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Apache Spark Tutorial

IntroductionNow since we have some understanding of Spark, let us dive deeper and understand its components. Apache Spark consists of Spark Core Engine, Spark SQL, Spark Streaming, MLlib, GraphX and Spark R. You can use Spark Core Engine along with any of the other five components mentioned above. It is not necessary to use all the Spark components together. Depending on the use case and application, any one or more of these can be used along with Spark Core.Let us look at each of these components in detail.Spark CoreSpark SQLSpark StreamingMLlib(Machine learning library)GraphXSpark RNow since we have some understanding of Spark let us dive deeper into Spark and understand the components Apache Spark consists of. Apache Spark consists of Spark Core Engine, Spark SQL, Spark Streaming, MLlib, GraphX, and Spark R. You can use Spark Core Engine along with any of the other five components mentioned above. It is not necessary to use all the Spark components together. Depending on the use case and application any one or more of these can be used along with Spark Core.Let us look at each of these components in detail.Spark Core: Spark Core is the heart of the Apache Spark framework. Spark Core provides the execution engine for the Spark platform which is required and used by other components which are built on top of Spark Core as per the requirement. Spark Core provides the in-built memory computing and referencing datasets stored in external storage systems. It is Spark’s core responsibility to perform all the basic I/O functions, scheduling, monitoring, etc. Also, fault recovery and effective memory management are Spark Core’s other important functions.Spark Core uses a very special data structure called the RDD. Data sharing in distributed processing systems like MapReduce need the data in intermediate steps to be stored and then retrieved from permanent storage like HDFS or S3 which makes it very slow due to the serialization and deserialization of I/O steps. RDDs overcome this as these data structures are in-memory and fault-tolerant and can be shared across different tasks within the same Spark process. The RDDs can be any immutable and partitioned collections and can contain any type of objects; Python, Scala, Java or some user-defined class objects. RDDs can be created either by Transformations of an existing RDD or loading from external sources like HDFS or HBase etc. We will look into RDD and its transformations in-depth in later sections in the tutorial.Spark SQL: Spark SQL is built on top of Shark which was the first interactive SQL on the Hadoop system. Shark was built on top of Hive codebase and achieved performance improvement by swapping out the physical execution engine part of the Hive. But due to the limitations of Hive, Shark was not able to achieve the performance it was supposed to. So the Shark project was stopped and Spark SQL was built with the knowledge of Shark on top of Spark Core Engine to leverage the power of Spark. You can read more about Shark in the following blog by Reynold Xin, one of the Spark SQL code maintainers.Spark SQL is named like this because it works with the data in a similar fashion to SQL. In fact it there is a mention that Spark SQL’s aim is to meet SQL 92 standards. But the gist is that it allows developers to write declarative code letting the engine use as much of the data and stored structure (RDDs) as it can to optimize the resultant distributed query behind the scenes. The goal is to allow the user to not have to worry about the distributed nature as much and focus on the business use case. Users can perform extract, transform and load functions on data from a variety of sources in different formats like JSON, Parquet or Hive and then execute ad-hoc queries using Spark SQL.DataFrame constitutes the main abstraction for Spark SQL. Distributed collection of data ordered into named columns is known as a DataFrame in Spark. In the earlier versions of Spark SQL, DataFrames were referred to as SchemaRDDs. DataFrame API in Spark integrates with the Spark procedural code to render tight integration between procedural and relational processing. DataFrame API evaluates operations in a lazy manner to provide support for relational optimizations and optimize the overall data processing workflow. All relational functionalities in Spark can be encapsulated using the SparkSQL context or HiveContext.Catalyst, an extensible optimizer is at the core functioning of Spark SQL, which is an optimization framework embedded in Scala to help developers improve their productivity and performance of the queries that they write. Using Catalyst, Spark developers can briefly specify complex relational optimizations and query transformations in a few lines of code by making the best use of Scala’s powerful programming constructs like pattern matching and runtime metaprogramming. Catalyst eases the process of adding optimization rules, data sources and data types for machine learning domains.Spark Streaming: This Spark library is primarily maintained by Tathagat Das and helped by MatieZaharia. As the name suggests this library is for Streaming data. This is a very popular Spark library as it takes Spark’s big data processing power and cranks up the speed. Spark Streaming has the ability to Stream gigabytes per second. This capability of big and fast data has a lot of potentials. Spark Streaming is used for analyzing a continuous stream of data. A common example is processing log data from a website or server.Spark streaming is not really streaming technically. What it really does is it breaks down the data into individual chunks that it processes together as small RDDs. So it actually does not process data as bytes at a time as it comes in, but it processes data every second or two seconds or some fixed interval of time. So strictly speaking Spark streaming is not real-time but near real-time or micro batching, but it suffices for a vast majority of applications.Spark streaming can be configured to talk to a variety of data sources. So we can just listen to a port that has a bunch of data being thrown at it, or we can connect to data sources like Amazon Kinesis, Kafka, Flume, etc. There are connectors available to connect Spark to these sources. The good thing about Spark streaming is it is reliable. It has a concept called “checkpointing” to store state to the disk periodically and depending on what kind of data sources or receiver we are using, it can pick up data from the point of failure. It is a very robust mechanism to handle all kinds of failures like disk failure or node failure etc. Spark Streaming has exactly-once message guarantees and helps recover lost work without having to write any extra code or adding additional configurations.Just like how Spark SQL has the concept of Dataframe/Dataset built on top of RDD, Spark streaming has something called Dstream. This is a collection of RDDs that embodies the entire stream data. The good thing about Dstream is that we can apply most of the built-in functions on RDDs also on the DStream like flatMap, map, etc. Also, the Dstream can be broken into individual RDDs and can be processed one chunk at a time. Spark developers can reuse the same code for stream and batch processing and can also integrate the streaming data with historical data.MLlib: Today many companies focus on building customer-centric data products and services which need machine learning to build predictive insights, recommendations, and personalized results. Data scientists can solve these problems using popular languages like Python and R, but they spend a lot of time in building and supporting infrastructure for these languages. Spark has built-in support for doing machine learning and data science at a massive scale using the clusters. It’s called MLLib which stands for Machine Learning Library.MLlib is a low-level machine learning library. It can be called from Java, Scala and Python programming languages. It is simple to use, scalable and can be easily integrated with other tools and frameworks. MLlib eases the deployment and development of scalable machine learning pipelines. Machine learning in itself is a subject and it may not be possible to get into details here. But these are some of the important features and capabilities Spark MLLib offers:Linear regression, logistic regressionSupport Vector MachinesNaive Bayes classifierK-Means clusteringDecision treesRecommendations using Alternating Least SquaresBasic statisticsChi-squared test, Pearsons or Spearman correlation, min, max, mean, varianceFeature extractionTerm Frequency/ Inverse Document Frequency useful for search  GraphX: For graphs and graph-parallel processing Apache Spark provides another API called GraphX. The graph here does not mean charts, lines or bar graphs, but these are graphs in computer sciences like social networks which consist of vertices where each vertex consists of an individual user in the social network and there are many users connected to each other by edges. These edges represent the relationship between the users in the network.GraphX is useful in giving overall information about the graph network like it can tell how many triangles appear in the graph and apply the PageRank algorithm to it. It can measure things like “connectedness”, degree distribution, average path length and other high-level measures of a graph. It can also join graphs together and transform graphs quickly. It also supports the Pregel API for traversing a graph. Spark GraphX provides Resilient Distributed Graph (RDG- an abstraction of Spark RDD’s). RDG’s API is used by data scientists to perform several graph operations through various computational primitives. Similar to RDDs basic operations like map, filter, property graphs also consist of basic operators.  Those operators take UDFs (user-defined functions) and produce new graphs. Moreover, these are produced with transformed properties and structure.Spark R: R programming language is widely used by Data scientists due to its simplicity and ability to run complex algorithms. But R suffers from a problem that its data processing capacity is limited to a single node. This makes R not usable when processing a huge amount of data. The problem is solved by SparkR which is an R package in Apache Spark. SparkR provides data frame implementation that supports operations like selection, filtering, aggregation, etc. on distributed large datasets. SparkR also has support for distributed machine learning using Spark MLlib.ConclusionThe above components make Apache Spark the best Big data processing engine. All these components are provided out of the box and we can use them separately or together.
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Apache Spark Tutorial

Components of Apache Spark (EcoSystem)

Introduction

Now since we have some understanding of Spark, let us dive deeper and understand its components. Apache Spark consists of Spark Core Engine, Spark SQL, Spark Streaming, MLlib, GraphX and Spark R. You can use Spark Core Engine along with any of the other five components mentioned above. It is not necessary to use all the Spark components together. Depending on the use case and application, any one or more of these can be used along with Spark Core.

Let us look at each of these components in detail.

  1. Spark Core
  2. Spark SQL
  3. Spark Streaming
  4. MLlib(Machine learning library)
  5. GraphX
  6. Spark R

Now since we have some understanding of Spark let us dive deeper into Spark and understand the components Apache Spark consists of. Apache Spark consists of Spark Core Engine, Spark SQL, Spark Streaming, MLlib, GraphX, and Spark R. You can use Spark Core Engine along with any of the other five components mentioned above. It is not necessary to use all the Spark components together. Depending on the use case and application any one or more of these can be used along with Spark Core.

Let us look at each of these components in detail.

Spark Core: Spark Core is the heart of the Apache Spark framework. Spark Core provides the execution engine for the Spark platform which is required and used by other components which are built on top of Spark Core as per the requirement. Spark Core provides the in-built memory computing and referencing datasets stored in external storage systems. It is Spark’s core responsibility to perform all the basic I/O functions, scheduling, monitoring, etc. Also, fault recovery and effective memory management are Spark Core’s other important functions.

Spark Core uses a very special data structure called the RDD. Data sharing in distributed processing systems like MapReduce need the data in intermediate steps to be stored and then retrieved from permanent storage like HDFS or S3 which makes it very slow due to the serialization and deserialization of I/O steps. RDDs overcome this as these data structures are in-memory and fault-tolerant and can be shared across different tasks within the same Spark process. The RDDs can be any immutable and partitioned collections and can contain any type of objects; Python, Scala, Java or some user-defined class objects. RDDs can be created either by Transformations of an existing RDD or loading from external sources like HDFS or HBase etc. We will look into RDD and its transformations in-depth in later sections in the tutorial.

Spark SQL: Spark SQL is built on top of Shark which was the first interactive SQL on the Hadoop system. Shark was built on top of Hive codebase and achieved performance improvement by swapping out the physical execution engine part of the Hive. But due to the limitations of Hive, Shark was not able to achieve the performance it was supposed to. So the Shark project was stopped and Spark SQL was built with the knowledge of Shark on top of Spark Core Engine to leverage the power of Spark. You can read more about Shark in the following blog by Reynold Xin, one of the Spark SQL code maintainers.

Spark SQL is named like this because it works with the data in a similar fashion to SQL. In fact it there is a mention that Spark SQL’s aim is to meet SQL 92 standards. But the gist is that it allows developers to write declarative code letting the engine use as much of the data and stored structure (RDDs) as it can to optimize the resultant distributed query behind the scenes. The goal is to allow the user to not have to worry about the distributed nature as much and focus on the business use case. Users can perform extract, transform and load functions on data from a variety of sources in different formats like JSON, Parquet or Hive and then execute ad-hoc queries using Spark SQL.

DataFrame constitutes the main abstraction for Spark SQL. Distributed collection of data ordered into named columns is known as a DataFrame in Spark. In the earlier versions of Spark SQL, DataFrames were referred to as SchemaRDDs. DataFrame API in Spark integrates with the Spark procedural code to render tight integration between procedural and relational processing. DataFrame API evaluates operations in a lazy manner to provide support for relational optimizations and optimize the overall data processing workflow. All relational functionalities in Spark can be encapsulated using the SparkSQL context or HiveContext.

Catalyst, an extensible optimizer is at the core functioning of Spark SQL, which is an optimization framework embedded in Scala to help developers improve their productivity and performance of the queries that they write. Using Catalyst, Spark developers can briefly specify complex relational optimizations and query transformations in a few lines of code by making the best use of Scala’s powerful programming constructs like pattern matching and runtime metaprogramming. Catalyst eases the process of adding optimization rules, data sources and data types for machine learning domains.

Spark Streaming: This Spark library is primarily maintained by Tathagat Das and helped by MatieZaharia. As the name suggests this library is for Streaming data. This is a very popular Spark library as it takes Spark’s big data processing power and cranks up the speed. Spark Streaming has the ability to Stream gigabytes per second. This capability of big and fast data has a lot of potentials. Spark Streaming is used for analyzing a continuous stream of data. A common example is processing log data from a website or server.

Spark streaming is not really streaming technically. What it really does is it breaks down the data into individual chunks that it processes together as small RDDs. So it actually does not process data as bytes at a time as it comes in, but it processes data every second or two seconds or some fixed interval of time. So strictly speaking Spark streaming is not real-time but near real-time or micro batching, but it suffices for a vast majority of applications.

Spark streaming can be configured to talk to a variety of data sources. So we can just listen to a port that has a bunch of data being thrown at it, or we can connect to data sources like Amazon Kinesis, Kafka, Flume, etc. There are connectors available to connect Spark to these sources. The good thing about Spark streaming is it is reliable. It has a concept called “checkpointing” to store state to the disk periodically and depending on what kind of data sources or receiver we are using, it can pick up data from the point of failure. It is a very robust mechanism to handle all kinds of failures like disk failure or node failure etc. Spark Streaming has exactly-once message guarantees and helps recover lost work without having to write any extra code or adding additional configurations.

Just like how Spark SQL has the concept of Dataframe/Dataset built on top of RDD, Spark streaming has something called Dstream. This is a collection of RDDs that embodies the entire stream data. The good thing about Dstream is that we can apply most of the built-in functions on RDDs also on the DStream like flatMap, map, etc. Also, the Dstream can be broken into individual RDDs and can be processed one chunk at a time. Spark developers can reuse the same code for stream and batch processing and can also integrate the streaming data with historical data.

MLlib: Today many companies focus on building customer-centric data products and services which need machine learning to build predictive insights, recommendations, and personalized results. Data scientists can solve these problems using popular languages like Python and R, but they spend a lot of time in building and supporting infrastructure for these languages. Spark has built-in support for doing machine learning and data science at a massive scale using the clusters. It’s called MLLib which stands for Machine Learning Library.

MLlib is a low-level machine learning library. It can be called from Java, Scala and Python programming languages. It is simple to use, scalable and can be easily integrated with other tools and frameworks. MLlib eases the deployment and development of scalable machine learning pipelines. Machine learning in itself is a subject and it may not be possible to get into details here. But these are some of the important features and capabilities Spark MLLib offers:

  • Linear regression, logistic regression
  • Support Vector Machines
  • Naive Bayes classifier
  • K-Means clustering
  • Decision trees
  • Recommendations using Alternating Least Squares
  • Basic statistics
  • Chi-squared test, Pearsons or Spearman correlation, min, max, mean, variance
  • Feature extraction
  • Term Frequency/ Inverse Document Frequency useful for search

 
 GraphX: For graphs and graph-parallel processing Apache Spark provides another API called GraphX. The graph here does not mean charts, lines or bar graphs, but these are graphs in computer sciences like social networks which consist of vertices where each vertex consists of an individual user in the social network and there are many users connected to each other by edges. These edges represent the relationship between the users in the network.

GraphX is useful in giving overall information about the graph network like it can tell how many triangles appear in the graph and apply the PageRank algorithm to it. It can measure things like “connectedness”, degree distribution, average path length and other high-level measures of a graph. It can also join graphs together and transform graphs quickly. It also supports the Pregel API for traversing a graph. Spark GraphX provides Resilient Distributed Graph (RDG- an abstraction of Spark RDD’s). RDG’s API is used by data scientists to perform several graph operations through various computational primitives. Similar to RDDs basic operations like map, filter, property graphs also consist of basic operators.  Those operators take UDFs (user-defined functions) and produce new graphs. Moreover, these are produced with transformed properties and structure.

Spark R: R programming language is widely used by Data scientists due to its simplicity and ability to run complex algorithms. But R suffers from a problem that its data processing capacity is limited to a single node. This makes R not usable when processing a huge amount of data. The problem is solved by SparkR which is an R package in Apache Spark. SparkR provides data frame implementation that supports operations like selection, filtering, aggregation, etc. on distributed large datasets. SparkR also has support for distributed machine learning using Spark MLlib.

Conclusion

The above components make Apache Spark the best Big data processing engine. All these components are provided out of the box and we can use them separately or together.

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