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Automation Testing Interview Questions and Answers

Automation testing is a process of testing software applications to ensure their accuracy and quality. It is an ever-evolving field of technology, with new tools and techniques emerging every day. ether you’re starting out as a fresher or applying for advanced-level interviews, our set of automation testing questions will help you ace the interviews. The questions are segmented into various segments covering topics like scripting and coding languages, test automation frameworks and architecture, debugging tools, and manual and automated approaches to testing. With our automation testing interview questions, you can be confident that you will be well-prepared for your next interview.

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There are two main types of software testing: manual testing and automated testing. As the names suggest, manual testing is done by hand, while automated testing is done using special software. Both manual and automated testing have their advantages and disadvantages.

Manual testing is often seen as more thorough and reliable than automated testing since it allows testers to carefully examine the software for any potential bugs or errors. However, manual testing can be quite a time consuming and expensive since it requires the involvement of skilled testers. In addition, manual testing can be prone to human error.

Automated testing, on the other hand, is much faster and more efficient than manual testing since it can be run with little or no human intervention. However, automated tests may not always be able to find all the errors in a software program. In addition, automated testing can be quite expensive to set up and maintain.

This is a frequently asked question in automation testing interview questions for freshers.

When it comes to automated testing, there are a lot of different tools and frameworks to choose from. So how do you know which one is right for your project? Here are a few things to keep in mind:

What kind of tests do you need to write? Unit tests, functional tests, or both? Unit tests are generally faster and easier to write, but they only test one small piece of functionality simultaneously. Functional tests, on the other hand, test the entire workflow of an application.

What programming language are you using? Some frameworks only work with certain languages. For example, JUnit is a popular Java-based automation framework.

How much control do you need over the test execution? Some frameworks allow you to specify exactly when and how each test should be run. Others are more flexible and allow you to simply specify a list of tests to be run.

What kind of reporting do you need? Some frameworks provide detailed reports that show you exactly what passed and failed. Others simply provide a pass/fail status.

Once you've answered these questions, you should have a better idea of what type of tool or framework you need. From there, it's just a matter of choosing the specific tool that best meets your needs.

With the rapid development of technology, more and more companies are turning to automation to improve efficiency and quality. However, automated testing is not always the best solution, and there are some cases where it can do more harm than good. Here are some things to consider before automating all testing:

  1. Is the test suite stable? If the test suite is constantly changing, it will be difficult to keep up with the changes and maintain a high level of accuracy.
  2. How often do the tests need to be run? If the tests only need to be run occasionally, it may not be worth the effort to set up and maintain an automated testing system.
  3. What is the cost of setting up and maintaining an automated testing system? Automated testing systems can be expensive to set up and maintain, so you need to make sure that the benefits justify the cost.
  4. What is the expected return on investment? Automated testing can save a lot of time and effort in the long run, but you need to make sure that the benefits outweigh the initial investment.
  5. What are the risks involved? Automated testing can sometimes lead to false positives or false negatives, which can have a negative impact on the quality of your product. You need to weigh the risks and benefits carefully before deciding whether or not to automate all testing.

There are many areas in which automation can be used to speed up processes and improve quality. Automating regression test suites, build deployments, and test data creation can save time and improve the accuracy of these tasks. In addition, automating repetitive manual tasks can free up time for more creative work. Automating processes can also help to ensure that standards are met and procedures are consistently.

  • Regression test suite: A regression test suite is a set of tests that are run on a software application to verify that the application still works as expected after changes have been made to it. Regression test suites are typically used to catch bugs before they are released to users.
  • Build deployment: It is the process of automatically deploying a new build of a software application to a testing or production environment. Build deployment can save time and improve the accuracy of deployments by automating the process.
  • Test data creation: It is the process of creating data that can be used to test a software application. Test data creation can be automated to save time and improve the accuracy of the data.
  • Repetitive manual tasks: Automating repetitive manual tasks can free up time for more creative work. Automating processes can also help to ensure that standards are met and procedures are consistently followed.

Expect to come across this basic automation testing interview questions.

As a general rule, any test case that is performed frequently and/or is likely to produce the same result each time it is run is a good candidate for automation. This includes regression tests, sanity checks, and smoke tests.

Other good candidates for automation include tests that require extensive data setup or teardown or tests that are particularly time-consuming to run manually. Some examples of test cases that are typically automated are:

  • Login and logout functionality
  • Navigation through the application
  • Searching for data
  • Adding and removing items from a shopping cart
  • Checking out and completing a purchase
  • Creating and managing user accounts.

Not all test cases need to be automated, and in some cases, it may not be possible or practical to automate a particular test case. For example, if a test requires human interaction or judgment, it cannot be automated. Similarly, if a test can only be performed in a specific environment or under specific conditions, automating it may not be possible.

In general, the decision of whether or not to automate a particular test case should be based on an evaluation of the cost and benefits of doing so. Automating a test case that is run frequently but takes only a few minutes to complete manually may not be worth the effort while automating a complex test that would take hours to run manually could save a significant amount of time in the long run.

Most people think that automating your processes is the key to efficiency and productivity. After all, why waste time on tasks that can be easily handled by a machine? However, it's important to remember that not all tasks can be automated. In fact, there are some tasks that are better left to human beings. Here are a few examples:

  1. Tasks that require creative thinking: Machines can handle repetitive tasks quite well, but they often lack the creativity needed to come up with new ideas. That's why tasks that require creative thinking, such as coming up with new marketing campaigns or product designs, are best left to humans.
  2. Tasks that require empathy: Machines are not good at understanding or responding to emotions. That's why tasks that require empathy, such as customer service or counseling, are best left to humans.
  3. Tasks that require common sense: Machines can often handle complex tasks, but they often lack the common sense needed to make simple decisions. That's why tasks that require common sense, such as troubleshooting problems or making small repairs, are best left to humans.

So, while automating your processes can help you save time and increase efficiency, it's important to remember that there are some tasks that are better left to human beings.

Adding automation to a project can be challenging, but there are a few key steps to take for making the process as smooth as possible. First, you'll need to identify which type of testing you want to automate. Then, you'll need to select an appropriate tool and design a framework. After that, it's all about scripting, reporting, and maintaining your automation going forward. Let's break each of these steps down in more detail:

  1. Identify which type of testing/test cases you want to automate. The first step is understanding what kinds of tests would be best suited for automation. Not every test case lends itself well to automation - in some cases, it might even be detrimental to try and automate a particular test. For example, smoke tests or exploratory testing are often best suited to manual testing. On the other hand, functional and regression tests are usually good candidates for automation.
  2. Identify the tool. Once you know which type of testing you want to automate, you'll need to select the right tool for the job. There are many different automation tools available on the market, so it's important to do your research and select the one that best meets your needs.
  3. Design the framework. Before you start writing any scripts, you'll need to design an automation framework. This will provide a structure for your scripts and help ensure that they're effective and reliable.
  4. Create utility files and environment files. Once your framework is in place, you can start creating utility and environment files. These files will help make your scripts more efficient and easier to maintain.
  5. Start scripting. With your utility and environment files in place, you can start writing scripts to automate your tests. Be sure to follow the framework you designed in step 3 to ensure that your scripts are effective and reliable.
  6. Identify and work on reporting. After your scripts are complete, you'll need to set up a reporting system so you can track the results of your automation efforts. This will help you identify any areas that need improvement and make necessary adjustments to your scripts or testing approach.
  7. Allocating resources for maintenance. Automation is an ongoing process, so it's important to allocate adequate resources for maintaining your scripts and framework going forward. This will help ensure that your automation efforts are successful in the long term.

An automation testing framework is a tool that helps testers to automate their testing process. It provides them with the ability to create test scripts, run tests, and report results. The automation testing framework can be used for both functional and non-functional testing.

There are many different types of automation testing frameworks available, each with its own set of features and benefits. Selecting the right framework for your project can be a challenge. However, there are some general guidelines that can help you choose the best automation testing framework for your needs. Some of the key factors to consider when selecting an automation testing framework include:

  • Type of application under test: The automation testing framework you select should be well suited to the type of application you are testing. For example, a web application will require a different set of features than a desktop application.
  • Size and complexity of the application: They should also be able to handle the size and complexity of the application under test. A small, simple application will not need as many features as a large, complex one.
  • Skills and experience of the team: They should be within the capabilities of the team who will be using it. If the team is not experienced with automated testing, then a simpler framework may be more appropriate.
  • Budget: Automation testing frameworks can vary widely in price. Be sure to select one that fits within your budget constraints.

Once you have considered these factors, you will be in a better position to select the best automation testing framework for your project.

It's no surprise that this one pops up often in automation testing basic interview questions.

A good automation framework should be modular, reusable, and independent. Modular means that the framework can be adapted to change. If a tester needs to modify a script, they should be able to do so without affecting the other scripts in the suite.

Reusable means that commonly used methods or utilities should be written in a way that makes them accessible to all tests. This makes it easy to update tests and reduces the amount of code that needs to be written.

Consistent means that the suite should be written in a consistent format by following all the accepted coding practices. Independent means that each script should be written in such a way that it is independent of the others. This ensures that if one test fails, it does not hold back the remaining tests.

Logger is a good feature to have implemented in the framework. For example, if our script runs continuously throughout the night (nightly mode), then we can use the log file to detect the location along with the type of the error.

Reporting is another good feature to have embedded into the framework. Once the scripting is done, we can have the results and reports sent via email. Integration is also important for an automation framework. It should be such that it is easy to integrate with other applications like continuous integration or triggering the automated script as soon as the build is deployed.

A bad automation framework, on the other hand, would not have these features. Modularity, reusability, and independence would be lacking, which would make the framework difficult to work with. The scripts might also be buggy and unreliable. Logging and reporting features would also be missing, making it difficult to use the automation framework with other applications and track down errors.

When it comes to deciding whether or not you need to use a framework for your automation project, there are a few factors to consider. First, you will need to determine what type of automation you are looking to achieve. When you are simply looking to automate some simple tasks, then a framework may not be necessary. However, when looking to automate more complex processes, then a framework may be beneficial.

Another factor to consider is the size and scale of your project. When working on a small project with only a few tests to automate, then a framework may not be necessary. However, for those working on a larger project with many different tests to automate, then a framework may help to improve the overall efficiency of your automation efforts.

Finally, you will need to decide whether it is more beneficial to use an open source or commercial automation framework. Open source frameworks are typically free to use and can be modified to fit your specific needs. Commercial frameworks often come with support and maintenance contracts, which can add to the overall cost of your automation project.

When it comes to automation frameworks, there is no one-size-fits-all solution. The best way to determine if a framework is right for your project is to carefully consider your specific needs and requirements.

A framework is a set of libraries and tools that help you develop software applications. There are different types of frameworks available, each with its own benefits and drawbacks. The most common types of frameworks are:

  1. Keyword-driven framework
  2. Data-Driven framework
  3. Hybrid Framework
  4. Linear Scripting

Each type of framework has its own strengths and weaknesses, so it's important to choose the one that's right for your project.

1: Keyword-driven frameworks are designed to simplify the process of creating test scripts. They use keywords to represent actions that need to be performed on the application under test. This makes it easier to create and maintain test scripts, as well as reducing the amount of code that needs to be written.

However, keyword-driven frameworks can be more difficult to set up and configure than other types of frameworks. They also tend to be slower than other types of frameworks, as each keyword needs to be processed by the framework before it can be executed.

2: Data-Driven frameworks are designed to allow test data to be stored in external files, such as spreadsheets or databases. This makes it easier to maintain and update test scripts, as well as reducing the amount of code that needs to be written.

However, they also tend to be slower than other types of frameworks, as each piece of test data needs to be retrieved from the external file before it can be used.

3: Hybrid frameworks are a combination of keyword-driven and data-driven frameworks. They use keywords to represent actions that need to be performed on the application under test, as well as using test data stored in external files.

This makes Hybrid frameworks more flexible than other types of frameworks, as they can be used for both linear and modular testing. However, they can also be more difficult to set up and configure than other types of frameworks.

4: Linear Scripting is a type of framework where test scripts are written in a linear fashion, with each step depending on the previous one. This makes Linear Scripting frameworks very simple to set up and use, as there is no need for a separate keyword or data file.

However, Linear Scripting frameworks can be inflexible, as they can only be used for linear testing. They also tend to be slower than other types of frameworks, as each step needs to be executed before the next one can start.

A common question in automation testing interview, don't miss this one.

When automating tasks, it is important to follow some basic coding practices in order to make your code more efficient and easier to maintain. Here are a few tips to keep in mind:

  1. Use clear and descriptive variable names: This will help you (and others) understand what your code is doing and make it easier to debug if something goes wrong.
  2. Comment your code liberally: Again, this will help with understanding and debugging. In addition, it can be helpful to include comments explaining why you did something, not just what you did.
  3. DRY up your code: Don't Repeat Yourself - this means avoiding duplicating code unnecessarily. If you find yourself copy-pasting the same code multiple times, there's probably a better way to do it.
  4. Keep your code modular: Breaking your code up into smaller, manageable pieces makes it easier to understand and maintain. This also makes it easier to reuse code for other tasks.
  5.  Write tests: Automated tests can save you a lot of time and headaches in the long run by catching errors early on.
  6. Test your code! This is perhaps the most important coding practice of all. Always test your code thoroughly before deploying it to production. This will help ensure that your automation is working as intended and catch any potential bugs before they cause problems.

There are a few different types of tests that are generally not suitable for automation. These include exploratory testing, user acceptance testing, and manual regression testing.

  1. Exploratory testing is often conducted early in the development process in order to generate ideas for new features or to assess the usability of existing features. Automation can be difficult to set up for these sorts of tests, and they are often more effectively conducted manually.
  2. User acceptance testing is typically conducted by actual end users of the software, rather than by developers or testers. This type of testing is used to assess whether the software meets the needs of its intended users, and it is often more effective when conducted manually.
  3. Manual regression testing is typically conducted after changes have been made to the codebase in order to verify that the changes did not break any existing functionality. Automated regression tests can be difficult to set up and maintain, so manual testing may be a more effective option in this case.

There is a common misconception that testing should be limited to UI testing. This is not the case. Testing should encompass all aspects of the software development process, from requirements gathering to code development and deployment.

Testing at the UI level is important, but it is only one part of the overall testing process. Other types of testing, such as unit testing and integration testing, are also essential to ensuring the quality of the software product.

UI testing assesses the functionality of the user interface and how users interact with it. Unit tests, on the other hand, focus on individual components or modules of code. Integration tests verify that different components of the system work together as intended.

Both unit tests and integration tests can be performed without a UI. In fact, unit tests are typically run automatically, without any user interaction. Integration tests can also be run without a UI, but they may require some manual input from the tester.

There are benefits to testing at all levels of the software development process. By testing early and often, developers can catch errors and bugs before they make it into the final product. This can save time and money by avoiding the need to fix issues later on.

Testing at the UI level is important for verifying that the user interface works as intended. However, UI testing should not be the only type of testing that is performed. Unit tests and integration tests are also essential to ensuring the quality of the software product.

One of the main things that holds testers back from automating is their lack of coding skills. This can be a daunting prospect, especially if you're coming from a manual testing background. However, there are plenty of resources out there to help you learn the basics of coding, and once you've got a handle on it, automating your tests can be a breeze.

Another thing that can hold testers back from automating is the fear of change. If you've been doing things a certain way for a long time, it can be difficult to switch to a new method, even if it's more efficient. Automation can seem like a big step, but it doesn't have to be all or nothing - you can start small, with just a few tests, and gradually increase the number as you get more comfortable with the process.

Finally, some testers may simply be resistant to change because they're comfortable with the way things are. If that's the case, it's important to have a discussion about the benefits of automation and how it can help improve the quality of your testing. There's no one-size-fits-all solution when it comes to automation, but if you're open to trying it, you may try:

  • Automating with developers
  • Focusing on automation and giving it dedicated time
  • Seek support from the management

A testing automation framework is made up of several different components, each of which serves a specific purpose.

  1. Test assertion tool: This tool is responsible for providing assert statements for testing expected values in the application under test. For example, popular test assertion tools include TestNG and Junit.
  2. Data setup: Each test case needs to take user data from either the database or from a file. The data intake for test scripts and global variables should be taken care of by the data module in the framework.
  3. Build management tool: The framework needs to be built and deployed before creating test scripts. A continuous integration tool is required for integrating and deploying changes done in the framework at each iteration.
  4. Reporting tool: A readable report should be generated after the test cases are executed, in order to get a better view of the steps, results, and failures. Finally, the fifth component is the logging tool. This tool helps in debugging errors and bugs by providing logs of the actions taken during testing.

It's no surprise that this one pops up often in automation testing interview questions and answers.  

There are numerous tools available for automating testing. Here are some of the most popular:

  • Selenium is a widely used open-source tool that automates web browsers. Among its uses are automating tasks such as clicking links, filling out forms, and verifying page content.
  • Appium is an open-source tool for automating mobile applications. It can be used to automate tasks such as gestures, clicks, and taps.
  • Ranorex is a commercial tool for automating desktop, web, and mobile applications. It allows you to automate tasks like filling out forms, clicking links/buttons, and checking page content.
  • TestComplete is also a tool that automates web, desktop, and mobile applications. It can be used to automate tasks such as recording and playback, data-driven testing, and object-based scripting.

These are just a few of the many tools available for automating testing. The right tool for your needs will depend on the specific application you are testing, your budget, and your preferred development environment.

There are a few ways to categorize testing frameworks. One common way is to divide them into Modular, Keyword-Driven, Data-Driven frameworks and Hybrid Testing framework:

  1. Modular testing frameworks are also known as component-based testing frameworks. In this type of framework, the application is divided into small components. Each component is tested separately before integration testing begins. Modular testing reduces the amount of re-testing that needs to be done when changes are made to the code.
  2. Keyword-driven testing is a method of software testing where test cases are written in a table format. This type of framework is also known as table-driven testing or action word based testing. In keyword-driven testing, the functionality of the application under test is described in a table of keywords.
  3. Data-driven testing is a software testing methodology in which test cases are executed using data from a data source, such as a database. Data-driven testing is used to test applications that require a large amount of data to be entered into the application, such as an e-commerce site.
  4. A hybrid testing framework is a combination of two or more different types of testing frameworks. For example, a hybrid testing framework could combine the Modular and Data-Driven testing frameworks. These frameworks offer the benefits of multiple types of testing frameworks while still being easy to use.

Automation testing can be useful in agile methodologies, as it can help to speed up the process of regression testing. This is particularly important in agile development processes, where new code changes are made frequently, and all aspects of the software need to be tested regularly to ensure that no errors have been introduced. Automation testing can also help to improve the accuracy of tests, as well as reduce the time needed to carry them out.

There are a number of ways in which automation testing can be used in agile processes. One way is to use an automated testing tool to carry out regression tests after each code change. This can help identify any errors introduced and ensure that they are fixed before the software is released.

Another way in which automation testing can be used is to create a set of automated tests that can be run prior to each release. This can help to catch any errors that might have been introduced during the development process and ensure that they are fixed before the software goes live.

Automation testing can be a valuable addition to an agile development process, as it can help speed up the regression testing process and improve the accuracy of tests. However, it is important to remember that automation testing is not a replacement for manual testing and should be used alongside it to ensure that the software is of high quality.

There are a few different ways that you can approach automating basic login functionality tests. One option is to use a tool like Selenium, which allows you to automate web browser interactions. Another option is to use a headless browser like PhantomJS, which simulates a real browser but doesn't actually display anything on the screen.

If you're just looking to test the most basic login functionality, you can probably get away with using a tool like cURL or HTTPie to make direct HTTP requests to the login page and check the responses. However, if you want to test more advanced login functionality, such as handling incorrect passwords or two-factor authentication, you'll need to use a more comprehensive tool like Selenium or PhantomJS.

In general, the more complex the login functionality is, the more difficult it will be to automate. However, with a bit of effort, it should be possible to automate most basic login functionality tests.

There is no definitive answer to this question as it depends on various factors, such as the specific automation testing tools and methods used, the level of experience of the testers, and the nature of the project itself. However, in general, automation testing can be classified as either black box or white box testing.

Black box testing generally focuses on the functionality of the system under test, without delving into its internal structure or code. This type of testing is often used to verify that the system behaves as expected from an external perspective. White box testing, on the other hand, relies on knowledge of the internal structure of the system in order to create test cases. This approach is often used to verify the correctness of the system's implementation.

In practice, automation testing is often a mix of both black box and white box testing, depending on the needs of the project. For example, functional testing might primarily focus on black box testing, while unit testing might rely heavily on white box testing.

The average number of test cases one can automate per day depends on a few factors, including the size and complexity of your project, the tools you're using, and your own level of experience. Generally speaking, I can automate between 10 and 20 test cases per day.

If you're just getting started with automation, it's important to start small and gradually increase the number of test cases you automate over time. Trying to do too much too soon can lead to frustration and ultimately slow down your progress.

When it comes to choosing which test cases to automate first, it's often a good idea to start with those that are most critical to the success of your project. This way, you can get the biggest impact from your automation efforts right from the start.

The Automation Testing Life Cycle is a process that helps ensure the quality of software products. It is important to follow this process to ensure that all aspects of the software development process are considered and that potential problems are discovered and corrected early on.

The Automation Testing Life Cycle typically consists of six phases: requirements gathering, design, development, testing, deployment, and maintenance. Each phase must be completed before moving on to the next.

  1. Requirements gathering is the first phase of the cycle and involves understanding the needs of the customer or client. This phase also includes documenting the requirements so that they can be used to create a test plan.
  2. Design is the second phase of the cycle and involves creating a plan for how the software will be tested. This phase includes creating test cases and choosing the appropriate test tools.
  3. Development is the third phase of the cycle and involves implementing the test plan. This phase includes writing code to automate the tests and configuring the test environment.
  4. Testing is the fourth phase of the cycle and involves executing the tests. This phase includes running the tests, analyzing the results, and reporting any defects that are found.
  5. Deployment is the fifth phase of the cycle and involves deploying the software to production. This phase includes verifying that the software meets all requirements and making any necessary changes.
  6. Maintenance is the final phase of the cycle and involves maintaining the software in production. This phase includes monitoring for defects, fixing any defects that are found, and periodically releasing new versions of the software.

Following the Automation Testing Life Cycle is important to ensure that software products are of high quality. By following this process, potential problems can be discovered and corrected early on, before they cause major issues. Additionally, this process helps to ensure that all aspects of the software development process are considered, ensuring a successful product.

An automated test script is a set of instructions that are executed by a software application to test another software application. The purpose of an automated test script is to automate the testing process so that it can be repeated quickly and accurately. Automated test scripts can be written in any programming language, but they are typically written in a scripting language such as Perl, Ruby, or Python.

There are many benefits to using automated test scripts. They can save time and money by reducing the need for manual testing. Automated test scripts can also improve the accuracy of tests by eliminating human error. In addition, automated test scripts can be used to create regression tests that can be run after code changes have been made to ensure that the changes do not break the software.

However, there are some challenges associated with automated test scripts. One challenge is that automated test scripts can be difficult to write. Another challenge is that automated test scripts may need to be updated frequently to keep up with changes in the software being tested. Finally, automated test scripts may not be able to catch all errors, so manual testing may still be necessary.

When we talk about the test automation pyramid, we are referring to a model that can be used to help plan and organise your automated testing efforts. The idea behind the pyramid is that you should start with a small number of high-level tests and then gradually add more low-level tests as needed. This approach can help to ensure that your tests are both effective and efficient.

The test automation pyramid is often represented as a triangle, with the high-level tests at the top and the low-level tests at the bottom. As you move down the pyramid, the number of tests increases while the level of detail decreases. The most popular version of the test automation pyramid includes three levels: unit tests, integration tests, and UI/acceptance tests.

Unit tests are the most basic level of testing and usually focus on a single component or small group of components. Integration tests build on unit tests by testing how different components work together. UI/acceptance tests are the highest level of testing and typically involve simulating how a real user would interact with the system under test.

While the test automation pyramid is a useful model, it is important to remember that it is not an exact science. There is no one right way to automate your tests, and you may need to adjust your approach based on the specific needs of your project.


One of the most frequently posed automation testing technical interview questions, be ready for it.

There are a lot of opinions out there about who should be responsible for test automation. Developers argue that they are the ones who understand the code and, therefore, are in the best position to create automated tests. Quality assurance (QA) professionals counter that they are the ones who understand the testing and, therefore, are better suited to creating automated tests. So, who is right? Who should be responsible for test automation?

The answer, quite simply, is for both developers and QA professionals. Automated testing is a complex process that requires knowledge of both code and testing. Developers need to be involved in creating automated tests because they understand the code. QA professionals need to be involved because they understand testing. Both groups need to work together to create effective automated tests.

While automated testing can be a valuable tool, there are some risks associated with its use.

  • One risk is that automated tests can give false positives, indicating that a bug exists when none actually does. This can lead to wasted time and resources spent investigating and fixing nonexistent issues.
  • Another risk is that automated tests can miss real bugs, due to improperly written test cases or incorrect assumptions about how the software should work.
  • Finally, automated tests can be expensive to create and maintain, particularly if the application under test is constantly changing.

When deciding whether to use automated testing, it is important to weigh the potential risks against the benefits. With careful planning and execution, automated testing can be an effective way to ensure software quality. However, it is important to be aware of the potential risks involved in order to avoid costly mistakes.

I have used object mapping tools like QTP and UFT extensively in my line of work. I find that they are extremely helpful in keeping track of various elements within a website or application. For example, let's say you have an ecommerce site with a complex checkout process. You can use an object mapping tool to map out each step of the process, as well as all of the buttons, links, and input fields.

This makes it much easier to automate the testing process, since you can simply refer to the map to see what elements need to be interacted with in order to complete a task. Object mapping tools are also great for regression testing, since you can quickly identify any changes that have been made to a website or application.

Overall, I find that object mapping tools are incredibly useful and have helped me save a lot of time when testing web-based applications.

A test environment is a physical or virtual location in which software testing can be conducted. A well-designed test environment should provide the infrastructure and resources necessary to support the testing process, including hardware, software, data, tools, and personnel.

The purpose of a test environment is to allow testers to conduct various types of testing (e.g., functional, performance, security, etc.) in a controlled and isolated setting. This can help ensure that the results of tests are accurate and reproducible.

Test environments can be complex and expensive to create and maintain. Therefore, it is important to carefully consider the needs of the testing process before designing a test environment. For example, if a particular type of testing does not require the use of a specific piece of hardware, there is no need to include that hardware in the test environment.

Browser automation is the process of using a computer program to control a web browser in order to automate repetitive and/or tedious tasks. There are many different ways to achieve browser automation, but most often it is accomplished through the use of an automation tool or library specifically designed for the purpose. Some of the more popular browser automation tools include Selenium, Puppeteer, and WebDriver.

The main advantage of browser automation is that it can greatly reduce the amount of time needed to complete repetitive tasks by automating the entire process. For example, if you need to fill out the same form multiple times on a website, you can use browser automation to have the computer fill out the form for you automatically.

It saves you a significant amount of time, especially if the form is long or complex. Additionally, browser automation can be used to automatically generate reports or perform other tasks that would otherwise be difficult or time-consuming to do manually.

Browser automation is not without its drawbacks, however. One of the biggest challenges with browser automation is maintaining compatibility with all the different types of browsers and devices that users may be using.

Automation tools and libraries often need to be constantly updated in order to keep up with the latest changes in browsers and devices. Additionally, browser automation can be slow and cumbersome, depending on the complexity of the task being automated.

Despite its challenges, browser automation can be a valuable tool for anyone who needs to perform repetitive tasks on a website. When used properly, it can save a significant amount of time and effort.

A staple in questions for automation testing, be prepared to answer this one.

Cross-browser testing is the process of checking how a website or web application functions on different browsers. This is important because different browsers interpret code differently, so something that may work on one browser may not work on another. Cross-browser testing helps to ensure that everyone who visits a website or uses a web application can do so without any problems.

There are a few different ways to go about cross-browser testing. One is to use a service that provides access to different browsers, such as BrowserStack or Saucelabs. These services allow you to test your site on different browsers and operating systems without having to install anything locally.

Another way to do cross-browser testing is to install multiple browsers on your own computer and test your site locally. This can be time-consuming, as you need to install and set up each browser individually. However, it is free, and you have more control over the testing process.

The purpose of cross-browser testing is to ensure that a website or web application behaves consistently and as expected when accessed using different web browsers. This is important because different browsers can interpret standards differently, and render content in different ways.

Cross-browser testing helps to ensure that all users, regardless of which browser they are using, have a positive experience when interacting with a website or web application. By ensuring that all major browsers can correctly display and interact with a site or app, developers can avoid potential problems such as browser-specific bugs, compatibility issues, and layout discrepancies.

Cross-browser testing can be performed manually by testing a site or app on multiple browsers and comparing the results. However, this approach is often time-consuming and impractical, especially for large websites or those that need to support a wide range of browsers.

Automated cross-browser testing tools can make the process of cross-browser testing much more efficient by allowing developers to quickly test their sites and apps on a wide variety of browsers using a single tool. These tools typically provide a comprehensive report that highlights any differences between the browsers tested, making it easy to identify and fix potential issues.

No, automated tests are not replacing manual tests. Though they are complementing each other quite well. Automated tests can regression test faster and more accurately than a human can, but they still lack the ability to test for things like usability and design flaws.

Automated tests can be run much faster than manual tests, meaning that they can provide more comprehensive coverage in a shorter amount of time. Additionally, automated tests can be easily repeated and run with different input data to ensure accuracy and thoroughness.

Of course, there are still some situations where manual testing is necessary or preferable. For example, exploratory testing – where testers try to find bugs in unexpected ways – is difficult to automate. Additionally, automated tests can sometimes be expensive to set up and maintain, meaning that they might not be viable for small projects or companies with limited resources.

Ultimately, it seems that the future of testing is moving towards automation. However, manual testing will still have its place in certain circumstances.

Selenium is a portable testing framework for web applications. Selenium provides a record/playback tool for authoring tests without learning a test scripting language (Selenese). In addition, it provides a test scripting language (Selenese) to write tests in a number of popular programming languages, such as C#, Groovy, Java, PHP, Python, Scala, and Perl.

Selenium is widely used by developers and testers around the world to automate web browser testing. It is an open source project with over 20 million downloads worldwide and runs on Windows, macOS, and Linux. Selenium has been cited as one of the most popular open source projects.
It is easy to use and can be integrated with your existing development and testing tools.

Selenium helps ensure the application performs as expected. However, Selenium comes with its own advantages and disadvantages.


  • Selenium is an open source tool, thus it is free to use.
  • It has good community support with many contributors working on improving it.
  • Selenium can be used to test applications on different browsers, operating systems, and platforms.
  • It can be used to simulate user interactions with a web application to test the functionality of the application.
  • Selenium tests can be run in parallel to save time.


  • Selenium is not a complete testing tool and cannot be used for all types of testing such as performance, load, or security testing.
  • It does not have a built-in reporting feature, so you will need to use a separate tool to generate reports.
  • Because Selenium is a open source tool, there is no one single vendor that provides support for it.
  • Debugging Selenium scripts can be difficult as errors are not always well-defined.
  • Setting up a Selenium environment can be complex and time-consuming.

Selenium is a set of tools that helps you automate web browser interactions. It has four components:

  1. Selenium IDE
  2. Selenium RC
  3. WebDriver
  4. Grid

Each of these tools has a specific purpose and can be used in different ways to create automated tests. Let's take a closer look at each one.

  1. Selenium IDE is a tool that allows you to record and playback user interactions with a web browser. It's great for creating simple tests or for quickly generating test code that can be exported to one of the other Selenium tools.
  2. Selenium RC, or Remote Control, is a tool that allows you to run your tests on multiple browsers and operating systems. It's useful for running tests in a CI/CD pipeline or on a farm of test machines.
  3. WebDriver is a tool that allows you to programmatically control a web browser. It's the most powerful of the Selenium tools and can be used to create complex tests.
  4. Grid is a tool that allows you to distribute your tests across multiple machines, allowing you to run tests in parallel. This can speed up your test suite by making it possible to run multiple tests at the same time.

Protractor is a powerful tool for automating end-to-end tests of web applications. It is built on top of the WebDriverJS library and allows you to test AngularJS applications in a natural way. There are many reasons why Protractor is a good choice for automating your web application tests:

  • Protractor offers built-in support for AngularJS features, such as dependency injection and data binding to help write tests for AngularJS applications than using other tools that don't have this support.
  • It is easy to use and well supported by the community.
  • It is open source and free to use.
  • The tool integrates well with other testing tools, such as Jasmine, Selenium, and WebDriverJS.
  • It is constantly being improved and updated by the community.

Selenium is a great tool for automating web browsers, but it's not the only tool out there. Here are some other great options to consider when automate your web testing.

  1. WebDriverIO: It is a test automation tool that allows you to control a web browser or a mobile application from your JavaScript code. It is one of the best selenium alternatives because it is very fast and easy to use. WebdriverIO uses the W3C WebDriver API, which is the industry standard for controlling web browsers. The tool also provides a powerful command line interface that makes it easy to run tests and perform other actions.
  2. Cypress: It is faster, more reliable, and easier to use than Selenium. With Cypress, you can write tests in JavaScript or TypeScript, run them locally or in the cloud, and get detailed results in seconds. And because Cypress uses native DOM APIs instead of simulated ones provided by WebDriver, your tests are faster and more reliable. In addition, Cypress provides a powerful CLI that makes it easy to run tests in parallel on multiple browsers and devices.
  3. Puppeteer: It's a Node.js library developed by Google that offers a powerful and concise API for controlling headless Chrome. In many ways, it's similar to Selenium, but there are also some important differences. One key advantage of Puppeteer is that it uses the DevTools Protocol, which is the same protocol used by the Chrome Developer Tools. This makes it much easier to debug errors and troubleshoot problems.
  4. Playwright: It is developed by the same team that created Puppeteer, so it has many of the same features and benefits. In addition, Playwright is designed specifically for testing purposes, so it has a number of features that make it especially well-suited for this purpose. For example, it includes built-in support for headless browsers, so you don't have to set up and configure your own.

This question is a regular feature in automation testing coding interview questions, be ready to tackle it.

The Robot Framework acts as an open source platform for acceptance testing. It has an extensible architecture that can be used to create powerful test suites for a wide variety of applications.

The framework is written in Python and uses a modular approach to support multiple back-ends such as JUnit, TestNG, XML, HTML, JSON, CSV, reStructuredText, and SQLite. The framework also supports plugins for extending its functionality.

The Robot Framework architecture is based on the principle of "separation of concerns". This means that the framework is designed to separate the application under test from the test execution engine. This separation allows for more flexibility and maintainability in the long run. The framework also uses a keyword-driven approach to testing, which makes tests more readable and easier to maintain.

The framework is very extensible and can be used for a wide variety of purposes. In addition to acceptance testing, the Robot Framework can be used for robotic process automation (RPA), performance testing, and even web service testing. The possibilities are endless!

CAPTCHA stands for "Completely Automated Public Turing test for computer and human identification". It is a test designed to determine whether or not the user is human.

The most common form of CAPTCHA requires the user to type the letters of a distorted image, usually presented with some other text. This is known as a visual CAPTCHA. Other forms of CAPTCHA include audio CAPTCHAs, where the user must type the letters they hear, and logic-based CAPTCHAs, where the user must answer a question such as "what is 2+2?"

CAPTCHAs are used to protect websites from bots and automated scripts that can be used to spam or scam users. They are also used to prevent automated sign-ups on websites, and to stop bots from voting in online polls. CAPTCHAs are not perfect, and they can sometimes be frustrating for users. However, they are a necessary evil to protect websites and ensure that only humans can interact with them.

There are a few different ways that you can automate CAPTCHA. The most common method is to use an automated testing tool like Selenium or Watir. These tools will allow you to record your interactions with a website and then play them back automatically. This can be helpful if you need to fill out a form on a website that uses CAPTCHA.

Another way to automate CAPTCHA is to use an OCR tool like ABBYY FineReader or Tesseract. These tools can be used to read the text from CAPTCHA images and then input it into the required field automatically. This can be helpful if you need to enter CAPTCHA information on a website that does not have an automated testing tool available.

The third way to automate CAPTCHA is to use a web service like DeathByCaptcha or De-Captcher. These services will provide you with an API that you can use to send CAPTCHA images and receive the text back automatically. This can be helpful if you need to enter CAPTCHA information on a website that does not have an automated testing tool or OCR tool available.

A framework is a collection of software components that work together to create a complete solution. It includes everything from the operating system and programming language runtime environment to the application server, database, web server, and front-end client.

A well-designed framework provides a consistent set of conventions for developers to follow, which makes it easier to build reliable and scalable applications. The typical structure of a framework includes the following components:

  • Operating system: The foundation of any computing platform, the operating system provides basic services such as memory management, process control, and networking.
  • Programming language runtime environment: This component allows programs written in a particular programming language to execute on a given platform. Common examples include the Java Virtual Machine (JVM) and the Common Language Runtime (CLR).
  • Application server: A component that provides a platform for running applications. This may include a web server, database, message queue, and other necessary services.
  • Database: A repository for storing data. This may be a relational database such as MySQL or PostgreSQL, or a NoSQL database such as MongoDB or Cassandra.
  • Web server: A component that handles HTTP requests and responses. Popular web servers include Apache and nginx.
  • Front-end client: The software that interacts with the user. This may be a web browser, mobile app, or desktop application.

There are a number of factors that can affect the outcome of automation testing. The most important factor is the level of experience and expertise of the team carrying out the tests. Another key factors are:

  1. Quality of the test automation tools being used: Poorly designed or buggy tools can introduce errors and inaccuracies into the test results.
  2. The way in which the tests are conducted: Tests should be planned and executed in a systematic way in order to minimize the chances of errors and omissions.
  3. The appropriateness of the test data: If test data is not representative of real-world usage, then it may not be possible to accurately assess the performance of the software under test.
  4. Whether automation testing is used as part of a comprehensive testing strategy that also includes manual testing: Automation testing cannot replace manual testing entirely, but when used correctly, it can be an effective way of reducing the time and costs associated with software testing.
  5. Objectives of the automation testing: Automation testing should be aligned with business objectives in order to maximize its effectiveness.
  6. The resources available for automation testing: Automation testing requires both financial and human resources in order to be successful.
  7. The level of support from management: Your management must be supportive of automation testing in order for it to be successful.

When performing automation testing, it is important to follow a scripting standard in order to ensure the reliability and stability of your tests. A few key standards to follow include:

  • Using a uniform naming convention for all your test scripts. This will help you keep track of your scripts and make it easier for others to understand your code.
  • Adding comments for every 10 lines of code. This will help you document your code and make it more readable for others.
  • Indenting your code properly. This will help you visually organize your code and make it easier to debug.
  • Reliable error handling and recovery methods. This will help you avoid potential issues with your tests and ensure that they run smoothly.
  • Use of frameworks. Using a framework will help you structure your code in a consistent manner and make it easier to maintain. following these standards will help you create reliable and stable automation tests.

Sikuli is a tool that allows you to automate tasks on your computer using images. It is open source and available for Windows, Mac, and Linux. Sikuli was originally developed to automate web testing, but it can be used for a variety of tasks such as desktop automation, application testing, and even GUI test automation.

Sikuli's strength is its ability to recognize images on the screen. This makes it very robust against changes in UI elements, since the image recognition is not dependent on the element's position or size.

Sikuli is compromised of three parts: the IDE, a command-line tool, and the Sikuli Script. The IDE is written in Java and requires a JRE to run. The Sikuli Script is written in Python and uses the Sikuli API to interact with elements on the screen.

To automate a task with Sikuli, you first need to take a screenshot of the UI element that you want to interact with. Then, you can write a script that uses the image as a reference point. For example, you could take a screenshot of a "submit" button and write a script that clicks on the button whenever it appears on the screen.

Selenium and Sikuli are both tools that can be used for automated testing. They have some similarities, but there are also some key differences between the two.

Sikuli is primarily a visual automation tool, while Selenium is mainly a web automation tool. This means that Sikuli is better suited for automating tasks that involve GUI elements, while Selenium is better suited for automating tasks that involve web browsers.

Another key difference between the two tools is that Sikuli requires you to have a good understanding of image recognition in order to use it effectively. Selenium, on the other hand, does not require any special skills or knowledge beyond basic web development.

In general, Sikuli is easier to use than Selenium, but it is also less powerful. Selenium is more difficult to use but is much more powerful and provides more features.

This is a frequently asked question in automation testing interview questions.

QTP, or Quick Test Professional, is a software testing tool from HP. It is used for automating functional testing of graphical user interfaces (GUI) and general regression testing. QTP can be used for testing web-based applications, as well as traditional Windows-based applications.

QTP uses a scripting language called VBScript to create test scripts. These scripts can be run either manually or automatically. When run manually, the tester can step through the script, line by line, and see the application under test respond accordingly. When run automatically, QTP will carry out the script without any intervention from the tester.

It includes a number of features that make it an effective tool for functional testing. These include a built-in object repository, support for multiple environments, and integration with other testing tools such as Quality Center.

Modern applications of automation testing include web application testing, mobile application testing, and database testing. Web application testing can be used to test the functionality of a website or web-based application.

Mobile application testing can be used to test the functionality of a mobile app. Database testing can be used to test the accuracy and integrity of data in a database. Some of the most popular applications for automation testing include:

  1. Amazon tests drones to pick up orders in warehouses.
  2. Starbucks trials cashier-free stores that accept payments and orders via mobile devices.
  3. Google aims to test self-driving cars.
  4. Facebook is testing a brain-computer interface that may one day translate thoughts into digital text.
  5. IBM is testing a new computer system that can beat humans at the game of poker.

These are just a few examples of the many ways in which automation testing is being used in the modern world. It has the potential to greatly improve efficiency and accuracy in a variety of settings.

There are three main types of automated testing tools: open source, vendor, and in-house. Each has its own advantages and disadvantages that should be considered when deciding which type of tool to use.

Open source tools are typically free or very low cost, and they offer a wide range of features. However, they may not be as well supported as vendor tools, and they can be more difficult to use.

Vendor tools are usually more expensive than open source tools, but they often offer better support and easier-to-use interfaces. In addition, vendor tools may offer more features than open source tools.

In-house tools are developed specifically for use by a single organization. They can be customized to meet the specific needs of that organization, but they may be more expensive to develop and maintain than open source or vendor tools.

When deciding which type of automated testing tool to use, it is important to consider the needs of the organization and the skill level of the users. Open source tools may be a good option for organizations that have limited budgets and for users who are comfortable working with complex tools.

Vendor tools may be a better option for organizations that need more support and for users who want an easy-to-use interface. In-house tools may be the best option for organizations that have specific requirements that can't be met by open source or vendor tools.

TestNG is a testing framework that helps to organize and execute tests. It is an open source project that can be used with various tools and frameworks. TestNG is similar to JUnit, but it has some additional features that make it more powerful and flexible. Some of the key features of TestNG are:

  1. Annotations support: TestNG uses annotations to specify how a test should be run. This makes the code more readable and easier to maintain.
  2. Data-driven testing support: TestNG can be used to create data-driven tests, which means that the same test can be run multiple times with different data sets.
  3. Support for parallel testing: TestNG can be used to run tests in parallel, which can save time when testing large applications.
  4. Report generation: TestNG can generate reports in both HTML and XML format, which makes it easy to share the results of a test run.


The goal of automation testing is to reduce the amount of manual testing that needs to be done in order to release a product. In order to do this, automation testing tools are used to automate the execution of test cases and compare the results to expected outcomes. Automation testing can be used for regression testing, functional testing, performance testing, and GUI testing. When considering which test cases to automate, it is important to consider the ROI of automation.

Automation is most beneficial for tests that are run frequently and have a low cost of execution. We can see the rising scope and capability of Automation testing, so as you look for an automation testing job, you will be asked a variety of questions related to your experience and skills. We have compiled a list of some of the most common automation testing interview questions for experienced & beginners, categorized by level of experience. KnowledgeHut's courses on software testing will help you understand the various aspects and fundamentals of testing. 

In the beginner section, we cover basic topics such as automation testing, its benefits, and what skills are required. We also provide an overview of the different types of automation testing tools available. In the advanced section, we delve into more technical topics such as object-oriented programming concepts, SoapUI data-driven testing, test automation frameworks, UFT testing, and continuous integration. We also provide sample code snippets to illustrate key concepts. Whether you are a beginner or an experienced automation tester, this list of interview questions will help you prepare for your next interview.

To become a certified professional, you can also look for our software testing online course. After completing this training, you should be able to answer automation testing interview questions more confidently and have a strong fundamental base. 

Regardless of your experience level, it is always important to be prepared for any question an interviewer might ask you. You can ace your next automation testing interview by being prepared and considering these answers.

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