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Hadoop Admin Interview Questions and Answers for 2024

On clusters of affordable hardware, Hadoop is an open-source software platform for data storage and application execution. It offers huge processing power, data storage, and manages infinite concurrent processes or jobs. Whether you are a beginner, an intermediate or an experienced Hadoop professional, with this formulated guide of Hadoop admin interview questions and answers, you can confidently answer the questions asked around some of the most frequent topics like Hadoop key components, various vendors facilitating enterprise distribution, cluster deployment, rack awareness, disaster recovery plan, data replication, troubleshooting while appearing for job positions like Hadoop Admin, Big Data Hadoop Administrator, or Hadoop Architect. Prepare well and ace your next interview at your dream organizations.

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Beginner

The 4 characteristics of Big Data are as follows: 

  • Volume: It means the size of the data. 
  • Variety: It refers to the different forms of data and various sources from which data is collected. 
  • Velocity: It means how fast or slow data is getting generated. 
  • Variability: It means how differently the data behaves in different situations or scenarios in a given period of time.

Some of the vital features of Hadoop are: 

  • Fault Tolerance 
  • Open Source 
  • Distributed Processing 
  • Reliability 
  • Scalability 
  • High Availability 
  • Data Locality 

The indexing process in HDFS depends on the block size. HDFS stores the last part of the data that further points to the address where the next part of data chunk is stored.

Top commercial Hadoop vendors are as follows: 

  • Amazon Elastic MapReduce 
  • Cloudera CDH Hadoop Distribution 
  • Hortonworks Data Platform (HDP) 
  • IBM Open Platform 
  • Microsoft Azure's HDInsight 
  • MapR 

The port number for NameNode is 50070′, for job tracker is 50030′ and for task tracker is 50060′.

This is one of the most frequently asked Hadoop administrator interview questions for freshers in recent times.

Hadoop is an open source, reliable software framework from the Apache Software Foundation that allows efficient processing of large volumes of datasets on a cluster in a distributed environment and data storage purposes. It is written in Java and Linux OS is the only directly supported production platform.  

Some of the daily activities of a Hadoop admin entail: 

  • To ensure infrastructure is up and running and observing no downtime. 
  • Keeping track of the running and pending jobs in a cluster, checking tickets raised and carefully addressing each one of them. 
  • Managing and reviewing log files and documenting daily reports. 
  • Monitoring Hadoop cluster connectivity, security and performance. 

Hadoop administrator is an indispensable part of Hadoop ecosystem responsible for implementation, administration, maintenance of an overall Hadoop architecture. 

  • Well versed in installing & managing distributions of Hadoop (Hortonworks, Cloudera, etc.) 
  • Ability to deploy a Hadoop cluster, maintain a Hadoop cluster, adding and remove nodes using cluster monitoring tools like Ambari, Nagios or Cloudera Manager.
  • Facilitate proficiency in operating and monitoring Hadoop clusters, right from installation and configuration to load balancing and tuning the cluster. 
  • Accountable for storage, performance tuning and volume management of Hadoop clusters and MapReduce routines. 
  • Manage and analyze Hadoop log files – each component in Hadoop ecosystem is written into log files so in case of any error or issue admin needs to look into log files. 
  • Aid big data developers on big data infrastructure issues. 
  • User onboarding, adding new services and components as per requirement. 

Expect to come across this important Hadoop admin question in your next interviews.

Hadoop provides a feature called SkipBadRecords where bad records are detected and skipped in additional steps. This feature can be used when MapReduce tasks deterministically crash at a certain point. This feature allows the user to retain a small amount of data surrounding their bad record, which may be acceptable for some applications.

equests a computer system is expecting. Hadoop utilizes five such daemons and which are the following:  

  • NameNode: It works on the Master System. The primary goal of NameNode is to manage and store all the meta-data. 
  • Secondary NameNode: It is responsible for the backup of NameNode and stores the entire meta-data of data nodes. 
  • DataNode: It runs on the Slave System. It serves the read/write request from the client. 
  • JobTracker: It is used for creating and running jobs. It runs on data nodes and allocates the job to TaskTracker. 
  • TaskTracker: It is used for creating and running jobs. It runs on data nodes and allocates the job to TaskTracker. 

The NameNode is the centrepiece of an HDFS file system. If the NameNode fails, the file system goes offline. There is an optional SecondaryNameNode that can be hosted on a separate machine. It only creates namespace checkpoints by inserting the edits file into the fsimage file and provides no real redundancy. Here are some recommendations: 

  • Use a good server with lots of RAM. 
  • Do not host DataNode, JobTracker or TaskTracker services on the same system. 
  • Monitor the amount of memory available for the NameNode. If free memory is running low, add more memory. 

The name node must be formatted only once at the beginning. After that, it is never formatted again. In fact, reformatting the name node may result in a loss of data on the entire name node.

Furthermore, when we format NameNode, it formats the metadata that refers to data-nodes. Thus, all information about data-nodes is lost and it can be reused for new data.

A rack is nothing more than a collection of 30-40 DataNodes or machines in a Hadoop cluster located in a single data center or site. These DataNodes in a rack are connected to the NameNode by a traditional network design through a network switch. The process by which Hadoop recognizes which machine belongs to which rack and how these racks are connected within the Hadoop cluster constitutes Rack Awareness.

Some of the important Hadoop tools that complement the performance of Big Data are: 

  • Hive 
  • HBase 
  • ZooKeeper 
  • Flume 
  • Lucene 
  • Avro 
  • Cloud  
  • SQL 

It is a key feature and a MapReduce job optimization technique in Hadoop that enhances job efficiency and is enabled by default. It tries to detect when a task is running slower than expected and starts another, equivalent task as a backup (the backup task is called a speculative task). This process is called speculative execution in Hadoop.

The Hadoop command fsck stands for file system check. It is a command used in HDFS.  

fsck checks all data inconsistencies. If the command detects a discrepancy, HDFS is notified. 

Syntax for HDFS fsck: 

Hadoop fsck [GENERIC OPTIONS] < path > [-delete | -move | -openforwrite] [-files [ -blocks [ -locations | -racks] ] ] 

 Expect to come across this important Hadoop admin question in your next interviews as well.

Hadoop can be run in three modes, and they are: 

  • Standalone Mode: Hadoop's default mode, standalone mode, uses a local file system for input and output operations. This mode is mainly used for debugging purposes and does not support the use of HDFS. Also, this mode does not require custom configuration for the mapred-site.xml, core-site.xml, and hdfs-site.xml files. This mode works much faster compared to other modes.. 
  • Pseudo-distributed Mode: In the case of pseudo-distributed mode, you need the configuration for all three files above. All daemons run on one node; thus, master and slave nodes are identical. 
  • Fully distributed Mode: This is the production phase of Hadoop for which it is known, where data is used and distributed across multiple nodes in a Hadoop cluster. Separate nodes are assigned as master and slave nodes. 

The Hadoop ecosystem is a bundle or suite of all services related to solving Big Data problems. More specifically, it is a platform consisting of various components and tools that are used together to run Big Data projects and solve the problems they contain. It consists of Storage, Compute and other various components that together form the Hadoop ecosystem.

Hadoop is a distributed file system that allows you to store and process large amounts of data on a cloud of computers, taking into account data redundancy. The main advantage is that since the data is stored on multiple nodes, it processes the data on nodes in a distributed manner and it is also called as data locality (code is being moved to data location). Each node can process the data stored on it instead of spending time moving the data across the network. On the contrary, in the relational database computing system, you can query the data in real-time, but it is not efficient to store the data in tables, records, and columns, when the data is large.  

Hadoop Streaming is one of the ways that Hadoop is available for non-Java development. The primary mechanisms are Hadoop Pipes, which provides a native C++ interface to Hadoop, and Hadoop Streaming, which allows any program that uses standard input and output to be used for map tasks and reduce tasks. Using Hadoop Streaming, one can create and run MapReduce tasks using any executable or script as a mapper and/or reducer.  

The following are the output formats commonly used in Hadoop:  

  • TextOutputFormat: TextOutputFormat is the default output format in Hadoop. 
  • Mapfileoutputformat: Mapfileoutputformat writes the output as map files in Hadoop. 
  • DBoutputformat: DBoutputformat writes the output to relational databases and Hbase. 
  • Sequencefileoutputformat: Sequencefileoutputformat is used when writing sequence files. 
  • SequencefileAsBinaryoutputformat: SequencefileAsBinaryoutputformat is used to write keys to a sequence file in binary format.

Don't be surprised if this question pops up as one of the top Hadoop admin technical interview questions in your next interview.

A Hadoop cluster is a group of computers, referred to as nodes, which are networked collectively to carry out those varieties of parallel processing on large amounts of structured, semi-structured or unstructured datasets. It is commonly called a shared-nothing system due to the fact that each node is independent in terms of resources and data. Hadoop cluster works in a master-slave manner where one machine in a cluster is designated as a master on which a daemon called NameNode runs and the rest of the machines in a cluster act as slaves on which a daemon called DataNode runs. Master supervises and monitors the slaves while the slaves are the actual worker nodes. There are two types of Hadoop clusters, and they are the following: 

  • Single node Hadoop cluster 
  • Multiple node Hadoop cluster 

The size of the data is the most important aspect while defining Hadoop cluster. For an example – let us say you need to store 100 TB of data in a cluster where you have each server of 10 TB storage capacity then you will surely need total of 10 servers to define the cluster. 

The default replication factor is 3 or can also be configured. At the time of creating a new block: 

the first replica is stored on the nearest local node. The second replica is stored on a completely 

different rack. The third replica is stored on the same rack, but on a different node. At the time of replicating a block again: if the number of existing replicas is one, the second replica is stored on a different rack. If the number of existing replicas is two and both are on the same rack, the third replica is stored on a different rack. Advantages of implementing rack awareness in Hadoop are as follows: 

  • Rack Awareness in Hadoop helps optimize replica placement, ensuring high reliability and fault tolerance. 
  • Rack Awareness ensures that read/write requests to replicas are placed in the closest rack or in the same rack. This maximizes read speed and minimizes write costs. 
  • Rack Awareness maximizes network bandwidth through block transfers within the rack. Data access requirements are met while minimizing network movement to reduce network overhead. 

Intermediate

A must-know for anyone looking for agile Hadoop admin advanced interview questions, this is one of the frequent questions asked of senior Hadoop admin developers as well.

Fault-tolerance of a system is a smart specialized ability that prevents any kind of potential disruption or failure to the nodes and ensures business continuity and high availability using backup nodes that replaces the failed ones. The different types of fault-tolerant systems can be the following: 

  • Transient, Spasmodic or Permanent hardware faults. 
  • Software and Hardware design errors. 
  • Human-induced errors or physical damage. 

In a faulty system both recovery time (RTO) and data loss (RPO) are zero. In order to maintain fault tolerance at all times, organizations must possess redundant inventory of formatted computing devices and a secondary uninterruptible power supply. The objective is to prevent mission-critical applications and networks from failing, with a focus on uptime and downtime issues. 

Data locality in Hadoop is the concept of moving computation to large datasets (nodes) where it is stored instead of moving datasets to the computation or algorithm. Also, it helps in reducing overall network congestion and also improves the overall computation throughput of the system. For example, in Hadoop computation happens on data nodes where the data is stored. 

If your organization ought to technique volumes of data, data locality can enhance processing and execution times, and decrease community traffic. That can suggest quicker selection making, responsive customer support and decreased costs.

Don't be surprised if this question pops up as one of the top Hadoop admin technical interview questions in your next interview.

DataNode stores data in HDFS; it is a node where actual data is stored in the file system. Each   DataNode sends a heartbeat message to indicate that it is active. If the NameNode does not receive a message from the DataNode for 10 minutes, the NameNode considers the DataNode dead or misplaced and begins replicating blocks hosted on that DataNode so that they are hosted on another DataNode. A BlockReport contains a list of all blocks on a DataNode. Now the system starts replicating what was stored in the dead DataNode.  

The NameNode manages the replication of data blocks from one DataNode to another. In this process, replication data is transferred directly between DataNodes so that the data never passes through the NameNode.

The main responsibility of a JobTracker is to oversee resources, maintain an eye on TaskTrackers, be aware of resource availability, and look after the whole process of a task, while keeping an eye on its development and being able to recover from any faults.

  • JobTracker is a process that runs on a separate node, often not on a DataNode. 
  • JobTracker communicates with the NameNode to determine the data location. 
  • JobTracker finds the best TaskTracker nodes to run the tasks on the given node. 
  • JobTracker monitors each TaskTracker and sends the overall job back to the client. 
  • JobTracker tracks the execution of MapReduce workloads locally on the slave node. 

First, the list of currently running MapReduce jobs should be reviewed. Next, ensure that no orphaned jobs are running; if so, determine the location of the RM logs. 

  • Execute:
    ps -ef | grep -I ResourceManager 

Search for the log directory in the displayed result. Find the job ID from the displayed list and check if there is an error message for this job. 

  • Using the logs from RM, identify the worker node that was involved in running the task. 
  • Now log in to that node and run the code below 
ps -ef | grep –iNodeManager 

Then examine the NodeManager Most errors come from the user-level logs for each MapReduce job. 

The hdfs-site.xml file is used to configure HDFS. Changing the dfs.replication property to hdfs- site.xml changes the default replication for all files stored in HDFS. The replication factor on a per-file basis can also be changed as follows.  

Hadoop FS Shell:[training@localhost ~]$ hadoopfs –setrep –w 3 /my/fileConversely, 

The replication factor of all the files under a directory can also be changed. 

[training@localhost ~]$ hadoopfs –setrep –w 3 -R /my/dir 

There are two ways to include native libraries in YARN jobs: 

  1. By specifying -Djava.library.path on the command line, but in this case, there is a possibility that the native libraries will not be loaded correctly, and errors may occur.  
  2. The better option to include native libraries is to set the LD _LIBRARY_ PATH in the .bashrc file.

YARN is not a substitute for Hadoop, but a more powerful and efficient technology that supports MapReduce and is also referred to as Hadoop 2.0 or MapReduce 2. 

The file system check utility FSCK is used to check and display the state of the file system, files and blocks in it. When used with a path (bin/Hadoop fsck / -files -blocks -locations -racks), it recursively displays the state of all files under the path. When used with '/', the entire file system is checked. By default, FSCK ignores files that are still open for writing by a client. To list such files, run FSCK with the -openforwrite option. 

FSCK scans the file system, prints a dot for each file that is found to be healthy, and prints a message about the files that are not quite healthy, including those that have over-replicated blocks, under-replicated blocks, incorrectly replicated blocks, damaged blocks, and missing replicas.  

The configuration files that need to be updated to set up a fully distributed mode of Hadoop are: 

  • Hadoop-env.sh 
  • Core-site.xml 
  • Hdfs-site.xml 
  • Mapred-site.xml 
  • Masters 
  • Slaves 

These files can be found in your Hadoop > conf directory. If Hadoop daemons are started individually with "bin/Hadoop-daemon.sh start xxxxxx', where xxxx is the name of the daemon, then the master and slave files do not need to be updated and can be empty. When starting daemons in this way, commands must be issued on the appropriate node to start the appropriate daemons. When Hadoop daemons are started with "bin/start-dfs.sh' and 'bin/start-mapred.sh', the master and slave configuration files must be updated on the NameNode machine. 

  • Masters - IP address/hostname of the node on which SecondaryNameNode is run.
  • Slaves - IP address/hostname of the node on which the DataNodes and possibly the task trackers will run. 

DataNodes can store blocks in multiple directories, usually located on different local drives. To set up multiple directories, you must specify a comma-separated list of pathnames as values under the dfs.data.dir/dfs.datanode.data.dir configuration parameters. DataNodes will try to put the same amount of data in each of the directories. NameNode also supports multiple directories where the namespace image and processing logs are stored. To set up multiple directories, one must specify a comma-separated list of pathnames as values under the configuration parameters dfs.name.dir/dfs.namenode.data.dir. The namespace directories are used for namespace data replication so that image and log can be recovered from the remaining disks/volumes if one of the disks fails.  

The replication factor is a feature of HDFS that can be set appropriately for the entire cluster to adjust the number of times the blocks are replicated to ensure high data availability. For each block stored in HDFS, the cluster has n-1 duplicated blocks. Thus, if the replication factor is set to 1 instead of the default value of 3 during the PUT operation, there will be a single copy of the data. If the replication factor is set to 1, only a single copy of the data would be lost if the data node crashed under these circumstances.  

Reducers have 3 core methods, and they are: 

  • Setup () – This method of the reducer is used for configuring various parameters like the input data size, distributed cache, heap size, etc. Function Definition- public void setup (context) 
  • Reduce () it is the heart of the reducer which is called once per key with the associated reduce task. 
  • Function Definition -public void reduce (Key,Value,context) 
  • Cleanup () – This method is called only once at the end of reduce task for clearing all the temporary files. 

HBase should be used when the big data application has: 

  • A variable schema 
  • When data is stored in the form of collections. 
  • If the application demands key-based access to data while retrieving. 

And the essential components of Hbase are: 

  • Region- This component contains a memory data store and Hfile.  
  • Region Server-This monitors the Region.  
  • HBase Master- It is responsible for monitoring the region server.  
  • Zookeeper- It takes care of the coordination between the HBase Master component and the client.  
  • Catalog Tables-The two important catalog tables are ROOT and META.ROOT table tracks where the META table is, and META table stores all the regions in the system. 

Advanced

A common yet one of the most important Hadoop admin interview questions and answers for experienced, don't miss this one.

There are three core components of hadoop: 

  • Hadoop HDFS: Hadoop Distributed File System is a distributed file system acting as a most reliable storage layer in hadoop in a distributed fashion. Hadoop is advanced to address large volumes of data.
  • Hadoop MapReduce: Hadoop MapReduce is the application layer for processing the data. It is a framework for distributed processing of huge volumes of data set over a cluster of nodes as data stores in a distributed in HDFS. In the MapReduce approach, the processing is done at the slave nodes, and the final result is sent to the master node. 
  • Hadoop YARN: Yet Another Resource Navigator (YARN) is a resource management layer of hadoop. It is responsible for managing cluster resources to make sure you do not overload one machine. 

The basic procedure for deploying a hadoop cluster is:

  • Pick a Hadoop distribution. 
  • Prepare a basic configuration on one node.
  • Deploy the same pre-configured package across all machines in the cluster. 
  • Configure each machine in the network according to its role. 

A block is nothing but the smallest continuous file location where data resides. A file is split up into blocks (default 64MB or 128 MB) and stored as independent units in a distributed fashion across multiple systems. These blocks replicate as per the replication factor. After replication, it is stored at different nodes. This handles the failure in the cluster. Let us say we have a file of size 612 MB, and we are using the default block configuration (128 MB). Therefore, five blocks are created, the first four blocks are 128 MB in size, and the fifth block is 100 MB in size (128*4+100=612). From the above example, we can conclude that: A file in HDFS, smaller than a single block does not occupy a full block size space of the underlying storage. Each file stored in HDFS does not need to be an exact multiple of the configured block size. 

  • Hadoop 1 default block size: 64MB 
  • Hadoop 2 default block size: 128 MB 

Yes, we can configure the block size as per our requirement by changing the dfs.block.size property in hdfs.xml in a hadoop ecosystem.  

The following are the advantages of hadoop data blocks: 

  • No limitation on the file size. 
  • Simplicity of storage subsystem. 
  • Eliminating metadata concerns. 

MapReduce handled both data processing and resource management in Hadoop v1. JobTracker was the only master process for the processing layer. JobTracker was in charge of resource tracking and scheduling. In MapReduce 1, managing jobs with a single JobTracker and utilizing computer resources was inefficient.  

As a result, JobTracker became overburdened with job handling, scheduling, and resource management. Scalability, availability, and resource utilization were among the issues. In addition to these issues, non-MapReduce jobs were unable to run in v1.  

To address this issue, Hadoop 2 added YARN as a processing layer. A processing master called resource manager exists in YARN. The resource manager is running in high availability mode in hadoop v2. On multiple machines, node managers and a temporary daemon called application master are running. The resource manager is only in charge of client connections and resource tracking in this case. 

The following features are available in Hadoop v2:  

  • Scalability - It enables you to run more than 100,000 concurrent tasks on a cluster of more than 10,000 nodes. 
  • Compatibility - Hadoop v1 applications run on YARN without interruption or availability issues.  
  • Resource utilization - YARN enables the dynamic allocation of cluster resources to improve resource utilization.  
  • Multitenancy - YARN supports both open-source and proprietary data access engines, as well as real-time analysis and ad-hoc queries. 

The individual steps are described below: 

  • The client uses a Hadoop client program to make the request. 
  • The client program reads the cluster configuration file on the local machine, which tells it where the name mode is located. This must be configured in advance 
  • The client contacts the NameNode and requests the file it wants to read. 
  • Client validation is checked against the username or a strong authentication mechanism such as Kerberos. 
  • The client's validated request is matched against the file's owner and permissions. 
  • If the file exists and the user has access to it, the NameNode responds with the first block ID and returns a list of data nodes where a copy of the block can be found, sorted by their distance from the client (reader). 

The client now turns directly to the most appropriate data node and reads the block data. This process repeats until all blocks in the file have been read or the client closes the file stream.
If the data node dies while reading the file, the library automatically tries to read another replica of the data from another data node. If all replicas are unavailable, the read operation fails, and the client receives an exception. If the block position information returned by the NameNode is out of date by the time the client attempts to contact a data anode, a retry is made if other replicas are available, or the read operation fails. 

Checkpointing is an essential part of file system metadata maintenance and persistence in HDFS. It is critical for efficient recovery and restart of NameNode and is an important indicator of the overall health of the cluster. NameNode persists file system metadata. NameNode's main role is to store the HDFS namespace. That is, things like the directory tree, file permissions, and the mapping of files to block IDs. It is important that this metadata is stored securely in stable storage for fault tolerance reasons. 

This file system metadata is stored in two distinct parts: the fsimage and the edit log. The fsimage is a file that represents a snapshot of the file system metadata. While the fsimage file format is very efficient to read, it is not suitable for small incremental updates such as renaming a single file. So instead of writing a new fsimage each time the namespace is changed, the NameNode instead records the change operation in the edit log for permanent storage. This way, in case of a crash, the NameNode can recover its state by first loading the fsimage and then replaying all the operations (also called edits or transactions) in the edit log to get the latest state of the namespace. The edit log consists of a series of files, called edit log segments, which together represent all the changes made to the name system since the fsimage was created.  

The decision for a certain file format depends on the following factors

  1. Schema development for adding, modifying, and renaming fields.
  2. Pattern of use, e.g., access to 5 of 50 columns versus access to most columns.
  3. Suitability for parallel processing.
  4. Read/write/transfer performance vs. block compression to save storage space. 

File formats that can be used with Hadoop - CSV, JSON, Columnar, Sequence files, AVRO, and Parquet files. 

  1. CSV files: CSV files are ideal for exchanging data between Hadoop and external systems. It is advisable not to use headers and footers when using CSV files. 
  2. JSON files: Each JSON file has its own data set. JSON stores both data and schema together in one record, and also allows for full schema evolution and partitioning capabilities. However, JSON files do not support block-level compression. 
  3. Avro files: This type of file format is best suited for long-term storage with schema. Avro files store metadata along with the data and allow you to specify an independent schema for reading the files. 
  4. Parquet files: a columnar file format that supports block-level compression and is optimized for query performance, allowing you to select 10 or fewer columns from datasets with more than 50 columns. 
  5. edits file: It is a log of changes made to the namespace since the checkpoint.
    Checkpoint Node- Checkpoint Node stores the last checkpoint in a directory that has the same structure as the namespace node directory. Checkpoint Node periodically creates checkpoints for the namespace by downloading the changes and the fsimage file from the NameNode and merging them locally. The new image is then written back to the active NameNode. 
  6. Backup node: The backup node also provides checkpointing functions like the checkpoint node, but additionally maintains an up to date in-memory copy of the file system namespace that is synchronized with the active NameNode. 

By default, Hadoop 1x has a block size of 64MB and Hadoop 2x has a block size of 128MB, though let us take the block size to be 100MB, which means there will be 5 blocks replicated 3 times (the default replication factor).  

To illustrate how a block is stored in HDFS, let us use a scenario with a file containing 5 blocks (A/B/C/D/E), a client, a NameNode and a DataNode. Initially, the client will ask the NameNode for the locations of the DataNodes where it can store the first block (A) and the replicated copies.  

Once the client knows the location of the DataNodes, it will send block A to the DataNodes and the replication process will begin. After block A has been stored and replicated on the DataNodes, the client will be informed, and then it will initiate the same process for the next block (Block B).  

In this process, if the first block of 100MB is written to HDFS, and the next block has been started by the client, to store then 1st block will be visible to readers. Only the current block being written will not be visible to the readers. 

We are familiar with the steps to decommission a DataNode and there is a lot of information available on the internet to do so, however, what about a task tracker running a MapReduce job on a DataNode that is planned to be decommissioned? Unlike the DataNode, there is no easy way to decommission a task tracker.  

It is usually assumed that when we intend to move the same task to another node, we have to make the task process fail and let it be re-allocated elsewhere in the cluster. It is possible that a task on its last attempt is running on the task tracker and that a final failure may result in the whole job not succeeding. Unfortunately, it is not always possible to prevent this from happening. Consequently, the concept of decommissioning will stop the DataNode, but to move the present task to another node, we have to manually shut down the task tracker running on the decommissioned node. 

One of the most frequently posed Hadoop admin scenario based interview questions and answers, be ready for this conceptual question.

Hadoop and Spark can be integrated by using Hadoop's HDFS as the storage layer for Spark and using YARN as the resource manager for both Hadoop and Spark. This allows Spark to read data stored in HDFS and process it using its in-memory computing capabilities, while YARN manages the allocation of resources such as CPU and memory.  

Hive can also be integrated with Hadoop by using Hive's SQL-like query language, HiveQL, to query data stored in HDFS. This allows for more efficient querying and analysis of large data sets stored in Hadoop. Hive can also be used to create and manage tables, similar to a relational database, on top of data stored in HDFS. In addition, Hive can be integrated with Spark, by using Hive as the metadata store and Spark SQL as the execution engine. This allows for HiveQL queries to be executed using Spark's in-memory computing capabilities, resulting in faster query execution.  

Overall, the integration of Hadoop with other big data technologies such as Spark and Hive, allows for a powerful and flexible big data processing ecosystem, where different tools can be used for different purposes and can work together to process and analyze large data sets. 

There are several ways to handle a sudden increase in data volume on a Hadoop cluster:  

  1. Scale Up: Add more resources (such as nodes) to the existing cluster to handle the increased data volume.  
  2. Scale Out: Add more clusters to handle the increased data volume.  
  3. Partitioning: Divide the data into smaller chunks and distribute them across multiple nodes.  
  4. Compression: Compress the data to reduce its size and decrease the amount of storage required. 
  5. Data Archiving: Move infrequently used data to a separate storage system to free up space on the main cluster.  
  6. Data Deletion: Remove unnecessary or redundant data from the cluster.  

It also depends on the data's access pattern, if it is write-heavy then we can go for more storage or if it is read-heavy then we can go for more processing power. Overall, the approach to handling a sudden increase in data volume will depend on the specific use case and the resources available. 

There are several ways to implement a real-time streaming pipeline using Hadoop technologies, but one possible approach is to use Apache Kafka as the data stream source, Apache Nifi as the data flow manager, and Apache Hadoop HDFS or Apache Hadoop Hive as the data storage and processing layer.  

  1. First, you would set up a Kafka cluster that can handle high-throughput data streams and configure it to receive data from various sources.  
  2. Next, you would use Apache Nifi to pull data from Kafka, perform data transformation and enrichment, and route it to the appropriate destination.  
  3. Then, you would use Apache Nifi processors like ExtractText, ReplaceText, and EvaluateJsonPath to extract, format, and enrich the data as needed. 
  4. After that, you would use Apache Nifi to route data to HDFS or Hive for long-term storage and batch processing using tools like Apache Hive or Apache Pig.  
  5. Finally, you would use Apache Nifi to route the data to a real-time processing engine like Apache Storm or Apache Spark Streaming for further analysis, and then send the results to a data visualization tool like Apache Zeppelin or Kibana for real-time monitoring and alerting.  
  6. It's also important to make sure that the pipeline is secure, and data is encrypted as well as implement a good data governance strategy.  
  7. Monitoring and management of the pipeline are crucial. You can use tools like Ambari, Ganglia, and Graphite to monitor the health and performance of the pipeline.  
  8. You can also use Nifi's built-in monitoring features such as the Reporting Task and Provenance Repository to track data flow and troubleshoot any issues. 

A staple in Hadoop admin interview questions and answers, be prepared to answer this one using your hands-on experience.

Handling data replication and data integrity in a Hadoop cluster can be done using several different tools and techniques. Some possible methods include:  

  1. HDFS Replication: HDFS is Hadoop's distributed file system, and it provides built-in data replication features. By default, HDFS replicates each block of data three times across different nodes in the cluster to ensure data availability and fault tolerance. This can be configured based on the requirement, and it is recommended to have at least 3 copies for data availability.  
  2. Data Checksum: HDFS provides data checksum feature to ensure data integrity. It calculates checksum for each block of data and compares it with the original data while reading.  
  3. Distributed File System Snapshots: HDFS also provides the ability to take snapshots of the file system, which can be used to recover from data loss or corruption.  
  4. Third-Party Replication: You can also use third-party tools like Apache Nifi, Apache Flume, and Apache Kafka to replicate data across multiple clusters or systems.  
  5. Data Backup: You should also consider implementing a backup strategy that includes regular backups of the entire cluster or specific data sets to ensure that you can recover from data loss or corruption.  
  6. Data Governance: Implementing a data governance strategy that includes data quality checks, data lineage tracking, and access controls can help ensure data integrity and security.  
  7. Monitoring: Regularly monitoring the cluster for errors or issues and troubleshooting them in a timely manner can help prevent data loss or corruption.  

This, along with other interview questions on Hadoop admin, is a regular feature in Hadoop admin interviews, be ready to tackle it with the approach mentioned below.

Upgrading a Hadoop cluster to a newer version can be a complex process and it depends on the current version and the target version, but some general steps that can be followed include:  

  1. Planning: Before upgrading, it is important to understand the changes and new features in the target version, and plan accordingly. This includes identifying any compatibility issues or deprecated features and making necessary adjustments to your data and applications.  
  2. Backup: Create a backup of your current Hadoop cluster, including all data, configurations, and metadata, to ensure that you can roll back if necessary.  
  3. Test: Test the upgrade process on a small test cluster before applying it to the production cluster. This will help identify any issues and make any necessary adjustments. 4. 
  4. Upgrade the cluster: Perform the upgrade by following the instructions provided by the vendor or the community. The process will depend on the current version and the target version, but it will typically involve upgrading the master nodes and then upgrading the worker nodes.  
  5. Validate: Once the upgrade is complete, validate the cluster's functionality and performance to ensure that everything is working as expected.  
  6. Monitor: Monitor the cluster for any issues and troubleshoot them in a timely manner.  
  7. Update your Applications: update your applications to the latest version if they are compatible with the new version of Hadoop.  
  8. Rollback: If the upgrade process failed or caused issues, you can roll back to the previous version using the backup.  
  9. Repeat the process: Repeat the process for all the Hadoop components like Hive, Pig, Hbase, etc.  
  10. Keep the documentation: Keep a detailed documentation of the upgrade process, including the version details, issues faced, and the resolution. This will be helpful for future reference and troubleshooting. 

A staple in Hadoop admin interview questions and answers, be prepared to answer this one using your hands-on experience.

Implementing a disaster recovery plan for a Hadoop cluster can be done using several different tools and techniques, some of which include: 

  1. Data Backup: Regularly backup all data, configurations, and metadata in the Hadoop cluster to a remote location or a cloud storage, which can be used to restore the cluster in case of data loss or corruption.  
  2. Cluster Replication: Replicate the Hadoop cluster to a secondary location, which can be used as a failover in case of a disaster.  
  3. Data Mirroring: Use tools like HDFS mirroring to replicate the data between clusters, so that data is available in both the primary and secondary clusters.  
  4. Automated Failover: Implement automated failover mechanisms that can detect a failure and automatically switch to the secondary cluster.  
  5. Network Connectivity: Ensure that the secondary cluster is connected to the network and has access to the same data sources as the primary cluster.  
  6. Resource allocation: Ensure that the secondary cluster has the same or similar resources as the primary cluster.  
  7. Testing: Regularly test the disaster recovery plan to ensure that it is working as expected and that the failover process is smooth.  
  8. Documentation: Create and maintain detailed documentation of the disaster recovery plan, including procedures and contact information for key personnel.

Handling missing or corrupt data in a Hadoop cluster can be done using several different tools and techniques, some of which include:  

  1. Data Validation: Use data validation techniques like data type validation, format validation, and range validation to detect and correct missing or corrupt data. 
  2. Data Profiling: Use data profiling tools like Apache Jalapeno or Talend to identify and fix data quality issues. Data Backup: Regularly backup all data, configurations, and metadata in the Hadoop cluster to a remote location or a cloud storage, which can be used to restore the cluster in case of data loss or corruption. 
  3. Data Replication: Use tools like HDFS replication to replicate the data across multiple nodes in the cluster, which can be used to recover from data loss or corruption. 
  4. Data Auditing: Regularly audit the cluster for data access and modification to detect any potential data breaches or unauthorized access. 
  5. Data Governance: Implement a data governance strategy that includes data quality checks, data lineage tracking, and access controls to ensure data integrity. 

It is important to keep in mind that missing or corrupt data can have a significant impact on the performance of the cluster and the accuracy of the results, so it is crucial to have a data governance strategy in place, and always monitor the data in the cluster. 

Description

Tips and Tricks for Hadoop Admin Interview 

Here are a few tips and tricks to keep in mind before appearing for Hadoop Admin interview: 

  1. It is important to understand the basic architecture of Hadoop and the role of HDFS and YARN in it.  
  2. Be familiar with common Hadoop administration tasks such as cluster setup, monitoring, and troubleshooting.  
  3. Understand the basics of Hadoop security and how to secure a Hadoop cluster.  
  4. Be familiar with Hadoop ecosystem components such as Pig, Hive, and Spark.  
  5. Be comfortable with Linux and basic shell commands. Understand the concepts of data warehousing and big data processing.  
  6. Be prepared to discuss real-world scenarios and challenges you have faced in your previous Hadoop administration experience. 
  7.  It is equally essential to have the capacity to use the knowledge you have gained. Additionally, you should sharpen your communication abilities so that you can express your opinions in an effective way. 

How to Prepare for a Hadoop Admin Interview?

  • Be well-versed in your domain and keep yourself updated with the current and expected trends in this field. 
  • Practice answering questions about real-world scenarios and challenges you may have faced in your previous Hadoop administration experience. Keep a complete Hadoop admin interview questions and answers PDF handy for quick reference.
  • Giving some mock interviews and taking online courses can be helpful to gain more hands-on experience and increase your confidence. Hadoop admin real time interview questions in form of practice tests on KnowledgeHut is a perfect way to practice scenarios in real-time courtesy our cloud labs.
  • In addition, learn concepts like Hadoop cluster performance tuning and be prepared to show your knowledge in the interview and understand the concepts of Hadoop cluster scaling and load balancing, and prepare well to explain how you would handle it in an interview. 

Prepare well with these Hadoop admin real-time interview questions and answers and ace your next interview at organizations like  

  • Amazon 
  • Data Labs 
  • Capgemini 
  • IBM 
  • Infosys 
  • Cognizant 
  • VISA 
  • Hewlett Packard Enterprise 
  • Adobe 
  • Wells Fargo.  

Some of you may not have access to a vivid plan of actionable steps in order to become a Hadoop admin, so we thought it would be beneficial to put together a complete Hadoop Administration Certification training program that will support you to pursue this rewarding career path. Hope these tips help you figure out how to crack Hadoop admin interview.

What to Expect in a Hadoop Admin Interview?

During a Hadoop Admin interview, you can expect to be asked a combination of technical and behavioral questions. Technical questions may include:  

  1. Describe the basic architecture of Hadoop and the role of HDFS and YARN.  
  2. Explain how you would set up and configure a Hadoop cluster.  
  3. Describe common Hadoop administration tasks such as monitoring, troubleshooting, and performance tuning.  
  4. Explaining how to secure a Hadoop cluster. 

Behavioral questions may include:  

  1. Describe a real-world scenario or challenge you have faced in your previous Hadoop administration experience and how you handled it. 
  2. Describe how you work with other members of a team to achieve a common goal. 

Overall, the interviewer will be seeking to gauge your knowledge and practical experience with Hadoop administration and your ability to think critically and solve problems relevant to managing a Hadoop cluster. 

Summary

Numerous businesses have adopted Hadoop, an open-source framework, to store and process massive amounts of both structured and unstructured data via the MapReduce programming model. Yahoo is the most prominent corporation that has adopted Hadoop, having a cluster of 4500 nodes; LinkedIn and Facebook are other examples. of companies utilizing this framework to manage their rapidly growing data. The average hadoop admin salary in the USA is $115,000 per year or $55.29 per hour. Entry level positions start at $97,500 per year, while most experienced workers make up to $140,000 per year. 

If you are looking to build your career in the field of Big Data, then give a start by learning . Here are the top Hadoop admin scenario-based interview questions asked frequently. These Hadoop admin real time interview questions have been designed specially to get you familiarized with the nature of questions which you might face during your interview and will help you to crack Hadoop admin interview easily & acquire your dream career as a Hadoop Admin.  These interview questions on Hadoop are suggested by the experts. Turn yourself into a Hadoop Admin. Live your dream career! Here are the top Hadoop admin scenario-based interview questions asked frequently. These Hadoop admin real time interview questions have been designed specially to get you familiarized with the nature of questions that you might face during your interview and will help you to crack Hadoop admin interviews easily & acquire your dream career as a Hadoop Admin.  These interview questions on Hadoop are suggested by the experts. Turn yourself into a Hadoop Admin. Live your dream career! 

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