IT Project Manager Interview Questions and Answers

In the past few years, there has been a rise in IT project manager jobs like never before. A project manager is expected to master several other skills apart from budgeting, scheduling, and balancing resources. They are expected to monitor stakeholders and their experiences and communicate properly and closely. So, is it easy to get a job in The project manager field? Of course, it is, only if you are prepared well for the interview round. Through this article, we have curated the top 50 IT project manager interview questions and answers. You can ace your preparation for the job by going through these questions. And you can also take up a Project Management course to perform better in these interviews.

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Beginner

Whatever the cause, project managers are required to be adaptable and sufficiently shift as circumstances do. From beginning to end, projects are truly not continuous. It could be brought on by advancements in technology, requests from clients for existing innovations, the departure of a co-worker from the company, and a natural catastrophe. This query enables the recruiter to assess a candidate's capacity to manage the unanticipated while maintaining the project on track and reducing its effects on the plan and budget. 

Candidates must give specific instances of unforeseen developments in the undertakings they have overseen, along with illustrations about just how they handled those circumstances. Ask candidates also to talk about how the epidemic affected IT initiatives they were in charge of during COVID-19 and how they dealt with them, such as switching to fresh workplace practices. Given below is a sample to answer the question. 

On just a recent project I oversaw, the client submitted a modification request that would increase the app's reporting capabilities. I started by learning everything I could about the proposed new features before evaluating how they would affect the project's progress. Next, I discussed the suggested improvements with other team members, and we determined what might be required to accomplish them. Next, I addressed the pertinent parties and explained how the adjustment would affect the timeline and budget. Finally, I adjusted the project schedule and let the team know we would implement the additional features once I had their agreement. 

A few team members didn't receive the modifications well, so I spent time reviewing the specifics with them and hearing their complaints and recommendations. Then, following their suggestions, I made some modifications to the strategy that helped to calm their worries. Ultimately, we produced a higher quality product, and the client was happy. 

Project managers must deal with disputes and conflicts regularly and do so rapidly and respectfully. The recruiter may learn more about the candidate's capacity for unbiased dispute resolution and resolution with this question. The inquiry would also give a feel of the applicant's language skills, which have been crucial for resolving disputes and conflicts. Finally, this query provides fantastic insight to gauge the character and interpersonal skills of the applicant. 

Allow applicants to discuss their encounters with resolving disputes. Instruct them to be explicit so that the recruiter can comprehend the situation, the method of resolution, and the conclusion of the dispute. Keep an eye out for applicants who provide ambiguous or inadequate instances. It can mean that individuals prefer not to address these matters or even lack the knowledge or expertise necessary to resolve conflicts. Given below is a sample to answer the question. 

I can't recall a single project I've where I didn't have to deal with some sort of dispute, disagreement, or misunderstanding. A clash of interests often happens at work, and everyone is different. For instance, with one project, the front-end department was furious with the back-end department for making modifications that threatened the integrity of their User Interface [UI] design. I arranged a meeting with representatives from the two teams, and we discussed the issues. 

Project managers must be skilled at assigning tasks considering they have a lot to do. This discussion enables one to ascertain yet if the applicant is prepared to assign assignments and, so then, how they went to accomplish this goal. Determine if delegation seems effortless to these individuals or if they may be experiencing management control problems. 

Encourage applicants to share any instances in which they possibly have struggled with work delegation. This could also shed light on one's degree of sincerity and aptitude for learning. Push them to explain how they assign jobs as well. Given below is a sample to answer the question. 

When I first started managing assignments, I attempted to handle anything entirely on my own. Still, it quickly became evident that this wouldn't work, specifically as my projects became more complicated. In reality, I was stressing out, which wasn't good for the projects. So now that delegation is a regular part of my job; it begins with being upfront about the fact that project team members must anticipate occasionally taking on project-related duties outside the scope of their regular responsibilities. 

When I allocate a task to a person's role, skills, and responsibilities, I try to fit it. 

I also try not to put too much pressure on the team members who would be renowned for completing tasks on time. I include as much detail as possible while explaining a task, leaving room for queries and providing comments. When the assignment is finished, I express gratitude. Delegating authority requires thoughtful interaction, similar to most other project management functions. 

Every enterprise faces difficulties, several of which could be major. This query will enable the recruiter to learn more about a candidate's problem-solving style. In addition, it will shed light on the person's problem-solving and issue-communication techniques. 

Urge individuals to go into depth regarding difficulties, the actions they followed to overcome them, and the results. Ask them to describe the situation's background in more detail. Applicants that place a strong emphasis on attributing their difficulties to other people should be avoided. Nevertheless, give this topic the attention it requires because it may be among the very insightful ones one may ask. Given below is an instance to answer the above question. 

Several years ago, I oversaw a sizable application development project that integrated a pre-existing credit card processing and storage infrastructure. Unfortunately, we learned that one of the credit-card processing sequence stages had not adequately protected credit card details in accordance with Payment Card Industry (PCI) security guidelines not long before the program was scheduled to go public. As a result, we were forced to rush to seek a solution. By cooperating, we determined the issue's underlying cause and the best course of action. Regrettably, achieving this would require taking certain team members away from other duties. Nevertheless, I kept stakeholders aware of the steps needed to resolve the problem. It took a few more discussions for me to persuade everybody to adopt our plan, but I succeeded. 

 I made modifications to the project plan and obtained approval from just about everyone. The repair went smoothly and didn't significantly affect our cost or timeline. I'm sure it would have taken considerably longer and been significantly more challenging to resolve the issue if we had not really maintained better communication from the beginning of the project. 

At the simplest basic level, this topic can reveal the person's preferred project kinds, which could also assist the recruiter in determining if they are a good fit for the company. In addition, a recruiter can get a feel of the person's advantages and potential flaws from the inquiry. 

A candidate may not be entirely truthful with a recruiter or oneself if they claim to be satisfied engaging in any tasks. However, there is no correct or improper response to this discussion, so the recruiter should urge applicants to answer truthfully. The recruiter desires to engage in an open dialogue with them about what the perfect endeavor would be. 

A project that has a realistic budget and completion date is perfect in my book. It also gives me the opportunity to work with smart individuals who are independent yet skilled at collaboration and communication. Additionally, all parties involved in the project must totally support and share the same understanding of its objectives, enabling problem-solving more simply. 

A project manager needs a variety of abilities, notably technical expertise, management, planning, organization, interaction, and teamwork. Additionally, they must be familiar with project planning tools and procedures. By phrasing this question broadly, the recruiter can ascertain a person's skill priorities and which skills they believe all project leaders ought to have. In addition, the recruiter can learn more about the person's management structure, depth of knowledge, and application skills from this question. Given below is a sample to answer the question. 

Applicants ought to offer more information than just a resume. For example, the recruiter might ask individuals to explain how they concentrated on particular competencies and offer evidence of how they applied those competencies in the assignments they oversaw. 

The very first thing on my list is good communication. Though I think that leadership style and organizational abilities are crucial, communicating is essential to a successful project and to handling issues when they occur. Interaction is crucial for maintaining team spirit and progress while keeping stakeholders updated on the project's progress. Even the most difficult projects may be improved with efficient communication. Given below is a sample to answer the question. 

Our data center recently encountered a big system failure on a project I was managing, which impacted the output of our staff and caused problems. I quickly alerted the stakeholders to the problem and warned them that it would delay delivery. If we miss a goal, everyone will not be surprised. I still had to make amends with a few team members, but I've discovered that even being upfront and truthful about the situation and the steps to fix it is the most effective strategy. In this instance, team members believed that I was providing them with the finest knowledge since I was open and persistent in my interactions. 

A technical project has many moving pieces, making it difficult to maintain it on schedule. This issue will test a candidate's ability to properly oversee a project, identify occasions when it isn't achieving goals, and put it on the right track. In addition, recruiters may use the issue to assess the candidate's risk management and monitoring skills. Candidates should be able to show they have the level of attention to detail necessary to lead a team without trying to control them. 

Urge applicants to explain the context of both how they've managed projects that went off course and how they have maintained them on schedule. Ask about the exact project planning tools and strategies they had employed to keep an eye on the ongoing work and address problems. 

I constantly evaluate performance across the whole lifecycle of the project to see if we're on pace to reach milestones. I monitor the status of most projects on a daily basis, while in special cases, I may evaluate certain components more regularly. For example, in team discussions or one-on-one, I regularly monitor the team members. This method can make me aware of things I would not have noticed. For illustration, lately, I discovered a flaw in my team's system due to a few queries I raised at a meeting discussion. 

The project's performance is contingent greatly mostly on the project manager's purpose of executing operations. Therefore, the recruiter can better grasp candidates' interests by asking them this question. Additionally, it can reveal how well a candidate can handle change and difficulties that call for a more deft approach, including addressing interpersonal conflicts or stakeholder arguments. Finally, the response from a candidate can reveal information about their interaction and organization abilities. 

Most project supervisors have many more tasks than they can do in a single day. Urge candidates to talk about particular projects and situations where they were required to prioritize tasks and their choices to accomplish that. 

"I usually write a list of all the tasks I need to get done that day before the start of every day, ranking them in order of importance. I used an Evernote plugin for all platforms, such as android, ios, windows, etc., or a comparable tool so I can check my work plan from any platform. Although it's not a formal method, it aids in my focus ability and being resourceful. As a result, I complete every duty, or at least what is possible at a time. In the meantime, I try to remain adaptable to the situation and receptive to chances to finish things more quickly. For instance, a vendor representative might turn up unannounced, enabling me to complete a task lower on my list swiftly. By beginning the non-critical activity right away, you will save a tonne of both money and time, as well as numerous emails and telephone calls. 

Additionally, I'm receptive to fresh knowledge that might alter my priorities. I want to find the right balance between the necessity to keep focused on the job at hand and remaining adaptable enough to consider shifting situations and commitments. Having that said, I've discovered through the years that it's equally essential to understand when to say "no" and avoid being distracted when you have urgent matters to attend to." 

A project coordinator must constantly look for scope creep and gold plating, which could influence expenses and delivery dates. This question can give the recruiter information about the person's approach to these two problems and about their technical expertise and resource management abilities. In addition, by posing this query, a recruiter can discover more information about the candidate's aptitude for solving the issues. 

Seek answers that show the applicant is aware of the distinctions between scope creep and gold plating and also that they recognize the gravity of these concerns. In addition, candidates must be able to give specific instances of their actions to prevent and solve situations like these. 

"On numerous projects, I've dealt with scope creep and gold plating. Customers' requests to cram in features that extend beyond the initial specs are the main cause of scope creep. Additionally, I've been on the lookout for gold plating. I think it typically results from inexperienced developers seeking to establish their worth. I establish a project's scope at the outset and obtain stakeholder buy-in, ensuring everyone knows the strategy to avoid either issue. Then, so that everyone on the team knows what is anticipated, I give each task's specific requirements and scope. These procedures constitute only a portion of the work, though. Regular interaction with stakeholders and teammates is required to avoid scope creep and gold plating and to make absolutely sure that neither features are being introduced that shouldn't be. 

Whenever I notice anything similar happening, such as stakeholders asking a developer directly for a modification, I deal with the issue immediately, stating explicitly that any modifications would impact the project's budget and timeline. I propose to conduct a prospective cost and duration impact assessment if the stakeholders persist in that modification. The conversation usually stops there. Sometimes they ask me to proceed with the evaluation. If they continue to desire the adjustment after that, I revise the project schedule appropriately. Any modifications that just don't follow a structured change management strategy are what I want to stay away from." 

Project managers are not all needed to handle finances, while others may only do so for specific projects. It's crucial to have a project manager who understands the critical function finance serves in projects, despite recruitment firms not seeking someone to monitor budgets. The employer can learn more about a person's budgetary abilities and problem-solving techniques by asking them this question. 

Although applicants may have mentioned their proficiency with budgeting in their applications, this question gives the recruiter the chance to gain insight into those abilities together while discovering their knowledge of developing, implementing, and distributing budgets. 

"I didn't have to oversee the budget for every project I was in charge of, but so many did. Even though I do not really oversee the money, in my opinion, it's difficult to supervise every project without the need for a strong understanding of budgetary issues. Office space, staff, servers, and applications seem expensive. I cannot add resources before considering the budget if I need to do so to fulfill a timeframe."  

Also, there can be another response to the same question, so here it is below. 

"On assignments where I was in charge of the budget, I got to work on it early and continue to manage it all the way through. I keep an eye on how money is spent and whether we ever go over cost. If we encounter problems requiring more resources or unanticipated costs, I communicate them immediately with the relevant parties. I've discovered that keeping track of budgeting right away can prevent financial issues. In addition, my negotiation skills come in handy when handling financial issues, whether negotiating with suppliers, recruiting consultants, or persuading a stakeholder that more money will enhance the finished product." 

Throughout the era of COVID-19, this question illustrates the increasing importance of functioning with offsite or decentralized teams. Check to see if the applicant is familiar with the issues that can occur when a workgroup doesn't meet together in person. Do they get into specifics like the impact a globally disparate team has had on scheduled meetings? 

Get candidates to describe the challenges of working with remote or distributed teams and how they differ from working with an on-site team. Their answer to this question will show if they have had to manage such a team and if they are sensitive to what's required. A sample response is given below for this question. 

"Even before the epidemic, I collaborated on several projects with scattered and offsite teams. Every project I've worked on since COVID-19 began has been remote. A remote team has benefits and drawbacks. Receiving feedback is speedier, and problems may be resolved more quickly and easily when the full team is present. It's also simpler to foster a spirit of cooperation and guide everybody more towards a common objective. However, workers can choose their own hours and work in a setting that is more suited to their preferences with remote and hybrid jobs. In addition, since there are fewer disruptions, virtual workers are frequently more efficient. 

Although it requires more work on my end to establish good communications, remote teams can really only flourish if the participants maintain a high level of motivation. Organizing meetings, for instance, might be difficult if people are dispersed around the globe due to time zone variations. We had participants in one project I oversaw from Europe, Austria, and the United States. I have to be adaptable with my planning to meet diverse requirements. We were largely successful due to everyone's willingness to update the team on their performance. I frequently find myself contacting more people when working with distant teams." 

The achievement of a task frequently depends on the team leader's ability to inspire employees and create an environment where they feel comfortable raising any issues or queries. In any IT project, either small or big, the project always works in phases, and that is where the team decides which member does which task but is this leader aware of the positive and negative traits of every team member? Assigning tasks to a team member who doesn't know how to handle them will only cause disaster. It is better for a manager to know how to assign tasks and to whom. The recruiter, with this question, tests the communication skills and how the candidate reaches every team member in a situation. 

An illustration of a time when a person successfully fostered efficient communication among their team may be useful in this circumstance. Consider any procedures or techniques one uses to make individuals feel like they are pursuing the same objective. This could involve straightforward strategies like introducing icebreakers at launch sessions or including communication frameworks within projects. 

"Most recently, about six months back, a completely new team was assigned to me for training purposes, and they had their very first big project coming up. So as a manager, I simply assigned tasks I saw fit for them, and that caused a big clash of interests with each other. I realized my mistake: I don't really know them. So I decided to get them to the conference room after they cool down and have a little team-building exercise. I just simply have a normal talk and get to know them. After some time, we talked about what really went wrong. So I just make them understand how they can work as a team and the important aspect of being a team. About three months later, they're the best team on the whole floor. They all know each other very well, including me. But now, if anyone gives them any project, they can easily handle it." 

This is the most basic question in almost every interview. Try avoiding the known basic details that are already present on resumes, such as a city. With this question, all the recruiter is interested in knowing is what else the candidate has done apart from mentioned things in resumes. The recruiter is never interested in knowing the candidate's hobbies, interests, etc.,. An overview of candidates, such as skills, job experience, educational qualifications, and other related things, are some details that the recruiter expects the candidate to tell about all these things in a brief manner. 

To simply answer this question, start with your schooling. The college does mention any achievements also. Now tell me about the certification courses or any specialization exam passed, if any. Now start with past jobs. Explain the responsibilities and roles you played till now. If you received any reward for good work, don't forget to mention that. Expect some cross-questions after your answer. Spend less time telling about your basic qualification, and emphasize mentioning the achievements you didn't disclose in your resume. Here is a sample answer given below only for reference. We suggest not learning it; instead, use this format to put up your detail. 

"At the YMCA, I finished my undergraduate studies in computer science. In 2013, after finishing my undergraduate studies, I landed a job as a software analyst at Accenture in Plano, Texas. I've operated on eight projects up to this point, with the ABC site's shopping trolley customization assignment being among the most important. Despite taking eight months to finish, the project improved the purchasing experience for ABC e-commerce customers. I functioned as the lead analyst and oversaw the other three software analysts while there were four of us involved with the project. We were a part of 21 people on the project team. I received a work raise as a reward for my efforts to this prosperous initiative." 

The recruiter may ask questions like how he responded to the situation and whether you were required to deal with cultural nuances. Since the question involves international people, there is a possibility that there can be some differences or problems regarding communication. The question will be well suited when the hiring company specifically wants a candidate that can handle the international team. 

This question requires the candidate to provide data from an actual project that he or she supervised in his answer. He also lists several intriguing advantages of working with a multicultural, multinational development team. Do elaborate on the experience of working. Here is a sample answer given below only for reference. We suggest not learning it; instead, use this format to put up your detail. 

"On a Brazilian project to deploy natural gas, I oversaw a group of 15 project team members from five distinct countries. Engineers specializing in natural gas, environmental consultants, and design professionals made up the group. There were five people from Brazil, three from the United Kingdom, three from Spain, and two each from India and Qatar. Interacting with people from various backgrounds was a wonderful chance to gain knowledge from them. Even though I wasn't exactly very happy at first but soon after the project's completion, I wanted to work with them again. Even though there are various differences in each of us, while working with the team, I never face any problems. They are really the best in whatever they do." 

With this query, the recruiter evaluates the applicants' people management abilities. This query will reveal how someone motivates their under-utilized resources. Recruiters directly request this issue to assess candidates' language skills, handling and performance-discussion skills, and ability to inspire candidates to exceed expectations. 

To simply answer the question, just explain to them any candidate's experience. This is specifically asked for a situational-based explanation, and the candidate must do the same. Here is a sample answer given below only for reference. We suggest not learning it; instead, use this format to put up your detail. 

"A software developer was doing a great job on my banking project. I abruptly observed a decline in his efficiency. I spoke to him after a week had gone by. I believed that the company's latest raises, as well as incentive declarations, had demoralized him. Furthermore, I later discovered that he had recently dumped his long-standing partner. Given that this was a private matter, I made an effort to think of methods to help him. I planned a few team meals to establish a welcoming environment that would lift his spirits. He was back to operating well after a couple of weeks." 

A standard interview query regarding human resources! The interview query evaluates job candidates' career prospects and if they are appropriate for the role. Almost every person prepares their career plan for at least five years, especially a project manager. With the question, the recruiter wants to know exactly if the candidates' goals align with the company's interests. Of course, any organization always cares about the employee earning their career goal, but if there is a difference between them, then there is no point in hiring the candidate. Since the company only helps where it can. 

The prospective project manager emphasizes his intention to remain a project manager for the subsequent three years. Since every company anticipates that a candidate will hold the post for a minimum of two years, this is crucial for an employer. The project manager applicant continues by stating that he intends to obtain pertinent, relevant qualifications to advance his project management abilities. Here is a sample answer given below only for reference. We suggest not learning it; instead, use this format to put up your detail. 

"I have had more than nine years of work experience, the past four of which I spent as a straight project leader. I hope to enhance my project management profession within the next three years. Then, I'd like to consider managerial openings that will help me advance within the organization, such as a position as a program manager. I am a certified PMP. I plan to take the ITIL foundation certification test and the PSM-1 exam to expand my knowledge of IT service operations and agile project management. I'm confident that having experience with project management inside this organization will greatly enhance my field of expertise." 

This can be a difficult question since it specifically states the candidate's current salary. Since any HR department is well informed about industry salary standards. Using this question specifically asking for salary negotiation. Any candidate has some expectations with the new company. Recruiter by this question only get the information regarding the benefits that previous company provide to the candidate so that they can decide all the additional benefits they can able to provide 

Since the question is very much straightforward, the candidate must keep the answer straightforward and explain all the benefits in detail wherever required. Each small benefit candidate must disclose while answering this question. This question is easy, but keep in mind that the candidate should not disclose the salary expectation here. Since each company provides different complementary benefits to the employee so, do change the reference answer given below. We suggest not learning it; instead, use this format to put up your detail. 

"I worked for nine years in ABC Co. PVT. LTD. as Project Incharge. I am employed at a salary package of 7 Lakh Per Annum. Apart from this, I got insurance of 5 Lakh for my whole family. A foreign trip one time a year and many other benefits. Including the cab service and financial help in further education." 

With this question, the recruiter asks the candidate what makes them so unique to hire from other candidates. Emphasis on only educational qualifications and skill set isn't exactly what a recruiter is interested to hear. Since most of the candidates use these things to answer this question, the candidate must definitely think of something out of the box but related to the company. The recruiter also expects an answer from a candidate who works for multiple roles. 

Look up recent corporate news well before the appointment for the best reaction to this project manager interviewer's question. A response to this inquiry can be found in the firm's most recent financial statement, investment release, or study and development release. To start answering the question, education qualification and job experience is one good way to start, but it shouldn't be the end. The candidate must explain their all qualifications with respect to the job profile and also the firm. The candidate must make the recruiter realize that if they are selected, the candidate brings a lot more than just theoretical knowledge and working experience. Here is a sample answer given below only for reference. We suggest not learning it; instead, use this format to put up your detail. 

"I was thrilled to learn via email that ABC Co. was seeking a project manager. Since ABC Co. is my ideal employer, I would be thrilled to work there. I read the job description and discovered that the qualifications called for 5+ years of IT project management expertise with an emphasis on touchscreen touch sensors. I have been managing software development projects for more than seven years. I oversaw Elo's initiative to produce inductive LED screens for three years. According to recent news reports, the "home" buttons on the "iPhone" will be eliminated, and their functions will be moved to the screen. My expertise managing software projects at a manufacturer of LED screens will be very helpful for projects of a similar type at ABC Co., and the firm will educate me on the best method to produce high-quality goods." 

A candidate might have particular requirements for the project manager recruiter wants to hire. However, the recruiter is interested in hearing directly from the applicant about just what they believe to be their top valuable skills. The recruiter is only interested in specifically three skills. Do explain briefly how and why they are impactful as compared to others.

As a candidate could anticipate, you should choose talents that you already have in addition to those that are necessary for project management. And besides, candidates shouldn't want to sow doubts about their credentials. Candidates may also use the "Skill Trinity," which refers to the set of three talents necessary to obtain the PM certification to show that they possess knowledge about the subject. Here is a sample answer given below only for reference. We suggest not learning it; instead, use this format to put up your detail. 

"Obviously, being such a successful and well-respected project manager requires having outstanding organizational skills, excellent interpersonal skills, and a sharp sense of time management. But I believe the "Talent Triangle" is the ideal segmentation while glancing at the broad traits required to be a great project manager. A well-rounded project manager who is prepared to engage and supervise in a wide range of company activities combines technical project management, mentoring, and strategy and strategic business planning." 

The achievement of the project's goals is directly attributable to the project sponsors. Therefore, any concerns that will hinder or prevent the success of any project should be reported to the sponsor by the project manager. As anyone knows, in an IT firm, any manager isn't just supposed to complete work, but building and maintaining good relations with the project sponsor is one of the tasks that any project manager needs to do. With this query, the recruiter tests the candidate on what they really think about the project sponsor. Here theoretical or technical things aren't really important, but the candidate must rely upon his experience while answering this question. 

The response from the applicant should explain how frequently they communicate with their sponsor and why. In order to respond to this query, candidates should try to recall their conversations with project sponsors and times when they spoke with them in meetings. A sample answer to the question is given below for reference. Also, it is advisable to change it accordingly since it is not possible that it's well suited under every condition. 

"Since I think that communicating well is perhaps the most crucial aspect of my position, I make an effort to inform my sponsor as frequently as I can. I aim to meet with a project sponsor each week in order to provide developments. I will get in touch with them if something happens beyond this meeting that needs their opinion. The relationship is also reliant on the sponsor. I occasionally work with sponsors who are overworked and uninvolved. Others relish contributing ideas and actively aiding the project. 

Obviously, the project also has an impact. Large, drawn-out initiatives have a lot at stake for their sponsors. On the other hand, if the project is relatively small, I might only need the sponsor's presence at meetings with clients or if there are any significant problems." 

However, one practical topic, the recruiter wants to know if the candidate is prepared to seek assistance whenever they require it from sources beyond the urgent project team and stakeholders. While admitting total accountability for the successful project, project managers must additionally be willing to ask for help. Therefore, a candidate must be able to affirm their willingness to ask for some outside expertise and explain why they intend to be doing it and the expected outcome. 

Answer this question by simply making it situational-based. Expect some cross-questions, but it is really the best way to explain this. Also, do include when and how the candidate did use the outside help. It is highly advisable to be very specific when they really use help from outside the organization and also explain if they really prefer it in the future or not. A sample answer to the question is given below for reference. Also, it is advisable to change it accordingly since it is not possible that it's well suited under every condition. 

"Even the best-skilled project team members frequently need help coming from external sources. However, as soon as the help is appropriate and won't affect the project's deadline or finances, I'm not opposed to taking it on. I typically ask for assistance from somebody who might have the knowledge or capabilities that the project team lacks. I only ask for assistance when it becomes extremely important, and I make doubly sure the recipient knows it is a one-time request and that I am prepared to repay the favor in the future." 

The recruiter is interested in how to open candidates to the concept of accepting new difficulties as well as how persistent a candidate is when they face them. 

The candidate, while answering the question, must express their motivation and his or her goals and also should tell about any experience in time management and how to just finish the work on the job in the last company you employed in. A sample answer to the question is given below for reference. Also, it is advisable to change it accordingly since it is not possible that it's well suited under every condition. 

"A while back, I received a degree in information management a while back, and I intend to use all of the knowledge I have gained in this position. Additionally, I've been honing my public speaking skills and am excited to create some engaging ones for this division of your business. 

I am completely aware that your organization seeks someone who can supervise sizable teams, and I have stated that I am excellent at both commanding and collaborating with team members. I really desire to try it out, and I can see that this job is the ideal setting that allows me to be doing that." 

Candidate capacity to interact with various project stakeholders will be evaluated during the interview by the recruiter. The candidate's response must be in line with the preceding query regarding stakeholder definition. 

While answering this question, explain how you, as a project manager, would value each and every stakeholder. Also, mention the whole process of effectively communicating with each stakeholder. A sample answer to the question is given below for reference, and also, it is advisable to change it accordingly since it is not possible that it is well suited under every condition. 

Every stakeholder is crucial regardless of how modest or essential their position is. Even insignificant participants have the ability to grow rapidly and then become substantial investors. Additionally, if they are late, it will influence your entire crucial path. 

This is why a project's stakeholders must all be kept informed through an efficient communication system. As a project manager, one must be anticipatory and make sure that every stakeholder is involved in the project regardless of what happens, using both direct and indirect channels for communication. 

For simpler, less complicated projects and events, a quick summary of the strategy will do. But keep in mind that the main goal of any strategic planning for communication is to develop dependable and efficient stakeholder communication. Therefore, one must be able to control how one perceives the project's advancement and productivity. 

As a project manager, I have developed my communications strategy with the complete team, not just one person. I focused my strategy on the requirements of the stakeholders. And keep in mind that the communications will change prior to the project's launch, during its execution, and after its conclusion. 

Candidates can gauge their dedication to their profession as a project manager by grading themselves; when they're sincere, they'll score higher. Because businesses would like to employ employees who would keep around instead of changing jobs when they no longer "feel" it, interviewers seek this trait in candidates. On the other hand, nobody wants to employ someone who is unsure about where they position themselves, so allowing others to estimate their individual skills is a terrific way to gauge their self-confidence. 

On something like a scale ranging from 1 to 10, a person should typically score between 7 and 9. Something less indicates that the applicant lacks sufficient confidence in their abilities to be selected for the job they are applying for. Although it's a fine line to tread, candidates can unquestionably rate themselves a good ten if they express it with adequate authority and support it with relevant experience. A sample answer to the question is given below for reference. Also, it is advisable to change it accordingly since it is not possible that it is well suited under every condition. 

"I might evaluate my career in this industry at a nine on the meter, considering that I would have ten years of expertise as a project manager, a few certificates, and professional experience handling projects in three distinct industries. However, with the expertise, I expect to gain at this business and the certifications classes I intend to enroll in eventually, I want to raise it to 10 in the upcoming years." 

project's full life cycle phases

The recruiter will have the chance to evaluate the candidate's understanding of this topic's key phases of the project's life cycle. The applicant doesn't have to go in-depth about every other step. However, they must show that they have a theoretical understanding of everyone and may correlate it to their life experiences. For example, a candidate may talk about a particular project, explain how project management methodologies assisted the project advance, or lay out a plan for dealing with one or maybe more milestones. The individual needs to be capable of knowing how things work on the whole project implementation, irrespective of strategy. 

Irrespective if an applicant has a history in software engineering or another field of information technology, the precise jargon may vary. Still, they should be theoretically familiar with these five phases: commencement, plan, implementation, supervision, and evaluation. For instance, some of the applicants may refer to the planning phase as quality assurance, supervision, or regulation, or they may refer to the concluding step as finishing or conclusion. Given below is a sample answer for reference. Of course, the original answer can be different but should follow the sequence. 

"I usually start an initiative in the commencement phase. I undertake any required research, examine key players, and understand the project's magnitude. In the meantime, I list the materials we'll require. I also do a feasibility report and undertake other actions necessary to prepare for the basic sequence. The project planning follows, where I establish standards and objectives and conduct a risk assessment. Finally, I name the project team members as well. Open channels of interaction should be established at this point. The team should also have little pleasure in discussing ideas, becoming familiar with one another, and perhaps experimenting with innovations. This phase sets the setting for what comes next and lays the groundwork for our collaborative effort throughout the project." 

Advanced

Many believe that all IT companies make software, and that's it. Well, that is never the case since, like any other business, different people are never directly involved with the software project's development, but they play a very important role in software development. Since different people are involved in the project development, the interaction may cause some issues regarding something, and it is up to only the project manager to handle the situation. So, with the question recruiter wants any scenario of the problem faced by the candidate and a sequence of steps for how they approach the problem and either resolve it or, if not resolve it, how they handle the situation. 

Whenever a project issue comes up, you resolve it via an escalation path. Therefore, your response should showcase the capacity for critical analysis and problem-solving. One can provide an example of a moment when you faced a challenge while working on an assignment and how you overcame it in your response. A sample answer to the question is given below for reference. Also, it is advisable to change it accordingly since it is not possible that it is well suited under every condition. 

"My initial course of action is to work through a challenge with my immediate circle if I am given the time, space, and means to do so. Then, I must collaborate alongside my sponsor to find a solution if I believe the problem concerns a delicate subject, calls for high support, or I just need more information on my chosen course of action. I believe that using every resource available to make as much progress as I can in addressing the issue without enlisting others has always been more beneficial to the team and for my individual professional growth, regardless of the situation. 

When I was collaborating on a project, the customer had been assured a functionality our program could not enable. As a result, I had to engage the project sponsor eventually. She concurred that the functionality could not be delivered. 

Although it was a challenging dialogue, we were able to come to a resolution with the client. When it is finished, we will provide the customer with an adequate response completely free of charge, which we have already begun working on." 

Recruiters with this question expect the candidate they must be familiar with the term and also not in terms of just theoretical knowledge but also experience wise. In addition, the recruiter wants a situational-based explanation of the term that includes how candidates manage the situation. 

Working to ensure a high level within the initial budget and timeframe is an integral aspect of managing a project. Anything and everything that alters during the project and puts your goals at risk is considered scope creep. Your response will give the interviewer more information about how you handle challenges and utilize resources as a candidate. You must provide an illustration of a project during which you were capable of controlling scope creep. A sample answer to the question is given below for reference, and also, it is advisable to change it accordingly since it is not possible that it is well suited under every condition. 

"This one is a very specific aspect I keep an eye out for every day is scope creep. I previously worked on a sizable project, something which required creating apps for every mobile device and tablet operating system in addition to a full site. The project was worth millions of dollars project, and we had a year to complete it. 

I made the decision to divide the project into more manageable chunks that we could complete on a monthly basis. Depending on the customer input from the information we had previously delivered to them, I made plans for the coming weeks as we headed into a new month. The project might have gone all the way far beyond budget and time constraints because it was continually changing in response to requirements and comments. Nevertheless, we completed the project in 12 months by adhering to stringent time communication and time-management guidelines." 

Without deliverables to track the success of the numerous steps of a project's lifespan, there will be no purpose in granting it the all-clear. Milestones are considered one of the most important components of every project; without them, it is pointless to begin. The recruiter is interested in the candidate's definition, but most importantly, his intentions and strategies for achieving it. 

Regardless of the previous milestone in establishing expertise, candidates must demonstrate their support for defining milestones for every project. Candidate must also give an instance of a project in which they finished the task in accordance with the deadlines their senior had given them while answering the question since it is the crucial aspect of the answer, and also the recruiter also wants to listen to the candidate's response in response to the term. An extremely simple instance of the response is shown below. It explains the term and some other details. Don't hesitate to adjust to the circumstances. We didn't involve any experience-based answer since every company has a different milestone for different projects. It is not possible to include all those scenarios but be sure to include the situations while answering the question. It has a very positive impact on the recruiter. 

"The project's timeframe and overall accomplishment are often shown via waypoints or benchmarking, which act as signal posts. A thorough assessment, evaluation, feedback, an external review, budget checks and balances, the timely submission of major deliverables, and many other elements are some of the most crucial ones that generate milestones. Milestones have a set date. However, there is no gap in time between deliverables. 

There is no denying that adopting milestones can increase project planning effectiveness. In addition, some essential scheduling techniques, such as PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) or the CPM, can be used with milestones (Critical Path Method)." 

Project Charter

The interviewer gets a sense of the candidate's project management organization and planning and scheduling, each of which is crucial to the success or failure of a project. 

While answering this question, the candidate must demonstrate an understanding of the value of having a project charter while responding to the question since it is used for project approvals, referrals, and strategic planning. Additionally, demonstrate how well the candidates used the project charter to ensure successful implementation. Her technical knowledge is also important, as also the experience of explaining a situation based on the term asked. Finally, explain all the key elements and roles you played in the scenario. Here given below is a very basic sample answer. Make sure to adjust it in light of the situation. It only gives a glimpse of the overall answer, but it is enough to start.  

"The authorized paperwork required to start a project is referred to as the project charter. It includes the project's top priorities, objectives, and goals as perceived by its stakeholders. As the project manager, it also gives me the freedom to use all of the tools available to me within the company to carry out my tasks." 

Suppose somehow the individual has multiple starts and finishes dates and duration estimates proportional to the number of phases or levels in the total project. In that case, this is something the interviewer will want to verify. Even though they are only forecasts, they are significant because, as a project manager applicant, one must determine whether their employer can manage it in terms of both time and exact timeline of events. 

While answering this type of question, always consider your own experiences as one can easily relate to the idea of plan baselines. Giving a general or merely technical response is of limited use. Instead, briefly provide all the important elements. Give an example of a project you completed despite having explicit plan baselines at your prior job. Here is a sample of the answer, do modify it according to the need and requirements of the situation. 

"For projects to be managed effectively, a baseline plan is necessary. You absolutely must integrate at the beginning of any project. A baseline plan accurately describes the desired outcome of a specific project. 

It contains crucial components, including the project's overall cost over its lifetime, the goal factors, and the time needed for fulfillment. It is a rough attempt at putting out acceptable predictions. 

It can simply be described as the project's overall blueprint. Any flaws or irregularities in the procedures or red light can be rectified whenever you have the project's structure before circumstances go out of hand. Baseline plans are much more frequently employed for projects where you need to work quickly since you're running against the clock or deadline." 

The interviewer is looking for a clear understanding of the candidate's understanding of Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and how they use it to implement projects successfully. The recruiter expects a candidate who has used the Work Breakdown Structure [WBS] and knows its impact, specifically its advantages. Also, how it is implemented in any organization but most importantly in his prior company. 

While answering this question, simply just mention the advantages of the WBS system, such as enhancing coordination, improved performance, maintaining the project's perspective at the leading edge, organization and framework of specifics, reducing potential complications and project management issues, the accurate collection and organization of important data and ideas, risk mitigation, and simplified work instructions. Additionally, mention how the WBS system was implemented in prior employment, noting any pertinent challenges the candidate may have encountered. Since the implementation of WBS is quite different for every organization, we did not mention it in the sample answer given below. Still, we do mention other details that are important and related to the term asked. We suggest you mention a scenario a person faced in a previous organization since experience always counts as a positive impact. 

"A primary project deliverable, or WBS, is needed for sectioning and assigning work and resources to handle successfully and guarantee the project is completed by the deadline. While using these hierarchical deliverables for a definite plan makes it obvious who is responsible for which tasks and when they must be completed. 

The basic components of a WBS visually expand the project's overall vision and divide it into digestible chunks that you and your team can acknowledge and incorporate. In addition, a person will receive thorough descriptions and definitions of each task or activity within every WBS deliverable. 

Additionally, since an organizational breakdown structure's real nature is entirely hierarchical, many various opportunities and elements may be included to make critical managing milestones simpler and faster. 

The project's declared perception, the steps in the project's procedure which differ depending on the project's magnitude and scope, deliverables that a person's group can fulfill at each phase, and both individual and group functions that could be controlled and executed throughout the project's lifespan include few of the successful components of WBS." 

Earned Value Management

Because Earned Value Management [EVM] may be used to both schedule planning and project costs, it can be a crucial component of predicting the project itself. For this reason, the interviewer may attempt to gauge the candidate's understanding of the topic. 

When responding to this question, note the several respected and well-known companies that utilize earned value management, such as PMI (Project Management Institute), NASA, Defense Acquisition University, Federal Acquisition Institute, and Acquisition Management (UK). Since every business has a unique method of operation, we have presented a small sample of the response below just as a guide, because we didn't want to submit a solution that we weren't sure was accurate. 

"Earned Value Management is the most successful method for carrying out a pinpoint accuracy assessment of exactly how the project is progressing. EVM is a simplified and organized procedure integrated to find differences between projects based on evaluating the number of working hours, anticipated work, and completed job. 

EVM can be used to regulate the project's timeline in addition to its overall cost. It has the potential to be a crucial component of project forecasting. Among the most important components of just about any EVM for just about any project is indeed a project foundation. And it acts as a standard for upcoming EVM-intensive jobs. To make precise and sane judgments, a person requires quantitative information as a project manager. 

The three core measures of EVM serve as the methodology's cornerstones. There are three of them: PV (Planned Value), EV (Earned Value), and AC (Actual Cost)." 

The project manager, testers, clients, resource managers, senior executives, project team members, advisors, and perhaps even subcontractors and contractors are just a few of the numerous stakeholders. With this question, the recruiter wants to determine the candidate's notion of a stakeholder and which one they value the most. His connections, negotiating skills, and speaking style are crucial to any business project, especially with stakeholders. 

Simply place more emphasis on stakeholders than just one when responding to this question. Since a person must know the role single, as well as all the stakeholders, play during the development of any project. Do explain the influence of every possible stakeholder in the project briefly. All remember it is not important to talk about all stakeholders but to mention their impact on the project as much as possible. Also, discuss the "Stakeholder Circle" to see how each group differs in order of significance, aspirations, urgencies, proximity, and authority. A sample reference to the answer is given below. Be sure to use it as a head start and continue the answer by adding the impact and role of stakeholders in a project based on your own experience. It is very crucial to mention it. Recruiters always give preference to a candidate that has actual working experience rather than to a candidate who has information and knowledge. 

"A stakeholder is everyone, everything, or any organization directly impacted by a project. Therefore, it is critical to involve them and maintain communication with them during all stages of the development process, including design, implementation, and completion. One such impact may be favorable or unfavorable, but the person involved has authority over the work. Therefore, it is essential to keep them informed." 

This question is intended to gauge a candidate's general knowledge and practical skills, and also, most project leaders are finding it difficult to differentiate between them. Furthermore, the candidate's response will demonstrate the breadth of their project management experience. Any manager had been involved in projects, but only those with considerable expertise have done so extensively to supervise programs and build portfolios. 

The easiest way to respond to this query is to use a specific example. The candidate should use their expertise's examples rather than reciting academic terminology. Explain all the key impacts while answering the question. Always keep in mind to make answers more practical based on the candidate's experience rather than just explaining the terminologies. Connect the terminologies to the experience while answering this question. The response is referred to below. Due to the absence of the experience component, it is not a full response. We understand that all candidates have different working experiences, and covering every situation is not possible so just add your own experience after the reference given below. It is advisable to modify answers wherever and however necessary while keeping the base answer common. 

"Programs are broader undertakings divided into several projects with a single primary purpose, whereas projects are short-term trips with one or perhaps more specific goals. Projects within a program are integrated and tied to one another. 

On the contrary, portfolios are sizable compilations of projects that may or may not be connected, professionally organized, or working toward a common objective. They only display an organization's ability from a particular angle, for instance, management or strategy." 

Grid Prioritizing 

The theoretical part of Grid Prioritizing involves the practice of listing your goals alongside the factors that represent the organizational missions, goals and objectives, values, and culture.

Coming to the practical part of how the process is conducted involves making a grid or a chart that represents the consists of your goals and these mentioned factors. These factors include positive financial impact, long-term oriented benefits, or simple things such as employee management.

Now with the constructed Grid or a chart, on the scale of your choosing, you'll give each of the listed goals and objectives a score, meaning you'll give a score, let's say, on a scale of 1-10 and grade for each key factor. 

Let us consider one goal on your list that might include reducing your project's budget. On a scale of 1-100, you rate it 90 based on financial impact and 10 in terms of employee satisfaction. These financial impacts and employee satisfaction refer to the key factors based on which you would rate the respective goal or objective. 

This financial impact refers to the impact of the project on the organization, and employee satisfaction is rated less because of lesser benefits after the completion of the project due to cutting down of the budget.

Once you have completed the grading, tally the scores for each factor, then rank your goals from the highest to the lowest scores. The result is a holistic, ascending order of how your goals might affect the organization.

Different grid styles help us accomplish Grid Prioritization

  1. The Eisenhower Grid 
  2. 1-3-9 Prioritization Grid
  3. Effort Impact Grid 

Quadrant Prioritizing 

Quadrant prioritizing is determined to categorize goals and objectives based on their importance and priority levels. The quadrant prioritizing works best when you need an overlay of what goals you need to be accomplishing first and which can wait. 

Top priority objectives require to be completed as soon as possible. Well, obviously, some objectives might become impossible to address or complete if they are let go at an early stage. They're often goals you must complete in a rush and first whilst managing elevated stress levels of the employees and the manager, and they're often unexpected, easier said than done. This method takes the edge of completing the top priority objectives and also helps in prioritizing your goals and objectives. 

Important goals, on the other hand, are objectives that directly contribute to your company's future well beyond your short-term goals. Rather than the stress levels to extinguish now, these goals or objectives start slowly today and may lead to the accomplishment of it in the long run. 

To construct a quadrant diagram, one must draw a square-like figure. Upon drawing the figure, divide that square into four quadrants, meaning four equal parts, and label the bottommost two as not so important and the top two most important." 

Coming to the left and the right region of the divided square, label the left region of the square as urgent and the right side of the square as not urgent matters. 

When you buy a banana, you can instantly evaluate its quality depending on its size, shape, ripeness, and smell of it. Only when you take the first bite will you know what makes it a good banana or a bad banana. Even a beautiful-looking banana would still taste ripe or not sweet due to various factors. But one cannot explain how sweet it actually is. 

Now, this applies to any product, be it a piece of physical hardware object or software being produced, be it an actual piece of a physical object or a fully developed software. Or To understand it better, an application you install on your system may seem fine at first, but as you start using it, only then will you find bugs or some issues that need to be fixed.  

This makes quality control or quality assurance testing so important in every field mentioned earlier, be it software or a physical piece of hardware where a user product is created. But also, considering the above example, a ripe banana won't cause as much trouble as a serious bug in software would, which could potentially cost millions of dollars. On the other hand, a single major bug in a website might cost the stakeholders to lose out on many customers and might, as mentioned earlier, cost them millions of dollars in their ROI. ROI is the return on investment, which refers to the ratio between the returns to the actual investment. 

That is why putting a premium on testing the pieces to be tested is important.  

Waterfall Model  

Representing an orthodox life cycle of software development, it includes basically 6 phases of the life cycle, namely- 

  1. Planning
  2. Analysis
  3. Design
  4. Implementation
  5. Testing; and
  6. Maintenance 

But the waterfall model has certain drawbacks to it. For example, testing the product after the four phases, that is, planning, analysis, design, and implementation, would cost the budget to flow more than the capital at hand, and the bugs or defects that are found during this also make it an expensive fix.

Let us consider an example to understand this a little better. Detecting an error within the design phase wouldn't be an expensive fix as compared to fixing the same error during the testing phase. The defect only grows exponentially after that and is difficult to handle if it is left to grow further without noticing it. 

Agile Model  

Being an integral part of the software development process, the Agile model breaks the development process into smaller parts, iterations, and sprints. This allows testers to work alongside the rest of the team throughout the process and fix the flaws and errors immediately after they occur. The main purpose of such a process is to deliver new software features fast and with the best quality.

Therefore, this approach is less cost-intensive: Fixing the errors early in the development process, before more problems snowball, is significantly cheaper and requires less effort. Moreover, efficient communication within the team and active involvement of the stakeholders speed up the process and allow for better-informed decisions. In our dedicated article, you can learn more about roles and responsibilities in a testing team. 

Testing points to the defects and errors present - testing usually is a phase that is conducted to bring out the defects and errors present in the product. But no matter how much one tests a product, it can't be 100% clear of bugs and defects. This is because bugs and defects are an inevitable part of the process during development and even after the development phase. 

Testing the product early - as mentioned above, the cost of an error grows exponentially throughout the phases of software development as it grows. Hence it is a best practice to implement the necessary changes even before implementing to reduce the number of bugs and the amount of risk involved in failing the project, which grows exponentially after the product has been deployed. 

Pesticide paradox - in this approach of error reporting, running the tests over and over again won't help you find defects and errors in the system and get them fixed. Hence certain tests become useless after some point in time. Hence it is important to consider a step to review and update the tests regularly to find more and more errors potentially. 

Explain Triple Constant 

Let's take a model, for example that consists of constraints that are intrinsic in managing a project. There are three types of these intrinsic constraints. They are: 

  1. Cost - cost refers to the financial aspect of the project. It is termed under different names, but each has the same properties: budget, financial budgets, allowances, project expenses, and allowances. 
  2. Scope - refers to the objectives and the tasks required in order to complete the project's timeline's goals. 
  3. Time - refers to the scheduled timeline of the project over a duration of time. 

These three intrinsic properties are essential in the Triple Constant, but these three intrinsic properties do not guarantee any type of success or accomplishment of any goals or objectives. So the experts in this field have added some more constraints that make up the Triple constraint. They are: 

  1. Quality assurance of the project 
  2. Risk management of the project 

The quality assurance of the project refers to making sure that the project being conducted is of a good standard, whether it is of a final deliverable or a tangible or intangible object, product, or service. Quality assurance of the project ensures that the companies deliver good standard products and ensure client satisfaction. 

Any project manager who undertakes a project is aware of the fact that there exists something called the risk factor, which is an inevitable part of undertaking any project. Therefore, being a project manager is a good quality to possess by focusing on the worse case and the best case scenarios, understanding the risks, and moving forward with certain risk parameters. 

The phases of a project life cycle are as given below: 

1. Initiating or Initial Phase - this phase in the project life cycle is the first phase which consists of setting the overall objectives and goals of the project. It includes many of the following set factors that are set during this phase. 

  • Project scope
  • Objectives
  • Deliverables
  • Resources needed
  • Capital Requirement
  • Milestones
  • Timeline
  • Risk management approach

2. The planning phase - this is the second phase in the project life cycle and is the planning phase of the project. In this phase, you build the infrastructure of the project and organize it so that it will go smoothly within the timeline of the project.

3. Executing phase - This is the third phase in the project life cycle. This is where the project is implemented, where the budget is allocated, and most of the project deliverables are generated. Or this could also be the project action phase. 

4. Controlling phase - this is the fourth phase in the project life cycle and involves the follow-through of the project after it has been implemented, meaning ensuring that all the established guidelines, resources, and budgets are being allocated and utilized properly. When such guidelines are not being followed, this phase also includes taking corrective measures to correct the process of production so as to have the power to control the outcomes of the project. 

5. The end phase - this is the last phase in the project life cycle, and it involves just one solitary check of the project, and that is checking off the project after it has accomplished all the pre-determined goals and objectives that were established. 

Gantt Chart Word Template

A Gantt chart is one of the most sought-out, effective, and useful methods of showcasing activities, tasks, or even events that are represented against time.

The left region represents the list of activities or objectives. 

The Top portion of the chart represents the time scale of the project with respect to the list of activities or objectives. 

These activities are represented by a bar, and the position and the length of the bar and graph represent many things such as start date, end date, duration of the activity, and many more fields that the user pre-determines before constructing the chart. 

Have you ever worked on a project that was completed smoothly, on time with great results? Then you probably had a good project manager who used a project management framework to assure success. 

What is a project management framework? Basically, it is a combination of processes, tasks, and tools used to transition a project from start to finish. An overview of a generic process used by this framework is: 

  • Initiation: when the project starts 
  • Planning: when all of the key decisions are made 
  • Execution: When project work actually takes place 
  • Control: when adjustments are made to the plan 
  • Monitoring: when project progress is checked 
  • Termination: when the project comes to an end 

Each stage of this process involves the completion of many tasks by project team members using various tools. The generic process just described is a project's lifecycle from initiation to termination, which is one part of the framework. Now let's dive deeper into the three parts of a project management framework: lifecycle, control cycle, and tools and templates. 

A three-point estimate allows you to take into account the risks in your forecasts and provide three unique estimates: 

  1. Optimistic estimate: This is the value obtained by believing everything will go smoothly and without problems. This estimate represents the best-case situation in which everything goes perfectly. 
  2. Pessimistic estimate: This figure shows the outcomes you can expect if negative situations arise over the course of your project. This estimate might be thought of as the worst-case scenario in which everything goes wrong. 
  3. Realistic estimate: This third estimate is regarded as the most probable. It represents a compromise between the optimistic and pessimistic estimates—a medium between the two extremes. 

One of the primary advantages of three-point estimating is that it takes into account project risk. Additionally, team members may be more involved because the project manager listened to their suggestions. 

The majority of initiatives fail due to inaccurate estimations. Although many project managers see project estimating as one of their most difficult duties, a three-point estimation may make your work easier and more precise. In addition, your estimate will be more reasonable because this technique considers three alternative possibilities. 

When adopting the three-point estimating approach for your project, all project team members should write down their optimistic, realistic, and pessimistic estimations for the work that needs to be done and the time it will take to complete it. Then, using the following formula, you can compute a weighted average of the three points: 

  • R is a realistic estimate. 
  • The optimistic estimate is O. 
  • (O+4R+P)/[6] is the pessimistic estimate. 

One of the most popular IT project coordinator interview questions is regarding the power interest grid analysis. This is a skills that an IT project manager must be aware of stakeholder management. The recruiter often is willing to test your depth of knowledge. Hence they might come up with this question.

To answer this in detail, let us understand who a stakeholder is. A stakeholder can be any person who shows a certain interest in the project that is in progress or is about to start, or has the power to affect the project. They can be a group of people or any individual.

In order to analyse the stakeholder, the first task is to identify them. This manager appoints a team of people to find out potential people who can affect the project.

Once the stakeholders are analysed, a manager can easily use the power interest matrix. This simply categorizes the list of stakeholders as per their power or interest in the project.

When you plot your stakeholders on a power/interest grid, you can see who has a lot of power and who has a lot of interest in your project. 

People in positions of authority must be kept content, while those with vested interests must be kept informed. When a stakeholder has both, make sure you properly manage their expectations. 

Power-Interest Grid

Power-Interest Grid

Karou Ishikawa drew diagrams to show the reasons for a certain occurrence (1990). The Ishikawa diagram is commonly used in product design and quality control to identify probable components generating an overall impact. Each cause or reason for imperfection is a source of variance. To find these sources of variance, causes are classified into key groups. Typical categories include: 

People - Anyone who is involved in the process. 

Methods- The manner in which the process is carried out and the precise requirements for carrying it out, such as policies, procedures, rules, regulations, and laws. 

Machines - Any equipment, computer, tolls, or other items necessary to do the work. 

Materials- The raw materials, components, pens, paper, and other items utilised to create the final product. Measurements are data created by the process that is used to assess its quality. 

The process functions under the circumstances, such as location, time, temperature, and culture. 

Ishikawa/ Fishbone diagrams


Because the Ishikawa Diagram was developed in an industrial setting, the original categories used are plainly industry-related. 

Nowadays, however, several economic activities would rarely fall into this category. 

This Fishbone Diagram is made up of three parts: 

  1. The primary activities and inputs involved in defining a product or system. 
  2. The problems you saw in these activities and inputs. 
  3. The issue you wish to resolve. 

Follow the steps to create a fishbone diagram. 

  1. Create a fishbone diagram by following the steps. 
  2. Make the fish's head on the right.
  3. On the left, draw a backbone. 
  4. Draw backbone branches that will list the primary reasons. Make a list of four to eight major reasons. 
  5. The causes and sub-reasons are given beneath these primary causes. These can be determined by arranging a brainstorming session or by meticulously tracking the entire process and identifying all probable causes of quality loss. 

Risk management is an essential component of project management, and many professionals confuse the words risk and problem, which is erroneous. 

Risk 

A risk is an unknown occurrence or situation that, if it occurs, will have an impact on at least one project objective. Risks are frequently related to negative outcomes, such as missed deadlines or budget overruns. On the other hand, risks can sometimes be advantageous and provide chances for your project. 

Risk management entails not only devising a strategy to reduce the likelihood and effect of negative risks but also increasing the likelihood and impact of good risks. 

Risk management consists of three major steps: 

  • Risk identification entails categorizing possible hazards based on likelihood and effect. 
  • Risk Response Planning: Once hazards have been identified, you must devise a strategy to address them. 
  • Monitoring and Control: This section ensures that risk response strategies are carried out as intended. 

Issue 

In project management, an issue is any problem or existing hurdle that might hinder the project from attaining its goals. An issue has already occurred or is currently occurring. 

Many challenges may arise over the course of a project, and you must be prepared to deal with them. Some frequent project management challenges are: 

  • Communication breakdowns among team members 
  • Team members have competing aims or ambitions. 
  • Team members' problem-solving abilities are ineffective. 
  • Coordination issues between departments or teams. 
  • Failure to achieve deadlines or key milestones. 
  • Inadequate planning and execution. 

Distinctions Between Risks and Issues 

The major distinction between risks and issues in project management is that risks cannot be totally eliminated, but they can be mitigated through various methods. Existing issues should be discovered during planning so that they may be resolved before they become issues. 

External variables frequently produce risks, whereas challenges are mainly internal to the project. For example, a supplier may fail to supply a critical component on time, while the team may have missed its deadlines. 

Risks are focused on the future, whereas troubles have already occurred. This indicates that risks are occurrences that may or may not occur, but if they do, they may have an influence on the project. Problems have already occurred, and you must handle them as quickly as possible. 

Risks can be either good or negative in terms of their influence on the project, whereas problems are negative in terms of their impact on the project. 

The way people react to hazards and challenges varies. Risk management is to reduce the likelihood of bad occurrences occurring. 

On the other hand, issue management attempts to fix or lessen existing impacts by giving solutions to problems inside the project. The risk management process deals with risks, whereas the issue management process deals with issues. 

Risks cost money, whereas problems might cost both money and time. Risks must be monitored and addressed, which needs resources, whereas difficulties have already harmed the project and must be addressed promptly. 

Risks and challenges may both be assessed and measured using likelihood and effect. 

There is also a distinction between the paperwork required for risks and issues. For example, risks should be documented in a risk register, whereas issues should be maintained in a defect tracker or problem log. 

Not all hazards will become problems. However, hazards must still be tracked and monitored regularly since they might become problems. 

Description

As an IT project manager, you have to gain and master an array of skills. To understand the skills a project manager must possess, you should first understand the roles and responsibilities of an IT project manager. Below we have mentioned the set of skills that a project manager must possess:  

  • A deep understanding of the IT project management life cycle. 
  • Being able to carry out the necessary actions at each stage of the IT project for which you are accountable and liable; 
  • Exceptional planning and organizing abilities and a track record of success. 
  • Suitable IT technical levels of skill so that you may provide appropriate advice during each IT project on which you work. 
  • Continuing your professional growth to maintain your professional competency
  • Exceptional communication and interpersonal abilities at all stages of IT project preparation, planning, and execution; 
  • Holding your team accountable for the outputs of your IT project
  • Keeping abreast of IT industry trends
  • Leadership, management, and motivating abilities are required to guarantee that all team members, stakeholders, and contractors achieve their duties. 
  • Maintaining project timetables to match your employer's expectations
  • Understanding the project governance structure
  • Creating and distributing project reports to directors and other key stakeholders.

Before getting prepared for an IT project manager interview, here are some tips that will come in handy during your preparation:  

Before your IT project manager interview, you must prepare for both concept-based and job-based questions. Don't think that your project management knowledge will be the only thing evaluated. Prepare for interview questions relevant to these areas and normal motivational interview questions examining why you desire this specific position inside your selected organization. 

The easiest strategy to ensure you pass your IT PM interview questions is to demonstrate where you already satisfy the major assessable attributes necessary for the position. In addition, you are considerably more likely to acquire the job if you can show past work-related instances of how you successfully planned and completed difficult IT projects. 

Ensure that you have a solid understanding of the project life cycle, the procedures you would take while preparing for an IT project, and information relevant to the IT project governance structure inside major businesses when preparing for your IT project manager questions. If you are just starting as an IT project manager, you can register for KnowledgeHut courses for Project Management. 

With these tips in mind, you will be set in the right direction of reparation. Before going for an interview, acquire some information regarding your recruiter, if possible. After the interview, you can send them a thank you note as they spent their valuable time interviewing you. These little things will take a long way in project management. The above-mentioned IT program manager interview questions will also help you get familiar with the top questions asked by recruiters. Make sure you download the IT project manager interview questions and answers PDF as well.  

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