Postman Interview Questions and Answers for 2024

Postman is a tool that is commonly used in software testing to make and debug API (Application Programming Interface) requests. It is one of the most commonly used software testing tools available. In this postman interview questions, we have included three sections with different kinds of difficulty levels based on the candidate's experience, knowledge, and the job position, they are applying for. We are covering all the common concepts-based questions from postman including parts such as testing, Api calls, environment, mocks, requests and collections. Let’s get started preparing for your next interview with our interview ready questionnaires. In addition to this a Software Tester certification will help to develop a complete understanding of testing processes to comprehend industry best practices and discover how to move through the testing stages.

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Beginner

Writing test scripts that can efficiently manage and validate this data is one of the difficulties I have faced because the API produces intricate and layered JSON data structures. They spend a lot of time figuring out how to obtain the particular data they require in their test scripts and how the data structure works. Sometimes I also have to deal with the API's requirement for OAuth authentication. I initially struggled to comprehend how to set up and configure OAuth in Postman. 

When the quantity of requests and endpoints increases, I also found it difficult to maintain their collections structured. Then I found an efficient approach to classify and group things. 

Here are some of the most efficient approaches to classify and group things in Postman. 

Group by Functionality: One approach to classify and group requests in Postman is to group them by functionality. For example, we could create separate collections for each major feature of our API, such as user management, data retrieval, and data manipulation. Within each collection, we could further group requests by endpoint or resource. For example, in the user management collection, we could have separate requests for creating, updating, and deleting users. 

Group by Endpoint: Another approach is to group requests by endpoint. This approach is useful when working with an API that has a large number of endpoints and resources. By grouping requests by endpoint, we can quickly see all of the requests that are associated with a specific endpoint, making it easier to understand the functionality of the API. 

Group by Role: Grouping requests by role is useful when working with APIs that have different access levels for different users. For example, we could create separate collections for admin, user, and guest roles. Within each collection, we could have requests that are specific to that role, such as requests for creating, updating, and deleting users for the admin role or requests for viewing only for guest role. 

Group by Status: Grouping requests by status can be useful when working with APIs that have different states, such as development, staging, and production. We can create separate collections for each state, and within each collection, we could have requests that are specific to that state. For example, in the development collection, we might have requests for creating and updating resources, while in the production collection, we might have requests for retrieving data and monitoring performance. 

Group by Version: Grouping requests by version can be useful when working with APIs that have multiple versions. We can create separate collections for each version, and within each collection, we could have requests that are specific to that version. For example, in the v1 collection, we might have requests for creating and updating resources, while in the v2 collection, we might have requests for retrieving data and monitoring performance. 

Another way to group and organize our requests is by using tags. Tags allow to add labels to requests and then filter or search for requests based on those labels. For example, we can use tags to label requests by functionality, endpoint, role, status, or version. 

We could also make use of the folders feature in Postman. Folders allow to organize requests in a hierarchical structure, which can be useful when working with large numbers of requests. For example, we can create a folder for each major feature of our API, and within each folder, we could create subfolders for different endpoints or resources. 

To test the functionality and scalability of our API, we can simulate numerous concurrent queries to a given endpoint using Postman's load testing tool. This tool lets us customize the number of users and the frequency of requests so that we may test various scenarios, such as increased traffic or particular user behaviour.

  • Web Applications: Load testing can be used to test the performance of a web application, such as a website or web API, under a specific number of concurrent users. This can help identify bottlenecks and potential issues with scalability. 
  • Mobile Applications: Mobile applications can also be load tested to understand how they will perform under a specific number of concurrent users. This can be important for identifying performance issues that may occur on specific devices or network conditions. 
  • Cloud-based Services: Cloud-based services, such as databases and storage systems, can also be load tested to determine how they will perform under a specific number of concurrent requests. This can help identify performance issues and ensure that the system is scalable. 
  • Microservices: Microservices architectures can also be load tested to determine how individual services will perform under a specific number of concurrent requests. This can help identify performance issues and ensure that the overall system is scalable. 
  • Gaming and Gaming Servers: Gaming servers and applications can be load tested to determine how they will perform under a specific number of concurrent users. This can help identify performance issues and ensure that the system is scalable. 
  • E-commerce Platforms: E-commerce platforms can be load tested to determine how they will perform under a specific number of concurrent users during peak traffic times, such as during sales or promotional events. 
  • Public-facing APIs: Public-facing APIs can be load tested to determine how they will perform under a specific number of concurrent requests. This can help identify performance issues and ensure that the system is scalable. 
  • Financial Services: Financial services systems, such as trading platforms, can be load tested to determine how they will perform under a specific number of concurrent users. This can help identify performance issues and ensure that the system is scalable.

As a Postman developer, my role included designing and implementing test cases using the Postman tool. I was responsible for automating API testing by writing test scripts and setting up test environments. Debugging and troubleshooting any issues that arose during the testing process was also my responsibility. I collaborated with other teams, such as development teams, to ensure that the testing process was well-integrated with the overall development process. 

I was also responsible for implementing automated testing as part of the CI/CD pipeline, this included configuring test scripts to run automatically on a schedule, and integrating test results with other CI/CD tools. 

Performance testing was also one of my key responsibilities, where I load test the API's using postman and analyze the results to find out the bottlenecks and improve the performance of API's. Scenario based testing was another important aspect of my role, where I created different scenarios and test cases based on the requirement. Such as testing the API's under different load and traffic, testing the API's under different network conditions, testing API's under different security protocols, etc. 

Creating and maintaining documentation was also an important part of my role, where I created and maintained documentation related to the testing process, including test scripts, test data, and test results. This documentation was easily accessible to all members of the development team. 

Postman is a tool that allows to test and develop APIs by sending HTTP requests to them. This way, we can see the responses and even automate testing and debugging processes.

To use Postman, we first need to install the Postman app on our computer. Then, we can enter the desired URL and method (such as GET, POST, PUT, DELETE) in the request editor and send the request. The response from the API will be displayed in the response window, along with details such as the status code and response time.

Postman offers features that make working with APIs easier, such as the ability to save and organize requests, add and debug tests, and set up environments to easily switch between different servers or configurations. We can use Postman to test and debug our APIs by using different types of requests and responses. For example, we can use Postman to send requests and receive responses, or we can use Postman to view the responses of a request in real time.  

We can use API to send requests and see how the responses are formatted. We can also customize the requests by adding headers, body, and query parameters. Use the "Tests" tab in the request editor to create scripts that will be run automatically after the response is received. 

These scripts can check the data in the response, the response code, and other aspects of the response to make sure it is correct. To get more information about a request, open the "Debug" console and look at the details in the window. This can help us solve problems with the API. The History tab in the left sidebar shows all of our previous requests and responses, as well as any test results. This can help us understand past API interactions or find specific requests or responses.  

One way we can use Postman to automate our API testing is by using Automation Tests. Automation Tests allow to run specific commands or scenarios against our API, automatically generating feedback as we go. This can help to identify and fix any issues quickly, before they cause any real problems for our users.  

The "Collection Runner" can run multiple requests automatically. This is helpful for testing a group of API endpoints or simulating multiple users making requests at the same time. Using the Newman command-line tool, we can run Postman collections and environments from the command line. This can be useful for integrating Postman into continuous integration or deployment pipelines, or for running tests on a regular schedule.

A staple in Postman API testing interview questions, be prepared to answer this one. 

Postman API can help us automate tasks such as creating and updating collections, environments, and mocks or running collections and monitoring runs. This can make testing and workflow integration easier. Using Postman for API development and testing has various advantages: 

  • Straightforward to Use: Postman features a user interface that's clear and simple to understand, making it simple for developers to generate, save, and submit HTTP requests. 
  • Variety of Requests are Supported by it: Any HTTP request, including GET, POST, PUT, DELETE, and others, can be sent using Postman. 
  • It provides a built-in testing environment that makes it simple to make sure our API is operating properly. Postman lets you develop and test scripts for our API. 
  • It includes powerful documentation tools, making it simple to explain our API's functionality to our team or outside stakeholders. Postman lets us create API documentation and share it with others.

Application programming interfaces, or APIs, are a set of guidelines that outline how two software programs should communicate with one another. Through the use of APIs, many software programs can interface with one another and exchange information and features. 

For instance, a user asks a web server to provide certain information or functionality. When the request is received, the web server determines that it must utilize an API to process it.The required arguments are included in a request that the web server makes to the API. The web server receives a response from the API after processing the request. The web server receives API answer and gives information back to the user in an understandable way (e.g., HTML, JSON, XML).  

Modern online and mobile application development heavily use APIs because they enable standardized data exchange and interaction between many platforms and user-friendliness. By populating templates with an easy-to-use user interface, testers may quickly create test suites. Postman also provides code snippets that aid with script construction and provide examples of validations for response time, response code, etc.

This question is a regular feature in API testing Postman interview questions, be ready to tackle it.  

We can enter both the URL of the API endpoint we wish to send the request to and the HTTP method (such as GET, POST, PUT, DELETE, etc.) for the request in the API request window. Additionally, we can supply any headers or query parameters we want to use in the request. After providing the necessary information for our API request, click "Send" to send the request. The Postman app will show the response that is returned by the API when it has processed the request. Following that, we may see the response's specifics, including the HTTP status code and response body. 

We may create collections of API calls with Postman in addition to submitting individual requests, saving them for later use. If we need to make a number of API requests as part of a broader workflow or if we want to reuse a number of API requests for testing or debugging, this is helpful. 

Overall, developers and testers use Postman extensively for API testing and development since it is a strong and easy-to-use tool for working with APIs.

A "success" type in Postman denotes the status code of the response that the API returned. A status code in the 200 range is frequently used to indicate a success kind. A successful request might be indicated by a status code of 200 (OK) or 201 (Created), for instance. 

By sending several requests (such as GET, POST, PUT, and DELETE) and confirming that the right response is given for each type of request, we may use Postman to test the functioning of an API.

We can do the following actions to test an API using Postman: 

Upon opening the Postman app, we select "New" to start a new request. 

From the drop-down menu, we need to choose the type of request we wish to submit (such as GET, POST, PUT, or DELETE). 

In the "Address" section, we need to type the URL of the API endpoint we want to test. We can specify any arguments or headers that the API demands be included in the request under the "Params" and "Headers" tabs. For the request to be sent to the API, click on the "Send" button. The "Response" panel of Postman will show the response that the API returns. If the response matches what we anticipated, we can check it out.

Parameters in Postman are values we can include in a request to an API. Query parameters and path parameters are the two categories of parameters that can be used in a request. The "?" sign is used to indicate that query parameters should be put to the end of API endpoint URL. They are used to give API extra data, like filters or sorting orders. For instance, we could add a "name" query parameter to the request URL to look for users with a certain name:https://api.example.com/users?name=test 

A specific resource within an API can be specified using path parameters. They are used to specify a particular resource that will be returned or changed and are part of the URL path. For instance, we might include a "userId" path parameter in the request URL if we wish to get information about a specific user from an API. 

https://api.example.com/users/123456 

By using "&" symbols to denote separation, we can include many query and path parameters in a single request. In Postman, the "Params" tab of the request builder is where we may define the query and path parameters.

A response with a status code in the 200 range from an API request is regarded as successful in Postman. A status code in the 200 range denotes that the API successfully received and handled the request. A status code of 200 (OK), for instance, denotes a successful request and the API's return of the anticipated answer. The success status codes 201 (Created), 204 (No Content), and 206 are also in the 200 range (Partial Content). 

By looking at the "Status" field in the "Response" panel in Postman, we may determine the response's status code. A status code in the 200 to 300 range indicates that the request was successful. If the status code falls between 400 and 500, it shows that the request had a problem. Using Postman, we can send different kinds of requests and check that each form of request receives the right response to test an API's functioning. This might assist in making sure the API is operating properly and returning the desired results. 

Before establishing our API, we can design and document it using Postman. We can use Postman to create an API by following these steps: 

  • Open the Postman app, then select "New" to start a new request. 
  • From the drop-down menu, choose the type of request we wish to submit (such as GET, POST, PUT, or DELETE). 
  • The "Address" column is where we should enter the URL of the API endpoint we want to build. 
  • The "Params" and "Headers" tabs are where we can define any arguments or headers that the API endpoint requires. 
  • In the "Body" tab, specify the request body. When a request is made, these data will be provided to the API. 
  • For the request to be sent to the API, click the "Send" button. 
  • The "Response" panel of Postman will show the response that the API returns. If the response matches what we anticipated, we can check it out. 
  • By sending a series of queries with various input values and reviewing the responses produced by the API, we can use Postman to design and document the functionality of our API. This might assist us in designing and planning our API before developing it. 
  • After utilizing Postman to design and describe our API, we may create the API with the programming language and framework of our choosing. 

An effective tool for testing and creating APIs is Postman (Application Programming Interfaces). It enables us to communicate with a server using HTTP requests and track the responses the server returns. It can be used to design and fix API-dependent code as well as to test an API's functioning. 

Both a standalone program and a Chrome extension are offered by Postman. Its graphical user interface makes it simple to enter the specifics of our desired request. We can, for instance, define the HTTP method (such as GET, POST, PUT, or DELETE), the headers, the request content, and other parameters. Additionally, we can store groups of requests for later usage and organization. 

Sending HTTP requests to a server and examining the answer are both possible with Postman, a potent tool for testing and development. Here are a few typical Postman usage cases: 

Using Postman, we can test APIs by making different HTTP queries to an API endpoint and analyzing the results. This can be used to check that the API is operating properly and providing the desired results. 

Postman can be used to troubleshoot problems with an API or web application. We can use it to ask the server specific questions and look at the server's response to see what might be the problem. 

Postman's ability to let users make requests of an API and view the responses they receive can be used to build documentation for that API. The API users who are developers may find this a useful tool. 

  • Collaboration: Postman makes it simple for people to share collections of requests with one another, facilitating teamwork and collaboration on development projects. 
  • Automation: With Postman, we can create automated tests for our APIs and applications, making it simpler to make sure check they are operating properly and identifying any issues early on. 

A request in Postman is an HTTP request we can make to a server to get or change data. A request is made up of a variety of parts, such as the following: 

HTTP Technique: This details the kind of server action we intend to carry out. GET, which fetches data, and POST, which sends data to the server, are two popular HTTP methods. 

The server or resource we want to access is identified by its URL, which is its address. 

Headers: These key-value pairs are optional and can be added to a request to provide the server more details. 

Body: We can include this information in the request as optional data. A POST request to create a new record, for instance 

We can use Postman to create and send requests to a server by specifying these different components and examining the response that we receive from the server. 

Postman can be set up in a variety of ways to alter its appearance and behaviour. Here are a few illustrations of possible Postman configurations: 

Environment Variables: Postman enables to create variables for usage in scripts and requests. We can choose to have various values for various environments by setting these variables to distinct values at the global or collection level (e.g., development, staging, production).

Global Headers: We can specify headers that will be sent along with every Postman request. If we must provide an authorisation header or other common headers in each of our requests, this can be useful. 

We may import SSL certificates into Postman and use them to authenticate requests to secure servers. 

  • By selecting "Collection" from the menu that appears when we click "New" in the top left corner of the Postman interface, we can create a new collection. Following that, we can name our collection and add requests by dragging them into it or by using the "Add request" option. 
  • We can further arrange our requests by creating folders inside a collection. Right-click the collection and choose "Add Folder" to create a new folder. Then, just as we would add requests to a collection, we can give the folder a name and add requests to it. 
  • We can structure our folders and requests according to our needs using Postman's ability to create subfolders within existing directories. 

Here are a few examples of how we could automate tasks using the Postman API: 

  • Request Creation and Delivery: We can make and send requests programmatically using the Postman API. Incorporating Postman with other tools or services or automating testing can also benefit from this. 
  • Creating and modifying collections and environments using the Postman API enables to automate processes like setting up test environments and data migration between environments. 
  • Data Retrieval: We can get information about our Postman account using the Postman API, including a history of the requests we've sent and the collections we've made. This may be helpful for creating reports or keeping track of our usage. 
  • Check the Paperwork: In-depth documentation for Postman is available and covers a wide range of subjects, including frequent problems and solutions. By looking through the manual or visiting the Postman support resources, we might be able to solve our issue. 
  • Verify the Console: A console that comes with Postman shows log messages and other details about our requests. If we are having difficulty; we might be able to learn more about it by looking in the console. 
  • Look Under the Network Tab: Each request and response's specifics, including the headers and message body, are shown in Postman's network tab. This tab allows to review a request's specifics and check for problems. 
  • Check for Updates: If we are using an outdated version of Postman, we might wish to check for updates to see if the problem has been fixed. By choosing "Check for updates" from the "Help" menu, we can check for updates. 
  • Get Assistance: If we are unable to fix the problem on our own, we can ask the Postman community or the Postman support staff for assistance. The Postman support team is available to help with more complicated difficulties, and the Postman community is a fantastic place to receive assistance from other users.

This is a frequently asked question in API Postman interview questions.  

Here is an illustration of how we could test a basic GET endpoint utilizing Postman: 

  • In Postman, click the "GET" button in the upper left corner. 
  • Enter the URL of the endpoint we need to test in the location bar at the highest point of the application. 
  • Click the "Send" button. 
  • In the "Reaction" part of the application, we ought to see the information returned by the endpoint. 
  • To compose a test for the endpoint, click the "Tests" tab in the right-hand board. 
  • In the "Tests" tab, we can compose JavaScript code that will be executed after the solicitation is sent. 
  • For instance, we can compose a test to check that the reaction has a 200-status code and that the reaction body contains a particular piece of information. 

To create a mock endpoint in Postman, follow these steps: 

  • Open the Postman app and click on the "Mock" tab in the top menu.

  • Click the "Create New Mock" button. 
  • Enter a name for the mock endpoint in the "Name" field. 
  • The "Description" field should have a description for mock endpoint (optional). 
  • In the "Workspace" dropdown, select the workspace where we want to create the mock endpoint. 
  • The "Base URL" field will have the base URL for mock endpoint. This should be the same as the base URL for the real endpoint that we are mocking. 
  • In the "Response Status Code" field, enter HTTP status code that we want the mock endpoint to return when it is called. 
  • The "Response Body" field must have the response body that we want the mock endpoint to return to when it is called. This can be in any format, such as JSON or XML. 
  • In the "Response Headers" section, we can add any additional headers that we want the mock endpoint to include in its response. 
  • Click the "Save" button to create our mock endpoint. 
  • Once our mock endpoint has been created, we can use it just like a real endpoint in our tests and development. For example, we can use Postman to send HTTP requests to the mock endpoint and verify that it returns the expected response. 
  • We can also use Postman's "Mock Server" feature to create a mock server that serves our mock endpoints to other clients. To do this, follow these steps: 
  • Click on the "Mock Server" tab in the top menu. 
  • Hit the "Create New Mock Server" button. 
  • In the "Name" field, enter a name for our mock server. 
  • The “Description" field must have a description for our mock server (optional). 
  • In the "Workspace" dropdown, select the workspace where we want to create the mock server. 
  • In the "Base URL" field, enter the base URL for our mock server. This should be a unique URL that will be used to access our mock endpoints. 
  • In the "Mocks" section, select the mock endpoints that we want to include on our mock server. 
  • Click the "Save" button to create our mock server. 
  • Once our mock server is running, we can access our mock endpoints by sending HTTP requests to the mock server's base URL and appending the path of the mock endpoint to it. For example, if our mock server's base URL is "https://mock.server" and our mock endpoint's path is "/api/users", we can access the mock endpoint by sending an HTTP request to "https://mock.server/api/users". 
  • Using mock endpoints and mock servers can be a useful way to test and develop APIs without relying on the real endpoint or server. This can be especially helpful when the real endpoint or server is not available, or when we want to test how our code handles different responses from the endpoint. 

Here are a few ways we can use Postman to describe our APIs: 

  • Create a Collection: In Postman, we can create a collection of API requests and organize them into folders. We can use this collection to test our APIs and keep track of our API endpoints. 
  • Use the Documentation Feature: Postman allows to generate documentation for our APIs in a variety of formats, including HTML, Markdown, and PDF. This documentation can include descriptions of our API endpoints, request and response examples, and code samples. 
  • Use the Mock Server Feature: With Postman, we can create a mock server that simulates our API. This can be useful for testing our API clients without having to rely on a live server. 
  • Use the Test Feature: Postman allows to write tests for our APIs to ensure that they are working as expected. We can use these tests to automatically validate the responses from our API endpoints.

Intermediate

Once we have the app open, follow these steps: 

  • In the "Enter request URL" field, enter the URL of the API endpoint we want to send the request to. 
  • From the "Method" dropdown menu, select the "PUT" option. 
  • In the "Body" section, select the "raw" radio button and choose "JSON (application/json)" from the dropdown menu. 
  • Enter the data we want to send in the body of the request in JSON format. For example: 
{ 
"name": "Reyansh", 
"city": "Nagpur" 
} 

We can also add any additional headers to the request by clicking on the "Headers" tab and entering the key-value pairs in the "Key" and "Value" fields. 

Once we have everything set up, click the "Send" button to send the request. 

The response from the API will be displayed in the "Response" section at the bottom of the screen. 

To set a global variable in Postman, we must first open the "File" menu and select "Open." Once the "Open" dialogue box is open, navigate to the "Postman" folder and select the "global.json" file. We can then edit the global.json file to set the desired global variable. The "Globals" button is in the top menu of the Postman app. It lets us see all the different settings in the app. 

To create a new global variable, click the "Add" button in the "Globals" modal window. 

In the "Add Global Variable" modal window, type the key and value for the global variable we want to add. If we want the variable to be available in all environments, make sure the "All environments" box is checked. If we only want the variable to be available in certain environments, uncheck the "All environments" box and select the environments we want to use the variable in.  

To save a new global variable, click the "Save" button.By setting a global variable in Postman, we are telling Postman to remember the value for this variable across all our commands. In Postman, global variables are special values that can be used in multiple requests. They can be useful for storing values that are used often, such as API keys or base URLs, or for passing data between requests. 

To use a global variable in our request, simply include the {{key}} syntax in the URL or body. For example, if we have a global variable with the name "api_key," we could use it like this: https://example.com/api?key=. 

Global variables can be changed at any time by following the steps above. We can also delete global variables by clicking on the trash can icon next to the variable in the "Globals" modal window. 

Postman lets we set environment variables, which are similar to global variables but are specific to a particular environment (e.g., production, staging, development). To set an environment variable in Postman, click on the "Environments" button in the top menu and then click the "Edit" button next to the environment we want to modify. We can then add, modify, or delete environment variables in the same way as global variables. 

Global variables in Postman are a way to store and reuse values in our API development work. They can help we work more efficiently and effectively, saving we time and energy. 

First and foremost, it is essential to establish a clear and consistent API design strategy that adheres to industry standards and best practices, such as using RESTful principles and OpenAPI specifications. This will ensure that the API is easily understandable and discoverable for developers, and also facilitates the implementation of automated testing and documentation. 

To ensure security of the API, it is crucial to implement robust authentication and authorization mechanisms, such as OAuth and JWT. Additionally, the use of API gateways and firewalls, as well as regular penetration testing, can provide an additional layer of protection against malicious attacks. 

When it comes to scalability, one should consider utilizing a microservices architecture, as it allows for independent scaling of individual services, rather than having to scale the entire system as a whole. This can be achieved through the use of containerization technologies such as Docker and Kubernetes, which facilitate the deployment and management of these microservices. 

Furthermore, implementing a robust system for monitoring and logging, such as Prometheus and Grafana, can provide valuable insight into the performance and usage of API, and aid in identifying and addressing any scalability bottlenecks. 

In terms of API management, Postman can play a crucial role in streamlining the development and testing process. By utilizing Postman's collections and environment variables, one can easily organize and share API endpoints with other developers, as well as automate repetitive tasks through the use of pre-request and test scripts. 

Postman can be integrated with other applications to allow for streamlined API development. There are a few ways we can do this, such as by using Postman as a communication hub between different applications. 

Postman has lots of built-in integrations so we can connect it with other tools and services. For example, we can use Postman API to automate our workflows, or we can use the Postman GitHub Sync integration to keep our collections and environments synchronized with a GitHub repository. To use these integrations, go to the "Integrations" tab in Postman's settings. 

The Postman API lets us access our collections, environments, and other data stored in Postman easily and programmatically. This can help us automate our workflows, integrate with other tools, or build custom integrations with Postman. 

The Collection Runner is a tool that lets us run a series of API requests and view the results. We can use it to automate our testing workflows, or to run a series of requests as part of a larger integration process. 

The Postman Monitors service lets us run automated tests on our API, and receive notifications if any of the tests fail. This can help us check that our API is working correctly and catch any potential problems before they become big problems. 

The Postman app can help us automate our CI/CD workflows by helping us trigger a build or deploy whenever a new API request is made. Postman allows to connect to other tools and services to get things done faster. For example, we can use the Postman API to trigger a build in a continuous integration tool, or to send a notification to a chat application. 

Bearer token authentication is a type of token-based authentication where a token, also known as a "bearer token," is passed in the Authorization header of an HTTP request. This token serves as proof of the identity of the client making the request, and is typically issued by an authentication server. 

To implement a secure bearer token system for an API, one should consider the following steps: 

  1. Design a Secure Token Generation and Validation Process: This process should include the use of strong encryption algorithms, such as RSA or AES, as well as secure token storage and management, such as using a secure key management system.
  2. Implement an Authentication Server: This server should be responsible for issuing and validating tokens. It should also enforce security measures such as rate limiting, and the use of secure protocols like HTTPS.
  3. Integrate Authentication Server with the API: The API should be configured to accept and validate tokens passed in the Authorization header, and to return appropriate responses for unauthorized requests.
  4. Use Postman to Test the Bearer Token Implementation: Postman can be used to test the token generation and validation process, as well as to simulate requests to the API with different valid and invalid tokens, helping to identify any issues or vulnerabilities in the implementation.
  5. One of the main challenges that may be encountered when implementing a bearer token system is the risk of token leakage or theft. This can occur if tokens are not properly secured, such as being stored in clear text, or if they are transmitted over an insecure connection. To mitigate this risk, it is important to use secure storage and transmission mechanisms, such as encrypted token storage and HTTPS.
  6. Another challenge could be the difficulty in implementing proper token expiration and revocation. Tokens should have a short expiration time, and it should be possible to revoke tokens if they are stolen or otherwise compromised. This can be achieved by including an expiration timestamp and a unique identifier in the token, and by maintaining a list of revoked tokens on the authentication server.

In Postman, dynamic variables are values that change during the course of an API testing workflow. There are several ways to handle dynamic variables in Postman, depending on the specific use case. 

One way to handle dynamic variables is to use the "Pre-request Script" feature to set a variable before the request is sent. To do this, click the "Pre-request Script" tab in the request editor and enter our script using JavaScript. We can then use the "pm.variables.set()" function to set a variable and its value. For example: 

pm.variables.set("token", "abc123"); 

This will set a variable called "token" to the value "abc123". We can then use the variable in any field of the request by enclosing the variable name in double curly braces, like this: {{token}}. 

Another way to handle dynamic variables is to use the "Tests" feature to set a variable after the response is received, based on the response data. To do this, click the "Tests" tab in the request editor and enter our script using JavaScript. We can then use the "pm.response.json()" function to parse the response body as JSON and access the data using dot notation or square bracket notation. For example: 

var jsonData = pm.response.json(); pm.variables.set("id", jsonData.id); 

This will set a variable called "id" to the value of the "id" field in the JSON response. We can then use the variable in any subsequent request by enclosing the variable name in double curly braces, like this: {{id}}. 

There are many other ways to handle dynamic variables in Postman, depending on our specific needs. For example, we can use the "pm.environment.set()" function to set an environment variable, which can be used across all requests in a particular environment. We can also use the "pm.globals.set()" function to set a global variable, which can be used across all requests in all environments. 

In addition to setting variables, we can also use the "pm.expect()" function in the "Tests" tab to assert the values of variables. This is useful for verifying that the expected value was set, and for debugging any issues that may arise. Overall, handling dynamic variables in Postman is a powerful way to automate and streamline our API testing workflow. By setting and asserting variables at different stages of the process, we can create more flexible and dynamic test scenarios that can adapt to changing data and condition. 

  • First, we need to create a new authentication token.  
  • Open Postman and click on the "Authentication" tab.  
  • Then click on the "Create New Token" button.  
  • Enter some information about the token, such as its name and expiration date.  
  • Now, click on the "Create Token" button. 
  • To authorize a request with OAuth2, we will need to first create an authentication token. We can do this by clicking the "OAuth2" tab and entering our credentials in the "OAuth2 Client ID" and "OAuth2 Client Secret" fields.  
  • Once we have created the token, we can use it in the "Authorization" tab to send the request. We will then receive a token in the "Token" field. We can use this token to access the request again in the future.  
  • To authorize a request with a paraphrase, we will need to enter our credentials in the "Authorization" tab and click the "Send" button. Once the request has been sent, we will receive a token in the "Token" field. We can use this token to access the request again in the future. 

Authentication means verifying someone's identity. We might do this with a username and password, or by using a token that is given to us (like a security badge). OAuth 2.0 is a way to authorize API requests without having to enter our user name and password. Instead, we use an authorization code that is sent to us in the form of a token.

To modify a request in a collection in Postman, follow these steps: 

  • Open the Postman app and navigate to the Collections tab in the left sidebar. 
  • Locate the collection that contains the request we want to modify and click on it to expand the list of requests. 
  • Click on the request we want to modify to open it in the request editor. 
  • In the request editor, we can modify any of the following elements of the request: 
  • Method: Use the dropdown menu to select the HTTP method (e.g., GET, POST, PUT, DELETE) for the request. 
  • URL: Enter the URL for the request in the "Enter request URL" field. We can also use variables in the URL to make the request more flexible and reusable. 
  • Headers: Click on the "Headers" tab to view and modify the request headers. To add a new header, click the "Add Header" button and enter the key and value for the header. 
  • Body: Click on the "Body" tab to view and modify the request body. Depending on the method and content type, we may be able to enter form data, raw data, or a file in the body of the request. 
  • Pre-request Script: Click on the "Pre-request Script" tab to view and modify any scripts that run before the request is sent. We can use pre-request scripts to set up variables or perform other tasks that need to be done before the request is sent. 
  • Tests: Click on the "Tests" tab to view and modify any tests that are run after the request is sent. We can use tests to verify that the response from the server meets certain criteria, such as having a certain status code or containing specific data. 
  • After we have made the necessary modifications to the request, click the "Send" button to send the modified request to the server and view the response. 
  • If we want to save our changes, click the "Save" button in the top menu. 

Also, we can modify the properties of a collection itself, such as its name, description, and environment. To do this, click on the collection in the Collections tab and then click the "Edit" button in the top menu. 

Modifying requests in a collection in Postman can be a useful way to update or customize API workflow. Whether we are making changes to the request itself or modifying the tests and scripts associated with it, Postman provides a number of tools and features to help we work more efficiently and effectively with our APIs. 

When designing and implementing a collection for testing a RESTful API, one should consider the following steps: 

  • Understand API's Functionality and Requirements: This should include understanding the API's endpoint structure, request-response patterns, and any security or authentication mechanisms in place. 
  • Define the Test Cases: Identify the different scenarios that the API should be tested for, including positive and negative test cases, edge cases, and error handling. 
  • Create the Requests and Associated Elements: Use Postman to create requests and associated elements, such as headers and environment variables, needed to test the API. Organize the requests into folders based on API's endpoint structure and the test cases defined. 
  • Implement Test Scripts: Use Postman's built-in test scripting capabilities to validate the API's responses and check for specific conditions, such as status codes and response data. 
  • Document the Collection: Provide clear and detailed documentation for the collection, including information on the API's functionality, the test cases covered, and any important notes or considerations. 
  • To ensure the collection is maintainable and scalable, one should consider the following strategies: 
  • Use Environment Variables: This allows for easy modification of commonly used variables, such as API endpoint URLs and authentication credentials, without having to update the requests individually. 
  • Use Data Files: Instead of hard-coding data in the requests, use data files to feed data into the requests. This allows for easy modification and maintenance of test data. 
  • Use Modularization: Break down the collection into smaller, modular sections, such as individual requests or groups of requests for specific endpoint or functionality. This allows for easier management and maintenance of the collection. 
  • Use Version Control: Use version control software, such as Git, to track changes to the collection and easily roll back to previous versions if necessary. 
  • Use Collaboration Tools: Use Postman's collaboration features, such as sharing and commenting, to allow multiple team members to work on the collection simultaneously and to easily share feedback and ideas.

To share a collection in Postman, we need to click on the collection we want to share, then hit the "Share" button. In the "Share Collection" window that appears, we can choose to share the collection via a link, by email, or by generating a code snippet.

To import a collection in Postman from a link, we will need to follow these steps: 

  • Open Postman. 
  • Click on the "Import" button in the top menu, or use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl + O (on Windows) or Command + O (on Mac). 
  • In the Import modal window that appears, click on the "Import from Link" tab. 
  • Paste the link to the collection we want to import in the "Link" field. 
  • If the link is to a file that is not in the Postman Collection format (e.g., a JSON file), we will need to select the appropriate format from the "Format" dropdown menu. 
  • Click the "Import" button to begin the import process. 
  • If the link requires authentication (e.g., a private GitHub repository), we will be prompted to enter our credentials. 
  • Once the collection has been successfully imported, it will appear in the Collections tab in the left sidebar. 
  • We have now imported a collection from a link in Postman. 
  • Also, we can also import a collection in Postman from a file stored on our local machine. To do this, simply click on the "Import" button and select the "Import File" tab. Then, select the file we want to import and click the "Import" button. 
  • Importing a collection in Postman can be a useful way to share API requests with our team or to reuse a set of requests that we have previously saved. Collections can also be used to organize our requests and make it easier to find the ones we need. 
  • One of the benefits of using collections in Postman is that they allow to group related requests together and organize them in a logical way. For example, we might have one collection for each API that we are working with, or we might have a collection for each project or feature that we are developing. 
  • Collections can also be used to store environment variables and test scripts. Environment variables allow to store values that can be used in multiple requests, such as API keys or base URLs. Test scripts, on the other hand, allow to automatically test the responses that we receive from an API to ensure that it is functioning correctly. 
  • To create a new collection in Postman, click on the "New Collection" button in the left sidebar. Then, give our collection a name and optional description and click the "Create" button. We can then start adding requests to our collection by clicking on the "Add Request" button in the top menu. 

The process of incorporating a collection from a code snippet within the Postman platform commences with the initiation of Postman application. Once the program is started, we must select the "import" button, which is located in the upper left corner of the application interface. This action will initiate a new window, where we will be prompted to choose the file or code snippet that we wish to import. 

Subsequently, the user must select the "code" option from the import window. This selection enables us to directly paste or enter their code snippet into the import window. Additionally, we will be prompted to specify the type of code that is being imported. In this scenario, we must select the "Postman Collection" option, as to incorporate a Postman collection. 

After selecting the "Postman Collection" option, we will be prompted to assign a name to their collection. This name will serve as an identifier for the collection within the Postman application. It is imperative to select a name that is both descriptive and easily remembered as this will facilitate the process of locating and accessing the collection at a later stage. 

Upon assigning a name to the collection, we will be prompted to select the environment in which the collection will be imported. Within the Postman platform, an environment refers to a set of variables and values that are utilized to define the context in which requests are made. For instance, an environment may define the base URL for an API or the authentication credentials required for access. By selecting the appropriate environment, we can ensure that the requests will function correctly upon import into Postman. 

After selecting the environment, we will be prompted to review import settings. This step is crucial as it allows us to confirm the accuracy of the settings and make necessary adjustments before proceeding with the import process. 

Finally, we can activate the "import" button to incorporate the collection into the Postman application. The collection can be located on the left-hand side of the Postman application, under the "Collections" tab. We can interact with requests and responses, run tests, inspect them, and utilize them in various ways.

To view network logs in Postman, follow these steps: 

  • Click the "Network" tab in the bottom pane of the Postman app. 
  • Make a request in Postman. 
  • The network logs for the request will be displayed in the "Network" tab. 
  • The network logs will show the request and response details, including the request URL, method, headers, and body, as well as the response status, headers, and body. We can use these logs to help debug network issues and understand the communication between our client and the server.

By default, Postman sets a timeout of 60000 milliseconds (60 seconds) for requests. We can change this timeout by following these steps:

  • Click the "Settings" button in the top right corner of the Postman app. 
  • In the "General" tab, scroll down to the "Timeout" section. 
  • Enter the desired timeout value in milliseconds in the "Request timeout (ms)" field. 
  • Click the "Save" button to save the changes. 
  • The custom timeout will apply to all requests made in Postman until it is changed again. 

One of the important features of Postman is its ability to automatically follow redirects. When a request is made to an API that returns a redirect response (HTTP status code 301 or 302), Postman will automatically follow the redirect and send a request to the URL specified in the "Location" header of the response. This can be a convenient feature, as it saves you from having to manually follow the redirect and send a separate request to the new URL. 

However, there may be cases where you don't want Postman to automatically follow redirects. For example, you might want to inspect the redirect response and verify that it is returning the expected "Location" header before sending a request to the new URL. In these cases, it is possible to disable automatic follow redirects in Postman. To enable or disable automatic follow redirects in Postman, you need to access the "Settings" dialog. Here's how: 

  • Open Postman and click on the "File" menu in the top-left corner of the window. 
  • From the drop-down menu, select "Settings." 
  • In the "Settings" dialog, select the "General" tab. 
  • Under the "General" tab, you'll see a toggle switch labeled "Follow redirects." 
  • To enable automatic follow redirects, turn the toggle switch on. To disable automatic follow redirects, turn the toggle switch off. 
  • Once you've made your selection, click the "Save" button to save your changes. 

It's that simple! From now on, Postman will either automatically follow redirects (if you enabled the feature) or not follow redirects (if you disabled the feature) for all requests you make. 

If you have disabled automatic follow redirects, you can still manually follow a redirect by inspecting the response and sending a separate request to the URL specified in the "Location" header. To do this, simply copy the URL from the "Location" header and paste it into the "URL" field in a new request. 

HTTP authentication allows a server to verify the identity of a client making a request. There are several different types of HTTP authentication, including basic authentication, digest authentication, and bearer token authentication. 

To use HTTP authentication in Postman, follow these steps: 

  • Select the request we want to authenticate in the Postman app. 
  • Click the "Authorization" tab in the request editor. 
  • Select the type of authentication we want to use from the "Type" dropdown menu. 
  • If we are using basic or digest authentication, enter the username and password in the appropriate fields. 
  • If we are using bearer token authentication, enter the token in the "Token" field. 
  • Click the "Send" button to send the request. 
  • Example: To use basic authentication with the username "user" and password "pass" in a Postman request, we would select "Basic Auth" from the "Type" dropdown menu, enter "user" in the "Username" field, and enter "pass" in the "Password" field. 

Postman Cloud is a cloud-based version of the Postman API development platform that allows users to share and collaborate on API development projects. It includes features such as team collaboration, version control, and integrations with popular API gateways and development tools. 

Some of the key benefits of using Postman Cloud include: 

  • Collaboration: Postman Cloud allows teams to work together on API development projects, with features such as team workspaces, shared collections, and real-time collaboration. 
  • Version Control: Postman Cloud includes version control for API collections, allowing users to track changes and roll back to previous versions if needed. 
  • Integrations: Postman Cloud integrates with popular API gateways and development tools such as AWS API Gateway, Azure API Management, and Jenkins. 
  • Scalability: Postman Cloud is designed to scale to meet the needs of large teams and enterprise-level API development projects. 

Postman Cloud is available on a subscription basis, with various pricing plans to meet the needs of different teams and organizations. Users can sign up for a free Postman Cloud account, which includes access to basic features such as team collaboration and integrations, or upgrade to a paid plan for additional features and support. 

Postman collections allow to group related requests together and run them as a suite. This can be useful for organizing and automating API tests. 

To create a new collection in Postman, follow these steps: 

  • Click the "Collections" tab on the left side of the Postman app. 
  • Click the "Create Collection" button. 
  • Give the collection a name and an optional description. 
  • Click the "Create" button to create the collection. 

To add a request to a collection, we need to click on "Add to Collection" button in the request editor and select the collection we want to add it to. 

To run a collection in Postman, we need to hit the "Runner" button in the top right corner of the app and select the collection we want to run. 

Postman console is a JavaScript console that allows to run code and see the output in the Postman app. This can be useful for debugging and testing code that interacts with APIs. 

To access Postman console, we need to click on the "Console" tab in the bottom pane of the Postman app. 

To run code in the Postman console, enter it in the input field and press the "Enter" key. The output will be displayed below the input field. 

Example: We might use the Postman console to test a JavaScript function that makes an API request and processes the response. We could enter the function in the console and see the output to ensure that it is working as expected. 

Postman scripts are JavaScript code that can be run before or after a request is sent. This can be useful for things like setting up test data, manipulating request or response data, or making assertions about the response. 

To use a script in Postman, click the "Tests" tab in the request editor and enter our script in the input field. We can use the special "pm" object to access request and response data and perform actions like setting variables or making assertions. 

Example: We might use a script to make an assertion that the response status code is 200, like this: ` 

pm.test("Status code is 200", () => pm. 

Advanced

Expect to come across this popular question in interview questions on Postman.  

To set up a Postman environment to store variables:

  • Click the ‘Manage Environments’ button in the upper right corner of the Postman window. 
  • Hit the ‘Add’ button in the lower left corner of the Manage Environments modal. 
  • Give our environment a name and add the variables we want to store. We can also specify default values for each variable. To use a variable in our query, enclose the variable name in double curly braces (for example, {{variable name}}). 

To test a response and check if it contains specific data, we can use the pm.test function on the Test tab of the request editor. for example: 

pm.test("Response must contain user data", function() { 
var jsonData = pm.response.json(); 
pm.expect(jsonData).to.have.property('user'); 
}); 

This tests if the JSON response contains a property called "user". 

A must-know for anyone heading into a Postman interview, this question is frequently asked in Postman interview questions.  

OAuth (Open Authorization) is an open standard for authorization that allows users to grant third-party applications access to their resources, such as their data on another website, without sharing their passwords. OAuth is commonly used as a way for users to log in to third-party applications using their Google, Facebook, or other social media accounts, as well as for allowing third-party applications to access API resources on behalf of a user. 

OAuth works by allowing users to grant access to their resources to third-party applications without revealing their passwords. Instead of sharing their login credentials, users are issued a token that can be used to access their resources. This token is sent with each request to the API, and the API can use it to verify the authenticity of the request. 

There are several different versions of OAuth, with OAuth 2.0 being the most widely used. OAuth 2.0 is flexible and extensible, and it allows users to grant different types of access to their resources, such as read-only access or write access.

To configure a Postman collection to execute a set of requests in a specific order, we need to follow these steps: 

  • Click the Collections tab on the left sidebar. Click the Create Collection button. 
  • Give the collection a name and click the Create button. 
  • Click the Add Request button to add the request to our collection. 
  • Rearrange the order of the requirements in the collection using the drag-and-drop interface. 

When making a request to a URL, it may be necessary to include dynamic variables within the URL. For example, if we are requesting information about a specific user, the user's ID would be a dynamic variable that needs to be included in the URL. 

There are several ways to include dynamic variables in a request URL, such as string concatenation and template literals. String concatenation involves using the "+" operator to combine a variable with the rest of the URL string. Template literals, on the other hand, allow us to include variables within a string by enclosing the variable within ${}. This is a more recent addition to JavaScript and offers a more convenient way of including variables within strings. 

It is important to keep in mind that if the variable is a user input, it is necessary to validate it and sanitize it to prevent security vulnerabilities such as SQL injection. This means checking the input for any unexpected or malicious characters, and removing or encoding them if necessary. 

Additionally, many popular frameworks such as Angular, React, or Vue have built-in methods for handling dynamic variables in URLs. These frameworks provide a convenient way to handle routing and dynamic URLs, making it easier to include dynamic variables in a request URL. 

Overall, including dynamic variables in a request URL can be done by using string concatenation or template literals. It is important to validate and sanitize the variable if it is a user input, and to check the framework we are using handle routing and dynamic URLs.

To integrate Slack with Postman, we need to perform the following steps:

  1. We need to make sure we have a Slack account and a Postman account. If we don't have them already, we need to sign up for both.
  2. In Postman, we need to go to the Integrations tab in the Settings section.
  3. From the list of available integrations, select Slack.
  4. Click the "Add to Slack" button.
  5. We will be redirected to a page where we need to authorize the integration. Click on the "Authorize" button to proceed.
  6. Once the integration is authorized, we will be redirected back to the Integrations tab in Postman.
  7. In the Slack integration settings, we can customize the integration by specifying the Slack channel where we want to receive notifications, as well as the types of notifications we want to receive.
  8. Click the "Save" button to save our changes.
  9. i. Now, we have successfully integrated Slack with Postman. We should now receive notifications in our specified Slack channel whenever certain events occur in Postman (e.g., a test run has completed).

To use Postman environments and variables in Jenkins, we can pass the relevant environment or variable files as arguments to the Newman command in our Jenkins pipeline. For example, we might use the following syntax to pass an environment file and a global variable file to Newman: 

newman run collection.json -e environment.json -g global_variables.json 

To use Postman environments and variables in Jenkins, we can pass the relevant environment or variable files as arguments to the Newman command in our Jenkins pipeline. For example, we might use the following syntax to pass an environment file and a global variable file to Newman: 

newman run collection.json -e environment.json -g global_variables.json 

The -e flag is used to specify an environment file, and the -g flag is used to specify a global variable file. In this example, collection.json is the collection file, environment.json is the environment file, and global_variables.json is the global variable file. An environment file in Postman is a JSON file that contains a set of key-value pairs.  

These key-value pairs can be used to set variables in Postman, such as the base URL for an API. By passing an environment file to Newman, we can easily switch between different environments, such as a development environment and a production environment, without having to manually change the variables in the collection.A global variable file in Postman is also a JSON file that contains a set of key-value pairs.  

These key-value pairs can be used to set global variables that can be accessed by all requests in a collection. By passing a global variable file to Newman, we can easily switch between different sets of global variables without having to manually change them in the collection. 

In addition to passing environment and variable files to Newman, we can also pass other arguments to the command. For example, we can use the -r flag to specify a reporters, which is used to generate test results in a specific format such as HTML or JSON. We can also use the -n flag to specify the number of iterations to run the collection. 

When using Postman and Newman in Jenkins, it is important to keep in mind that the Jenkins pipeline should be configured to run the Newman command at the appropriate time in the CI process. For example, the pipeline should be configured to run the Newman command after the code has been built and before it is deployed to production. Additionally, it is important to ensure that the environment and variable files are properly configured and stored in a secure location that is accessible to Jenkins. 

We can also use the Jenkins EnvInject plugin to set environment variables in our Jenkins pipeline, which can then be accessed by Newman as part of the build process.

It's no surprise that this one pops up often in API testing interview questions on Postman.  

One of the useful features of Postman is the ability to send requests to multiple environments or servers. This can be useful for testing purposes, as it allows you to easily switch between different environments, such as development, staging, and production, or test against different servers or APIs. In this tutorial, we will cover the following: 

  • Setting up environments in Postman 
  • Using environment variables in requests 
  • Sending requests to different environments or servers 

Setting up Environments in Postman

To set up environments in Postman, go to the "Environments" tab in the top right corner of the window and click the "Manage Environments" button. This will open the environments manager, where we can create and manage multiple environments. 

To create a new environment, click the "Add" button and enter a name for the environment. Then, enter the variable names and values for the environment. For example, we might have a variable called "base_url" that represents the root URL of our API. 

We can also import and export environments using the "Import" and "Export" buttons. This can be useful if we want to share our environments with other team members or use the same environments across different machines. 

Using Environment Variables in Requests

Once we have set up our environments, we can use environment variables in our requests. To do this, use the double curly brace syntax, like this: {{variable_name}}. For example, if we have a base_url variable set up in our environment, we can use it in the URL of our request like this: 

{{base_url}}/users 

We can also use environment variables in the request body, headers, and other parts of the request. This can be useful if we want to reuse certain values across multiple requests or switch between different values depending on the environment. 

Sending Requests to Different Environments or Servers

To send requests to different environments or servers, we need to select the appropriate environment from the dropdown list in the top right corner of the window. This will apply the environment variables to all requests in the current collection or workspace. 

We can also switch between environments using the Postman API. This can be useful if we want to automate the process of switching between environments, or if we want to use Postman in a continuous integration or deployment workflow. 

To switch environments using the API, we can use the following request: 

POST /api/environments/{environment_id}/activate 

Replace {environment_id} with the ID of the environment we want to activate. We can find the environment ID in the environments manager, or by using the GET /api/environments endpoint to list all environments. 

In addition to switching between environments, we can also use Postman to send requests to different servers or APIs. To do this, simply enter the desired URL in the request editor and send the request as usual. We can use environment variables in the URL to make it easier to switch between different servers or APIs. 

In summary, Postman allows you to easily send requests to multiple environments or servers by using environment variables and the ability to switch between environments. This can be useful for testing purposes, as it allows you to easily switch between different environments or test against different servers or APIs. 

A mock server is a tool that can be used for testing and development purposes. It allows to simulate the behaviour of a real server without actually setting it up.  

  1. To make something happen, we first need to have some things in place. For example, we need to have a pencil and paper to write down our ideas, or a wooden block to build with.
  2. Open the Postman app and click on the "Mock Server" button in the top right corner of the window. This will open a new window with a "Mock Server" collection. In this collection, we can create requests and collections. We can also find useful information about Postman in the Postman documentation.
  3. When we open the Postman app, the Mock Server button is located in the top right corner. If we click on it, a dropdown menu will appear. We can choose to create a new mock server or access an existing one.
  4. To create a new mock server, we will need to click on the "Create a New Mock Server" button. This will open a new window.
  5. Now, click on the "Create a New Mock Server" button on the left. We will be able to configure our server here.
  6. We will enter a name for our mock server and choose a collection that we want to associate with it.
  7. In the "Name" field, type a name for our mock server. This name will be displayed in the list of mock servers in the Postman app, so make sure its name is descriptive and easy to remember.
  8. First, choose the collection of requests and responses that we want the mock server to generate. This will include the requests we make and the responses the server sends back. If we don't have a collection already, we can create one by clicking on the "Create New" button.
  9. i. In this step, we will create a new server. First, we will need to go to the "Create Server" button.
  10. To create a mock server, enter a name for our server and select a collection. Then, click the "Create Server" button to create the server.
  11. Once mock server is created and a new window will open with the URL of the mock server.
  12. To use the mock server, we will need to create a new window and copy the URL. This URL will be the endpoint we use to send requests to the mock server.
  13. In this step, we will use a URL to send requests to the mock server. The mock server will return the responses that we have configured in our collection.
  14. To test the mock server, we can send a request to the mock server URL. The mock server will respond with the response we have configured in our collection for the request.
  15. We can change the responses that the mock server sends back. We can do this by clicking on the "Edit" button next to the response in the collection.
  16. To make our mock server respond in a way that we prefer, we can edit the response by clicking on the "Edit" button next to it. This will open a new window where we can change the body, headers, and other settings.
  17. To stop the mock server, click on the "Stop" button in the window that shows the mock server. This will stop the mock server and it will not be available anymore.

Continuous integration is a way of working that helps developers merge their code changes into a shared repository often, and then runs automated tests to make sure that the changes don't cause any problems.

The postman tool can be integrated with CI platforms like Jenkins so that API tests are automatically run during the build process. This can help ensure that API is properly tested and any issues detected are fixed before it is deployed to production. 

To set up Postman integration with Jenkins, the following steps can be followed: 

  • To use the Newman command-line tool with Jenkins, we need to install it on the Jenkins server. Newman is a tool that makes it easy to run Postman collections from the command line. 
  • Create a "Postman Collection" that contains all the API tests that should be run as part of the Continuous Integration process. 
  • The Newman command-line tool can export the Postman collection as a JSON file, which can be used to run tests in Jenkins. 
  • Jenkins is a software that helps we create projects and settings for building software. We can use this software to create our own projects, or to customize projects that someone else has created. 
  • To run the Newman command-line tool and execute the API tests, we'll need to add a "Execute shell" build step to our project configuration. 
  • To run the tests, type the Newman command in the "Execute shell" build step. The command in this step is the name of the Postman collection that we exported earlier. If we want to set environment variables for the tests, we can also include a file called environment.json in this step. 

The project configuration is saved and the build is started. This will run the API tests using Newman and show the results in Jenkins. 

Postman can be integrated with Jenkins to customize how the tests are run. We can specify the location of Newman and collection.json files, set environment variables for the tests, and configure Jenkins to fail if any tests fail. 

Postman has a built-in Jenkins integration that can automatically run API tests whenever a collection is saved or published. This can help we set up a more automated CI process where tests are run every time code changes are made. 

Integrating Postman with CI platforms like Jenkins can help automate API testing process, making sure that the API is thoroughly tested before it is deployed to production. By following the steps outlined above, developers can set up Postman integration with Jenkins and have the tests run automatically as part of the CI process. 

Postman is a tool that can be used to test the performance of an API. It provides different features to help developers simulate different types of network conditions, such as high latency or low bandwidth.  

To simulate different network conditions in Postman, we need to use Postman proxy. The Postman proxy allows to intercept HTTP requests and responses, modify them, and then forward them to their intended destination. This way, we can simulate different network conditions by adding latency or limiting the bandwidth of the requests and responses. 

To use the Postman proxy, we need to open the Postman settings and enable the proxy. In the proxy settings, we can specify the port the proxy will listen on. 

The Postman proxy can help us simulate different types of network conditions by adding "delay" and "download" or "upload" rules to our requests. These rules allow to add a delay to the requests and responses that pass through the proxy, and to limit the bandwidth of the requests and responses. To add a delay rule, go to the Postman proxy settings and select "Delay" from the dropdown menu. We can then specify the amount of time that we want to wait before responding to a request, as well as any conditions that should trigger the delay (e.g., only delay requests to a specific host). 

To add a rule that limits how much data people can download or upload, go to the Postman proxy settings and select "Download" or "Upload" from the dropdown menu. We can then choose the maximum download or upload rate we want to apply, and any conditions that should trigger the bandwidth limit (like only allowing requests from a specific host). 

To test the performance of our API under different network conditions, we can use the Postman proxy. To do this, we will need to configure our API client to use the Postman proxy as its HTTP proxy. For example, if we are using the Postman app to test our API, we can set the "HTTP Proxy" field in the "General" tab of the request editor to "http://127.0.0.1: {{proxy-port}}", where "{{proxy-port}}" is the port that we specified in the Postman proxy settings. 

To make our API work well even when the network is slow or congested, we can follow some tips to improve its performance. Caching helps the API make fewer requests in order to get the information that we need. A load balancer is a computer system that helps to distribute incoming requests across multiple servers. This can help to prevent any single server from becoming overloaded.  

A content delivery network (CDN) helps to serve static assets, such as images and CSS files, from a location that is closer to the user. By compressing the data, we can make it easier to send over the network. With asynchronous processing, we can offload tasks from our computer that take a long time to complete.

To debug an issue with an API request, we will need to examine API's documentation or speak with the API's developer to understand the specific requirements for authenticating requests, handling errors, and so on. 

We can also use tools like Charles or Fiddler to capture HTTP traffic between the client and the server and inspect the request and response data in detail. 

We can use debugging statements such as console.log and the debugger keyword to print values to the console and pause the execution of the script, and we can also examine the server logs to see if there are any error messages or other useful information that can help identify the root cause of the issue. 

Finally, we can use Postman's "Environment" feature to switch between different environments and compare the results. The steps that could be taken to try and fix an issue with an API depend on the nature of the issue. In some cases, it might be helpful to examine the server logs to see if there are any errors or other clues about what is causing the issue. Additionally, it can be helpful to verify that the same version of the API is being used in each environment, to examine the environment variables and system configuration, to debug issues with API integration, and to verify that the API is being called with the correct parameters and payloads. 

To debug an issue where our API is returning a "500 Internal Server Error" response, we can use Postman to gather more information about the error. This may help we figure out the root cause. There may be information about the problem on the API's documentation or the API's developer may be able to help we figure out what is wrong. In the Postman "Pretty" or "Raw" view, we can see the details of the request and response. If we notice anything strange, it might help to understand what caused the error.  

In the "Test Results" view, we can see how the response data was processed, any errors that occurred, and what kind of data was returned. To see what happened when an error occurred, we can use the "Console" view in Postman. This view will show us any log output and any error messages that may have been generated. To find out why the web server is giving me a "500 Internal Server Error" message, I will need to check the environment around it. This could mean things like whether there are enough resources available, or if the settings are correct.  

By looking at the environment, I might be able to find out what is causing the problem. If we are having trouble using the API, we can try using a different client to see if the problem still occurs. We are checking to see if there are any problems with the data we sent. If there are, we will be able to figure out what went wrong. 

Debugging an issue where our API is returning a "500 Internal Server Error" response can be difficult, but by examining the available documentation, inspecting the request and response data in Postman, using the "Test Results" and "Console" views, and testing the API with different clients and request data, we can often find the root cause of the issue and fix it. 

After we have sent the request, we will see a response in the "Response" window. The response will contain information about the response code, the bytes sent, and the time it took to send the request. To create a new email, go to the "New" tab in Postman. To create a new document, we can either request one from the server or create one ourself. Enter the name of the request we want to make.  

To POST data to the server, choose the HTTP method, like POST. In the "Enter request URL" field, enter the URL of the website we want to send the request to. In the "Header" section, we can add any extra information that we want to include with our request. To add data to a document, we can use the "form-data" option. This lets us input information using a form. To upload a file from our computer, we need to click the "Choose Files" button and select the file we want to upload. In the "Key" field, enter the name of the form field that will contain the file (e.g. "file").  

We can use the "send" button to send a request to someone. We can use Postman to automate API testing by using the API's built-in testing tools. To run automated tests of our APIs using Postman, we can use the Collection Runner. This tool lets us run a series of API requests from a Postman collection, and then view and analyze the results. 

First, we will need to create a GraphQL server. This will be where our app will store its data. Next, we should create a Postman environment for testing our GraphQL queries. Finally, we need to configure Postman to use our GraphQL server. 

In the "Body" tab, select the "GraphQL" option. To use GraphQL with Postman, we'll need to set up a URL that serves as the entry point for our GraphQL server. We can do this by running a GraphQL server and exposing it at a specific URL. Click the "Send" button to send the request to the GraphQL endpoint.  

The server will execute the query or mutation and return the result in the "Response" tab. In Postman, select the "POST" method and enter our GraphQL endpoint URL in the "URL" field. We can then enter our GraphQL query or mutation in the "Query" field.

To test a REST API with Postman, we need to do the following: 

  1. Install and set up Postman on our computer. 
  2. Import the API collection or environment that we want to use. 
  3. Set the request method (e.g., GET, POST, PUT, DELETE) and enter the API endpoint URL in the address bar. 
  4. Optionally, we can add headers, parameters, and a request body to our API request. 
  5. Click the "Send" button to execute the API request and view the response. 

Here is a more detailed explanation of each step: 

  1. Install and set up Postman: First, download and install the latest version of Postman from the official website (https://www.postman.com/downloads/). Once Postman is installed, launch the app and sign in to our account (or create a new account if we don't have one). 
  2. Import API Collection or Environment: Postman allows to import API collections and environments from a file or URL. An API collection is a group of related API requests, while an environment is a set of predefined variables that we can use in our API requests. To import an API collection or environment, click the "Import" button in the top navigation bar, and then select the file or enter the URL. 
  3. Set the Request Method and Enter the API Endpoint URL: In the "Method" dropdown, select the HTTP method (e.g., GET, POST, PUT, DELETE) that we want to use for our API request. Then, enter the API endpoint URL in the address bar. 
  4. Add Headers, Parameters, and a Request Body: Depending on the API, we may need to add additional information to our request, such as headers, query parameters, or a request body. To add headers, click the "Headers" tab and enter the key-value pairs. To add query parameters, click the "Params" tab and enter the key-value pairs. To add a request body, click the "Body" tab and enter the payload in the appropriate format (e.g., form data, raw JSON). 
  5. Execute API Request and View the Response: Once we have configured our API request, click the "Send" button to execute it. Postman will send the request to the API server and display the response in the "Response" panel. We can view the response status, headers, and body, as well as any errors that may have occurred

To debug a REST API with Postman, we can use the following techniques: 

  1. Use the "Test" tab to write test scripts that validate the API response. 
  2. Use the "Pre-request Script" tab to write scripts that modify the API request before it is sent. 
  3. Use the "Console" tab to view log messages and debug information. 
  4. Use the "History" tab to view the history of API requests and responses. 

Here is a more detailed explanation of each technique: 

Use the "Test" tab: The "Test" tab in Postman allows to write test scripts that validate the API response. We can use the Postman API to access the response data and perform assertions on it. For example, we can check the response status, headers.

Description

Tips and Tricks for Postman Interview Questions

There are some things we can do to make sure you are ready for the Postman interview. Here are some tips:

  • Postman application lets us make requests and test responses. We can also use it to generate documentation and mock servers. 
  • HTTP is a way to communicate with websites and other systems. RESTful APIs (short for "REpresentational State Transfer" APIs) are a way to make these interactions more efficient and organized. Postman is a tool that helps us understand and use HTTP and RESTful APIs. 
  • It can be used to make requests to various online services. By using different request headers and body parameters, we can learn more about how the service works. 
  • Variable and environment allow to store dynamic values and switch between different environments (e.g. staging, production). This can be helpful when testing APIs. 
  • In Postman, we can use JavaScript to test the responses of API requests. This can help us make sure that the responses are correct and that the headers are set the way we want them to be. 
  • The Collection Runner is a tool in Postman that can run a collection of API requests automatically. We can use it to test APIs in an organized way. 
  • Newman is a tool that lets us run Postman collections and environments from the command line. It can be useful for automating API testing. 
  • The Postman API lets us trigger collections and environments from external applications. This can be useful for automating API testing. 
  • To test our own APIs or to check if an API is available before we develop it, we can use the mock servers feature in Postman. This way, we can create fake responses to test the responses our API gets. 
  • If we want to create good API documentation for our code, we can use Postman. This tool can automatically generate documentation for our code based on our collection and environment. 
  • Postman lets you monitor APIs and get notified if they break or change. This can help us stay up to date on how our apps work. Software Tester certification will help to develop a complete understanding of testing processes to comprehend industry best practices and discover how to move through the testing stages. 

How to Prepare for Postman Interview Questions?

  • Prepare to talk about our experience with Postman and its different features. The request builder, test runner, documentation generator, mock servers, and other tools should all be well understood by us. 
  • Because these are the building blocks of the Postman program, make sure we have a fundamental understanding of HTTP protocols and RESTful APIs. The many HTTP methods (such as GET, POST, PUT, DELETE, etc.), HTTP status codes, and the fundamentals of RESTful APIs should all be familiar to us. 
  • Learn how to use the Postman application to send API queries. You should be able to issue various requests, including GET, POST, PUT, DELETE, and others, and evaluate the results. Additionally, we need to be knowledgeable about using various request headers and body parameters. 
  • Know how to leverage Postman's variables and environment effectively. We should be able to transition between various environments and store dynamic values. 
  • Know how to use JavaScript to create test scripts in Postman to verify API return values. The status code, response content, and response headers of API answers ought to be verifiable. 
  • Learn how to run a number of API queries automatically with Postman's Collection Runner. The Collection Runner ought to allow to test APIs automatically. 
  • Learn how to execute Postman collections and environments from the command line using the Newman command-line tool. We ought should be able to automate API testing using Newman. 
  • Have a good understanding of the different HTTP methods (e.g. GET, POST, PUT, DELETE, etc.) and when to use them. 
  • Be familiar with HTTP status codes and what they indicate. 
  • Understand the principles of RESTful APIs and how they are designed. 

Job Roles

  • Postman Developer 
  • Postman Tester 
  • Postman Project Manager 
  • Postman Consultant 

Top Companies

  • Amazon 
  • Google 
  • Microsoft 
  • IBM 
  • Oracle 
  • Salesforce 
  • Adobe 
  • Intel 
  • HP 
  • Cisco

What to Expect in Postman API Testing Interview Questions?

Here we will try to understand the account of topics, scenarios, toughness level, panel structure, Interview stages and rounds. 

The panel structure for the Postman interview process typically includes members of the Postman team, including developers, engineers, and managers, as well as members of the HR team. The developers and engineers on the panel will be responsible for evaluating the candidate's technical skills and knowledge of API development and testing, while the managers and HR team members will be responsible for evaluating the candidate's fit with the company's culture and values. 

In the technical round, candidates will be expected to demonstrate their knowledge of API development and testing, as well as their experience with Postman or other similar tools. They may be given a coding challenge or a problem related to API testing to work on in order to evaluate their technical skills and problem-solving abilities. Additionally, the candidate may also be given a real-world scenario or project to work on, simulating a real-world work environment, to test their abilities further. Some of the important topics for this round are  

  1. Understanding API security standards such as OAuth and JWT. 
  2. Experience with API testing automation and scripting. 
  3. Knowledge of API management for IoT and edge computing. 
  4. API authentication mechanisms knowledge of API. 
  5. Experience working with JSON and XML data formats. 

Another round that may be included in the on-site interview is a culture fit round. During this round, the candidate will meet with members of the team to discuss their fit with the company's values and culture. They may be asked about their experience working in a collaborative environment or about their approach to problem-solving and team dynamics. This round is used to evaluate the candidate's ability to work well in a team and adapt to the company's culture, which is crucial for the smooth functioning of the organization. 

If the candidate passes all the rounds, they will then proceed to an offer round, where the interviewer will discuss the details of the position, including the compensation package and benefits, and ask if the candidate has any questions or concerns. Once the candidate accepts the offer, they will be given a joining date and the onboarding process will begin. 

Overall, the interview process is designed to be challenging and assess the candidate's skills and qualifications in a thorough and rigorous manner. The panel typically includes members of the Postman team, including developers, engineers, and managers, as well as members of the HR team. To succeed in the API testing Postman interview questions, it is important for the candidate to be well prepared, have a good understanding of the company's values and culture, have a strong knowledge of API development and testing, as well as experience working with Postman or similar tools, and be aware of the latest trends and developments in the field of API development. 

Summary

With Postman, we can create requests like GET, POST, PUT, and DELETE by using different methods, add headers and data, and see the server's response. We can also save requests for later use and group them together for easier organization. Postman lets we can run tests on the responses we get from an API. These tests can help make sure the API is working correctly and help catch any problems that may occur as the API is updated. 

To test an API, we just need to send a request and write a script to check the response. Scripts can check for specific values in the response, as well as the structure of the response. The postman service provides tools that make it easy to run tests. For example, it has a library of "test snippets" that can be used to test common tasks, such as checking the value of a JSON key or verifying that a response is of a certain content type. 

Postman allows testing APIs in a special environment, which can help debug and troubleshoot them easier. It offers a number of features that make it a great tool for developing APIs. For example, it provides tools for generating documentation, testing APIs, and managing environments. 

Overall, Postman is a great tool for testing and developing APIs. It is used by developers and QA professionals, and its user-friendly interface and many features make it an essential tool for anyone working with APIs. In this article, we covered postman API testing interview questions, postman tool interview questions along with postman interview questions for testers and manual API testing using postman interview questions and Answers. KnowledgeHut's courses for Software Testing take a hands-on, practical approach while covering the core concepts that and every system and software tester should be familiar with. 

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