language developed by Anders Hejlsberg who was the principal designer and lead architect at Microsoft. Originally this language was named COOL (C-like Object Oriented Language) but this name was changed to C# because of trademark reasons. This language has evolved a lot since its version 1.0 released in 2002. It has seven versions until now with all of them adding new features to the language.A brief history of the C# versions and their important features is given as follows:Table: C# VersionsVersion.NET FrameworkVisual StudioFeaturesC# Version 1.0.NET Framework 1.0/1.1Visual Studio 2002ClassesStructsInterfacesEvents PropertiesExpressionsStatementsC# Version 2.0.NET Framework 2.0Visual Studio 2008GenericsPartial TypesNullable TypesAnonymous MethodsIteratorsC# Version 3.0.NET Framework 3.0/3.5Visual Studio 2005Query ExpressionsLambda ExpressionsAnonymous TypesPartial MethodsExpression TreesExtension MethodsC# Version 4.0.NET Framework 4.0Visual Studio 2010Named/Optional ArgumentsDynamic BindingEmbedded Interop TypesGeneric covariant and contravariantC# Version 5.0.NET Framework 4.5Visual Studio 2012/2013Caller Info AttributesAsynchronous MembersC# Version 6.0.NET Framework 4.6Visual Studio 2013/2015Null PropagatorStatic ImportsProperty InitializersException FiltersString InterpolationIndex InitializersC# Version 7.0.NET CoreVisual Studio 2017Pattern MatchingOut VariablesLocal FunctionsTuples and DeconstructionBinary LiteralsDiscardsC# FeaturesC# has many useful features that make it appealing to many programmers. Some of these features are: 1. Standard LibrariesThe Common Language Infrastructure includes the standard libraries in C#. These libraries encapsulate a large number of functions such as exception handling, threading, file handling etc.2. Boolean ExpressionsBoolean expressions appear in control flow statements. In C#, the expression inside the control flow statement must evaluate to a bool to be considered correct.3. Properties and EventsC# provides support for properties and events. The named members of classes, structures and interfaces are known as properties while events are the user actions, such as clicks, mouse movements etc. 4. Easy-To-Use GenericsGenerics in C# allow the user to define a class with placeholders for its methods, parameters etc. These placeholders are replaced with a specific type at compile time.5. Garbage CollectionThe garbage collector in C# serves as an automatic memory manager. It reclaims objects no longer in use, clears their memory and keeps the memory available for future allocations.6. Simple MultithreadingMultithreading enables the application to have more than one execution path at the same time. This is useful if the application has complicated and time-consuming operations.7. Lambda Expressions The lambda expressions in C# are a syntax to create expression trees. They play a very important part in making C# functional. C# 7 New Features (Current Version)The most recent version of C# is version 7. It has some new features that provide more functionality than previous versions of C#. Some of these new features are given as follows:1. Pattern MatchingThis feature allows the user to implement method dispatch on properties other than the object type. Pattern matching supports is and switch expressions that allow the user to inspect an object and its properties to determine if that object satisfies the required pattern.2. Out Variables A method’s out parameters can be defined directly in the method in C# version 7. In the earlier versions, this created an error.3. Local FunctionsThese enable a user to define a function within the scope of another function. This helps in bringing local variables into the scope and promotes encapsulation.4. Tuples and DeconstructionThis includes deconstruction of tuples into separate variables and creating metadata for the names of tuple elements. In addition, deconstruction is not limited to tuples i.e. any type can be deconstructed if it has a deconstruct method and out parameters.5. DiscardsThese are dummy variables that are intentionally unused in application code. They enhance the readability and maintainability of the code and make its intent more clear.7. Digit Separators These are beneficial in grouping digits in large numeric literals. These provide great readability and no significant downside.8. Binary LiteralsThese are literals in binary form. They are identical to hexadecimal literals except they use digits 0 and 1 with base 2. Binary literals are great for educational purposes and are low cost implementations.
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C# Tutorial

C# Introduction

C# is designed for the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI), which describes executable code and runtime environment. This allows usage of multiple high-level languages on various computer platforms and architectures.

Common Language Runtime (CLR) is defined in the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI). 

CLR is the Virtual Machine component managing the execution of programs written in languages using .NET Framework. Some of its examples include C#, F#, etc.

The .NET source code is compiled to Common Language Infrastructure (CLI). The code is executed at runtime after the CIL is converted to native code. This is done using JIT (Just-In-Compiler) compiler.

Common Language Infrastructure

C# Definition? 

C# is a general purpose object oriented programming language with multiple paradigms. It was designed for Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) in 2000 by Microsoft.for its .NET framework and also approved by ECMA and ISO. 

C# was originally developed as C-Like Object Oriented Language (COOL) but this name was later changed to avoid any trademark issues. This language has been influenced by various languages such as Java, Pascal, C++, Eiffel etc.

C# has multiple points that make web development solutions faster as well as easier. Some of these are garbage collection, scalability support, type safety, easier type declarations etc. 

Some of the major features of C# are as follows:

1. Object Oriented Language

C# is an object oriented language. This means that development is easier if there are long codes in large projects as compared to procedure oriented programming languages.

2. Structured programming language

The programs in C# can be structured by breaking them into smaller parts using functions. This makes the program easier to understand.

3. Simple to use

It is quite simple to use C# as it has various features and functionalities. Moreover, it provides a structured approach that makes the program easier to understand.

4. Scalable language

C# is an automatically scalable as well as updatable language. The old files are regularly updated and replaced with new ones.

There are many applications that can be created using C#. Some of these are given as follows:

  1. Web applications
  2. Window applications
  3. Database applications
  4. Distributed applications
  5. Web service applications 

Advantages of C#

C# is a general purpose object oriented programming language with multiple paradigms. This language has many advantages. Some of these are given as follows:

  1. One of the advantages of C# is that it provides automatic garbage collection.
  2. Pointers are not really required in C# but are optional and can still be used.
  3. Classes can be defined inside classes in C#.
  4. There is no need to use “.h” in header files.
  5. The programs are less error prone as non boolean variables cannot be used as conditions.
  6. C# has reflection capabilities i.e. it can examine as well as modify its structure at runtime.
  7. There is no need to declare functions and classes in C#.
  8. Classes and functions can be defined in any order in C#.
  9. The apps can be executed in a restricted sandbox in C#.
  10. All the variables in C# are automatically initialized to their default values before they are used.
  11. No global variables or functions exist in C# as all of them belong to the class.

Advantages of C# compared to Java

There are some advantages of C# over Java. Some of these are given as follows:

  1. C# is more efficient than Java in some cases and also runs faster.
  2. Operator overloading in C# is very useful sometimes.
  3. The Common Intermediate Language in C# is is a standard language whereas the bytecodes in Java are not.
  4. The multithreading in C# is quite simplified.
  5. Indexers in C# can be used to access objects as arrays which simplifies some problems immensely.

Advantages of C# compared to C++

C# also has some advantages over C++. Some of these are given as follows:

  1. C++ is a mixture of object oriented language and procedure oriented language while C# is a pure object oriented language. 
  2. C# provides excellent support for distributed systems as compared to C++.
  3. Many functions in C# are quite easy to implement because of the diverse class library.
  4. C# is more type safe than C++.
  5. Memory leaks are not that big a problem in C# are pointers are rarely used and strictly regulated. This is quite different compared to C++.

Disadvantages of C# 

C# is a general purpose object oriented programming language with multiple paradigms. It has multiple points that make web development solutions faster as well as easier. Some of these are garbage collection, scalability support, type safety, easier type declarations etc.  

Some of the disadvantages of C# are given as follows:

  1. The code in C# needs to be compiled every time a change is made. This can lead to many errors or bugs if the code is not tested thoroughly each time.
  2. A .NET application needs a Windows platform to execute and this is also true for C# as it is a part of the .NET application. However, most of the companies Prefer a Linux server as it is cheaper.
  3. The older .NET frameworks are not supported by Microsoft after few upgrades to the operating system. Also, there are major costs associated with upgrades as they must be tested and approved before they can be deployed. 

There are many more advantages as compared to disadvantages in C#. This is because C# can be used for web applications, windows services etc. and is also useful for scalability.

Disadvantages of C# compared to C++

Some of the disadvantages of C# as compared to C++ are given as follows:

  1. There is less flexibility in C# as compared to C++. Also, anything that is not available in the .NET framework is difficult to implement in C# as it is dependent on the .NET framework.
  2. The Windows Presentation Foundation is slow in starting. This is because the C# is slower to run. But after the program is launched, the animation is very smooth.

How is C# different from C? 

C# and C are both programming languages. C is a general purpose programming language and it supports recursion, structured programming, lexical variable scope etc. C# is a general purpose object oriented programming language with features such as garbage collection, scalability support, type safety, easier type declarations etc. In general, C and C# are quite different and have more differences than similarities.  

Some of the differences between C and C# are given as follows:

CC#
C is a procedural language.C# is a object oriented language.
C is a very light language and can be easily compiled.C# is interpreted into bytecode and then the Common Language Runtime manages the execution.
Manual memory management is used in CAutomatic garbage collection is provided in C#.
Almost anything can be coded in C if the syntax is correct.Anything that is not available in the .NET framework is difficult to implement in C# as it is dependent on the .NET framework.
C provides a low level of abstraction.C# provides a high level of abstraction.
C provides quite a fast performance.Performance in C# is slower as compared to C.
Code in C can be created for any platform.Code in C# is only targeted towards the Windows operating system.
C is good for using in system level code as well as embedded devices.C# is good for creating mobile, desktop, web applications.

Is C# better than Java? 

C# and Java are both general purpose programming languages. There are a lot of similarities as well as differences between these two languages and so choosing the correct language depends on individual discretion.

However, details about the similarities and differences of C# and Java are provided to give a better picture of these languages.

Similarities between C# and Java

Some of the similarities between C# are Java are given as follows:

  1. Multiple inheritance is not supported by C# or Java. So there is only one path from the base class to the inherited class. So no complications arise such as the diamond pattern problem.
  2. C# and Java are both type safe. This means that illegal type casting is not allowed and is caught at compile time.
  3. Automatic garbage collection is provided in both C# and Java. Because of this, there are less chances of memory leaks occurring. 
  4. Interfaces are provided in both C# and Java. These are abstract classes and all methods contained in them are abstract as well.

Differences between C# and Java

Some of the differences between C# are Java are given as follows:

  1. C# is a part of the Microsoft .NET framework and is used to develop for Microsoft platforms. Java is designed by Sun Microsystems and is widely used in open-source projects.
  2. Polymorphism is implemented in C# by using the virtual and override keywords in base class and derived class. Java implements polymorphism by default.
  3. Generics are implemented in the CLI in C# and the type information is available at runtime. Java implements generics using erasures.
  4. The enum is a list of named constants in C#. In Java, enum is the named instance of a type

Is C# harder to learn than C++? 

C# and C++ are both object oriented programming languages. C# is a general purpose object oriented programming language with features such as garbage collection, scalability support, type safety, easier type declarations etc. C++ is a general purpose object oriented programming language with generic programming features and low-level memory manipulation.

Since C# and C++ are two different languages, it cannot be easily said which is harder or easier to learn. Some of the differences between C++ and C# which help to make this judgement are given as follows:

C++C#
C++ is an object oriented language.C# is an object oriented language.
C++ provides quite a fast performance.Performance in C# is slower as compared to C++.
Code in C++ can be created for any platformCode in C# is only targeted towards the Windows operating system.
C++ provides a low level of abstraction.C# provides a high level of abstraction.
Almost anything can be coded in C++ if the syntax is correct.Anything that is not available in the .NET framework is difficult to implement in C# as it is dependent on the .NET framework.
Manual memory management is used in C++.Automatic garbage collection is provided in C#.
C++ is good for using in networking, server-side applications, gaming etc.C# is good for creating mobile, desktop, web applications
C++ is a light language and can be easily compiled.C# is interpreted into bytecode and then the Common Language Runtime manages the execution.

How much do C# programmers make?

C# programmers and developers work with C# in an application and development capacity. They work in a variety of companies for different types of employers and earn accordingly

Some of the tasks that C# programmers have are coding, designing, testing etc. They also handle different projects in various development phases. Some of the C# programmer salaries on average according to indeed.com are given as follows:

Job DescriptionAverage Salary (per year)
.NET Developer$ 91,581
Application Developer$ 84,981
Full Stack Developer$ 113,652
Web Developer$ 76,633
Software Engineer$ 107,27
Developer$ 96,417
Senior Software Engineer$ 120,883
Senior .NET Developer$ 107,403

Source: Indeed.com         

What is the scope of C# 

C# is a general purpose object oriented programming language with multiple paradigms. It was designed for Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) in 2000 by Microsoft.for its .NET framework and also approved by ECMA and ISO. 

C# has immense scope especially since its .NET version was made open source recently. Moreover, C# is quite easy to learn which contributes immensely to its popularity. Moreover, it has multiple features that allow the creation of durable system components. Some of these features are:

1. Object Oriented Language

C# is an object oriented language. This means that development is easier if there are long codes in large projects as compared to procedure oriented programming languages.

2. Structured programming language

The programs in C# can be structured by breaking them into smaller parts using functions. This makes the program easier to understand.

3. Scalable language

C# is an automatically scalable as well as updatable language. The old files are regularly updated and replaced with new ones.

C# is quite a popular language as it is used for web development, mobile development etc. Also WPF, UWP, WinForms etc. can be used to create various Windows applications. Android, iOS apps can be built using the C# mobile development. In short, C# can be used to create any type of software. Some of the streams in which C# can be utilized are artificial intelligence, cloud applications, machine learning, data science etc.

Why C#? 

C# is a general purpose object oriented programming language with multiple paradigms. It has multiple points that make web development solutions faster as well as easier. Some of these are garbage collection, scalability support, type safety, easier type declarations etc. 

There are various reasons to utilize C#. Some of these are given as follows:

1. Popularity

C# is arguably one of the most popular languages in modern times. It is used for web development, mobile development etc. Also WPF, UWP, WinForms etc. can be used to create various Windows applications. Android, iOS apps can be built using the C# mobile development. 

In short, C# can be used to create any type of software. Some of the streams in which C# can be utilized are artificial intelligence, cloud applications, machine learning, data science etc.

2. Ease of Learning

C# is quite easy to learn and can be easily understood. It can be mastered in a relatively short time, especially for those who already have some experience with programming languages. Also, C# and Java are quite similar syntactically and those who are well versed in Java can easily understand C#.

3. Pay Scale

C# programmers and developers work with C# in an application and development capacity. They work in a variety of companies with tasks such as coding, designing, testing etc. and earn accordingly

Some of the C# programmer salaries on average according to indeed.com are given as follows:

Job DescriptionAverage Salary (per year)
.NET Developer$ 91,581
Application Developer$ 84,981
Full Stack Developer$ 113,652
Web Developer$ 76,633
Software Engineer$ 107,271
Developer$ 96,417

Source: Indeed.com              

How long does it take to learn C# from scratch? 

C# is a general purpose object oriented programming language. The time taken to learn this language is entirely subjective and depends on the individual learner. 

If the person wishing to learn C# has no prior experience with object oriented programming concepts, then around 2 to 4 weeks are required to learn OOP concepts and then the C# language in particular.

If the person wishing to learn C# has prior experience in object oriented programming languages or C type syntax programming languages, than C# is quite easy to learn and basics can be picked up within a week. 

If the person wishing to learn C# has no prior experience with programming languages at all, then anywhere from 3 months to 1 year is required to learn C#. A beginner will need to understand all the basics before venturing into the complexities of C#. 

In general, any programming language cannot be totally learned as it has many nuances. So, learning a language is a lifelong process that continues as the language continues to grow.

A bit about .NET Framework 

.NET framework is developed by Microsoft and it is a software framework. It runs mainly on Microsoft Windows. This framework also helped in the creation of various platforms that handled embedded devices, mobile computing, web browser plug-ins etc. 

Some of the objectives that are handled by the .NET framework are given as follows:

  1. The .NET framework provides an environment that removes the various problems that arise due to interpreted or scripted environments.
  2. An object oriented programming environment is provided by the .NET framework. In this environment, the object code can be stored and executed locally. Alternatively, the code can be executed remotely.
  3. The .NET framework also provides an environment that leads to a consistent developer experience across various types of apps that may be quite different such as Web-based apps, Windows-based apps etc.
  4. There are minimal software deployment as well as versioning conflicts as a result of the execution environment provided by the .NET framework.
  5. The .NET framework is created totally based on the industry standards so that the .NET framework based code can be integrated with any other code.
  6. The .NET environment ensures the code is safely executed. This includes the code that is created by unknown parties.

Some of the applications and services that can be created using the .NET framework are given as follows:

  1. Windows Presentation Foundation apps (WPF apps)
  2. Console Apps
  3. Service Oriented Apps (using WCF)
  4. Windows GUI Apps
  5. Windows Services
  6. ASP.NET Apps
  7. Workflow-Enabled Apps (using WF)

Is Python better than C#? 

Python is a general purpose programming language that is famous for its clean syntax and readable code. C# is a general purpose object oriented programming language that is type safe as well. It is similar to C language family such as C, C++, Java etc.

It is quite difficult to say which language between Python  and C# is better and choosing the correct language depends on individual discretion and current user requirements. 

Some of the differences between Python and C# are provided below to help the user choose the language required.


C#Python
SupportThere is ample help and emergency support available in C# by paying a premium as C# operates in microsoft ecosystem.Python developers can only avail support from the Python community which is quite helpful but not as professionally supportive as in C#.
ToolsSpecialized tools are required for C# such as Redgate, Visual Studio .NET, Far, .NET Reflector etc.Python developers don’t use many tools apart from Vim/Emacs and standard Unix tools.
CostC# is handled by Microsoft and provides a premium experience after some payment.Python is open source and so can be used for free.
Easy usageC# is quite complicated and more difficult as a lot of knowledge is required before starting coding in C#.Python can be easier to learn iteratively as more and more features can learned as they go on.
PerformanceC# is slightly better in performance than Python, however this is balances out as it is not open source.Writing and deploying code is faster in Python and it has a rapid development process.

In essence, Python is the optimal choice if high speed and performance is required in the project. It also provides smooth cross-platform development. C# is the better choice if great Microsoft integration and best performance is required.

Is C# difficult to learn? 

C# is a general purpose object oriented programming language with multiple paradigms. The difficulty and the learning curve of C# depends entirely on individuals. This can broadly be classified into 3 categories which are given below:

  1. If a person has no prior experience with object oriented programming concepts, then around 2 to 4 weeks are required to learn OOP concepts and the C# language.
  2. If a person has prior experience in object oriented programming languages then C# is quite easy to learn and basics can be picked up within a week. 
  3. If a person has no prior experience with programming languages at all, then anywhere from 3 months to 1 year is required to learn C#.  

Some of the advantages and disadvantages of C# are given below which help to make an informed decision on the difficulty of C#.

Advantages of C#

Some of the advantages of C# are:

  1. One of the functionalities of C# is that it provides automatic garbage collection.
  2. Classes can be defined inside classes in C#.
  3. There is no need to declare functions and classes in C#.
  4. Classes and functions can be defined in any order in C#.
  5. All the variables in C# are automatically initialized to their default values before they are used.

Disadvantages of C#

Some of the disadvantages of C# are:

  1. The code in C# needs to be compiled every time a change is made. This can lead to many errors or bugs if the code is not tested thoroughly each time.
  2. A .NET application needs a Windows platform to execute and this is also true for C# as it is a part of the .NET application. However, most of the companies Prefer a Linux server as it is cheaper.
  3. The older .NET frameworks are not supported by Microsoft after few upgrades to the operating system. Also, there are major costs associated with upgrades as they must be tested and approved before they can be deployed.

What are the Top companies hiring C# Programmers in India & US?

Some of the top companies hiring C# programmers are given as follows:

Company NameCompany Details
MicrosoftMicrosoft Corporation is a multinational technology company based in America with their headquarters in Washington. This company deals with the development, manufacture and sale of personal computers, computer related software and other services.
WiproWipro Limited is a information technology company based in India, It provides consulting as well as business process services. The headquarters of Wipro are situated in Bengaluru, India.
TCSTata Consultancy Services Limited is an Information technology services and consulting company that headquartered in Mumbai, Maharashtra. TCS is a part of the Tata Group and is also one of the largest Indian companies going by market capitalization.
CognizantCognizant is an American multinational corporation. This company provides IT services as well as consulting and technology services. The headquarters of Cognizant are in New Jersey, United States
Quant SystemsQuant Systems is an IT solutions as well as a software company. It main focus points are Insurance, Telecom, Banking, Airlines etc.
HCLHCL Technologies Limited is an Indian multinational technology company. Its headquarters are located in Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India. HCL is a subsidiary of HCL Enterprise.
InfosysInfosys Limited is an Indian multinational corporation with headquarters in Bengaluru, Karnataka, India. This company handles information technology services, business consulting, outsourcing services etc

Beginning with C# programming

C# is a general purpose object oriented programming language with multiple paradigms. It was originally developed as C-Like Object Oriented Language (COOL) but this name was later changed to avoid any trademark issues. This language has been influenced by various languages such as Java, Pascal, C++, Eiffel etc.

The different features of C# should be kept in mind before beginning C# programming. Some of these features are as follows:

1. Object Oriented Language

C# is an object oriented language. This means that development is easier if there are long codes in large projects as compared to procedure oriented programming languages.

2. Scalable language

C# is an automatically scalable as well as updatable language. The old files are regularly updated and replaced with new ones.

3. Structured programming language

The programs in C# can be structured by breaking them into smaller parts using functions. This makes the program easier to understand.

The basic steps that need to be followed before starting C# programming are given as follows:

  1. First a development environment needs to be set up with C#.
  2. Basic knowledge of data types, literals, expressions, variables etc. is required.
  3. Then the usage of different data types with variables is considered.
  4. After doing all this, basic and advanced mathematical computations need to be performed.
  5. Finally, the creation of programs in C# is done.

What is the purpose of C#? 

C# is a general purpose object oriented programming language with multiple paradigms. It has multiple points that make web development solutions faster as well as easier. Some of these are garbage collection, scalability support, type safety, easier type declarations etc. 

There are various reasons to utilize C# as it has multiple applications. Some of these are given as follows:

Client Applications

There are various Windows Client applications that are run on the Operating System. Some of the properties of these Windows Client applications are given as follows:

  1. There is a user interface available for the Widows applications. This includes buttons, forms, menus, dialogs etc.
  2. The Microsoft Windows Operating System runs the Windows applications.
  3. All the resources for the Windows Applications are obtained from the local machine as they run on the PC.
  4. Normally executables and dynamic link libraries are there in Windows Applications. 

Web Applications

There are many web applications that can built using ASP.NET. Some of the properties of these web applications are given as follows:

  1. The web applications, whether public or private, contain an URL.
  2. A web server is used to run the web applications.
  3. There is user interface with windows controls in web applications such as text boxes, buttons etc.
  4. Normally an ASP.NET or HTML page hosts the web applications.
  5. A remote internet connection and a browser an be used to access the web applications from the outside by users.

Components and Controls

There are multiple libraries that are used to create easily shareable and distributable components. These libraries are known as components and controls. Most of the components and controls that are used in Microsoft are built using C#.

C# History and Versions

C# is a powerful object-oriented programming language developed by Anders Hejlsberg who was the principal designer and lead architect at Microsoft. Originally this language was named COOL (C-like Object Oriented Language) but this name was changed to C# because of trademark reasons. 

This language has evolved a lot since its version 1.0 released in 2002. It has seven versions until now with all of them adding new features to the language.

A brief history of the C# versions and their important features is given as follows:

Table: C# Versions

Version.NET FrameworkVisual StudioFeatures
C# Version 1.0.NET Framework 1.0/1.1Visual Studio 2002
  • Classes
  • Structs
  • Interfaces
  • Events 
  • Properties
  • Expressions
  • Statements
C# Version 2.0.NET Framework 2.0

Visual Studio 2008
  • Generics
  • Partial Types
  • Nullable Types
  • Anonymous Methods
  • Iterators
C# Version 3.0.NET Framework 3.0/3.5Visual Studio 2005
  • Query Expressions
  • Lambda Expressions
  • Anonymous Types
  • Partial Methods
  • Expression Trees
  • Extension Methods
C# Version 4.0.NET Framework 4.0Visual Studio 2010
  • Named/Optional Arguments
  • Dynamic Binding
  • Embedded Interop Types
  • Generic covariant and contravariant
C# Version 5.0.NET Framework 4.5Visual Studio 2012/2013
  • Caller Info Attributes
  • Asynchronous Members
C# Version 6.0.NET Framework 4.6Visual Studio 2013/2015
  • Null Propagator
  • Static Imports
  • Property Initializers
  • Exception Filters
  • String Interpolation
  • Index Initializers
C# Version 7.0.NET CoreVisual Studio 2017
  • Pattern Matching
  • Out Variables
  • Local Functions
  • Tuples and Deconstruction
  • Binary Literals
  • Discards

C# Features

C# has many useful features that make it appealing to many programmers. Some of these features are: 

1. Standard Libraries

The Common Language Infrastructure includes the standard libraries in C#. These libraries encapsulate a large number of functions such as exception handling, threading, file handling etc.

2. Boolean Expressions

Boolean expressions appear in control flow statements. In C#, the expression inside the control flow statement must evaluate to a bool to be considered correct.

3. Properties and Events

C# provides support for properties and events. The named members of classes, structures and interfaces are known as properties while events are the user actions, such as clicks, mouse movements etc. 

4. Easy-To-Use Generics

Generics in C# allow the user to define a class with placeholders for its methods, parameters etc. These placeholders are replaced with a specific type at compile time.

5. Garbage Collection

The garbage collector in C# serves as an automatic memory manager. It reclaims objects no longer in use, clears their memory and keeps the memory available for future allocations.

6. Simple Multithreading

Multithreading enables the application to have more than one execution path at the same time. This is useful if the application has complicated and time-consuming operations.

7. Lambda Expressions 

The lambda expressions in C# are a syntax to create expression trees. They play a very important part in making C# functional. 

C# 7 New Features (Current Version)

The most recent version of C# is version 7. It has some new features that provide more functionality than previous versions of C#. Some of these new features are given as follows:

1. Pattern Matching

This feature allows the user to implement method dispatch on properties other than the object type. Pattern matching supports is and switch expressions that allow the user to inspect an object and its properties to determine if that object satisfies the required pattern.

2. Out Variables 

A method’s out parameters can be defined directly in the method in C# version 7. In the earlier versions, this created an error.

3. Local Functions

These enable a user to define a function within the scope of another function. This helps in bringing local variables into the scope and promotes encapsulation.

4. Tuples and Deconstruction

This includes deconstruction of tuples into separate variables and creating metadata for the names of tuple elements. In addition, deconstruction is not limited to tuples i.e. any type can be deconstructed if it has a deconstruct method and out parameters.

5. Discards

These are dummy variables that are intentionally unused in application code. They enhance the readability and maintainability of the code and make its intent more clear.

7. Digit Separators 

These are beneficial in grouping digits in large numeric literals. These provide great readability and no significant downside.

8. Binary Literals

These are literals in binary form. They are identical to hexadecimal literals except they use digits 0 and 1 with base 2. Binary literals are great for educational purposes and are low cost implementations.

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