Network Engineer Interview Questions

Network engineering is a fascinating and important field of study that involves creating, maintaining, and troubleshooting computing networks. Network engineer interview questions can give potential job candidates an insight into the types of skills they need to have in order to build, sustain, and improve upon various technology systems. This course will outline some common network engineer interview questions, covering topics such as networking protocols, system architecture, security best practices, and more. Questions range from basic & beginner concepts all the way to more expert & advanced level topics such as building complex network architectures and troubleshooting sophisticated networking problems. By the end of this comprehensive list of network engineer interview questions, you will be well-equipped to answer any question that may come up during a network engineering interview. With its detailed coverage of hands-on technical knowledge and interpersonal skills, this article provides an invaluable resource for anyone looking to become a successful network engineer.

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A subnet is a logical division of an IP network. All devices within a subnet are reachable by a single broadcast at the data link layer. Subnets are created to improve network performance and security. By breaking up large networks into smaller segments, traffic between devices on the same subnet is minimized. This reduces overall network traffic and improves performance. In addition, subnets can be used to segment a network for security purposes.

By isolating devices in different subnets, it is more difficult for unauthorized users to gain access to sensitive data. When configuring a network, administrators must carefully plan the number and size of each subnet. To avoid wasted address space, subnets should be as small as possible while still accommodating the needs of the devices on the network.

For example, a small office with 25 computers could be configured with one subnet that includes all 25 computers. However, a larger office with 100 computers would likely need to be configured with multiple smaller subnets. Network engineers use a variety of tools and protocols to plan and configure subnets. These include router configuration files, DHCP servers, and DNS servers.

By understanding how these tools work, you can more effectively troubleshoot network problems and optimize network performance. 

To understand what a client and server is in a network, we first need to understand what a network is. A network can be defined as a group of two or more devices connected together for the purpose of sharing data or resources.

Common examples of devices that can be found on a network include computers, printers, and modems. Networks can be small, like those found in homes or small businesses, or they can be large, like those used by corporations or government agencies. 

Now that we have a basic understanding of what a network is, we can move on to discussing clients and servers. A client is a device that connects to a server in order to access data or resources. For example, when you browse the internet from your laptop, your laptop is acting as a client while the computer that stores the website you are trying to access is acting as the server.

In this scenario, the server is providing the client (your laptop) with the resources it needs (the website) and the client is requesting these resources from the server. It's important to note that clients can also provide resources to other clients; for example, if you are sharing files with another computer on your home network, your computer is acting as both a client and a server. 

Servers, on the other hand, are devices that provide data or resources to other devices on a network. In our previous example, the website server was providing data (in the form of web pages) to our laptop which was acting as the client. Servers can also provide other types of resources such as file storage or email services.

When it comes to networks, there are two main types of servers: file servers and application servers. File servers store data (such as text documents, images, and videos) while application servers host applications (such as email programs or word processors). It's important to note that both file servers and application servers can be either physical devices or software programs running on physical devices. 

The frame relay is a type of data link layer protocol. It is used to connect different nodes in a network. A frame relay network consists of three components: switches, routers, and endpoints. The switch is responsible for receiving packets from the router and forwarding them to the correct endpoint. The router is solely accountable for routing packets to the correct switch. The endpoint is responsible for receiving packets from the switch and sending them to the correct destination. 

To understand how a frame relay works, we need to understand how these three components work together. When a packet arrives at a switch, the switch looks at the destination address and looks up the route in its routing table. The routing table contains a list of all the switches in the network and their corresponding addresses.

The switch then forwards the packet to the router with the corresponding address. The router then looks up the route in its routing table and forwards the packet to the correct switch. The switch then forwards the packet to the endpoint with the corresponding address. The endpoint then delivers the packet to its final destination. 

Frame relays are typically used for high-speed data transmission between multiple nodes in a network. They are often used in wide area networks (WANs) because they can provide high-speed data rates over long distances. Frame relays can also be used in local area networks (LANs), but they are not as common in this type of environment because they are not as efficient as other types of protocols such as Ethernet or Wi-Fi. 

An IP address is a unique numerical identifier assigned to each device connected to a computer network. It allows devices to communicate with each other and helps to ensure that data is delivered to the correct destination. When applying for a job as a network engineer, you may be asked questions about IP addresses. Here are some things you should know. 

An IP address consists of four numbers separated by periods. Each number can range from 0 to 255. For example, is a valid IP address. IP addresses are typically assigned by a network administrator or ISP. 

There are two main types of IP addresses: static and dynamic. Static IP addresses are assigned manually and do not change, while dynamic IP addresses are assigned automatically by DHCP and can change over time. 

Network devices useIP addresses to route data packets between each other. When you connect to the internet, your ISP assigns you a unique IP address that allows your device to communicate with other devices on the network. 

IP addresses are essential for the functioning of computer networks, but they can also be used for security purposes. For example, some websites may block visitors from certain countries by checking their IP address. 

Network topology is the way in which various elements of a network are interconnected. The most common types of network topologies include bus, star, ring, and mesh. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages, and the type of topology used will typically depend on the size and complexity of the network. For example, small home networks may be able to get by with a simple bus topology, while larger enterprise networks will often require a more complex mesh topology. When interviewing for a position as a network engineer, it is important to be able to explain the different types of network topologies and how they can be used to benefit an organization.

The most common types of cables used in networking: 

  • Ethernet cable is the most common type of cable used in networking. It's typically used to connect computers, printers, and other devices to a router or switch. Ethernet cables come in various sizes, including CAT5, CAT5e, and CAT6. 
  • Fiber optic cable is another common type of cable used in networking. It's typically used to connect routers and switches to each other, or to connect a router or switch to a central office. Fiber optic cables are made from thin strands of glass or plastic, and they can transmit data at much higher speeds than Ethernet cables. 
  • Coaxial cable is another type of cable used in networking. It's often used to connect a modem to a router or switch. Coaxial cables are made from a copper core surrounded by insulation and a protective outer layer. They're typically thicker than Ethernet or fiber optic cables. 
  • Twisted pair cable is another type of cable often used in networking. It consists of two insulated wires that are twisted around each other. twisted pair cables are typically used to connect devices to each other or to connect a device to a central office. They can be either shielded or unshielded, and they come in various sizes including CAT5, CAT5e, and CAT6. 

When you're configuring a device on a network, you will need to choose between using a static IP address or a dynamic IP address. Static IP addresses don't change, which means that you will need to configure the address manually. This can be helpful if you need to connect to a specific device on the network regularly.  

Dynamic IP addresses, on the other hand, are assigned automatically by a DHCP server. This can be easier to manage since you don't need to keep track of the changing IP addresses, but it can also be less reliable since the IP address can change at any time. When you're deciding which type of IP address to use, it's important to consider your needs and decide which option will be best for your network.

Frame Relay is a digital link layer protocol that allows multiplexing of voice and data circuits on a single link. It was developed to provide high-speed, low-cost data transport over digital links. Its main features include: 

  • Virtual Circuits: Frame Relay uses virtual circuits (also known as logical connections or logical links) to connect devices. A virtual circuit is a connection between two endpoints that appears to be direct, even though it may be physically implemented over multiple paths. 
  • Efficient Use of Bandwidth: Frame Relay is designed to make efficient use of bandwidth by supporting variable-length packets. Packets can be of any size up to the maximum transmission unit (MTU) configured on the link. 
  • Committed Information Rate (CIR): The CIR is the guaranteed minimum information transfer rate from the service provider to the customer site. The CIR ensures that the customer site always has enough bandwidth for its needs, even during peak periods. 
  • Frame Discard: If a Frame Relay device receives a packet that exceeds the CIR, it will discard the excess data. This helps to ensure that only packets that can be transmitted within the CIR are sent, making efficient use of available bandwidth.

Network cabling is the process of connecting various types of equipment in a network, including computers, servers, and storage devices. The most common type of cabling used for networking is Ethernet. Ethernet cable consists of two insulated copper wires that are twisted together to form a single cable. The twisted pair design helps to reduce interference from other cables and devices.  

Ethernet cables are typically classified by their speed and bandwidth capability. For example, Cat5 cable is capable of speeds up to 100Mbps and has a bandwidth of 100MHz. Cat6 cable is capable of speeds up to 10Gbps and has a bandwidth of 250MHz. When choosing a network cabling system, it is important to consider the future needs of the network. For example, if you anticipate adding more devices or increasing the bandwidth requirements of the network, you will need to choose a cabling system that can support those future needs.

The standard OSI model is known as 802.xx because it is the most commonly used model for networking. The 802.xx designation comes from the fact that it was originally developed by the IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers). The 802.xx model is a 7-layer network model that is used to teach beginners about networking concepts. The 7 layers are: Physical, Data Link, Network, Transport, Session, Presentation, and Application. Each layer has its own set of protocols that must be followed in order for data to be transferred between two devices. The OSI model is also known as the TCP/IP model because it was developed after the TCP/IP protocols were created.

A MAC address is a unique identifier assigned to network interface cards (NICs). MAC addresses are used for identifying devices on a network and are usually assigned by the manufacturer. Each MAC address is composed of six octets, and is typically written as a string of 12 hexadecimal characters. For example, a MAC address might be written as 01:23:45:67:89:ab.

MAC addresses are usually stored in ROM on NICs, and can be configured manually or retrieved automatically from the firmware. In order for devices to communicate with each other on a network, they must have unique MAC addresses. If two devices have the same MAC address, they will not be able to communicate properly.

Forward lookup is the process of resolving an IP address to a hostname while reverse lookup is the process of resolving a hostname to an IP address. DNS servers use forward lookup when they receive a request from a client for a website's IP address. The DNS server then looks up the IP address in its database and returns it to the client.  

Reverse lookup is used when a DNS server needs to resolve a hostname to an IP address. For example, when a user types in a URL into their web browser, the DNS server will need to perform a reverse lookup to find the corresponding IP address. The DNS server will then return the IP address to the client so that the client can connect to the website.

TCP/IP is short for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, and it is the suite of communication protocols used to connect hosts on the Internet. TCP/IP can be used in conjunction with a variety of higher-level protocols, such as HTTP, FTP, and SMTP, to support applications like web browsing, file transfer, and email. The TCP/IP protocol suite was developed in the 1970s by the US Department of Defense, and it is now the standard protocol for communicating between computers on the Internet.  

The TCP part of TCP/IP is responsible for ensuring that data is delivered correctly from one computer to another. When you request a web page in your browser, your computer sends a TCP packet to the web server. The web server then replies with another TCP packet, which includes the requested web page. If any of the packets are lost or corrupted in transit, the destination computer will request that the source computer retransmit the missing data.  

The IP part of TCP/IP is responsible for routing packets from their source to their destination across multiple networks. Every computer on the Internet has a unique IP address, which consists of four numbers separated by periods (e.g., When you send a packet from your computer to another computer on the Internet, your computer will look up the destination IP address in a routing table and forward the packet accordingly.  

Most home users don't need to worry about TCP/IP, because it is typically configured automatically by your ISP (Internet Service Provider). However, if you're troubleshooting network problems or setting up a server, it's helpful to have a basic understanding of how TCP/IP works.

There are three main types of signal degradation that can occur in a network: attenuation, distortion, and noise. Attenuation is the loss of signal strength as it travels through the network. Distortion occurs when the signal is altered in some way, making it inaccurate. Noise is any interference that can corrupt the signal. All three of these factors can impair the quality of the signal and make it difficult to interpret.

To minimize these effects, engineers must carefully design the network to minimize loss and maximize reliability. In some cases, special equipment may be needed to filter out noise or boost the signal. By understanding the different types of signal degradation, engineers can ensure that networks are able to function at optimal levels.

A private network is a network that uses private IP addresses. Private IP addresses are not assigned to any specific organization and can be used by anyone. The most common private IP address ranges are,, and These address ranges are not routable on the public internet and can only be reached by devices on the same local network. A network engineer would typically use a private IP address range when setting up a LAN or WAN. Devices on a private network can communicate with each other without going through a public router, making it more secure and efficient than using a public IP address range.

NAT (Network Address Translation) is a method of mapping an entire network to a single IP address. This is typically done by a router, which will forward packets from the private network to the public network. NAT can be used to hide the IP addresses of devices on a private network, as well as to improve security by providing a barrier between the two networks. In order to understand how NAT works, it is first necessary to understand the different types of IP addresses.

There are three different types of IP addresses: private, public, and static. Private IP addresses are those that are assigned by a router to devices on a private network. Public IP addresses are those that are assigned by an ISP to devices on a public network. Static IP addresses are those that are assigned manually and do not change.

When a packet is sent from a device on a private network to a device on a public network, the router will use NAT to replace the private IP address with the public IP address. This will allow the packet to reach its destination without revealing the true IP address of the sending device. NAT can also be used to hide the true IP address of a server by using a static IP address.

In this case, all traffic from the server will appear to come from the static IP address, rather than the server's actual IP address. This can be used to improve security and avoid identification by hackers. NAT is an essential component of networking, and it is important for anyone working in this field to have a good understanding of how it works. 

In networking, bandwidth refers to the data transfer rate or the amount of information that can be transmitted in a given time period (usually measured in seconds). It's similar to how we often think of 'speed' in everyday life - how fast something is moving. In other words, bandwidth is a measure of how much data can flow through a connection at any given time. Just like the width of a pipe determines how much water can flow through it, the bandwidth of a network connection determines how much data can flow through it.  

For example, if you are downloading a large file from the internet, your bandwidth would determine how long it would take to download that file. If you have a narrower pipe (lower bandwidth), it will take longer to fill up and you'll get less water (data) per second. A wider pipe (higher bandwidth) will fill up faster and give you more water (data) per second. So when we talk about increasing someone's bandwidth, we mean giving them a higher data transfer rate so they can do more things at once or do things faster.

While there are many factors to consider when choosing the best path for data packets, there are three key criteria that network engineers typically focus on: latency, load balancing, and cost. Latency, or the amount of time it takes for a packet to travel from its source to its destination, is often the most important factor, particularly for real-time applications like VoIP or video streaming.  

Load balancing is also important to ensure that no single link in the network becomes overloaded and causes delays; this can be accomplished through either static routing, which manually determines the best path for each type of traffic, or dynamic routing, which automatically updates the routing table in response to changes in network conditions. Finally, cost is always a consideration when selecting a path, as using multiple links with higher capacity may be more expensive than using a single link with lower capacity. By taking all of these factors into account, network engineers can select the best path for data packets and ensure that networks run smoothly and efficiently.

RAS, or remote access services, refer to a type of service that allows users to connect to a network from a remote location. RAS is commonly used in corporate environments, where employees may need to access company resources from outside the office. In order to set up RAS, a network administrator will typically configure a server with the appropriate software and hardware.  

Once the server is configured, users can connect to it using a variety of methods, such as a dial-up modem or a VPN client. RAS can be an essential tool for businesses, but it's important to note that it can also be misused. For example, some employees may use RAS to access company resources for personal gain. As a result, it's important for businesses to carefully monitor their RAS usage and put appropriate safeguards in place.

A firewall is a critical component of any network security strategy. It acts as a barrier between your internal network and the outside world, allowing you to control what traffic is allowed in and out. In order to understand how a firewall works, it is important to first understand the basics of networking. Networks consist of a series of interconnected devices, such as computers, routers, and switches. Each device has a unique IP address that is used to identify it on the network.  

When data is sent from one device to another, it is broken up into small packets. Each packet contains the sender's IP address, the recipient's IP address, and the data being transferred. Firewalls work by inspecting each packet that comes through and comparing it to a set of rules. If the packet meets the criteria laid out in the rules, it is allowed through. If not, it is blocked. This ensures that only authorized traffic is allowed onto your network.

Access Control Lists are used to define what type of traffic is allowed into or out of a network. Standard ACLs use only the source IP address to make decisions about whether to allow traffic, while extended ACLs can also use information such as port numbers and protocols.  

As a result, extended ACLs are much more flexible and can be used to create very specific rules about what types of traffic are allowed. For example, an extended ACL could be used to allow all HTTP traffic from a specific IP address, while blocking all other traffic from that same address. However, because they are more complex, extended ACLs can also be more difficult to configure and manage. As a result, they are typically only used when absolutely necessary.

Netstat is a command-line network utility that can be used to view all of the active network connections on a computer. The netstat utility can be used to view both incoming and outgoing network traffic, and it can also be used to view detailed information about specific connections. When used with the appropriate options, netstat can also be used to view information about the routing table, interface statistics, and much more.  

For beginners, netstat can be a useful tool for understanding the basic structure of a network and for troubleshooting potential connectivity issues. With a little practice, netstat can be an extremely powerful tool for managing and troubleshooting networks.

Proxy servers sit between clients and servers, acting as a go-between for requests from clients seeking resources from servers. A client connects to the proxy server, requesting some service, such as a file, web page, or other resource available from a different server. The proxy server evaluates the request according to its filtering rules. If the request is validated, the proxy server forwards it to the remote server where the requested resource lives.  

When the remote server responds, the proxy server sends the response back to the client. In this way, proxy servers can act as a firewall by filtering traffic and blocking requests that do not meet its criteria. Proxy servers can also improve performance by caching resources that have been previously requested. When a client requests a resource that has already been cached by the proxy server, there is no need to send a request to the remote server since the proxy already has a copy of the desired resource.  

This can save time and improve response times for subsequent requests.Proxy servers are an important part of many computer networks, providing security and performance enhancements that can be essential for a well-functioning network.

When it comes to securing a computer network, there are a few key measures that any network engineer should take. First, it is important to understand the network layout and identify any potential weak points. Second, all devices on the network should be properly configured and secured, with strong passwords and up-to-date security software. Third, regular backups should be made of all critical data, in case of an accident or attack. Finally, it is also beneficial to monitor the network for unusual activity, and to have a plan in place for how to respond in the event of a security breach. By taking these steps, it is possible to greatly reduce the risks to a computer network.

TELNET is a network protocol that allows for remote control of another computer. It is commonly used by system administrators to manage servers from afar, but it can also be used by hackers to gain unauthorized access to systems. TELNET works by establishing a connection between two computers and then allowing the user to issue commands as if they were working directly on the target system. This can be done either through a text-based interface or via a graphical interface.  

TELNET is not a secure protocol, so it is important to take precautions when using it. For example, it is advisable to use TELNET only over an encrypted connection such as SSH. Additionally, users should be aware of the potential for Man-in-the-Middle attacks and take steps to protect themselves accordingly.


Asynchronous transmission is a method of transmitting data where transmission begins only after the start bit has been sent. This type of transmission is common in Serial Communications such as RS-232. The time between each character sent during Asynchronous Transmission can vary, which allows for transmission to be faster than with Synchronous Transmission, however it also means that this method is less reliable.  

Asynchronous Transmission is easy to implement and is therefore popular in lower-speed applications. It can be used over long distances and across different types of media including twisted pair wire, coaxial cable, and optical fiber.  

An example of when Asynchronous Transmission might be used is if a user were to send a file from one computer to another over a network. The file would be divided into small pieces, each with its own unique identifier known as a sequence number. The receiver would buffer these pieces until it had received them all, at which point it would put them back together in the correct order and reconstruct the original file. If any pieces were lost or corrupted during transit, the receiver would know that something went wrong and could request that those specific pieces be resent.

FMEA is a Failure Mode and Effects Analysis. It's a tool that engineers use to identify potential problems with a design, and to come up with solutions to those problems. FMEA is typically conducted by a team of engineers and other experts who use a structured approach to identify and assess risks. The goal of FMEA is to prevent or mitigate problems before they occur. 

There are three main types of FMEA: design, process, and failure mode. Design FMEA is used to identify potential failures in the design of a product or system. Process FMEA is used to identify potential failures in a manufacturing or assembly process. Failure mode FMEA is used to identify potential failure modes for a product or system. 

Each type of FMEA uses a different set of questions, but all FMEAs begin with identifying potential failures. Once potential failures have been identified, they are ranked according to their severity, likelihood of occurrence, and detectability. Severity refers to the impact of the failure on the customer or user. Likelihood of occurrence refers to the probability that the failure will occur. Detectability refers to the likelihood that the failure will be detected before it reaches the customer or user. 

After potential failures have been identified and ranked, engineering and design changes can be made to mitigate or eliminate them. In some cases, it may not be possible to completely eliminate a risk, but it may be possible to reduce its severity or likelihood of occurrence. Additionally, test methods can be put in place to increase the detectability of potential failures.

FMEA is an important tool for managing risk in product development and manufacturing. By using FMEA, companies can avoid costly problems and ensure that their products meet customer expectations. 

Data link protocols are the set of rules and standards that govern how data is transmitted over a digital network. There are a variety of data link protocols in use today, including Ethernet, Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), and Frame Relay. Each protocol has its own advantages and disadvantages, and choosing the right protocol for a given application can be a complex decision. Data link protocols are typically categorized into two broad categories: connection-oriented and connectionless.  

Connection-oriented protocols establish a dedicated connection between two devices before data is transmitted, while connectionless protocols allow data to be sent without first establishing a connection. There are many factors to take into account when choosing a data link protocol, including performance, cost, and compatibility.  

Network engineers must have a comprehensive understanding of all the available data link protocols in order to make informed decisions about which one is best suited for a given application.

The 5-4-3 rule is a standard Ethernet configuration that specifies the number of repeaters and segments that can be used in a network. In a 5-4-3 configuration, there can be up to five segments with four repeaters between them. This provides a maximum of three collision domains.  

The 5-4-3 rule is typically used in star and bus topologies. Star topologies have a central node, such as a switch or router, which connects to each of the other nodes in the network. Bus topologies use a shared medium, such as a cable, to connect all of the nodes in the network. The 5-4-3 rule is important because it ensures that packets can be properly delivered across a network without experiencing excessive collisions.  

By specifying the maximum number of repeaters and segments, the 5-4-3 rule helps to ensure that packets are delivered efficiently and reliably.

Cisco routers make use of Double Data Rate Random Access Memory, or DDR RAM. This type of memory is advantageous for Cisco routers because it allows for data to be transferred at twice the rate of standard RAM. As a result, DDR RAM can help to improve the performance of Cisco routers, particularly when handling large amounts of data traffic.  

When configuring DDR RAM on Cisco routers, it is important to ensure that the correct amount of RAM is installed. Too little RAM can lead to bottlenecks and data loss, while too much RAM can waste resources and hinder router performance. Therefore, it is essential to size DDR RAM correctly in order to maximize router performance. Network engineers should be familiar with the use of DDR RAM on Cisco routers in order to properly configure and troubleshoot router issues.

Piggybacking is a network engineering term that refers to the process of using one network connection to provide access to another. For example, if two devices are connected to the same router, they can piggyback off of each other's connection and share the same IP address. This can be particularly useful in situations where one device has a slow or unreliable connection.  

By piggybacking off of another device, both devices can take advantage of the stronger connection. In addition, piggybacking can also help to improve network security. If one device is behind a firewall, for example, the other device can still access the internet through the first device's connection. As a result, piggybacking can offer both increased speed and increased security for devices on a shared network.

In digital data transmission, the bit rate is the number of bits that are transmitted per unit of time, whereas the baud rate is the number of signal units that are transmitted per unit of time. Bit rate is therefore a measure of the amount of data that is being transferred, whereas baud rate is a measure of the number of signal elements or symbols that are being transferred. In other words, the bit rate is a measure of how much information is being transferred, while the baud rate measures how fast the signal elements are being transferred.

Typically, the bit rate will be higher than the baud rate because each signal element may represent more than one bit of information. For example, in some digital modulation schemes each signal element may represent two or four bits of information. In contrast, in an analog modulation scheme such as frequency shift keying (FSK), each signal element represents just one bit of information.

The relationship between bit rate and baud rate depends on the particular digital modulation scheme that is being used. For example, in a binary phase shift keying (BPSK) system using two signal elements per symbol, the bit rate and baud rate are equal. In a quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) system using four signal elements per symbol, the bit rate is twice the baud rate. In an 8-ary phase shift keying (8-PSK) system using eight signal elements per symbol, the bitrate is three times the baud rate, and so on.

Generally speaking, for a given modulation scheme and a given error performance criterion, there is an optimum ratio of bit rate to baud rate. This optimum ratio depends on factors such as the bandwidth of the channel and the noise level in the channel.

For example, in an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel with a bandwidth B hertz, it can be shown that for BPSK with an error probability pe less than or equal to 10-5 ,the optimum ratio of bitrate to baud rate is 0.53(log2(1/pe)) . If we increase pe to 10-4 , then this optimum ratio increases to 1.22(log2(1/pe)) . So as pe increases (i.e., as we become less concerned about error performance), we can increase our bitrate relative to our baud rate and still achieve optimum performance. 

OSPF, or Open Shortest Path First, is an exterior gateway protocol (EGP) used to determine the best route for data packets to take when traversing a network. It is a link-state routing protocol, meaning that it maintains a map of the entire network and uses this information to calculate the best routes. OSPF is often used in large enterprise networks, as it can scale effectively to support thousands of nodes.  

When configuring OSPF, administrators can specify various parameters such as the router ID, network type, and authentication method. OSPF can be configured to use either MD5 or clear-text authentication. In terms of security, MD5 is generally considered to be more secure, as it protects against replay attacks. However, clear-text authentication may be easier to configure in some environments. 

While both RG59 and RG6 cables are able to transmit data, they are not typically used in computer networks. RG59 cable is primarily used for video applications, as it has a lower frequency range and is not well-suited for transmitting data. RG6 cable, on the other hand, has a higher frequency range and is often used for satellite and cable television applications.  

However, due to the increased bandwidth demands of computer networks, RG6 cable is not typically used either. Instead, computer networks often utilize fiber optic or category 5e/6 cable, which is designed specifically for high-speed data transfer. As a result, while both RG59 and RG6 cables can be used in a computer network, they are not typically the best choice.

A synchronous transmission is a type of digital communication where data is transmitted in synchronization with a clock signal. This means that each character is sent at a fixed time interval, and there is no need to send start and stop bits. Synchronous transmissions are typically faster than asynchronous transmissions, as there is no need to wait for the receiver to send an acknowledgement before sending the next character.  

However, they require a more expensive and elaborate system, as both the transmitter and receiver must be synchronized with the same clock signal. In addition, synchronous transmissions are more vulnerable to errors, as any deviation from the clock signal can result in data loss. Consequently, synchronous transmissions are typically only used for high-speed data transfer, such as in computer networks.

In a Token Ring network, a MAU is the central device which connects all of the stations in a star topology. It functions like a hub, but with the added ability to provide logical ring connectivity between the stations. MAUs typically have multiple ports, each of which can be connected to a single station. In order for the stations to communicate with each other, they must first pass their data through the MAU.

MAUs are responsible for managing access to the shared media in a Token Ring network. When a station wants to transmit data, it must first request access from the MAU. The MAU will then grant access to that station and place it in a logical ring around all of the other stations. Once the station has finished transmitting, it will release its access back to the MAU so that another station can have its turn.

The sliding window is a technique used in network engineering to send multiple frames at a time. The advantage of using this technique is that it allows for higher throughput than sending single frames at a time. In order to use the sliding window protocol, the sender must first divide the data into multiple frames. Each frame is then assigned a sequence number, which is used to keep track of the order in which the frames are sent.  

The receiver also maintains a window, which is used to buffer incoming frames. The size of the window determines the maximum number of outstanding frames that can be sent at any given time. In order to avoid having too many outstanding frames, the sender must wait for an acknowledgment from the receiver before sending the next frame. This technique can be used with either unidirectional or bidirectional data flow.

A network interface card (NIC) is a hardware component that connects a computer to a network. It typically contains one or more ports that allow the computer to send and receive data, as well as a small amount of memory that is used to store packets of data that are being transmitted. NICs also usually include a processor and firmware that help to manage the flow of traffic on the network.  

In recent years, NICs have become increasingly sophisticated, with some models including features such as Quality of Service (QoS) and virtualization. When choosing a NIC for a computer, it is important to consider the type of network that it will be used on, as well as the speed and bandwidth requirements of the application.

The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network management protocol used on Internet Protocol (IP) networks. DHCP allows computers to request and be assigned IP addresses and other network configuration parameters automatically from a DHCP server. This makes it easy to manage large networks, because DHCP relieves network administrators of the need to manually configure each computer on the network with IP addresses and other configuration information.

DHCP works by having a DHCP server maintain a pool of available IP addresses. When a computer on the network needs an IP address, it sends a request to the DHCP server. The DHCP server then assigns an available IP address from its pool to the computer, and provides the computer with any other needed configuration information, such as the location of theDefault Gateway and DNS servers.

Once it has been assigned an IP address, the computer can communicate with other devices on the network. When it no longer needs the IP address, it returns the address to the DHCP server so that it can be reassigned to another device.

DHCP is an important part of many modern networks, and understanding how it works can be helpful for anyone who works with networks or is interested in pursuing a career in network administration or engineering. 

In a link-layer switch, the physical layer and data link layer are involved. The physical layer is responsible for sending and receiving raw bits over the network medium. The data link layer is responsible for error detection and correction, as well as providing flow control and managing access to the shared network medium. In a typical Ethernet network, the data link layer is based on the Ethernet protocol.  

At the data link layer, each switch port has a unique Media Access Control (MAC) address. When a frame arrives at a port, the switch uses the MAC address to determine which port to forward the frame to. If the destination MAC address is not in the switch's forwarding table, the frame is forwarded out of all ports except for the port it arrived on. This process is known as broadcast forwarding.

In network engineering, 10Base2 is a type of Ethernet network that uses thin coaxial cable. The "10" refers to the transfer speed of 10 megabits per second, while the "Base" refers to the baseband signaling used. The "2" indicates that the maximum cable length is 200 meters. 10Base2 networks are also known as "Cheapernet" or "Thinnet." They are typically used in small office or home office (SOHO) environments. To connect devices to a 10Base2 network, they must be fitted with a BNC T-connector. This type of connector is also used for CCTV applications.

Technologies involved in building WAN links can be generally classified into two types: packet-based and circuit-based.

Packet-based technologies send data as packets that are routed through the network based on their destination address. The most common packet-based technology is IP, which is used for the Internet.

Circuit-based technologies send data as a continuous stream of bits, and the connection between two devices is known as a circuit. The most common circuit-based technology is ATM, which is used for voice and video traffic.

Other technologies that can be used for WAN links include T1/E1, SONET/SDH, VPN, and MPLS. 

There are several different types of transmission media available for use in networking applications. The most common type of transmission media is twisted pair cable, which consists of two insulated copper wires twisted around each other. This type of cable is typically used for shorter distances, such as between a computer and a LAN connection.  

Coaxial cable is another type of transmission media that consists of a single inner conductor surrounded by an insulating material and a braided outer conductor. This type of cable is typically used for longer distances, such as between a computer and a modem. Fiber optic cable is another type of transmission media that consists of thin glass or plastic fibers that are used to transmit data at high speeds over long distances. This type of cable is typically used for applications requiring high bandwidth, such as gigabit Ethernet connections.

The Internet Control Message Protocol is a core protocol of the Internet Protocol Suite. It is primarily used for network maintenance, error reporting, and reachability testing. ICMP does not provide any guarantees about delivery of data packets; it merely reports errors in the network. However, it is an essential part of the Internet, as it allows devices to communicate with each other and report any problems that occur. When an ICMP message is sent, it contains an error code that indicates what type of problem has occurred.

For example, if a router cannot reach a particular destination, it will send an ICMP message with the 'destination unreachable' error code. ICMP messages are typically sent by routers when they encounter an error, but they can also be generated by hosts.

In addition to error reporting, ICMP also provides a mechanism for ping testing, which is used to check whether a host or router is reachable. To do this, a host sends an ICMP echo request message to the target device; if the device is reachable, it will respond with an echo reply message. Ping testing is often used to diagnose network problems or to test connectivity between two devices. 

Yes, IP is considered a connectionless protocol because there is no handshake between sender and receiver before data is sent. With a connection-oriented protocol like TCP, a handshake occurs before data is sent to ensure that both sides are in sync and ready to communicate. However, with IP, data can be sent without first establishing a connection. This makes IP more efficient for applications where connections are only occasionally needed, such as email or web browsing.  

However, it also means that IP is less reliable than TCP, since there is no guarantee that the data will reach its destination. For this reason, IP is typically used for applications where reliability is not as important, or where connections are so brief that the overhead of setting up a connection is not worth the effort.

In a 10Base2 network, also called an Ethernet or thin Ethernet network, a coaxial cable is used to connect all of the devices in the network. Up to five network segments can be created using this type of cable, but only three of those segments can have devices attached to them. A segment is considered populated if there is at least one device attached to it.  

Each of the three populated segments in a 10Base2 network can have a maximum of 30 nodes attached to it. To attach a node to a 10Base2 network, you must use a special type of connector called a BNC T-connector. BNC T-connectors are used to connect the coaxial cable to the node's Network Interface Card (NIC).

Round-trip time (RTT) is the measure of the time from when a packet is sent from a local host to when it is finally acknowledged by the remote host. RTT includes processing time at both ends, queuing delay, and transmission delay. The mathematical formula for round-trip time is: RTT = Time to Send + Time to Receive.

For example, if it takes 10 milliseconds to send a packet and 20 milliseconds to receive a response, then the RTT would be 30 milliseconds. In order to calculate RTT, tools like Ping and Traceroute can be used. Ping measures the time it takes for a small packet of data to travel from the source to the destination and back again, while Traceroute uses ICMP packets (like Ping) but also shows the route that the packets take to reach their destination.

Knowing how to calculate RTT is important for network engineers because it can help identify issues like high latency or bottlenecks in the network. For example, if RTT is consistently high, this could indicate that there is a problem with one of the routers along the path. By troubleshooting these types of issues, network engineers can help ensure that data packets are being delivered as quickly and efficiently as possible. 

TFTP and FTP are both application layer protocols, but they differ in a few key ways. For one, FTP is a connection-oriented protocol, while TFTP is connectionless. This means that FTP uses a three-way handshake to establish a connection before transferring data, while TFTP does not. Additionally, FTP supports file encryption and authentication, while TFTP does not.  

Finally, FTP transfers files using commands such as PORT and RETR, while TFTP uses simple read and write requests. These differences make FTP more secure and reliable than TFTP, but also more complex to configure. As a result, TFTP is typically used for small transfers or transfers over unreliable networks, while FTP is used for larger transfers or transfers that require extra security.

Yes, the maximum segment length of a 100Base-FX network is 2000 meters. This is due to the limitations of the fiber optic cable that is used for this type of network. The fiber optic cable has a higher attenuation rate than other types of cable, which means that it can only carry the signal for a certain distance before it becomes too weak.  

As a result, the segments in a 100Base-FX network must be shorter than in other types of networks. This is not typically a problem, as most buildings are not large enough to need segments that are longer than 2000 meters. However, if you are planning to use a 100Base-FX network in a large building or campus, you may need to use multiple switches to connect all of the segments. 

The network layer is responsible for several key functions, including routing, congestion control, and addressing. Routing is the process of forwarding packets from one network node to another. Congestion control ensures that the network does not become overloaded and helps to prevent data loss.  

Addressing is used to identify the source and destination of each packet. The network layer also provides a logical structure for the network and helps to isolate devices from one another. By performing these functions, the network layer enables devices to communicate with each other and helps to ensure that data is delivered reliably and efficiently.


Network engineering is a critical role in keeping our day-to-day lives running smoothly. From setting up Wi-Fi in our homes to keeping our schools and hospitals connected, network engineers are responsible for ensuring that we have the connectivity we need to live and work. If you're interested in becoming a network engineer, be sure to brush up on your interview skills. Here, we'll take a look at some of the most common senior network engineer interview questions and answers, as well as what interviewers are looking for in your answers. 

Be prepared to get both the theory and practical applications of networking technologies in order to demonstrate your depth of knowledge. By preparing for these senior network engineer interview questions ahead of time, you'll be able to show that you're the right candidate for the job. 

Even pursuing the KnowledgeHut ITIL Foundation Certification course is an excellent way to build your skills and knowledge in network engineering. After completing the course, you will be prepared to answer network support engineer interview questions about your experience and qualifications.

In addition, candidates may also want to pursue IT Service Management certification courses. This type of certification demonstrates a candidate's ability to effectively manage and troubleshoot IT systems. It can be helpful for those who want to move into more senior roles within their organizations or who want to transition into management positions.

By being prepared with thoughtful, well-reasoned answers to these questions, you'll be one step closer to securing the network engineering job of your dreams.

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