Testing Interview Questions and Answers

Whether you're interviewing for a software testing or a QA engineer position or simply want to be prepared for the possibility, it's important to brush up on your testing interview questions. After all, you'll want to be able to answer any software testing interview questions the interviewer throws your way confidently and with detailed explanations. We are here with some of the most common testing interview questions you may encounter, along with tips on how to answer each one. By being familiar with these manual testing interview questions, you'll be able to show that you're knowledgeable about the testing process and capable of conducting effective tests. You can take your testing skill sets to a greater level with a Certificate in Selenium Essentials Training.

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In manual testing, a testbed is a pre-configured testing environment that includes all of the necessary hardware, software, and other resources required to conduct a specific test. This allows testers to have complete control over every aspect of the testing process and helps to ensure that tests are conducted consistently and reliably.

A testbed can be used for a variety of different types of tests, including functional testing, performance testing, load testing, and stress testing. This helps to ensure consistency and reliability across all tests conducted in that environment. There are several things to consider when setting up a testbed.

  1. The type of test that will be conducted: To determine the necessary hardware and software requirements.
  2. The size and complexity of the test: A larger and more complex test will require a more robust testbed.
  3. The budget: There is a wide range of prices for testbeds, so it is important to find one that fits within the allocated budget.
  4. The timeline: It can take some time to properly configure a testbed, so it is important to allow this in the overall testing timeline.

Software testing is verifying a software application's functionality to ensure it meets the requirements specified. It helps identify errors, gaps, or missing functionality in the software before it is released to customers.

It is an essential part of the software development process and helps create better, more reliable software. This preventative measure can save time and money in the long run and improve customer satisfaction.

Testing also allows us to assess the quality of the software and its compliance with industry standards. Furthermore, it provides valuable feedback that can be used to improve the overall design and development process. It is required for its benefits such as.

  • Ensuring that the software meets all the requirements and functions as expected
  • Identifying any defects or issues so they can be fixed before release
  • Ensuring compatibility with different hardware and software platforms
  • Assessing performance informatics and scalability
  • Improving software quality and reducing development costs in the long run.

Automation testing can be used for regression testing, which is performed to verify that changes to the code have not introduced new bugs. It can also be used for functional testing, verifying that the software is functioning as intended. It should be chosen over manual testing when.

  1. If we have a large number of tests to run, automated testing can be much faster and more efficient than manual testing.
  2. If there is a need to run the same test or group of tests multiple times, automated testing can again save time and effort.
  3. Also, if your test requires a lot of data input, automated testing can ensure that all the data is entered each time correctly.

There are many different types of software tests, each designed to test a specific aspect of the software. Here are some of the most common:

  1. Unit Testing: Unit tests focus on individual components or modules of the software, and test how they work together.
  2. Integration Testing: Integration tests focus on how different components of the software work together.
  3. Regression Testing: Regression tests are used to ensure that changes to the code haven't introduced new bugs.
  4. System Testing: System tests focus on testing the entire system, end-to-end.
  5. Smoke Testing: Smoke testing is a type of test that is used to determine if the software is stable enough to be tested further.
  6. Performance Testing: Performance tests focus on how the software performs under different load conditions.
  7. User-Acceptance Testing: User-acceptance testing is used to ensure that the software meets the needs of the end users.
  8. Stress Testing: This test is used to test how the software behaves under high loads.
  9. Usability Testing: It is used to ensure that the software is easy to use and understand.
  10. Security Testing: It ensure that the software is secure from attack.

Exploratory testing is a type of testing that is conducted without following any specific test cases. It is more of an exploratory process, in which the tester tries to find as many bugs as possible. This type of testing is usually done when there is not enough time to create detailed test cases.

Exploratory testing can be conducted in various ways. One way is to simply start using the software and trying out all the different features. Another way is to create some sort of mental model of how the software should work, and then use that model to guide your testing.

Regardless of how it is conducted, exploratory testing can be very effective at finding bugs. This is because it forces the tester to really think about how the software works and to explore all the different ways that it can be used.

Exploratory testing is often used in conjunction with other types of testing. For example, a tester might first create some detailed test cases, and then use those cases to guide their exploratory testing. This can help to ensure that all the important features of the software are tested.

Suppose you are testing a new mobile application. You start by looking at the list of features that the app offers. You then try out each feature one by one, exploring how it works and what it does. As you do this, you keep track of any bugs that you find.

You might also try using the app in different ways than what is intended. For example, you might try to use the app while offline, or with a low battery. This can help to find any bugs that only occur under specific conditions. After you have explored all the features of the app, you compile a list of all the bugs that you found. This list is then used to improve the quality of the app before it is released to the public.

End-to-end testing is a type of software testing that ensures that all the components of a system work together as intended. This type of testing is used to verify the functionality of an application from start to finish, including all dependencies.

Unit testing, on the other hand, is a type of testing that focuses on individual units of code. This type of testing is used to ensure that each unit of code works as expected. Unit tests are usually written by the developers themselves and can be run automatically.

End-to-end testing is important because it allows you to verify the functionality of an entire system. This type of testing can catch errors that unit tests might miss, such as errors that only occur when multiple units of code are integrated.

End-to-end testing can be time-consuming and difficult to set up, so it is usually reserved for critical parts of the system. Unit tests, on the other hand, are relatively quick and easy to write and run, so they can be used to test more parts of the system.

An API is an interface that allows two pieces of software to communicate with each other. It is a set of rules and protocols that define how data should be exchanged between the two systems. An API can be used to access data or functionality from another application or service.

API stands for “Application Programming Interface”. A well-designed API will make it easy for developers to use and understand how to access the functionality or data of an application or service. A good API will also be well-documented, making it easy for developers to find the information they need. There are many different types of APIs, but some common examples include web APIs, database APIs, and messaging APIs.

Web APIs are a type of API that allow communication between two or more applications over the internet. They use web protocols such as HTTP and HTTPS to exchange data. Database APIs provide developers with a way to access data stored in a database. These APIs typically use SQL (Structured Query Language) to query the database and return the results.

Messaging APIs allow applications to send and receive messages in real-time. Common examples of messaging APIs include SMS (Short Message Service) and MMS (Multimedia Messaging Service) APIs.

A test coverage tool is a software development tool that helps measure how much testing has been done on a particular piece of code. Test coverage tools can be used to generate reports that show which parts of the code have been tested and which parts have not. This information can be used to help assess the quality of the tests and to determine where additional testing is needed.

There are many different types of test coverage tools available, and each has its own set of features. Some test coverage tools only work with specific programming languages, while others can work with any language. Some test coverage tools are open source, while others are commercial products.

There is no one "best" test coverage tool; the best tool for a given situation depends on the needs of the development team. Some common features of test coverage tools include the ability to:

  • Generate reports showing which parts of the code have been tested and which parts have not.
  • Show the percentage of code that has been covered by tests.
  • Identify which tests cover a particular piece of code.
  • Determine the impact of changes to the code on test coverage.
  • Integrate with other software development tools, such as IDEs and build systems.

Test coverage tools can be used to measure the effectiveness of tests and to help identify areas where additional testing is needed.

There are four main types of coverage techniques: statement coverage, branch coverage, path coverage, and condition coverage.

  1. Statement coverage is a measure of how many lines of code have been executed by a test. The goal is to execute every line of code at least once. This is the most basic form of testing and can be used to find simple bugs.
  2. Branch coverage indicates how many potential execution paths have been covered by a test. The goal is to execute every branch (if-then-else statement) at least once. This technique can find more complex bugs that involve conditional logic.
  3. Path coverage reflects how many possible execution paths have been covered by a test. The goal is to execute every possible path through the code. This technique can find bugs that involve complex conditional logic or recursion.
  4. Condition coverage refers to how many Boolean conditions have been evaluated to both true and false values by a test. The goal is to evaluate every condition in all possible combinations of true and false values. This technique can find bugs that involve complex conditional logic.

Black-box testing is a method of software testing that assesses the functionality of a system without having any knowledge of its internal structure or code. White-box testing, on the other hand, requires intimate knowledge of the system's internals in order to create effective test cases. Gray-box testing lies somewhere in between these two extremes, involving partial knowledge of the system under test.

Gray-box testing is often used in situations where full black-box testing is not possible or practical, but white-box testing is not feasible either. For example, when testing a web application, a tester may have access to the source code for the front-end components but not the back-end services. In this case, the tester would use gray-box testing methods to test the functionality of the application as a whole.

Gray-box testing can also be used when there is some knowledge of the internal structure of the system, but it is not necessary to know everything in order to create effective test cases. This might be the case when testing a complex piece of software with many different components. In this situation, a tester might focus on testing the interfaces between components, rather than trying to test each component in isolation.

Overall, gray-box testing is a flexible approach that can be adapted to fit a variety of different situations. It can be used when full black-box or white-box testing is not possible, or when a more targeted approach is needed. When used properly, gray-box testing can provide a good balance between depth and breadth of coverage.

There are various ways in which software testing can be carried out, depending on the specific goals and objectives of the project. In general, however, most software testing involves creating test scenarios, scripts, and cases that exercise the functionality of the software under test.

Test scenarios are high-level descriptions of potential user interactions with the software. They help testers to identify potential areas of problems or areas where further testing is needed.

Test scripts are more specific instructions for carrying out particular tests. They often include detailed expected results, so that testers can easily check whether the software is functioning as expected.

Test cases are individual tests that are designed to exercise a specific part of the software's functionality. A good test case should be easy to understand and should have a clear expected outcome.

When carrying out software testing, it is important to remember that not all tests will be successful. Some tests may find problems that were not anticipated, while others may simply reveal areas where further testing is needed. The goal of software testing is not to find all the bugs in the software, but rather to provide information that can help developers to improve the quality of their products.

A bug, in software testing, is an error, flaw, failure, or fault in a computer program that causes it to produce an incorrect or unexpected result, or to behave in unintended ways.

Software bugs are often classified according to their severity. A critical bug is one that causes a program to crash or freeze; a major bug is one that causes a program to produce incorrect results; and a minor bug is one that has little or no impact on the functioning of a program.

There are many different types of software bugs, and some are more serious than others. The most serious type of bug is a security vulnerability, which can allow attackers to gain access to a system or data.

Other types of bugs include memory leaks, which can cause a program to use up too much memory and slow down or crash; race conditions, which can cause a program to give incorrect results; and buffer overflows, which can allow attackers to execute arbitrary code on a system.

Bugs can be caused by errors in the code, by incorrect assumptions made by the programmers, or by unexpected input from the user. In some cases, a bug may be the result of an oversight or mistake made by the programmer. Bugs can be fixed by changing the code, by adding or removing features, or by redesigning the program. In some cases, it may be necessary to completely rewrite the program.

There is a big difference between bugs and errors. Bugs are small mistakes or problems that can easily be fixed. Errors, on the other hand, are much more serious and can cause major problems.

Bugs are usually not very serious and can often be fixed quite easily. They might cause a program to crash, or produce incorrect results, but they are not usually very difficult to fix. Errors, on the other hand, can be much more serious. They might cause data to be lost, or prevent a program from working at all. Errors can be very difficult to track down and fix, and often require expert help.

If someone finds a bug in the program, it's probably not a big deal and can be easily fixed. But if they find an error, they should seek help from someone who knows how to deal with them.

A test plan is a document that outline the strategy that will be used to test a software application. The plan should describe the testing approach and objectives, as well as the resources that will be required. The contents of a test plan will vary depending on the project, but typically includes information on the following topics:

  • Scope and objectives: what will be tested and why
  • Schedule: when testing will take place
  • Deliverables (test cases, results, etc): what will be delivered at the end of testing
  • Environment (hardware, software, network): what environment the tests will be run in
  • Risks and Mitigations: what risks are associated with the project and how they will be mitigated
  • Test Strategy: the approach that will be taken to test the software
  • Testing Types (Unit, Integration, System): the different types of testing that will be performed
  • Tools: the tools that will be used for testing, such as configuration management and defect tracking tools
  • Test Cases: the specific test cases that will be executed
  • Exit Criteria: the conditions that must be met in order for testing to be considered complete
  • Reporting Metrics: the metrics that will be used to report on the progress and results of testing.

Test reports and test deliverables are two important aspects of any software testing project. Both help stakeholders understand the progress and quality of the testing process, and both can be used to make decisions about the next steps in the project. However, there are some key differences between these two types of artifacts.

Test reports typically provide a high-level overview of the testing process, including information such as the number of tests run, the percentage of tests passed, and the number of defects found. Test deliverables, on the other hand, are more detailed documents that provide information about specific aspects of the testing process. For example, a test deliverable might include a detailed list of all the test cases that were run, along with their results.

Another key difference between test reports and test deliverables is that test reports are typically generated automatically, while test deliverables are often created manually. This means that test deliverables can be more time-consuming to create, but they can also provide more accurate and up-to-date information about the testing process.

Finally, it's important to note that not all stakeholders will need or want access to both test reports and test deliverables. For example, management may primarily be interested in high-level information from test reports, while developers may need more detailed information from test deliverables. It's important to understand the needs of all stakeholders before deciding which type of artifact to create.

There are several different methods that can be used to debug a problem in a computer program. Some of these include brute force debugging, backtracking, cause elimination, and program slicing.

  • Brute force debugging is a method of debugging where the programmer simply runs through the code line by line to find the source of the error. This can be time-consuming, but it is often effective.
  • Backtracking is another method of debugging where the programmer goes back to the last point at which the program ran correctly and tries to figure out what went wrong from there. This can be challenging, but it can be helpful in pinpointing the exact location of an error.
  • Cause elimination is a process of eliminating potential causes of an error until the actual cause is found. This can be done by systematically testing different parts of the code or by running the program in a debugger.
  • Finally, program slicing is a technique that involves taking a small section of code and testing it in isolation to determine if it is the source of an error. This can be useful when trying to isolate a particular problem.

As Testing is primarily concerned with finding mistakes in products. However, what if a software tester makes a mistake? Some common mistakes that lead to major software testing issues include:

1. Not Planning Ahead

One of the most common mistakes that lead to software testing issues is not planning ahead. By failing to plan, you are effectively setting yourself up for problems down the road. Make sure to take the time to map out your testing strategy in advance, and consider all potential problem areas. This will save you a lot of headaches later on.

2. Failure to Defining Clear Objectives

Another mistake that can cause software testing issues is failing to define clear objectives. Without well-defined objectives, it can be difficult to properly scope out your testing efforts. As a result, you may end up missing key areas that need to be tested. Make sure to take the time to clearly define your objectives before beginning any testing.

3. Not Using the Right Tools

In order to properly test your software, you need to use the right tools for the job. If you are using outdated or insufficient tools, you may miss critical defects in your software. Make sure to invest in good quality testing tools that will help you properly assess your software.

4. Not Documenting Properly

Failure to document properly is another mistake that leads to software testing issues. Good documentation is essential for effective testing. Without proper documentation, it can be difficult to track down defects and understand how to reproduce them. Make sure to take the time to document your testing process and results.

5. Ineffective communication

One final mistake that can cause software testing issues is failing to communicate properly. In order for your testing to be effective, you need to be able to communicate with all stakeholders involved. This includes management, developers, and users. Make sure to establish clear lines of communication so that everyone is on the same page.

By avoiding these common mistakes, you can help ensure that your software testing efforts are successful.

A user story is a short, simple description of a feature or functionality that a user might want from a software system. They are typically written from the perspective of the end-user and describe the type of interaction they would have with the system.

User stories are used in agile software development as a way to capture requirements from the user's point of view and help guide development efforts. User stories typically follow a specific format: As a < type of user >, I want < some goal > so that < some benefit >.

For example, a user story for an online shopping system might be written as: As a customer, I want to be able to search for items on the website so that I can find what I'm looking for quickly and easily.

User stories are typically small and self-contained, which makes them easy to implement and test. They can also be used to help break down larger features into smaller, more manageable pieces. When writing user stories, it is important to keep the following things in mind:

  • The user story should be short and to the point.
  • The document should be written from the perspective of the end user.
  • It should describe a specific feature or functionality.
  • It should be clear what the benefit of the feature or functionality is.

Keep in mind that user stories are just one way of capturing requirements. They are not meant to be a replacement for traditional requirements gathering techniques, but rather a complement. The goal is to get a better understanding of what the user wants and needs from the system, and then use that information to guide development efforts.

There are a number of great software testing tools and frameworks available today. It really depends on your specific needs as to what would be the best fit for you. Some of the more popular options include:

  1. Selenium: This is a widely used open-source tool that can be used for automating web applications. It supports a wide range of browsers and can be integrated with a number of programming languages.
  2. Appium: This is another open-source tool that can be used for automating mobile apps. It supports both iOS and Android platforms.
  3. QuickTest Professional (QTP): This is a commercial tool from HP that provides a comprehensive solution for functional and regression testing.
  4. Rational Functional Tester (RFT): Another IBM tool that can be used for functional and regression testing of web, mobile, and desktop applications.
  5. SoapUI: This is a open-source tool that can be used for testing web services. It supports both SOAP and REST protocols.

These are just some of the more popular options that are available. There are many other great tools and frameworks out there as well. It really depends on your specific needs as to what would be the best fit for you.

A/B testing is a type of software testing in which two or more versions of a software application are tested against each other to determine which one is more effective.

A/B testing is typically used to test new features or redesigns of a software application. For example, if a company is considering adding a new feature to its software, it may create two versions of the software: one with the new feature and one without. These two versions would then be tested against each other to see which one performs better.

A/B testing is a valuable tool for companies because it allows them to test new features or redesigns before releasing them to the public. This type of testing can help companies avoid releasing software that is not effective or efficient.

When it comes to software testing, defects can refer to a number of different issues. For example, a defect could be a code error that causes a program to crash. Or, a defect could be a design flaw that makes a program difficult to use.

Defects can also be classified according to their severity. A major defect, for instance, might cause a program to malfunction in a way that prevents it from being used at all. A minor defect, on the other hand, might simply make a program less efficient or user-friendly.

Regardless of their classification, defects can have serious implications for the quality of software products. As such, it is important for companies to have procedures in place for identifying and addressing defects.

One common approach to software testing is called beta testing. Beta testing involves releasing a product to a group of users before it is officially launched. This gives companies an opportunity to identify and fix any defects before the product is made available to the general public.

Another approach is called regression testing. Regression testing is typically conducted after a new version of a program has been released. The goal of this type of testing is to ensure that existing features still work as intended after new code has been added.

No matter what approach is used, it is important for companies to have a plan in place for dealing with defects. By taking steps to identify and address defects early on, companies can help ensure that their software products meet the needs of their users.

SPICE (Software Process Improvement and Capability Determination) is a software testing process improvement model that can be used to assess the capability of an organization's software testing process. The model defines a set of attributes that are important for effective software testing, and provides guidance on how to assess each attribute.

By assessing the organization's capability in each attribute area, it is possible to identify areas where the testing process can be improved. Additionally, SPICE can be used to benchmark an organization's testing process against other organizations, or against industry standards.

SPICE is comprised of four main attributes: process, product, people, and tools. Each attribute has a set of specific sub-attributes that need to be considered in order to assess the organization's capability in that area. The process attribute includes sub-attributes such as planning, control, monitoring, and measurement.

The product attribute includes sub-attributes such as requirements, design, implementation, and testing. It also includes sub-attributes such as training, communication, and motivation. Finally, the tools attribute includes sub-attributes such as test management, test automation, and defect tracking.

In order to assess an organization's capability in each attribute area, a team of experts must collect data from a variety of sources. This data is then analyzed and used to generate a report that provides an overview of the organization's testing process.

The report includes ratings for each attribute, as well as recommendations for improving the process. Additionally, the report can be used to benchmark the organization's testing process against other organizations, or against industry standards.

There are a few different types of defects that can occur in software testing. Masked defects are ones that are hidden from view and not easily detected. Latex defects are those that occur during the final stages of testing, just before release. Both of these types of defects can be problematic and cause issues with the quality of the software.

Masked defects are often caused by incorrect or incomplete test cases. This means that the tester may not be able to see the defect until it is too late. In some cases, masked defects can also be caused by bugs that only occur under certain circumstances. This makes it difficult to replicate the problem and find a solution.

Latex defects are usually caused by changes that were made to the code during the final stages of development. This can include new features or bug fixes. Because these changes were made so close to release, they may not have been thoroughly tested. As a result, latex defects can be difficult to find and fix.

Both masked and latex defects can be serious problems for software quality. If not found and fixed, they can lead to bugs and crashes. In some cases, they can even cause data loss. It is important to be aware of both types of defects and take steps to avoid them.

One way to avoid masked defects is to create comprehensive test cases. This means testing all aspects of the software, including corner cases. Testers should also be sure to run tests frequently so that any new defects can be found and fixed quickly.

Latex defects can be prevented by ensuring that all code changes are thoroughly tested before release. This includes both new features and bug fixes. Testers should run through all the test cases to make sure that the software still works as expected. If any problems are found, they should be fixed before release.

TestNG is a testing framework for the Java programming language. The objective of TestNG is to make testing easier and more powerful. It can be used to skip a code block or method in it.

When you are writing tests, there are often times when you want to skip a certain code block or method. For example, if you have a test that is only relevant to a specific browser, you might want to skip it when running the tests on another browser. TestNG makes it easy to skip tests and methods. All you need to do is annotate them with the @Test(enabled=false) annotation.

When you run your tests, TestNG will automatically skip any tests or methods that are annotated with this annotation. This can be very useful when you want to quickly run a subset of your tests without having to manually exclude the ones that you don't want to run.

Another use case for this annotation is when you want to temporarily disable a test or method. For example, if you are still working on a certain feature and the tests for that feature are not ready yet, you can annotate them with @Test(enabled=false) and they will be automatically skipped when you run your tests.

Advanced

An Object Repository is a collection of objects and their corresponding locators. In the Selenium webdriver, we use an Object Repository to store web element information. This helps to keep our test code clean and easy to maintain.

When we use the Object Repository approach, we create a separate file (usually in XML or JSON format) to store our web element information. We can then reference this file in our test code whenever we need to locate an element. Creating an Object Repository in Selenium is a simple process.

  1. First, we need to identify all the web elements we want to include in our repository.
  2. Then, we need to create a locator for each element using the id, name, className, linkText or XPath attribute.
  3. Finally, we need to add each element to our repository file and its corresponding locator.

Developers should not test their software because testing is a process that should be done by someone unfamiliar with the software. The goal of testing is to find bugs that may have been missed during development.

If the developer tests their own software, they are likely to miss errors because they already know how the software is supposed to work. Additionally, testing can be time-consuming, and it is often more efficient for the developer to focus on writing code instead of testing it.

Every programmer's goal is to write code free of bugs, but it is impossible to test a program thoroughly or, in other words, 100% bug-free for several reasons. 1.A program could produce an infinite number of potential inputs and outputs. 2.Predicting how a user will interact with a program is often impossible. 3.Programs are often complex, with many different interdependent components. As a result, testing all potential combinations of inputs and outputs is virtually impossible. 4.Some bugs may only occur under rare conditions that are difficult to reproduce. Alternatively, they may be caused by hardware or software problems outside the programmer's control. For all these reasons, it is simply impossible to test a program exhaustively. However, thorough testing can help to reduce the number of bugs in a program and improve its overall quality.

A software tester should ideally possess a few qualities in order to be successful in their role. Some of these qualities include:

  • Analytical skills: A software tester needs to be able to analyze problems and find solutions quickly. They also need to be able to understand complex systems and how they work together.
  • Attention to detail: He/she must be able to spot even the smallest of errors or bugs. This attention to detail is crucial in ensuring that software is error-free before it is released.
  • Communication skills: The tester needs to be able to communicate clearly with both developers and non-technical staff. They need to be able to explain problems succinctly and provide clear instructions on how to reproduce them.
  • Patience: Software testers often has to repeat the same tests multiple times. They also need to be able to keep a cool head when things go wrong.
  • Flexibility: Software testers have to be able to adapt to changing requirements and schedules. They might be working on one project one day and another project the next, so they need to be able to switch between tasks easily.

Boundary value analysis (BVA) is a software testing technique that involves testing the extremes of a software program's input and output values. This can help to uncover errors that may not be apparent when testing with more typical values.

To carry out BVA, testers first need to identify the boundaries of the input and output values. They then select test cases that include values at or near these boundaries. For example, if a program is designed to accept input values between 1 and 10, the boundary values would be 1 and 10. A tester might select test cases with input values of 2, 9, and 10 to see how the program behaves at both ends of the range.

Similarly, for output values, a program might be designed to produce results between 1 and 10. The boundary values in this case would again be 1 and 10. Test cases might include output values of 2, 9, and 10.

By testing at the boundaries, testers can sometimes uncover errors that would not be found when using more typical values. For example, a program might work correctly for input values of 2, 3, 4, and 5 but produce an error when given an input value of 1 or 6. By testing at the boundary values of 1 and 6, the tester can uncover this error.

BVA can be used for both manual and automated testing. When carrying out BVA manually, testers will need to carefully plan their test cases in order to ensure that all boundary values are covered. Automated testing tools can sometimes make it easier to carry out BVA, as they can generate test cases automatically. However, it is still important for testers to have a good understanding of the software before using automation, as they will need to be able to interpret the results.

As a general rule, the more important a software system is, the more testing it will require. mission-critical systems require exhaustive testing in order to ensure that they perform as intended. However, even non-critical systems need some level of testing in order to ensure that they are functioning correctly.

There is no definitive answer to the question of how much testing is enough. It depends on the specific system and its importance. However, there are some guidelines that can help you determine an appropriate amount of testing for your system.

First, consider the risks associated with your system. What are the consequences of an error? If the consequences are minor, then you may not need to test as exhaustively. On the other hand, if the consequences are major, then you will need to do more extensive testing.

Second, consider the reliability of your system. How often does it need to work correctly? If the system only needs to work occasionally, then you may not need to test as exhaustively. On the other hand, if the system needs to be reliable all the time, then you will need to do more extensive testing.

Third, consider the cost of testing. Exhaustive testing can be expensive and time-consuming. If you are on a budget or have limited time, then you may not be able to do exhaustive testing. However, even non-exhaustive testing can be beneficial and is better than no testing at all.

Exhaustive testing is usually not possible or practical, and so testers must prioritize their work to focus on the most important risks. In general, it is more important to ensure that critical functionality works correctly than to test every possible permutation of input data. However, there may be situations where exhaustive testing is necessary, such as in life-critical systems where even a small error could have catastrophic consequences.

In any case, it is important to have a clear understanding of the risks involved in using the software, and to design a testing strategy that is appropriate to those risks. There is no substitute for careful thought and planning when it comes to testing.

The software development life cycle (SDLC) is the process that software testing teams use to plan, track, and execute their work. It includes a number of steps, each of which must be completed before the next can begin.

The first step in the SDLC is requirements gathering. This is when the team meets with stakeholders to identify what the software should do and what it needs to be able to handle. Once the requirements are gathered, they are documented and reviewed.

The second step is designing. In this phase, the team creates a high-level design for the software. This design will include how the various components of the software will work together and what technologies will be used.

After the design phase comes implementation. This is when the actual code is written. Once the code is complete, it is ready for testing.

Testing is the next step in the SDLC. In this phase, the software is put through its paces to make sure it meets all of the requirements that were gathered in the first phase. Once testing is complete and the software passes all of the tests, it is ready for release.

The final step in the SDLC is maintenance. After the software has been released, there will inevitably be bugs that need to be fixed and enhancements that need to be made. The team responsible for maintaining the software will do so on a regular basis.

Functional testing is a type of testing that verifies the functionality of a system. Functional testing typically covers the main functionality of a system and checks to see if it works as expected. Non-functional testing, on the other hand, is a type of testing that verifies the non-functional aspects of a system. These aspects can include performance, scalability, security, etc.

Non-functional testing is often performed after functional testing has been completed to ensure that the system can handle real-world conditions. When deciding which type of testing to use, it is important to first understand the requirements of the system under test. Once the requirements are understood, the appropriate type of testing can be selected. In some cases, both functional and non-functional testing may be required.

For example, if a system is required to handle a large amount of traffic, non-functional testing would be important to ensure that the system can scale properly. Similarly, if security is a concern, non-functional testing would be used to verify the security of the system. functional testing checks the system for compliance with functional requirements while non-functional testing checks the system for compliance with non-functional requirements.

Functional testing is important because it verifies that the system under test behaves as expected. Non-functional testing is important because it verifies that the system can handle real-world conditions. Both types of testing are necessary in order to ensure that a system is fully functional and stable.

There are various testing metrics that can be used to gauge the effectiveness of a software testing process. However, some metrics are more important than others. Here are three of the most important testing metrics:

  1. Test coverage: This metric measures how much of the code is covered by tests. A high test coverage indicates that a greater percentage of the code has been tested and is less likely to contain bugs.
  2. Defect density: The defect density is a measure of the number of defects per thousand lines of code. A low defect density indicates that there are fewer bugs in the code and that the quality of the software is high.
  3. Pass/fail rate: The pass/fail rate is the percentage of tests that pass or fail. A high pass rate indicates that most of the tests are passing, which means that the software is likely to be of good quality. A low pass rate may indicate that there are many bugs in the code.
  4. Cycle time: The cycle time is the amount of time that it takes to complete one cycle of testing. A shorter cycle time indicates that the testing process is more efficient and that the software can be released sooner.
  5. Mean time to repair: The mean time to repair is a measure of how long it takes to fix a defect. A shorter mean time to repair indicates that bugs are being fixed more quickly and that the software quality is high.
  6. Test case effectiveness: The test case effectiveness measures how well the test cases are able to find defects in the code. A high test case effectiveness indicates that the test cases are doing a good job of finding bugs.
  7. Code coverage: This metric measures how much of the code is covered by tests. A high code coverage indicates that a greater percentage of the code has been tested and is less likely to contain bugs.
  8. Defect detection rate: The defect detection rate is the number of defects found per thousand lines of code. A high defect detection rate indicates that more bugs are being found and that the software quality is high.
  9. Test effectiveness index: The test effectiveness index is a measure of how effective the tests are at finding defects in the code. A high test effectiveness index indicates that the tests are doing a good job of finding bugs.

These are just a few of the most important testing metrics. There are many other metrics that can be used to measure the effectiveness of a software testing process. However, these three metrics are a good place to start when trying to assess the quality of your software.

Selenium is a portable framework aimed at testing web applications. It provides a record/playback feature for creating tests without learning a test scripting language (Selenese). Selenium can also be used for testing web services. Some key benefits of using Selenium include:

  • Cross-browser compatibility: Selenium can be used to test web applications across different browsers including Internet Explorer, Firefox, Safari, and Google Chrome.
  • Open source: Selenium is an open source project, which means that it is free to use and there is a large community of users and developers who contribute to the project.
  • Flexibility: Selenium tests can be written in a number of programming languages including Java, C#, Python, and Ruby.
  • Scalability: Selenium tests can be run on a number of different platforms including Windows, Linux, and Mac OS.
  • Support: There is a wide range of support available for Selenium including online forums, mailing lists, and commercial support.

Selenium consists of four components: Selenium IDE, Selenium RC, Selenium WebDriver, and Selenium Grid.

  1. Selenium IDE is a Firefox plugin that allows you to record and playback tests. It is primarily used for creating quick and dirty tests.
  2. Selenium RC (formerly known as Selenium 1) is a tool that allows you to write automated web application UI tests in any programming language. It injects a JavaScript function into the browser that then controls the browser.
  3. WebDriver (formerly known as Selenium 2) is a tool that allows you to write automated tests in any programming language against any browser. The biggest advantage of using WebDriver is that it uses the browser’s native methods to automate the tests, so the tests are more accurate.
  4. Grid is a selenium tool that allows you to run your tests on multiple machines simultaneously. This is useful for doing things like testing against different browsers and operating systems at the same time.

There is no universal answer to this question, as the success of automation testing depends on a number of factors, including the specific goals and objectives of the test automation project, the skills and experience of the team carrying out the testing, and the overall quality of the test automation framework. However, there are some general metrics that can be used to measure the success of automation testing, including:

  • Number of test cases automated
  • Percentage of total test cases automated
  • Number of test cases that pass automation
  • Number of defects found during automation
  • Time saved by automating tests
  • Cost savings achieved by automating tests.

These metrics can be used to provide a general overview of the success of automation testing, but it is important to remember that they should not be used in isolation. Automation testing is just one part of the overall testing process, and it is important to consider the impact of automation on the other parts of the process, such as manual testing, before making any decisions about whether or not to implement automation.

Yes, each bug can be assigned a severity level. Assigning different levels of severity to a bug can help you and your team better prioritize which ones need to be fixed first. It's also helpful for keeping track of progress over time - you can see how many critical bugs have been fixed, how many major bugs are still outstanding, etc. The most common severity levels are:

  • Critical: A critical bug is one that causes the game to crash, or prevents the player from progressing.
  • Major: A major bug is one that has a significant impact on gameplay, but does not prevent the player from progressing.
  • Minor: A minor bug is one that does not have a significant impact on gameplay, and can be safely ignored.
  • Trivial: A trivial bug is one that is not worth fixing, and can be safely ignored.

You can also use a custom severity level if you feel that none of the above levels accurately describe the bug. For example, you might use the 'low' severity level for a bug that is not game-breaking but is still annoying.

It depends on the preferences of the software development team and what they feel will be most effective in terms of testing the functionality of the code.  That being said, it is generally recommended to start with writing black box test cases. This is because black box testing can be done without any knowledge of the internal workings of the code, which makes it easier and faster to get started.

Additionally, black box test cases are typically more comprehensive and can cover a wider range of potential issues than white box test cases. Once the black box test cases have been completed, then the development team can move on to writing white box test cases.

White box test cases require a more in-depth understanding of the code, so it is important to make sure that all team members are on the same page in terms of their understanding of the code before proceeding with this type of testing. Additionally, white box test cases tend to be more time-consuming and difficult to write than black box test cases.

By starting with black box test cases and then moving on to white box test cases, the development team can make sure that they are covering all of their bases and providing the best possible product.

Alpha testing is a type of software testing in which a software program is tested for its functionality, usability, and other aspects by a group of selected users. These users are usually chosen from the target audience of the software program. Alpha testing is typically conducted at the developer's site.

The main purpose of alpha testing is to identify any defects or issues with the software program before it is released to the general public. This allows developers to fix any problems before they cause major damage or inconvenience to users.

Alpha testing is usually carried out after beta testing and before the final release of the software program. It can be conducted either manually or through automated means. Automated alpha testing is often used for large and complex software programs.

Manual alpha testing is typically done by a small group of people who are familiar with the software program. They will test all the features and functionality of the program to ensure that it is working as expected.

Automated alpha testing can be done using specialized software tools that can simulate real-world conditions. This allows developers to test the software program under a variety of scenarios, such as different operating systems, hardware configurations, and user interactions.

Beta testing is the process of testing a product or service before it is made widely available to the public. It is usually done by a small group of users who are given early access to the product in order to provide feedback and help improve its quality.

Beta testing can be an important part of the development process, as it allows developers to identify and fix any potential issues before the product is released to the general public. It also helps build hype and anticipation for a new product or service, which can generate buzz and excitement among potential users.

If someone is interested in becoming a beta tester for new products or services, there are risks involved, as beta products are often unstable and may contain bugs or glitches. One should also be prepared to provide feedback to the developers, as the input can help improve the final product.

Beta testing is usually unpaid work. However, some companies may offer incentives or rewards for those who participate in their beta programs.

A traceability matrix is a document that maps out the relationship between various requirements, tests, and test cases. It is used to trace the progress of a project and ensure that all aspects are covered.

A test matrix, on the other hand, is a document that lists all of the tests that need to be carried out for a particular software product. It includes information such as the purpose of the test, who will carry it out when it should be carried out, and so on.

Both traceability matrices and test matrices are essential tools in software testing. They help to ensure that all bases are covered and that no stone is left unturned. Without them, it would be very easy for things to slip through the cracks and for errors to go undetected.

If you're working on a software testing project, using both traceability matrices and test matrices will help to keep you on track and ensure that your project is a success.

The V model is a popular software development and testing model that helps ensure that all aspects of a project are properly tested and accounted for. It gets its name from the fact that it resembles a V when graphed out.

The V model has four main phases: requirements, design, implementation, and verification. Each phase has its own set of activities and deliverables that must be completed before moving on to the next phase.

Requirements: This is the first phase of the V model and it's where the project's requirements are gathered and documented. This is an important step because it sets the foundation for everything that comes after.

Design: Once the requirements have been gathered, the next step is to design the solution. This includes creating a high-level design of the system as well as detailed designs for specific components.

Implementation: This is where the actual coding takes place. Once the design is complete, developers can start working on creating the system according to the specifications.

Verification: The last phase of the V model is verification, which is when testing is done to ensure that the system meets all the requirements. This includes both functional and non-functional testing.

Verification is the process of ensuring that the software meets the requirements set forth by the customer or client. This includes both functional and non-functional requirements. Validation, on the other hand, is the process of ensuring that the software actually works as intended.

Verification can be done statically or dynamically, while validation must be done dynamically. Automated testing can be used for both verification and validation. Verification is typically done early on in the development process, while validation is usually done closer to the end.

Verification checks that the software meets the requirements, while validation checks that it actually works as intended. As such, verification is more focused on design and function, while validation is more focused on usability and performance.

Static software testing is a type of testing that involves examining the code of a software application without executing it. This can be done manually or using static analysis tools. Static testing can be used to find bugs and security vulnerabilities, as well as to verify compliance with coding standards.

It is often performed early in the software development process, before the code is ready to be executed. This allows for errors to be found and corrected early on, before they have a chance to cause problems later down the line.

Static testing can also be used as part of regression testing, to ensure that changes to the code have not introduced new bugs. Static testing is a valuable tool for software developers, but it should not be used as the sole method of testing an application.

Confirmation testing is a type of software testing that is used to verify that a system meets the requirements specified for it. This can include verifying functional and non-functional requirements. Confirmation testing is also sometimes known as acceptance testing or validation testing.

Confirmation testing is typically performed by the customer or client who has commissioned the software, although it can also be done by independent third-party testers. The purpose of confirmation testing is to ensure that the software meets the requirements that have been set for it, and that it functions as expected. This type of testing is important because it can help to identify any issues with the software before it is released to customers or users.

Confirmation testing can be a time-consuming and expensive process, particularly if there are a large number of requirements that need to be tested. However, it is generally considered to be worth the investment as it can help to prevent problems from occurring later on down the line.

There are a number of different methods that can be used for confirmation testing. Some common methods include functional testing, performance testing, load testing, and security testing. In some cases, a combination of these methods may be used.

The goal of confirmation testing is to ensure that an application or system meets the required specifications. This type of testing can help to identify any issues with the functionality or performance of an application or system. Finding and fixing these issues before the application or system is deployed can help avoid problems for users.

Defect cascading is a phenomenon that can occur during software testing, whereby a small number of defects in the software can lead to a much larger number of defects being uncovered. This can happen for a variety of reasons, but typically it is due to the interconnected nature of software components, and how a change in one component can impact other components.

Defect cascading can have a major impact on the quality of the software and on the schedule for delivering it to customers. While defect cascading can be frustrating for testers (and developers), it is actually a good thing, as it highlights potential areas of improvement in the software. In fact, many times defect cascading will uncover serious issues that would otherwise have gone unnoticed.

The cost of removing a defect discovered within the early phase can be significant. In some cases, it may even be more expensive to fix the issue than to simply live with it. The main reason for this is that early detection often requires more time and effort to track down the root cause of the problem.

Additionally, fixing the issue may require changes to be made in multiple areas of the code, which can end up taking more time and money than if the problem had been allowed to persist. However, while the cost of removing a defect can be high, it is often worth it in the long run.

Allowing defects to remain in your code can lead to bigger problems down the road, as well as decreased customer satisfaction. Additionally, fixing defects early on can help to prevent them from propagating and becoming more difficult (and expensive) to fix later on.

A workbench provides guidance on how to carry out a software testing activity. It provides a framework for testers to follow, dividing the task into phases or steps. This makes it possible to track progress and ensure that the customer's expectations are met.

There are five main tasks involved in a workbench: input, execution, checking, production output, and rework. Each of these is essential to the success of the testing process.

  1. Input refers to the data that is required in order to carry out the test. This may include specifications, requirements, or other information that will be used during execution.
  2. Execution is the actual carrying out of the test. This includes running the tests and recording the results.
  3. Checking is the process of verifying that the results of the test are accurate. This may involve comparing the expected results with the actual results or checking for compliance with standards.
  4. Production output is the final product of the testing process. This may be a report, a software application, or other deliverables.
  5. Rework is any necessary changes that are made to the final product in order to meet customer expectations. This may include fixing bugs, adding features, or making other changes.

One way to identify a frame is by its position on the screen. The first frame is at the top left, and the frames are numbered sequentially from there. For example, the third frame would be at the top right, the fourth frame would be at the bottom left, and so on. However, this method is not always reliable, as frames can be moved around on the screen.

Another way to identify a frame is by its content. For example, if a frame contains a button or a form, it can be assumed that this is an interactive element that should be given an ID. Finally, another way to identify a frame is by using a frame index. For example, frame 1 would be at the index 0, the second one at 1, the third one at 2, and frame 4 at 3.

driver.switchTo().frame(int arg0);

Description

Whether you're interviewing for a software testing or a QA engineer position or simply want to be prepared for the possibility, it's essential to brush up on your testing interview questions. After all, you'll want to be able to answer any software testing interview questions the interviewer throws your way confidently and with detailed explanations. We are here with some of the most common testing interview questions you may encounter, along with tips on how to answer each one. 

For beginners or QA testers, common testing interview questions focus on your understanding of the software development process and how testing fits into it. You may be asked about the different types of testing, the importance of creating test plans and test cases, or how to select the most appropriate test methodology for a given project. 

Advanced testing interview questions tend to focus on your practical experience with testing in a real-world setting. You may be asked to describe a time when you identified a critical bug in the software, or how you created an efficient test suite for a large and complex application. You may also be asked about the challenges you face when testing mobile applications, web applications, selenium testing or cloud-based applications. Whatever be the questions from the QA interview questions to API testing interview questions, be sure to emphasize your ability to think creatively, solve problems, and work well under pressure. 
Candidates with advanced automation skills have to work with Selenium WebDriver, which is an open-source automation tool used to test web applications across multiple browsers, so it becomes mandatory to become a certified professional with such a training course & increase your chances of cracking the interview. Along with this, knowledge of Coded IT Testing using Microsoft Visual Studio 2013 is an added bonus for aspiring professionals looking to get glory in their careers.  

All these questions serve as indicators of an individual’s understanding and actual practice in software testing. Ultimately, it all boils down to being prepared for the interview by thoroughly researching the skills required for the job beforehand and highlighting any relevant experience in the field accordingly. 

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